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Sample records for dependency relations integrity

  1. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lydia T. S.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval. PMID:24478681

  2. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  3. Reward Dependent Invigoration Relates to Theta Oscillations and Is Predicted by Dopaminergic Midbrain Integrity in Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Tineke K.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Motivation can have invigorating effects on behavior via dopaminergic neuromodulation. While this relationship has mainly been established in theoretical models and studies in younger subjects, the impact of structural declines of the dopaminergic system during healthy aging remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young and elderly humans in a reward-learning paradigm. Specifically, scene images were initially encoded by combining them with cues predicting monetary reward (high vs. low reward). Subsequently, recognition memory for the scenes was tested. As a main finding, we can show that response times (RTs) during encoding were faster for high reward predicting images in the young but not elderly participants. This pattern was resembled in power changes in the theta-band (4–7 Hz). Importantly, analyses of structural MRI data revealed that individual reward-related differences in the elderlies’ response time could be predicted by the structural integrity of the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN; as measured by magnetization transfer (MT)). These findings suggest a close relationship between reward-based invigoration, theta oscillations and age-dependent changes of the dopaminergic system. PMID:28174533

  4. Two Related Parametric Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, T.

    2007-01-01

    Two related sequences of definite integrals are considered. By mixing hand-work, computer algebra system assistance and websurfing, fine connections can be studied between integrals and a couple of interesting sequences of integers. (Contains 4 tables.)

  5. Reduced anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity is related to increased impulsivity and reduced discriminability in cocaine-dependent subjects: diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Frederick Gerard; Hasan, Khader M; Steinberg, Joel L; Kramer, Larry A; Dougherty, Donald M; Santos, Rafael M; Valdes, Ignacio; Swann, Alan C; Barratt, Ernest S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2005-03-01

    Brain imaging studies find evidence of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in cocaine-dependent subjects. Similarly, cocaine-dependent subjects have problems with behaviors related to executive function and impulsivity. Since prefrontal cortical axonal tracts cross between hemispheres in the corpus callosum, it is possible that white matter integrity in the corpus callosum could also be diminished in cocaine-dependent subjects. The purpose of this study was to compare corpus callosum white matter integrity as measured by the fractional anisotropy (FA) on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between 18 cocaine-dependent subjects and 18 healthy controls. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and a continuous performance test: the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) were also collected. Results of the DTI showed significantly reduced FA in the genu and rostral body of the anterior corpus callosum in cocaine-dependent subjects compared to controls. Cocaine-dependent subjects also had significantly higher BIS-11 scores, greater impulsive (commission) errors, and reduced ability to discriminate target from catch stimuli (discriminability) on the IMT/DMT. Within cocaine dependent subjects there was a significant negative correlation between FA in the anterior corpus callosum and behavioral laboratory measured impulsivity, and there was a positive correlation between FA and discriminability. The finding that reduced integrity of anterior corpus callosum white matter in cocaine users is related to impaired impulse control and reduced ability to discriminate between target and catch stimuli is consistent with prior theories regarding frontal cortical involvement in impaired inhibitory control in cocaine-dependent subjects.

  6. Relations Between Hyperelliptic Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, S.; Perelomov, A.

    A simple property of the integrals over the hyperelliptic surfaces of arbitrary genus is observed. Namely, the derivatives of these integrals with respect to the branching points are given by the linear combination of the same integrals. We check that this property is responsible for the solution to the level zero Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation given in terms of hyperelliptic integrals.

  7. SUPERSITES INTEGRATED RELATIONAL DATABASE (SIRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program), the University of Maryland designed and developed the Supersites Integrated Relational Database (SIRD). Measurement data in SIRD include comprehensive air quality data from the 7 Supersite program locations f...

  8. Integral dependent spin couplings in CI calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberle, K.; Davidson, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Although the number of ways to combine Slater determinants to form spin eigenfunctions increases rapidly with the number of open shells, most of these spin couplings will make only a small contribution to a given state, provided the spin coupling is chosen judiciously. The technique of limiting calculations to the interacting subspace pioneered by Bunge (1970) was employed by Munch and Davidson (1975) to the vanadium atom. The use of an interacting space looses its advantage in more complex cases. However, the problem can always be reduced to only one interacting spin coupling by making the coefficients integral dependent. The present investigation is concerned with the performance of integral dependent interacting couplings, taking into account the results of three test calculations.

  9. Multisensory temporal integration: Task and stimulus dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of human sensory systems to integrate information across the different modalities provides a wide range of behavioral and perceptual benefits. This integration process is dependent upon the temporal relationship of the different sensory signals, with stimuli occurring close together in time typically resulting in the largest behavior changes. The range of temporal intervals over which such benefits are seen is typically referred to as the temporal binding window (TBW). Given the importance of temporal factors in multisensory integration under both normal and atypical circumstances such as autism and dyslexia, the TBW has been measured with a variety of experimental protocols that differ according to criterion, task, and stimulus type, making comparisons across experiments difficult. In the current study we attempt to elucidate the role that these various factors play in the measurement of this important construct. The results show a strong effect of stimulus type, with the TBW assessed with speech stimuli being both larger and more symmetrical than that seen using simple and complex non-speech stimuli. These effects are robust across task and statistical criteria, and are highly consistent within individuals, suggesting substantial overlap in the neural and cognitive operations that govern multisensory temporal processes. PMID:23604624

  10. Parameters of Semantic Multisensory Integration Depend on Timing and Modality Order among People on the Autism Spectrum: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, N.; Mottron, L.; Burack, J. A.; Jemel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) report difficulty integrating simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli (Iarocci & McDonald, 2006), albeit showing enhanced perceptual processing of unisensory stimuli, as well as an enhanced role of perception in higher-order cognitive tasks (Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) model;…

  11. A path integral approach to age dependent branching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenman, Chris D.

    2017-03-01

    Age dependent population dynamics are frequently modeled with generalizations of the classic McKendrick–von Foerster equation. These are deterministic systems, and a stochastic generalization was recently reported in Greenman and Chou (2016 Phys. Rev. E 93 012112, 2016 J. Stat. Phys. 16449). Here we develop a fully stochastic theory for age-structured populations via quantum field theoretical Doi–Peliti techniques. This results in a path integral formulation where birth and death events correspond to cubic and quadratic interaction terms. This formalism allows us to efficiently recapitulate the results in Greenman and Chou (2016 Phys. Rev. E 93 012112, 2016 J. Stat. Phys. 16449), exemplifying the utility of Doi–Peliti methods. Furthermore, we find that the path integral formulation for age-structured moments has an exact perturbative expansion that explicitly relates to the hereditary structure between correlated individuals. These methods are then generalized with a binary fission model of cell division.

  12. Unconscious relational encoding depends on hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Duss, Simone B.; Reber, Thomas P.; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M.; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age = 45.55 years, standard deviation = 8.74, range = 23–60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. PMID:25273998

  13. The Development of Relational Integration during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauvier, Bruno; Bailleux, Christine; Perret, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Relational integration refers to the process whereby several variables are integrated within a single cognitive representation. In cognitive and developmental science, it is regarded as a central function of working memory that may contribute to the development of higher order processes, such as reasoning and fluid intelligence. In the present…

  14. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  15. Frequency dependence of pulsar integrated profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsett, S.E. )

    1991-08-01

    The dependence of component separation on observing frequency has been studied for seven pulsars that exhibit double- or multiple-component average profiles. In each case, a review of all available data shows a smooth variation of given form. No evidence is found for a 'break frequency' at which the separation behavior discretely changes. It is argued that previous reports of such a discontinuity are due to insufficiently sampled data together with a prejudice toward pure power-law functional behaviors. The absence of such a break has implications for theories of the pulsar emission mechanism and of the propagation of radio waves in the pulsar magnetosphere. 44 refs.

  16. Geokinematics in GGOS - Different Relations and Dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachelski, Wojciech; Paśnicka, Małgorzata; Szafranek, Karolina; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of the analysis of fundamental dependencies between different geodetic concepts related to the one of the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observation System) pillars called Geometry and Kinematics. These relationships are described using UML (Unified Modelling Language) - one of the graphical notations that can be used for information modelling. Concepts are represented as classes with their names, attributes, and different kinds of links between them. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the full description of connections between all GGOS components.

  17. Integrative Priming of Compositional and Locative Relations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lara L.; Wurm, Lee H.; Calcaterra, Ryan D.; Ofen, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Integrative priming refers to the facilitated recognition of a target word (bench) as a real word following a prime (park). Prior integrative priming studies have used a wide variety of integrative relations including temporal (summer rain), topical (travel book), locative (forest river), and compositional (peach pie) relations. Yet differences in the types of integrative relations may yield differences in the underlying explanatory processes of integrative priming. In this study, we compared the magnitude, time course, and three theoretically based correlates of integrative priming for compositional (stone table) and locative (patio table) pairs in a lexical decision task across four stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50, 300, 800, and 1,600 ms). Based on the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings (the extent to which the prime and target can be combined into a meaningful phrase) were predicted to facilitate target RTs. Based on the Embodied Conceptual Combination (ECCo) theory, the local co-occurrence of the prime and target, and the ability to perceptually simulate (visually experience) the prime-target pair were tested as predictors. In comparison to unrelated pairs (nose table), target RTs were faster for the compositional and locative pairs, though did not differ between these relations. In support of the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings predicted target RTs above and beyond our control variables. In support of the ECCo theory, co-occurrence emerged as an early predictor of target RTs, and visual experience ratings was a reliable predictor at the 300 ms SOA, though only for the compositional relations. PMID:28360872

  18. Modeling the Dependency Structure of Integrated Intensity Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an important issue of dependence structure. To model this structure, the intensities within the Cox processes are driven by dependent shot noise processes, where jumps occur simultaneously and their sizes are correlated. The joint survival probability of the integrated intensities is explicitly obtained from the copula with exponential marginal distributions. Subsequently, this result can provide a very useful guide for credit risk management. PMID:26270638

  19. Quantum integrable systems related to lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1983-03-01

    Some quantum integrable finite-dimensional systems related to Lie algebras are considered. This review continues the previous review of the same authors [83] devoted to the classical aspects of these systems. The dynamics of some of these systems is closely related to free motion in symmetric spaces. Using this connection with the theory of symmetric spaces some results such as the forms of spectra, wave functions, S-matrices, quantum integrals of motion are derived. In specific cases the considered systems describe the one-dimensional n-body systems interacting pairwise via potentials g2v( q) of the following 5 types: vI( q) = q-2, vII( q) = sinh-2q, vIII( q) = sin-2q, v IV(q) = P(q) , vV( q) = q-2 + ω2q2. Here P(q) is the Weierstrass function, so that the first three cases are merely subcases of the fourth. The system characterized by the Toda nearest-neighbour potential exp( qjqj+ 1 ) is moreover considered. This review presents from a general and universal point of view results obtained mainly over the past fifteen years. Besides, it contains some new results both of physical and mathematical interest.

  20. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-04-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time1, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v (t ) =∫ a (t ) d t (1) and x (t ) =∫ v (t ) dt. Mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets have accelerometers that capture slowly evolving acceleration with respect to time and can deliver those measurements as a CSV file. A recent example measured the oscillations of the elevator as it starts its motion.2 In the application presented here the mobile device is used to estimate the height of the elevator ride. By estimating the functional form of the acceleration of an elevator ride, it is possible to estimate the height of the ride through Eqs. (1) and (2).

  1. Superintegrable systems with a position dependent mass: Kepler-related and oscillator-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2016-06-01

    The superintegrability of two-dimensional Hamiltonians with a position dependent mass (pdm) is studied (the kinetic term contains a factor m that depends of the radial coordinate). First, the properties of Killing vectors are studied and the associated Noether momenta are obtained. Then the existence of several families of superintegrable Hamiltonians is proved and the quadratic integrals of motion are explicitly obtained. These families include, as particular cases, some systems previously obtained making use of different approaches. We also relate the superintegrability of some of these pdm systems with the existence of complex functions endowed with interesting Poisson bracket properties. Finally the relation of these pdm Hamiltonians with the Euclidean Kepler problem and with the Euclidean harmonic oscillator is analyzed.

  2. Integrated mechanisms of CaMKII-dependent ventricular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kreusser, Michael M.; Backs, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    CaMKII has been shown to be activated during different cardiac pathological processes, and CaMKII-dependent mechanisms contribute to pathological cardiac remodeling, cardiac arrhythmias, and contractile dysfunction during heart failure. Activation of CaMKII during cardiac stress results in a broad number of biological effects such as, on the one hand, acute effects due to phosphorylation of distinct cellular proteins as ion channels and calcium handling proteins and, on the other hand, integrative mechanisms by changing gene expression. This review focuses on transcriptional and epigenetic effects of CaMKII activation during chronic cardiac remodeling. Multiple mechanisms have been described how CaMKII mediates changes in cardiac gene expression. CaMKII has been shown to directly phosphorylate components of the cardiac gene regulation machinery. CaMKII phosphorylates several transcription factors such as CREB that induces the activation of specific gene programs. CaMKII activates transcriptional regulators also indirectly by phosphorylating histone deacetylases, especially HDAC4, which in turn inhibits transcription factors that drive cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrate that CaMKII also phosphorylate directly histones, which may contribute to changes in gene expression. These findings of CaMKII-dependent gene regulation during cardiac remodeling processes suggest novel strategies for CaMKII-dependent “transcriptional or epigenetic therapies” to control cardiac gene expression and function. Manipulation of CaMKII-dependent signaling pathways in the settings of pathological cardiac growth, remodeling, and heart failure represents an auspicious therapeutic approach. PMID:24659967

  3. Dynamic network mechanisms of relational integration.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Beth L; Hellyer, Peter J; Leech, Robert; Hampshire, Adam

    2015-05-20

    A prominent hypothesis states that specialized neural modules within the human lateral frontopolar cortices (LFPCs) support "relational integration" (RI), the solving of complex problems using inter-related rules. However, it has been proposed that LFPC activity during RI could reflect the recruitment of additional "domain-general" resources when processing more difficult problems in general as opposed to RI specifically. Moreover, theoretical research with computational models has demonstrated that RI may be supported by dynamic processes that occur throughout distributed networks of brain regions as opposed to within a discrete computational module. Here, we present fMRI findings from a novel deductive reasoning paradigm that controls for general difficulty while manipulating RI demands. In accordance with the domain-general perspective, we observe an increase in frontoparietal activation during challenging problems in general as opposed to RI specifically. Nonetheless, when examining frontoparietal activity using analyses of phase synchrony and psychophysiological interactions, we observe increased network connectivity during RI alone. Moreover, dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection identifies the LFPC as the effective connectivity source. Based on these results, we propose that during RI an increase in network connectivity and a decrease in network metastability allows rules that are coded throughout working memory systems to be dynamically bound. This change in connectivity state is top-down propagated via a hierarchical system of domain-general networks with the LFPC at the apex. In this manner, the functional network perspective reconciles key propositions of the globalist, modular, and computational accounts of RI within a single unified framework.

  4. Climate-dependent evolution of Antarctic ectotherms: An integrative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, Hans O.

    2006-04-01

    The paper explores the climate-dependent evolution of marine Antarctic fauna and tries to identify key mechanisms involved as well as the driving forces that have caused the physiological and life history characteristics observed today. In an integrative approach it uses the recent concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance to identify potential links between molecular, cellular, whole-organism, and ecological characteristics of marine animal life in the Antarctic. As a generalized pattern, minimization of baseline energy costs, for the sake of maximized growth in the cold, appears as one over-arching principle shaping the evolution and functioning of Antarctic marine ectotherms. This conclusion is supported by recent comparisons with (sub-) Arctic ectotherms, where elevated levels of energy turnover result at unstable, including cold temperatures, and are related to wide windows of thermal tolerance and associated metabolic features. At biochemical levels, metabolic regulation at low temperatures in general, is supported by the cold compensation of enzyme kinetic parameters like substrate affinities and turnover numbers, through minute structural modifications of the enzyme molecule. These involve a shift in protein folding, sometimes supported by the replacement of individual amino acids. The hypothesis is developed that efficient metabolic regulation at low rates in Antarctic marine stenotherms occurs through high mitochondrial densities at low capacities and possibly enhanced levels of Arrhenius activation energies or activation enthalpies. This contrasts the more costly patterns of metabolic regulation at elevated rates in cold-adapted eurytherms. Energy savings in Antarctic ectotherms, largely exemplified in fish, typically involve low-cost, diffusive oxygen distribution due to high density of lipid membranes, loss of haemoglobin, myoglobin and the heat shock response, reduced anaerobic capacity, large myocytes with low ion exchange activities

  5. Testing for nodal dependence in relational data matrices

    PubMed Central

    Volfovsky, Alexander; Hoff, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Relational data are often represented as a square matrix, the entries of which record the relationships between pairs of objects. Many statistical methods for the analysis of such data assume some degree of similarity or dependence between objects in terms of the way they relate to each other. However, formal tests for such dependence have not been developed. We provide a test for such dependence using the framework of the matrix normal model, a type of multivariate normal distribution parameterized in terms of row- and column-specific covariance matrices. We develop a likelihood ratio test (LRT) for row and column dependence based on the observation of a single relational data matrix. We obtain a reference distribution for the LRT statistic, thereby providing an exact test for the presence of row or column correlations in a square relational data matrix. Additionally, we provide extensions of the test to accommodate common features of such data, such as undefined diagonal entries, a non-zero mean, multiple observations, and deviations from normality. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27087713

  6. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  8. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  9. Relational Integration as a Predictor of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Stefan; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Schmidt-Atzert, Lothar; Buhner, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at applying a broad model of cognitive functions to predict performance in science and language courses at school as well as performance in a science course at university. We hypothesized that performance in science courses was predominantly related to the cognitive function known as relational integration, whereas…

  10. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-08

    We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.

  11. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-01

    We construct an improved implementation for combining transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suitable for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W +Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. We further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y term.

  12. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  13. Are there approximate relations among transverse momentum dependent distribution functions?

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyun AVAKIAN; Anatoli Efremov; Klaus Goeke; Andreas Metz; Peter Schweitzer; Tobias Teckentrup

    2007-10-11

    Certain {\\sl exact} relations among transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions due to QCD equations of motion turn into {\\sl approximate} ones upon the neglect of pure twist-3 terms. On the basis of available data from HERMES we test the practical usefulness of one such ``Wandzura-Wilczek-type approximation'', namely of that connecting $h_{1L}^{\\perp(1)a}(x)$ to $h_L^a(x)$, and discuss how it can be further tested by future CLAS and COMPASS data.

  14. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  15. The path dependency theory: analytical framework to study institutional integration. The case of France

    PubMed Central

    Trouvé, Hélène; Couturier, Yves; Etheridge, Francis; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Background The literature on integration indicates the need for an enhanced theorization of institutional integration. This article proposes path dependence as an analytical framework to study the systems in which integration takes place. Purpose PRISMA proposes a model for integrating health and social care services for older adults. This model was initially tested in Quebec. The PRISMA France study gave us an opportunity to analyze institutional integration in France. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with actors of all levels of decision-making, observations of advisory board meetings, and administrative documents. Results Our analyses revealed the complexity and fragmentation of institutional integration. The path dependency theory, which analyzes the change capacity of institutions by taking into account their historic structures, allows analysis of this situation. The path dependency to the Bismarckian system and the incomplete reforms of gerontological policies generate the coexistence and juxtaposition of institutional systems. In such a context, no institution has sufficient ability to determine gerontology policy and build institutional integration by itself. Conclusion Using path dependence as an analytical framework helps to understand the reasons why institutional integration is critical to organizational and clinical integration, and the complex construction of institutional integration in France. PMID:20689740

  16. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors.

  17. Integrating Development, Alumni Relations, and Marketing for Fundraising Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    At many institutions, the vice president of institutional advancement oversees the functions of development, alumni relations, and marketing and communications. University leaders expect these functions to be integrated and to work hand-in-hand to advance the institution's mission, particularly in the area of private donations. The reality is that…

  18. Approximation method to compute domain related integrals in structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.

    2015-11-01

    Various engineering calculi use integral calculus in theoretical models, i.e. analytical and numerical models. For usual problems, integrals have mathematical exact solutions. If the domain of integration is complicated, there may be used several methods to calculate the integral. The first idea is to divide the domain in smaller sub-domains for which there are direct calculus relations, i.e. in strength of materials the bending moment may be computed in some discrete points using the graphical integration of the shear force diagram, which usually has a simple shape. Another example is in mathematics, where the surface of a subgraph may be approximated by a set of rectangles or trapezoids used to calculate the definite integral. The goal of the work is to introduce our studies about the calculus of the integrals in the transverse section domains, computer aided solutions and a generalizing method. The aim of our research is to create general computer based methods to execute the calculi in structural studies. Thus, we define a Boolean algebra which operates with ‘simple’ shape domains. This algebraic standpoint uses addition and subtraction, conditioned by the sign of every ‘simple’ shape (-1 for the shapes to be subtracted). By ‘simple’ shape or ‘basic’ shape we define either shapes for which there are direct calculus relations, or domains for which their frontiers are approximated by known functions and the according calculus is carried out using an algorithm. The ‘basic’ shapes are linked to the calculus of the most significant stresses in the section, refined aspect which needs special attention. Starting from this idea, in the libraries of ‘basic’ shapes, there were included rectangles, ellipses and domains whose frontiers are approximated by spline functions. The domain triangularization methods suggested that another ‘basic’ shape to be considered is the triangle. The subsequent phase was to deduce the exact relations for the

  19. Attention-dependent sound offset-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Horváth, János

    2016-05-01

    When performing sensory tasks, knowing the potentially occurring goal-relevant and irrelevant stimulus events allows the establishment of selective attention sets, which result in enhanced sensory processing of goal-relevant events. In the auditory modality, such enhancements are reflected in the increased amplitude of the N1 ERP elicited by the onsets of task-relevant sounds. It has been recently suggested that ERPs to task-relevant sound offsets are similarly enhanced in a tone-focused state in comparison to a distracted one. The goal of the present study was to explore the influence of attention on ERPs elicited by sound offsets. ERPs elicited by tones in a duration-discrimination task were compared to ERPs elicited by the same tones in not-tone-focused attentional setting. Tone offsets elicited a consistent, attention-dependent biphasic (positive-negative--P1-N1) ERP waveform for tone durations ranging from 150 to 450 ms. The evidence, however, did not support the notion that the offset-related ERPs reflected an offset-specific attention set: The offset-related ERPs elicited in a duration-discrimination condition (in which offsets were task relevant) did not significantly differ from those elicited in a pitch-discrimination condition (in which the offsets were task irrelevant). Although an N2 reflecting the processing of offsets in task-related terms contributed to the observed waveform, this contribution was separable from the offset-related P1 and N1. The results demonstrate that when tones are attended, offset-related ERPs may substantially overlap endogenous ERP activity in the postoffset interval irrespective of tone duration, and attention differences may cause ERP differences in such postoffset intervals.

  20. Integrated measures for rough sets based on general binary relations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shuhua; Liao, Fan; He, Mi; Lu, Min; Nian, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty measures are important for knowledge discovery and data mining. Rough set theory (RST) is an important tool for measuring and processing uncertain information. Although many RST-based methods for measuring system uncertainty have been investigated, the existing measures cannot adequately characterise the imprecision of a rough set. Moreover, these methods are suitable only for complete information systems, and it is difficult to generalise methods for complete information systems to incomplete information systems. To overcome these shortcomings, we present new uncertainty measures, integrated accuracy and integrated roughness, that are based on general binary relations, and we study important properties of these measures. A theoretical analysis and examples show that the proposed integrated measures are more precise than existing uncertainty measures, they are suitable for both complete and incomplete information systems, and they are logically consistent. Therefore, integrated accuracy and integrated roughness overcome the limitations of existing measures. This research not only develops the theory of uncertainty, it also expands the application domain of uncertainty measures and provides a theoretical basis for knowledge acquisition in information systems based on general binary relations.

  1. Attentional Resource Allocation in Visuotactile Processing Depends on the Task, But Optimal Visuotactile Integration Does Not Depend on Attentional Resources

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, Basil; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Humans constantly process and integrate sensory input from multiple sensory modalities. However, the amount of input that can be processed is constrained by limited attentional resources. A matter of ongoing debate is whether attentional resources are shared across sensory modalities, and whether multisensory integration is dependent on attentional resources. Previous research suggested that the distribution of attentional resources across sensory modalities depends on the the type of tasks. Here, we tested a novel task combination in a dual task paradigm: Participants performed a self-terminated visual search task and a localization task in either separate sensory modalities (i.e., haptics and vision) or both within the visual modality. Tasks considerably interfered. However, participants performed the visual search task faster when the localization task was performed in the tactile modality in comparison to performing both tasks within the visual modality. This finding indicates that tasks performed in separate sensory modalities rely in part on distinct attentional resources. Nevertheless, participants integrated visuotactile information optimally in the localization task even when attentional resources were diverted to the visual search task. Overall, our findings suggest that visual search and tactile localization partly rely on distinct attentional resources, and that optimal visuotactile integration is not dependent on attentional resources. PMID:27013994

  2. 78 FR 11172 - Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY: Environmental... final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants... ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants'' will be made available...

  3. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  6. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  7. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  8. The relation of PTSD symptoms to migraine and headache-related disability among substance dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Michael J; Fulwiler, Joshua C; Smitherman, Todd A; Gratz, Kim L; Connolly, Kevin M; Tull, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Despite emerging evidence for the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and migraine, few studies have examined the relation of PTSD and migraine, particularly among clinical populations at-risk for both conditions (e.g., substance-dependent patients). This study examined the role of PTSD symptoms in migraine and headache-related disability within a sample of 153 substance-dependent inpatients (37.25% female, Mean age 36.46). PTSD symptoms predicted both migraine and headache-related disability above and beyond gender, depression and anxiety symptoms, the experience of a Criterion A traumatic event, and current alcohol use disorder. Findings highlight the strong association between migraine and PTSD symptoms in a unique population at risk for both conditions.

  9. The integration of children dependent on medical technology into public schools.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jill A

    2009-06-01

    Advances in medicine have increased the survival rates of children with complex medical conditions, including those who are dependent on technology such as ventilators and tracheostomies. The process of integrating children dependent on medical technology into public schools requires the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team to ensure that both their educational and health care needs are met. As coordinator of the school health program, the school nurse plays a vital role throughout the integration process and during the time the student is enrolled in the school. This article presents a case study that demonstrates the steps in the integration process, the roles of the team members, and implications for school nursing practice.

  10. The Integration of Children Dependent on Medical Technology into Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Jill A.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in medicine have increased the survival rates of children with complex medical conditions, including those who are dependent on technology such as ventilators and tracheostomies. The process of integrating children dependent on medical technology into public schools requires the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team to ensure that…

  11. Integrated Prevention of Social Dependencies in Adolescents through the Scenario Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maznichenko, Marina A.; Neskoromnykh, Nataliya I.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for the need to take an integrated approach to prevention of social dependencies in adolescents. Through this approach, the authors fine-tune the determination of the phenomenon of prevention of social dependencies. The authors bring to light the potential of the scenario method in resolving the above objective.…

  12. The Protected Addiction: Exploring Staff Beliefs toward Integrating Tobacco Dependence into Substance Abuse Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teater, Barbra; Hammond, Gretchen Clark

    2009-01-01

    Survey research was used to explore the beliefs of 963 staff members regarding the myths to treating tobacco dependence and the integration of tobacco dependence into substance abuse treatment programs. The staff represented a mixture of residential, outpatient, and prevention-based gender-specific (women only) treatment centers throughout Ohio.…

  13. Many-Electron Integrals over Gaussian Basis Functions. I. Recurrence Relations for Three-Electron Integrals.

    PubMed

    Barca, Giuseppe M J; Loos, Pierre-François; Gill, Peter M W

    2016-04-12

    Explicitly correlated F12 methods are becoming the first choice for high-accuracy molecular orbital calculations and can often achieve chemical accuracy with relatively small Gaussian basis sets. In most calculations, the many three- and four-electron integrals that formally appear in the theory are avoided through judicious use of resolutions of the identity (RI). However, for the intrinsic accuracy of the F12 wave function to not be jeopardized, the associated RI auxiliary basis set must be large. Here, inspired by the Head-Gordon-Pople and PRISM algorithms for two-electron integrals, we present an algorithm to directly compute three-electron integrals over Gaussian basis functions and a very general class of three-electron operators without invoking RI approximations. A general methodology to derive vertical, transfer, and horizontal recurrence relations is also presented.

  14. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Rémi; Fleck, Sonia; Perriès, Stéphane; Ray, Cédric

    2005-09-01

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed.

  15. Measurement of relative humidity dependent light scattering of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Zieger, P.; Wehrle, G.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2009-09-01

    Relative humidity (RH) influences the water content of aerosol particles and therefore has an important impact on the particles' ability to scatter visible light. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp) is therefore an important measure for climate forcing calculations. We built a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 40-90%. This RH conditioner consists of a humidifier followed by a dryer, which enables us to measure the hysteresis behavior of deliquescent aerosol particles. In this paper we present the set-up of a new humidified nephelometer, a detailed characterization with well defined laboratory generated aerosols, and a first application in the field by comparing our instrument to another humidified nephelometer. Monodisperse ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride particles were measured at four different dry particle sizes. Agreement between measurement and prediction based on Mie theory was found for both σsp and f(RH)=σsp(RH)/σsp(dry) within the range of uncertainty. The two humidified nephelometers measuring at a rural site in the Black Forest (Germany) often detected different f(RH), probably caused by the aerosol hysteresis behavior: when the aerosol was metastable, therefore was scattering more light, only one instrument detected the higher f(RH).

  16. Measurement of relative humidity dependent light scattering of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Zieger, P.; Wehrle, G.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Relative humidity (RH) influences the water content of aerosol particles and therefore has an important impact on the particles' ability to scatter visible light. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important measure for climate forcing calculations. We built a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 40-90%. This RH conditioner consists of a humidifier followed by a dryer, which enables us to measure the hysteresis behavior of deliquescent aerosol particles. In this paper we present the set-up of a new humidified nephelometer, a detailed characterization with well defined laboratory generated aerosols, and a first application in the field by comparing our instrument to another humidified nephelometer. Monodisperse ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride particles were measured at four different dry particle sizes. Agreement between measurement and prediction based on Mie theory was found for both σsp and f(RH)=σsp(RH)/σsp(dry) within the range of uncertainty. The two humidified nephelometers measuring at a rural site in the Black Forest (Germany) often detected different f(RH), probably caused by the aerosol hysteresis behavior: when the aerosol was metastable, therefore was scattering more light, only one instrument detected the higher f(RH).

  17. Size-Dependent Structure Relations between Nanotubes and Encapsulated Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Eliseev, Andrei A; Falaleev, Nikolay S; Verbitskiy, Nikolay I; Volykhov, Andrei A; Yashina, Lada V; Kumskov, Andrei S; Zhigalina, Victoria G; Vasiliev, Alexander L; Lukashin, Alexey V; Sloan, Jeremy; Kiselev, Nikolay A

    2017-02-08

    The structural organization of compounds in a confined space of nanometer-scale cavities is of fundamental importance for understanding the basic principles for atomic structure design at the nanolevel. Here, we explore size-dependent structure relations between one-dimensional PbTe nanocrystals and carbon nanotube containers in the diameter range of 2.0-1.25 nm using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio calculations. Upon decrease of the confining volume, one-dimensional crystals reveal gradual thinning, with the structure being cut from the bulk in either a <110> or a <100> growth direction until a certain limit of ∼1.3 nm. This corresponds to the situation when a stoichiometric (uncharged) crystal does not fit into the cavity dimensions. As a result of the in-tube charge compensation, one-dimensional superstructures with nanometer-scale atomic density modulations are formed by a periodic addition of peripheral extra atoms to the main motif. Structural changes in the crystallographic configuration of the composites entail the redistribution of charge density on single-walled carbon nanotube walls and the possible appearance of the electron density wave. The variation of the potential attains 0.4 eV, corresponding to charge density fluctuations of 0.14 e/atom.

  18. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status.

  19. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-02-25

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status.

  20. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  1. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  2. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders. PMID:27199831

  3. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Maria C.; Smith, Victoria M.; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A.; Barense, Morgan D.; Ryan, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals’ failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA. PMID:27049878

  4. Experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration during singing: role of the right anterior insula.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Boris; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Friberg, Anders; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-04-03

    Somatosensation plays an important role in the motor control of vocal functions, yet its neural correlate and relation to vocal learning is not well understood. We used fMRI in 17 trained singers and 12 nonsingers to study the effects of vocal-fold anesthesia on the vocal-motor singing network as a function of singing expertise. Tasks required participants to sing musical target intervals under normal conditions and after anesthesia. At the behavioral level, anesthesia altered pitch accuracy in both groups, but singers were less affected than nonsingers, indicating an experience-dependent effect of the intervention. At the neural level, this difference was accompanied by distinct patterns of decreased activation in singers (cortical and subcortical sensory and motor areas) and nonsingers (subcortical motor areas only) respectively, suggesting that anesthesia affected the higher-level voluntary (explicit) motor and sensorimotor integration network more in experienced singers, and the lower-level (implicit) subcortical motor loops in nonsingers. The right anterior insular cortex (AIC) was identified as the principal area dissociating the effect of expertise as a function of anesthesia by three separate sources of evidence. First, it responded differently to anesthesia in singers (decreased activation) and nonsingers (increased activation). Second, functional connectivity between AIC and bilateral A1, M1, and S1 was reduced in singers but augmented in nonsingers. Third, increased BOLD activity in right AIC in singers was correlated with larger pitch deviation under anesthesia. We conclude that the right AIC and sensory-motor areas play a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration for vocal motor control during singing.

  5. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE TENSILE INTEGRITY: MODULATION BY MATRIX DEPLETION IS MATURATION-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Asanbaeva, Anna; Tam, Johnny; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Klisch, Stephen M.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Articular cartilage function depends on the molecular composition and structure of its extracellular matrix (ECM). The collagen network (CN) provides cartilage with tensile integrity, but must also remodel during growth. Such remodeling may depend on matrix molecules interacting with the CN to modulate the tensile behavior of cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasingly selective matrix depletion on tensile properties of immature and mature articular cartilage, and thereby establish a framework for identifying molecules involved in CN remodeling. Depletion of immature cartilage with guanidine, chondroitinase ABC, chondroitinase AC, and Streptomyces hyaluronidase markedly increased tensile integrity, while the integrity of mature cartilage remained unaltered after depletion with guanidine. The enhanced tensile integrity after matrix depletion suggests that certain ECM components of immature matrix serve to inhibit CN interactions and may act as modulators of physiological alterations of cartilage geometry and tensile properties during growth/maturation. PMID:18394422

  6. IntEnz, the integrated relational enzyme database

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Astrid; Darsow, Michael; Degtyarenko, Kirill; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Boyce, Sinéad; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Bairoch, Amos; Schomburg, Dietmar; Tipton, Keith F.; Apweiler, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    IntEnz is the name for the Integrated relational Enzyme database and is the official version of the Enzyme Nomenclature. The Enzyme Nomenclature comprises recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Bio chemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) on the nomenclature and classification of enzyme-catalysed reactions. IntEnz is supported by NC-IUBMB and contains enzyme data curated and approved by this committee. The database IntEnz is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intenz. PMID:14681451

  7. Path-dependent J-integral evaluations around an elliptical hole for large deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, David J.

    2016-08-01

    An exact expression is obtained for a path-dependent J-integral for finite strains of an elliptical hole subject to remote tensile tractions under the Tresca deformation theory for a thin plate composed of non-work hardening material. Possible applications include an analytical resistance curve for the initial stage of crack propagation due to crack tip blunting.

  8. An intact action-perception coupling depends on the integrity of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Sultan, Fahad; Mueller, Oliver M; Goericke, Sophia L; Ilg, Winfried; Timmann, Dagmar

    2014-05-07

    It is widely accepted that action and perception in humans functionally interact on multiple levels. Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. We addressed this question studying patients with focal cerebellar lesions in a virtual-reality paradigm measuring the effect of action execution on action perception presenting self-generated movements as point lights. We measured the visual sensitivity to the point light stimuli based on signal detection theory. Compared with healthy controls cerebellar patients showed no beneficial influence of action execution on perception indicating deficits in APC. Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. Ipsilateral cerebellar motor representations are thought to support the somatosensory state estimate of ongoing movements, whereas the ventral dentate and the contralateral posterior cerebellum likely support sensorimotor integration in the cerebellar-parietal loops. Both the correct somatosensory as well as the multisensory state representations are vital for an intact APC.

  9. FIRE4, LiteRed and accompanying tools to solve integration by parts relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the new version of the Mathematica code FIRE and ideas behind it. It can be applied together with the recently developed code LiteRed by Lee in order to provide an integration by parts reduction to master integrals for quite complicated families of Feynman integrals. As an example, we consider four-loop massless propagator integrals for which LiteRed provides reduction rules and FIRE assists to apply these rules. So, as a by-product one obtains a four-loop variant of the well-known algorithm MINCER. The existence of these explicit reduction rules shows that any four-loop massless propagator integral can be reduced to a linear combination of master integrals in the sense of a mathematical theorem. We also describe various algebraic ways to find additional relations between master integrals associated with several families of Feynman integrals. Catalogue identifier: AEPW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 102107 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3539091 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Wolfram Mathematica 6.0 or higher. Computer: Workstation or PC. Operating system: Unix, Linux, Windows, Mac OS X. RAM: Depends on the complexity of the problem Classification: 4.4, 4.8, 5, 20. External routines: QLink [1], FLink [2], LiteRed [3] Nature of problem: Reducing Feynman integrals to master integrals can be treated as a task to solve a huge system of sparse linear equations with polynomial coefficients. Solution method: Since the matrix of equations is very specific, none of the standard methods of solving linear equations can be applied efficiently. The program approaches solving those equations with a special version of Gauss elimination. It stores data on disk with the

  10. Ecohydrology and Its Relation to Integrated Groundwater Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Hayashi, Masaki; Batelaan, Okke

    2016-01-01

    In the twentieth century, groundwater characterization focused primarily on easily measured hydraulic metrics of water storage and flows. Twenty-first century concepts of groundwater availability, however, encompass other factors having societal value, such as ecological well-being. Effective ecohydrological science is a nexus of fundamental understanding derived from two scientific disciplines: (1) ecology, where scale, thresholds, feedbacks and tipping points for societal questions form the basis for the ecologic characterization, and (2) hydrology, where the characteristics, magnitude, and timing of water flows are characterized for a defined system of interest. In addition to ecohydrology itself, integrated groundwater management requires input from resource managers to understand which areas of the vast world of ecohydrology are important for decision making. Expectations of acceptable uncertainty, or even what ecohydrological outputs have utility, are often not well articulated within societal decision making frameworks, or within the science community itself. Similarly, “acceptable levels of impact” are difficult to define. Three examples are given to demonstrate the use of ecohydrological considerations for long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and their related ecosystem function. Such examples illustrate the importance of accommodating ecohydrogeological aspects into integrated groundwater management of the twenty-first century, regardless of society, climate, or setting.

  11. Classical integrable finite-dimensional systems related to Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1981-05-01

    During the last few years many dynamical systems have been identified, that are completely integrable or even such to allow an explicit solution of the equations of motion. Some of these systems have the form of classical one-dimensional many-body problems with pair interactions; others are more general. All of them are related to Lie algebras, and in all known cases the property of integrability results from the presence of higher (hidden) symmetries. This review presents from a general and universal viewpoint the results obtained in this field during the last few years. Besides it contains some new results both of physical and mathematical interest. The main focus is on the one-dimensional models of n particles interacting pairwise via potentials V( q) = g2ν( q) of the following 5 types: ν I(q)=q -2, ν II(q)=a -2sinh2(aq), ν III(q)=a 2/ sin2(aq), ν IV=a 2P(aq), , ν V(q)=q -2+ω 2q 2. Here P( q) is the Weierstrass function, so that the first 3 cases are merely subcases of the fourth. The system characterized by the Toda nearest-neighbor potential, gj2exp[- a( qj- qj+1 )], is moreover considered. Various generalizations of these models, naturally suggested by their association with Lie algebras, are also treated.

  12. An investigation of integral facility scaling and data relation methods (Integral System Test Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, T K

    1987-02-01

    The Integral Systems Test (IST) Program was initiated in 1982 by government and industry to provide information needed to help resolve issues raised by the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. Three different integral test facilities, each scaled to a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) design nuclear steam supply system, will ultimately contribute data to meet the objectives of the program. Each of the facilities was designed using different scaling methodologies, and each has different operating capabilities, such as maximum operating pressure and core power. The overall scaling of each facility is examined in this report, and local scaling is analyzed to demonstrate potential similarities and dissimilarities in facility response relative to expected plant responses. The scaling relationships are used to show how local thermal-hydraulic phenomena in each facility can be compared to each other or to expected plant behavior. The concept of an equilibrium plot is used to show how the global response of each facility can be related for a specific small break loss-of-coolant transient. Potential complications that may arise as a consequence of the facility scaling or facility limitations are enumerated. The potential use of dimensionless groupings for relating and specifying experiments is discussed. Finally, some specific experiments and conditions are proposed for the purpose of simplifying interfacility comparison of test results.

  13. A glutamate-dependent redox system in blood cells is integral for phagocytosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth A; Garg, Aprajita; Tang, Jessica; Nazario-Toole, Ashley E; Wu, Louisa P

    2013-11-18

    Glutamate transport is highly regulated as glutamate directly acts as a neurotransmitter and indirectly regulates the synthesis of antioxidants. Although glutamate deregulation has been repeatedly linked to serious human diseases such as HIV infection and Alzheimer's, glutamate's role in the immune system is still poorly understood. We find that a putative glutamate transporter in Drosophila melanogaster, polyphemus (polyph), plays an integral part in the fly's immune response. Flies with a disrupted polyph gene exhibit decreased phagocytosis of microbial-derived bioparticles. When infected with S. aureus, polyph flies show an increase in both susceptibility and bacterial growth. Additionally, the expression of two known glutamate transporters, genderblind and excitatory amino acid transporter 1, in blood cells affects the flies' ability to phagocytose and survive after an infection. Consistent with previous data showing a regulatory role for glutamate transport in the synthesis of the major antioxidant glutathione, polyph flies produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to wild-type flies when exposed to S. aureus. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a polyph-dependent redox system in blood cells is necessary to maintain the cells' immune-related functions. Furthermore, our model provides insight into how deregulation of glutamate transport may play a role in disease.

  14. From Concrete Examples to Abstract Relations: The Rostrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Integrates Novel Examples into Relational Categories.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tyler; Goldwater, Micah; Giron, Josue

    2016-04-29

    The ability to form relational categories for objects that share few features in common is a hallmark of human cognition. For example, anything that can play a preventative role, from a boulder to poverty, can be a "barrier." However, neurobiological research has focused solely on how people acquire categories defined by features. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines how relational and feature-based category learning compare in well-matched learning tasks. Using a computational model-based approach, we observed a cluster in left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) that tracked quantitative predictions for the representational distance between test and training examples during relational categorization. Contrastingly, medial and dorsal PFC exhibited graded activation that tracked decision evidence during both feature-based and relational categorization. The results suggest that rlPFC computes an alignment signal that is critical for integrating novel examples during relational categorization whereas other PFC regions support more general decision functions.

  15. Temperature Dependent Transport of Two-Dimensional Electrons in the Integral Quantum Hall Regime.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsuang-Ping

    This thesis is concerned with the temperature (T) dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. We have carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K < T < 50K. By assuming a simple thermal activation picture, we demonstrate a quantitative deduction of the electron density of states. Our results indicate that there exists a significant number of states (1 x 10('10)cm(' -2)meV('-1)) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of (rho)(,xx) between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Moreover, we have performed T dependent trans- port measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus, in several different materials. In the In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP sample, when T(, )> 4K, the transport behavior can be attributed to the T dependent distribution function. When T(, )< 4K, our experi- mental T-driven (sigma)(,xx) vs. (sigma)(,xy) flow diagram is consistent with the pre- dicted theoretical renormalization group flow diagram, and suggests the existence of a critical point related to the localization to delocali- zation transition. However, in the GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As samples there is a difference in the T dependent behavior of (sigma)(,xx), between N = 1(UPARR) and 1(DARR) electrons. First, (sigma)(,xx)(1(UPARR)) decreases with decreasing T; whereas (sigma)(,xx)(1(DARR)) increases with decreasing T for 0.3K(, )< T < 4.2K. Second, (sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(DARR)) ('(TURN)) 3(sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(UPARR)) at T('(TURN))0.5K in all of our samples. These results indicate the existence of spin

  16. Synthesis and Integration of Energy Related Tropospheric Chemistry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, George M.

    2007-01-15

    This is a final report of work done in support of DOE interests in air quality assessment or managemnt and tropospheric aerosol chemistry. A central focus for the activities was support for the North American cooperative, NARSTO. Leaderrship and oversight was provided for NARSTO products including two major state-of-science assessments on airborne particles (particulate matter) and the fundamentals of pollutant emissions characterization. In addition, review sof so-called 'policy related air quality science were prepared addressing multi-scale atmospheric phenomena, snowpack chemistry and pollution, and North American aerosol baseline or background conditions. The relationship between the identification of pollution sourcees and human exposure to outdoor particles was investigated, and results critiqued. This work led to a major review of the integration of atmospheric chemistry, epedimiology and toxicology in linking airborne particles with human health effects. The last topical area of work in the project related to the carbon component of tropospheric aerosols. Work was done in support of a project to obtain samples of power plant effluents to estimate the carbon present in palnt emissions. The results suggsted only a minor amount of ambient particles were carbon from coal-fired plants. Another studied provided a conceptual plan for using isotopic carbon data to provide a vapor and condensed phase carbon balance for particles, including fossil and biogenic sources.

  17. Explicit analytic approximations for time-dependent solutions of the generalized integrated Michaelis-Menten equation.

    PubMed

    Goličnik, Marko

    2011-04-15

    Various explicit reformulations of time-dependent solutions for the classical two-step irreversible Michaelis-Menten enzyme reaction model have been described recently. In the current study, I present further improvements in terms of a generalized integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation for computation of substrate or product concentrations as functions of time for more real-world, enzyme-catalyzed reactions affected by the product. The explicit equations presented here can be considered as a simpler and useful alternative to the exact solution for the generalized integrated Michaelis-Menten equation when fitted to time course data using standard curve-fitting software.

  18. 76 FR 72919 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY..., ``Second External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants... review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. DATES: The public comment...

  19. 76 FR 17121 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY..., ``First External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants... review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. DATES: The public comment...

  20. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed

    2010-11-15

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  1. Frequency-Dependence of Relative Permeability in Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, N.

    2006-03-06

    A study to characterize metal plates by means of a model-based, broadband, four-point potential drop measurement technique has shown that the relative permeability of alloy 1018 low-carbon steel is complex and a function of frequency. A magnetic relaxation is observed at approximately 5 kHz. The relaxation can be described in terms of a parametric (Cole-Cole) model. Factors which influence the frequency, amplitude and breadth of the relaxation, such as applied current amplitude, sample geometry and disorder (e.g. percent carbon content and surface condition), are considered.

  2. Integrated optic current transducers incorporating photonic crystal fiber for reduced temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sung-Moon; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-08-24

    Optical current transducers (OCT) are indispensable for accurate monitoring of large electrical currents in an environment suffering from severe electromagnetic interference. Temperature dependence of OCTs caused by its components, such as wave plates and optical fibers, should be reduced to allow temperature-independent operation. A photonic crystal fiber with a structural optical birefringence was incorporated instead of a PM fiber, and a spun PM fiber was introduced to overcome the temperature-dependent linear birefringence of sensing fiber coil. Moreover, an integrated optic device that provides higher stability than fiber-optics was employed to control the polarization and detect the phase of the sensed optical signal. The proposed OCT exhibited much lower temperature dependence than that from a previous study. The OCT satisfied the 0.5 accuracy class (IIEC 60044-8) and had a temperature dependence less than ± 1% for a temperature range of 25 to 78 °C.

  3. PD plus error-dependent integral nonlinear controllers for robot manipulators with an uncertain Jacobian matrix.

    PubMed

    Huang, C Q; Xie, L F; Liu, Y L

    2012-11-01

    In framework of traditional PID controllers, there are only three parameters available to tune, as a result, performance of the resulting system is always limited. As for Cartesian regulation of robot manipulators with uncertain Jacobian matrix, a scheme of PID controllers with error-dependent integral action is proposed. Compare with traditional PID controllers, the error-dependent integration is employed in the proposed PID controller, in which more parameters are available to be tuned. It provides additional flexibility for controller characteristics and tuning as well, and hence makes better transient performance. In addition, asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system is guaranteed. All signals in the system are bounded when exogenous disturbances and measurement noises are bounded. Numerical example demonstrates the superior transient performance of the proposed controller over the traditional one via Cartesian space set-point manipulation of two-link robotic manipulator.

  4. DISTILLER: a data integration framework to reveal condition dependency of complex regulons in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Karen; De Bie, Tijl; Dhollander, Thomas; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C; Thijs, Inge M; Schoofs, Geert; De Weerdt, Ami; De Moor, Bart; Vanderleyden, Jos; Collado-Vides, Julio; Engelen, Kristof; Marchal, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We present DISTILLER, a data integration framework for the inference of transcriptional module networks. Experimental validation of predicted targets for the well-studied fumarate nitrate reductase regulator showed the effectiveness of our approach in Escherichia coli. In addition, the condition dependency and modularity of the inferred transcriptional network was studied. Surprisingly, the level of regulatory complexity seemed lower than that which would be expected from RegulonDB, indicating that complex regulatory programs tend to decrease the degree of modularity. PMID:19265557

  5. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  6. Integrative Bayesian Analysis of Neuroimaging-Genetic Data with Application to Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Azadeh, Shabnam; Hobbs, Brian P.; Ma, Liangsuo; Nielsen, David A.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging and genetic studies provide distinct and complementary information about the structural and biological aspects of a disease. Integrating the two sources of data facilitates the investigation of the links between genetic variability and brain mechanisms among different individuals for various medical disorders. This article presents a general statistical framework for integrative Bayesian analysis of neuroimaging-genetic (iBANG) data, which is motivated by a neuroimaging-genetic study in cocaine dependence. Statistical inference necessitated the integration of spatially dependent voxel-level measurements with various patient-level genetic and demographic characteristics under an appropriate probability model to account for the multiple inherent sources of variation. Our framework uses Bayesian model averaging to integrate genetic information into the analysis of voxel-wise neuroimaging data, accounting for spatial correlations in the voxels. Using multiplicity controls based on the false discovery rate, we delineate voxels associated with genetic and demographic features that may impact diffusion as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) obtained from DTI images. We demonstrate the benefits of accounting for model uncertainties in both model fit and prediction. Our results suggest that cocaine consumption is associated with FA reduction in most white matter regions of interest in the brain. Additionally, gene polymorphisms associated with GABAergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters and receptors were associated with FA. PMID:26484829

  7. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real-World Knowledge: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Guthormsen, Amy M; Fisher, Kristie J; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-04-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)-N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems (e.g., 6 roses + 2 tulips = ? vs. 6 roses + 2 vases = ?), the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition (but not division) problems. In a verification task, when participants judged arithmetically correct but semantically misaligned problem sentences to be "unacceptable," the second object label in misaligned sentences elicited a P600 effect. Thus, depending on task constraints, misaligned problems can show either of two ERP signatures of conceptual disruption. These results show that well-educated adults can integrate mathematical and semantic relations on the rapid timescale of within-domain ERP effects by a process akin to analogical mapping.

  8. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations with Real-World Knowledge: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)—N400 and P600 effects. Here we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems (e.g., 6 roses + 2 tulips = ? vs. 6 roses + 2 vases = ?), the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition (but not division) problems. In a verification task, when participants judged arithmetically-correct but semantically misaligned problem sentences to be “unacceptable”, the second object label in misaligned sentences elicited a P600 effect. Thus depending on task constraints, misaligned problems can show either of two ERP signatures of conceptual disruption. These results show that well-educated adults can integrate mathematical and semantic relations on the rapid timescale of within-domain ERP effects by a process akin to analogical mapping. PMID:25864403

  9. Integration of synchronous synaptic input in CA1 pyramidal neuron depends on spatial and temporal distributions of the input.

    PubMed

    Tigerholm, Jenny; Migliore, Michele; Fransén, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highly synchronized neural firing has been discussed in relation to learning and memory, for instance sharp-wave activity in hippocampus. We were interested to study how a postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal neuron would integrate input of different levels of synchronicity. In previous work using computational modeling we studied how the integration depends on dendritic conductances. We found that the transient A-type potassium channel K(A) was able to selectively suppress input of high synchronicity. In recent years, compartmentalization of dendritic integration has been shown. We were therefore interested to study the influence of localization and pattern of synaptic input over the dendritic tree of the CA1 pyramidal neuron. We find that the selective suppression increases when synaptic inputs are placed on oblique dendrites further out from the soma. The suppression also increases along the radial axis from the apical trunk out to the end of oblique dendrites. We also find that the K(A) channel suppresses the occurrence of dendritic spikes. Moreover, recent studies have shown interaction between synaptic inputs. We therefore studied the influence of apical tuft input on the integration studied above. We find that excitatory input provides a modulatory influence reducing the capacity of K(A) to suppress synchronized activity, thus facilitating the excitatory drive of oblique dendritic input. Conversely, inhibitory tuft input increases the suppression by K(A) providing a larger control of oblique depolarizing factors on the CA1 pyramidal neuron in terms of what constitutes the most effective level of synchronicity. Furthermore, we show that the selective suppression studied above depends on the conductance of the K(A) channel. K(A) , as several other potassium channels, is modulated by several neuromodulators, for instance acetylcholine and dopamine, both of which have been discussed in relation to learning and memory. We suggest that dendritic conductances and their

  10. Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Functional Brain Imaging Methods: New Avenues for Studying and Treating Tobacco Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and related methods typically entail repeatedly and intensively sampling behavior as it occurs over time and under naturalistic conditions. Although the methodological features of EMA make it a highly valuable research technique in its own right, EMA can also be a potent counterpart to other approaches. One methodological partnership with substantial yet largely untapped potential for the study of tobacco dependence is the pairing of EMA with functional brain imaging. Methods: The goal of this review is to outline the promise of this approach, with a focus on the combined use of EMA and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Due to the unique and complementary strengths of each method, the merger of EMA and fMRI methods has the potential to advance the understanding of tobacco dependence in ways difficult or impossible to achieve through the use of either method in isolation. Results: In addition to describing a conceptual basis for combining EMA with fMRI, we provide a preliminary empirical illustration of this integrative approach using data from an ongoing study. Conclusions: EMA and fMRI have independently yielded important findings regarding the nature and treatment of tobacco dependence. The integration of these powerful research methods, however, holds even greater potential for the field of tobacco research. Additionally, recent advances are paving the way for the synergistic use of fMRI and EMA-based methods to develop innovative approaches to tobacco cessation. PMID:24132411

  11. Associations of prodynorphin sequence variation with alcohol dependence and related traits are phenotype-specific and sex-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; Preuss, Ulrich W.; Geske, Jennifer R.; Zill, Peter; Heit, John A.; Bakalkin, Georgy; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Karpyak, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that prodynorphin (PDYN) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2281285 are associated with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states, and recent studies suggest that PDYN gene effects on substance dependence risk may be sex-related. We examined sex-dependent associations of PDYN variation with alcohol dependence and related phenotypes, including negative craving, time until relapse after treatment and the length of sobriety episodes before seeking treatment, in discovery and validation cohorts of European ancestry. We found a significant haplotype-by-sex interaction (p  =  0.03), suggesting association with alcohol dependence in males (p = 1E-4) but not females. The rs2281285 G allele increased risk for alcohol dependence in males in the discovery cohort (OR = 1.49, p = 0.002), with a similar trend in the validation cohort (OR = 1.35, p = 0.086). However, rs2281285 showed a trend towards association with increased negative craving in females in both the discovery (beta = 10.16, p = 0.045) and validation samples (OR = 7.11, p = 0.066). In the discovery cohort, rs2281285 was associated with time until relapse after treatment in females (HR = 1.72, p = 0.037); in the validation cohort, it was associated with increased length of sobriety episodes before treatment in males (beta = 13.49, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of PDYN variants in alcohol dependence are phenotype-specific. PMID:26502829

  12. Effects of DBS in parkinsonian patients depend on the structural integrity of frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Deuschl, Günther; Koirala, Nabin; Riedel, Christian; Volkmann, Jens; Groppa, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    While deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has evolved to an evidence-based standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD), the targeted cerebral networks are poorly described and no objective predictors for the postoperative clinical response exist. To elucidate the systemic mechanisms of DBS, we analysed cerebral grey matter properties using cortical thickness measurements and addressed the dependence of structural integrity on clinical outcome. Thirty one patients with idiopathic PD without dementia (23 males, age: 63.4 ± 9.3, Hoehn and Yahr: 3.5 ± 0.8) were selected for DBS treatment. The patients underwent whole-brain preoperative T1 MR-Imaging at 3 T. Grey matter integrity was assessed by cortical thickness measurements with FreeSurfer. The clinical motor outcome markedly improved after STN-DBS in comparison to the preoperative condition. The cortical thickness of the frontal lobe (paracentral area and superior frontal region) predicted the clinical improvement after STN-DBS. Moreover, in patients with cortical atrophy of these areas a higher stimulation voltage was needed for an optimal clinical response. Our data suggest that the effects of STN-DBS in PD directly depend on frontal lobe grey matter integrity. Cortical atrophy of this region might represent a distinct predictor of a poor motor outcome after STN-DBS in PD patients. PMID:28262813

  13. Constrained adiabatic trajectory method: a global integrator for explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, A; Jolicard, G; Viennot, D; Killingbeck, J P

    2012-01-07

    The constrained adiabatic trajectory method (CATM) is reexamined as an integrator for the Schrödinger equation. An initial discussion places the CATM in the context of the different integrators used in the literature for time-independent or explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians. The emphasis is put on adiabatic processes and within this adiabatic framework the interdependence between the CATM, the wave operator, the Floquet, and the (t, t') theories is presented in detail. Two points are then more particularly analyzed and illustrated by a numerical calculation describing the H(2)(+) ion submitted to a laser pulse. The first point is the ability of the CATM to dilate the Hamiltonian spectrum and thus to make the perturbative treatment of the equations defining the wave function possible, possibly by using a Krylov subspace approach as a complement. The second point is the ability of the CATM to handle extremely complex time-dependencies, such as those which appear when interaction representations are used to integrate the system.

  14. Correction of chromosomal mutation and random integration in embryonic stem cells with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Fumi; Balamotis, Michael A; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Aizawa, Emi; Diaz, Arturo; Hasty, Paul; Graham, Frank L; Caskey, C Thomas; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2005-09-20

    For gene therapy of inherited diseases, targeted integration/gene repair through homologous recombination (HR) between exogenous and chromosomal DNA would be an ideal strategy to avoid potentially serious problems of random integration such as cellular transformation and gene silencing. Efficient sequence-specific modification of chromosomes by HR would also advance both biological studies and therapeutic applications of a variety of stem cells. Toward these goals, we developed an improved strategy of adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated HR and examined its ability to correct an insertional mutation in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in male mouse ES cells. The efficiency of HR was compared between four types of AdVs that contained various lengths of homologies at the Hprt locus and with various multiplicities of infections. The frequency of HR with helper-dependent AdVs (HD AdVs) with an 18.6-kb homology reached 0.2% per transduced cell at a multiplicity of infection of 10 genomes per cell. Detection of random integration at DNA levels by PCR revealed extremely high efficiency of 5% per cell. We also isolated and characterized chromosomal sites where HD AdVs integrated in a random manner. In contrast to retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, which tend to integrate into genes, the integration sites of AdV was distributed randomly inside and outside genes. These findings suggest that HR mediated by HD AdVs is efficient and relatively safe and might be a new viable option for ex vivo gene therapy as well as a tool for chromosomal manipulation of a variety of stem cells.

  15. An ancient Pygo-dependent Wnt enhanceosome integrated by Chip/LDB-SSDP

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Marc; Graeb, Michael; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Rutherford, Trevor J; Johnson, Christopher M; Bienz, Mariann

    2015-01-01

    TCF/LEF factors are ancient context-dependent enhancer-binding proteins that are activated by β-catenin following Wnt signaling. They control embryonic development and adult stem cell compartments, and their dysregulation often causes cancer. β-catenin-dependent transcription relies on the NPF motif of Pygo proteins. Here, we use a proteomics approach to discover the Chip/LDB-SSDP (ChiLS) complex as the ligand specifically binding to NPF. ChiLS also recognizes NPF motifs in other nuclear factors including Runt/RUNX2 and Drosophila ARID1, and binds to Groucho/TLE. Studies of Wnt-responsive dTCF enhancers in the Drosophila embryonic midgut indicate how these factors interact to form the Wnt enhanceosome, primed for Wnt responses by Pygo. Together with previous evidence, our study indicates that ChiLS confers context-dependence on TCF/LEF by integrating multiple inputs from lineage and signal-responsive factors, including enhanceosome switch-off by Notch. Its pivotal function in embryos and stem cells explain why its integrity is crucial in the avoidance of cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09073.001 PMID:26312500

  16. Pheromone responsiveness threshold depends on temporal integration by antennal lobe projection neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Minegishi, Ryo; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Nakatani, Kei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory system of male moths has an extreme sensitivity with the capability to detect and recognize conspecific pheromones dispersed and greatly diluted in the air. Just 170 molecules of the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) sex pheromone bombykol are sufficient to induce sexual behavior in the male. However, it is still unclear how the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is relayed through the brain to generate high behavioral responsiveness. Here, we show that ORN activity that is subthreshold in terms of behavior can be amplified to suprathreshold levels by temporal integration in antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) if occurring within a specific time window. To control ORN inputs with high temporal resolution, channelrhodopsin-2 was genetically introduced into bombykol-responsive ORNs. Temporal integration in PNs was only observed for weak inputs, but not for strong inputs. Pharmacological dissection revealed that GABAergic mechanisms inhibit temporal integration of strong inputs, showing that GABA signaling regulates PN responses in a stimulus-dependent fashion. Our results show that boosting of the PNs’ responses by temporal integration of olfactory information occurs specifically near the behavioral threshold, effectively defining the lower bound for behavioral responsiveness. PMID:24006366

  17. Whatever the cost? Information integration in memory-based inferences depends on cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2015-05-01

    One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of adaptive strategy selection--and, thus, a trade-off between accuracy and effort--we hypothesized that information integration crucially depends on how easily accessible information beyond recognition is, how much confidence decision makers have in this information, and how (cognitively) costly it is to acquire it. In three experiments, we thus manipulated (a) the availability of information beyond recognition, (b) the subjective usefulness of this information, and (c) the cognitive costs associated with acquiring this information. In line with the predictions, we found that RH use decreased substantially, the more easily and confidently information beyond recognition could be integrated, and increased substantially with increasing cognitive costs.

  18. T-DNA integration into the Arabidopsis genome depends on sequences of pre-insertion sites

    PubMed Central

    Brunaud, Véronique; Balzergue, Sandrine; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Aubourg, Sébastien; Samson, Franck; Chauvin, Stéphanie; Bechtold, Nicole; Cruaud, Corinne; DeRose, Richard; Pelletier, Georges; Lepiniec, Loïc; Caboche, Michel; Lecharny, Alain

    2002-01-01

    A statistical analysis of 9000 flanking sequence tags characterizing transferred DNA (T-DNA) transformants in Arabidopsis sheds new light on T-DNA insertion by illegitimate recombination. T-DNA integration is favoured in plant DNA regions with an A-T-rich content. The formation of a short DNA duplex between the host DNA and the left end of the T-DNA sets the frame for the recombination. The sequence immediately downstream of the plant A-T-rich region is the master element for setting up the DNA duplex, and deletions into the left end of the integrated T-DNA depend on the location of a complementary sequence on the T-DNA. Recombination at the right end of the T-DNA with the host DNA involves another DNA duplex, 2–3 base pairs long, that preferentially includes a G close to the right end of the T-DNA. PMID:12446565

  19. Integrated microfluidic system capable of size-specific droplet generation with size-dependent droplet separation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Hong, Seok Jun; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2013-06-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is receiving much attention in biomedical research area due to its advantage in uniform size droplet generation. Our previous results have reported that droplet size plays an important role in drug delivery actuated by flagellated bacteria. Recently, many research groups have been reported the size-dependent separation of emulsion droplets by a microfluidic system. In this paper, an integrated microfluidic system is proposed to produce and sort specificsized droplets sequentially. Operation of the system relies on two microfluidic transport processes: initial generation of droplets by hydrodynamic focusing and subsequent separation of droplets by a T-junction channel. The microfluidic system is fabricated by the SU-8 rapid prototyping method and poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) replica molding. A biodegradable polymer, poly-capro-lactone (PCL), is used for the droplet material. Using the proposed integrated microfluidic system, specific-sized droplets which can be delivered by flagellated bacteria are successfully generated and obtained.

  20. Integrated next-generation sequencing analysis of whole exome and 409 cancer-related genes.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yuji; Nagashima, Takeshi; Urakami, Kenichi; Tanabe, Tomoe; Saito, Junko; Naruoka, Akane; Serizawa, Masakuni; Mochizuki, Tohru; Ohshima, Keiichi; Ohnami, Sumiko; Ohnami, Shumpei; Kusuhara, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to analyze the genomes of cancer cells has identified numerous genomic alterations, including single-base substitutions, small insertions and deletions, amplification, recombination, and epigenetic modifications. NGS contributes to the clinical management of patients as well as new discoveries that identify the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Moreover, analysis of gene panels targeting actionable mutations enhances efforts to optimize the selection of chemotherapeutic regimens. However, whole genome sequencing takes several days and costs at least $10,000, depending on sequence coverage. Therefore, laboratories with relatively limited resources must employ a more economical approach. For this purpose, we conducted an integrated nucleotide sequence analysis of a panel of 409-cancer related genes (409-CRG) combined with whole exome sequencing (WES). Analysis of the 409-CRG panel detected low-frequency variants with high sensitivity, and WES identified moderate and high frequency somatic variants as well as germline variants.

  1. Brain function during cognitive flexibility and white matter integrity in alcohol-dependent patients, problematic drinkers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jochem M; van Holst, Ruth J; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Caan, Matthan W A; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility has been associated with prefrontal white matter (WM) integrity in healthy controls (HCs), showing that lower WM integrity is associated with worse performance. Although both cognitive flexibility and WM integrity have been found to be aberrant in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients, the relationship between the two has never been tested. In this study, we investigated the association between WM tract density and cognitive flexibility in patients with AD (n = 26) and HCs (n = 22). In order to assess the influence of AD severity, we also included a group of problematic drinkers (PrDs; n = 23) who did not meet the AD criteria. Behavioral responses and brain activity during a cognitive flexibility task were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Probabilistic fiber tracking was performed between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia; two crucial regions for task switching. Finally, the task-related functional connectivity between these areas was assessed. There were no significant group differences in the task performance. However, compared with HCs, AD patients and PrDs showed decreased WM integrity and increased prefrontal brain activation during task switching. Evidence is presented for a compensatory mechanism, involving recruitment of additional prefrontal resources in order to compensate for WM and neural function impairments in AD patients and PrDs. Although present in both alcohol groups, the PrDs were more successful in invoking this compensatory mechanism when compared to the AD patients. We propose that this may therefore serve as a protective factor, precluding transition from problematic drinking into alcohol dependence.

  2. Temperature-dependent isovector pairing gap equations using a path integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Belabbas, M.; Oudih, M. R.; Benhamouda, N.

    2007-10-15

    Temperature-dependent isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing gap equations have been established by means of the path integral approach. These equations generalize the BCS ones for the pairing between like particles at finite temperature. The method has been numerically tested using the one-level model. It has been shown that the gap parameter {delta}{sub np} has a behavior analogous to that of {delta}{sub nn} and {delta}{sub pp} as a function of the temperature: one notes the presence of a critical temperature. Moreover, it has been shown that the isovector pairing effects remain beyond the critical temperature that corresponds to the pairing between like particles.

  3. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention.

  4. Activity-dependent transmission and integration control the timescales of auditory processing at an inhibitory synapse.

    PubMed

    Ammer, Julian J; Siveke, Ida; Felmy, Felix

    2015-06-15

    To capture the context of sensory information, neural networks must process input signals across multiple timescales. In the auditory system, a prominent change in temporal processing takes place at an inhibitory GABAergic synapse in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL). At this synapse, inhibition outlasts the stimulus by tens of milliseconds, such that it suppresses responses to lagging sounds, and is therefore implicated in echo suppression. Here, we untangle the cellular basis of this inhibition. We demonstrate with in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in Mongolian gerbils that the duration of inhibition increases with sound intensity. Activity-dependent spillover and asynchronous release translate the high presynaptic firing rates found in vivo into a prolonged synaptic output in acute slice recordings. A key mechanism controlling the inhibitory time course is the passive integration of the hyperpolarizing inhibitory conductance. This prolongation depends on the synaptic conductance amplitude. Computational modeling shows that this prolongation is a general mechanism and relies on a non-linear effect caused by synaptic conductance saturation when approaching the GABA reversal potential. The resulting hyperpolarization generates an efficient activity-dependent suppression of action potentials without affecting the threshold or gain of the input-output function. Taken together, the GABAergic inhibition in the DNLL is adjusted to the physiologically relevant duration by passive integration of inhibition with activity-dependent synaptic kinetics. This change in processing timescale combined with the reciprocal connectivity between the DNLLs implements a mechanism to suppress the distracting localization cues of echoes and helps to localize the initial sound source reliably.

  5. Factors Related to Pedagogical Beliefs of Teachers and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shih-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan, teachers are expected to integrate technology into instruction with learner-centered beliefs; however, teacher beliefs and practices may differ. The contextual factors influencing this inconsistency must be identified. This study first examines the relationship between pedagogical beliefs of teachers and teaching activities, and further…

  6. Nonlinear partial differential equations: Integrability, geometry and related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasil'shchik, Joseph; Rubtsov, Volodya

    2017-03-01

    Geometry and Differential Equations became inextricably entwined during the last one hundred fifty years after S. Lie and F. Klein's fundamental insights. The two subjects go hand in hand and they mutually enrich each other, especially after the "Soliton Revolution" and the glorious streak of Symplectic and Poisson Geometry methods in the context of Integrability and Solvability problems for Non-linear Differential Equations.

  7. Relative Hom-Hopf modules and total integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangjian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Shengxiang

    2015-02-01

    Let (H, α) be a monoidal Hom-Hopf algebra and (A, β) a right (H, α)-Hom-comodule algebra. We first investigate the criterion for the existence of a total integral of (A, β) in the setting of monoidal Hom-Hopf algebras. Also, we prove that there exists a total integral ϕ : (H, α) → (A, β) if and only if any representation of the pair (H, A) is injective in a functorial way, as a corepresentation of (H, α), which generalizes Doi's result. Finally, we define a total quantum integral γ : H → Hom(H, A) and prove the following affineness criterion: if there exists a total quantum integral γ and the canonical map ψ : A⊗BA → A ⊗ H, a⊗Bb ↦ β-1(a) b[0] ⊗ α(b[1]) is surjective, then the induction functor A ⊗ B - : ℋ ˜ ( ℳk ) B → ℋ ˜ (ℳ k ) A H is an equivalence of categories.

  8. Relative Hom-Hopf modules and total integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shuangjian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Shengxiang

    2015-02-15

    Let (H, α) be a monoidal Hom-Hopf algebra and (A, β) a right (H, α)-Hom-comodule algebra. We first investigate the criterion for the existence of a total integral of (A, β) in the setting of monoidal Hom-Hopf algebras. Also, we prove that there exists a total integral ϕ : (H, α) → (A, β) if and only if any representation of the pair (H, A) is injective in a functorial way, as a corepresentation of (H, α), which generalizes Doi’s result. Finally, we define a total quantum integral γ : H → Hom(H, A) and prove the following affineness criterion: if there exists a total quantum integral γ and the canonical map ψ : A⊗{sub B}A → A ⊗ H, a⊗{sub B}b ↦ β{sup −1}(a) b{sub [0]} ⊗ α(b{sub [1]}) is surjective, then the induction functor A⊗{sub B}−:ℋ{sup ~}(ℳ{sub k}){sub B}→ℋ{sup ~}(ℳ{sub k}){sub A}{sup H} is an equivalence of categories.

  9. Loner or socializer? Ravens’ adrenocortical response to individual separation depends on social integration

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Martina; Munteanu, Alexandru; Stöwe, Mareike; Schwab, Christine; Palme, Rupert; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) live in complex social groups with a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. They form valuable relationships and alliances with some conspecifics, while taking coordinated action against others. In ravens, affiliates reconcile their conflicts, console each other after conflicts with a third party, and provide each other with social support — all behaviors that presumably reduce corticosterone levels and alleviate stress. However, how well an individual is socially integrated in a (sub)group might vary substantially. This raises the question whether the social integration of a raven affects its stress responses to fission–fusion dynamics. The present study aims to investigate this effect experimentally by separating single ravens (n = 16) individually from their group for four days and subsequently reintroducing them. To determine stress response patterns in the separated individuals we measured the amounts of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) in droppings. We compared two enzyme immunoassays, which we validated by conducting an ACTH challenge, and finally decided to apply an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, we determined levels of social integration using focal observations. Our findings suggest that a strong social integration is related to low CM levels when the individuals are within the group and high levels during separations, implying that separation leads to stress in these birds. In contrast, poorly socially integrated ravens seem to exhibit the opposite pattern, indicating that to them group living is more stressful than being temporarily separated. We, therefore, conclude that the birds’ adrenocortical activity is modulated by their social integration. PMID:26631484

  10. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  11. Dependence of structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules on ATP and cell communication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yu

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic granules are dense and compact microbial aggregates with various bacterial species. Recently, aerobic granulation technology has been extensively explored for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, little information is currently available with regard to their structure stability and integrity at levels of energy metabolism and cell communication. In the present study, a typical chemical uncoupler, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide with the power to dissipate proton motive force and subsequently inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, was used to investigate possible roles of ATP and cell communication in maintaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. It was found that inhibited ATP synthesis resulted in the reduced production of autoinducer-2 and N-acylhomoserine lactones essential for cell communication, while lowered extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production was also observed. As a consequence, aerobic granules appeared to break up. This study showed that ATP-dependent quorum sensing and EPS were essential for sustaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules.

  12. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  13. Density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal affect the stability of predator-prey metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Hauzy, Céline; Gauduchon, Mathias; Hulot, Florence D; Loreau, Michel

    2010-10-07

    Although density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal (the difference in dispersal rates between species) have been documented in natural systems, their effects on the stability of metacommunities are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effects of intra- and interspecific density-dependent dispersal on the regional stability in a predator-prey metacommunity model. We show that, when the dynamics of the populations reach equilibrium, the stability of the metacommunity is not affected by density-dependent dispersal. However, the regional stability, measured as the regional variability or the persistence, can be modified by density-dependent dispersal when local populations fluctuate over time. Moreover these effects depend on the relative dispersal of the predator and the prey. Regional stability is modified through changes in spatial synchrony. Interspecific density-dependent dispersal always desynchronizses local dynamics, whereas intraspecific density-dependent dispersal may either synchronize or desynchronize it depending on dispersal rates. Moreover, intra- and interspecific density-dependent dispersal strengthen the top-down control of the prey by the predator at intermediate dispersal rates. As a consequence the regional stability of the metacommunity is increased at intermediate dispersal rates. Our results show that density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal of species are keys to understanding the response of ecosystems to fragmentation.

  14. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  15. Integration of Density Dependence and Concentration Response Models Provides an Ecologically Relevant Assessment of Populations Exposed to Toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of toxic exposure on wildlife populations involves the integration of organism level effects measured in toxicity tests (e.g., chronic life cycle) and population models. These modeling exercises typically ignore density dependence, primarily because information on ...

  16. A systematic assessment of delay discounting in relation to cocaine and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; Yoon, Jin Ho

    2013-10-01

    Delay discounting is a measure of impulsivity describing how a reinforcer loses value as the delay to its receipt increases. Greater delay discounting is reliably observed among those with different substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to the general population. Nevertheless, the relation between delay discounting and the type and number of substances used remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare delay discounting across four groups of participants: cocaine- and nicotine-dependent participants, cocaine-dependent only participants, nicotine-dependent only participants, and non-dependent controls. One hundred and seven participants completed a computerized delay discounting task for hypothetical monetary values. Data were fit to Mazur's hyperbolic equation to derive the discounting rate k. Results showed that delay discounting was significantly greater in the cocaine- and nicotine-dependent group, compared to the nicotine-dependent only group, compared to control group. Delay discounting was also greater in the cocaine-dependent only group relative to the nicotine-dependent only and control groups, but no differences were observed between the cocaine- and nicotine-dependent group and the cocaine-dependent only group. This study provides evidence that delay discounting differs depending on the type of SUD but not on the number of SUDs.

  17. Voltage-dependent switching of sensorimotor integration by a lobster central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Nargeot, Romuald

    2003-06-15

    Behavioral adaptations and the underlying neural plasticity may not simply result from peripheral information conveyed by sensory inputs. Central neuronal networks often spontaneously generate neuronal activity patterns that may also contribute to sensorimotor integration and behavioral adaptations. The present study explored a novel form of sensory-induced plasticity by which the resulting changes in motor output depend essentially on the preexisting functional state of an identified neuron of an endogenously active central network. In the isolated lobster stomatogastric nervous system, electrical stimulation of a mechanosensory nerve transiently inactivated rhythmic spike bursting in the lateral pyloric (LP) neuron of the pyloric motor pattern-generating network. Repeated sensory nerve stimulation gradually and long-lastingly strengthened the bursting of the LP neuron to the detriment of sensory-elicited inactivation. This strengthening of pyloric-timed rhythmic activity was enhanced by experimental depolarization of the neuron. Conversely, when the LP neuron was hyperpolarized, the same sensory stimulation paradigm now gradually increased the susceptibility of the pyloric-timed bursting of the network neuron to sensory-elicited inactivation. Modulation of depolarization-activated and hyperpolarization-activated ionic conductances that underlie the intrinsic bursting properties of the LP neuron may contribute via differential voltage-dependent recruitment and effects to the respective adaptive processes. These data therefore suggest a novel state-dependent mechanism by which an endogenously active central network can decrease or increase its responsiveness to the same sensory input.

  18. Calculation of molecular integrals over Slater-type orbitals using recurrence relations for overlap integrals and basic one-center Coulomb integrals.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil; Mamedov, Bahtiyar; Rzaeva, Afet

    2002-04-01

    The recurrence relations are established for the basic one-center Coulomb integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs). These formulae and the recurrence relations for basic overlap integrals are utilized for the calculation of multicenter electron-repulsion integrals. The calculations of multicenter electron-repulsion integrals are performed by the use of translation formulae for STOs obtained from the Lambda and Coulomb Sturmian exponential-type functions (ETFs). It is shown that these integrals show a faster convergence rate in the case of Coulomb Sturmian ETFs. The accuracy of the results is quite high for the quantum numbers of STOs and for the arbitrary values of internuclear distances and screening constants of atomic orbitals.

  19. Integrated Proteomics and Metabolomics of Arabidopsis Acclimation to Gene-Dosage Dependent Perturbation of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Craig P.; Zhu, Ning; Pang, Qiuying; Chen, Sixue

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining metabolic homeostasis is critical for plant growth and development. Here we report proteome and metabolome changes when the metabolic homeostasis is perturbed due to gene-dosage dependent mutation of Arabidopsis isopropylmalate dehydrogenases (IPMDHs). By integrating complementary quantitative proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we discovered that gradual ablation of the oxidative decarboxylation step in leucine biosynthesis caused imbalance of amino acid homeostasis, redox changes and oxidative stress, increased protein synthesis, as well as a decline in photosynthesis, which led to rearrangement of central metabolism and growth retardation. Disruption of IPMDHs involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis led to synchronized increase of both upstream and downstream biosynthetic enzymes, and concomitant repression of the degradation pathway, indicating metabolic regulatory mechanisms in controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:23533573

  20. Alteration of epithelial cell lysosomal integrity induced by bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins

    PubMed Central

    Malet, Julien Karim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum‐Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore‐forming toxin listeriolysin O, alters lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells but not in macrophages. Listeriolysin O induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of lysosomal content, such as cathepsins proteases, which remain transiently active in the host cytosol. We furthermore show that other bacterial pore‐forming toxins, such as perfringolysin O and pneumolysin, also induce lysosomes alteration. Together, our data unveil a novel activity of bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins. PMID:27739224

  1. Dependency of {gamma}-secretase complex activity on the structural integrity of the bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Shuxia; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K.

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Partial solubilization of membranes with CHAPSO can increase {gamma}-secretase activity. {yields} Completely solubilized {gamma}-secretase is inactive. {yields} Purified {gamma}-secretase regains activity after reconstitution into lipid bilayers. {yields} A broad range of detergents can be used to successfully reconstitute {gamma}-secretase. -- Abstract: {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex associated with the production of A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease. We have characterized the activity of {gamma}-secretase complexes under a variety of detergent solubilization and reconstitution conditions, and the structural state of proteoliposomes by electron microscopy. We found that {gamma}-secretase activity is highly dependent on the physical state or integrity of the membrane bilayer - partial solubilization may increase activity while complete solubilization will abolish it. The activity of well-solubilized {gamma}-secretase can be restored to near native levels when properly reconstituted into a lipid bilayer environment.

  2. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics of Arabidopsis acclimation to gene-dosage dependent perturbation of isopropylmalate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Dai, Shaojun; Dufresne, Craig P; Zhu, Ning; Pang, Qiuying; Chen, Sixue

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining metabolic homeostasis is critical for plant growth and development. Here we report proteome and metabolome changes when the metabolic homeostasis is perturbed due to gene-dosage dependent mutation of Arabidopsis isopropylmalate dehydrogenases (IPMDHs). By integrating complementary quantitative proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we discovered that gradual ablation of the oxidative decarboxylation step in leucine biosynthesis caused imbalance of amino acid homeostasis, redox changes and oxidative stress, increased protein synthesis, as well as a decline in photosynthesis, which led to rearrangement of central metabolism and growth retardation. Disruption of IPMDHs involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis led to synchronized increase of both upstream and downstream biosynthetic enzymes, and concomitant repression of the degradation pathway, indicating metabolic regulatory mechanisms in controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis.

  3. Two-echelon competitive integrated supply chain model with price and credit period dependent demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2016-04-01

    This study considers a two-echelon competitive supply chain consisting of two rivaling retailers and one common supplier with trade credit policy. The retailers hope that they can enhance their market demand by offering a credit period to the customers and the supplier also offers a credit period to the retailers. We assume that the market demand of the products of one retailer depends not only on their own market price and offering a credit period to the customers, but also on the market price and offering a credit period of the other retailer. The supplier supplies the product with a common wholesale price and offers the same credit period to the retailers. We study the model under a centralised (integrated) case and a decentralised (Vertical Nash) case and compare them numerically. Finally, we investigate the model by the collected numerical data.

  4. Fresnel integrals and irreversible energy transfer in an oscillatory system with time-dependent parameters.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I; Kosevich, Yuriy A

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that in significant limiting cases the problem of irreversible energy transfer in an oscillatory system with time-dependent parameters can be efficiently solved in terms of the Fresnel integrals. For definiteness, we consider a system of two weakly coupled linear oscillators in which the first oscillator with constant parameters is excited by an initial impulse, whereas the coupled oscillator with a slowly varying frequency is initially at rest but then acts as an energy trap. We show that the evolution equations of the slow passage through resonance are identical to the equations of the Landau-Zener tunneling problem, and therefore, the suggested asymptotic solution of the classical problem provides a simple analytic description of the quantum Landau-Zener tunneling with arbitrary initial conditions over a finite time interval. A correctness of approximations is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  5. Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Propulsion Related Module Development and Vehicle Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during the period from May 2011 - October 2012 on the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This report will focus on describing the work done in the areas of: (1) Integrating propulsion data (turbines, rockets, and scramjets) in the system, and using the data to perform trajectory analysis; (2) Developing a parametric packaging strategy for a hypersonic air breathing vehicles allowing for tank resizing when multiple fuels and/or oxidizer are part of the configuration; and (3) Vehicle scaling and closure strategies.

  6. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  7. Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krori, K.; Dutta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Since the 1960s the general relativists have been deeply obsessed with the possibilities of GTR singularities - blackhole as well as cosmological singularities. Senovilla, for the first time, followed by others, showed that there are cylindrically symmetric cosmological space-times which are free of singularities. On the other hand, Krori et al. have presently shown that spherically symmetric cosmological space-times - which later reduce to FRW space-times may also be free of singularities. Besides, Mitra has in the mean-time come forward with some realistic calculations which seem to rule out the possibility of a blackhole singularity. So whether singularities are integral to GTR seems to come under a shadow.

  8. 76 FR 60820 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY... titled, ``Second External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical... ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. EPA is releasing this draft document to seek review...

  9. 77 FR 36534 - Third External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... AGENCY Third External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical... External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants'' (EPA/600... Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. EPA is releasing this draft document to seek review by the Clean Air...

  10. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations with Real-World Knowledge: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)--N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving…

  11. Integration by parts and Pohozaev identities for space-dependent fractional-order operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Consider a classical elliptic pseudodifferential operator P on Rn of order 2a (0 < a < 1) with even symbol. For example, P = A(x , D)a where A (x , D) is a second-order strongly elliptic differential operator; the fractional Laplacian (- Δ)a is a particular case. For solutions u of the Dirichlet problem on a bounded smooth subset Ω ⊂Rn, we show an integration-by-parts formula with a boundary integral involving (d-a u)|∂Ω, where d (x) = dist (x , ∂ Ω). This extends recent results of Ros-Oton, Serra and Valdinoci, to operators that are x-dependent, nonsymmetric, and have lower-order parts. We also generalize their formula of Pohozaev-type, that can be used to prove unique continuation properties, and nonexistence of nontrivial solutions of semilinear problems. An illustration is given with P =(- Δ +m2)a. The basic step in our analysis is a factorization of P, P ∼P-P+, where we set up a calculus for the generalized pseudodifferential operators P± that come out of the construction.

  12. Plasticity-related genes in brain development and amygdala-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, D E; Josselyn, S A

    2016-01-01

    Learning about motivationally important stimuli involves plasticity in the amygdala, a temporal lobe structure. Amygdala-dependent learning involves a growing number of plasticity-related signaling pathways also implicated in brain development, suggesting that learning-related signaling in juveniles may simultaneously influence development. Here, we review the pleiotropic functions in nervous system development and amygdala-dependent learning of a signaling pathway that includes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), extracellular signaling-related kinases (ERKs) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Using these canonical, plasticity-related genes as an example, we discuss the intersection of learning-related and developmental plasticity in the immature amygdala, when aversive and appetitive learning may influence the developmental trajectory of amygdala function. We propose that learning-dependent activation of BDNF, ERK and CREB signaling in the immature amygdala exaggerates and accelerates neural development, promoting amygdala excitability and environmental sensitivity later in life.

  13. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  14. Disambiguation and Integration in Korean Relative Clause Processing.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Michael; Park, Sunju; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2016-12-10

    Previous studies on Korean relative clauses (RC) show that, with respect to processing, object-extracted relative clauses (ORC) are more difficult to process at the head noun than subject-extracted relative clauses within temporarily ambiguous contexts. ORCs, however, are predicted by experience-based processing models to incur a greater processing cost during early processing stages at the RC verb, since it is a likely locus of disambiguation for RCs in Korean, and because ORCs are a less frequent structure. Consequently, the current study investigates whether processing difficulty for ORCs manifests itself at the RC verb using eye-tracking methods, a simple sentence structure and a sentential-decision task. The results revealed significantly increased go-past reading times for ORCs at the RC verb. We believe this is a result of a less frequent structure being more difficult to parse during disambiguation. Accordingly, experience-based models of processing can accurately predict difficulty for ORCs in Korean.

  15. Membrane integrity of Campylobacter jejuni subjected to high pressure is pH-dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerasle, M.; Guillou, S.; Simonin, H.; Laroche, M.; de Lamballerie, M.; Federighi, M.

    2012-03-01

    Our study focuses on a foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter, which is responsible for the most frequent bacterial enteritis worldwide. Membrane integrity of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 cells treated at high pressure (300 MPa, 20°C, 10 min) at pH 7.0 and pH 5.6 was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy of propidium iodide (PI) uptake. The percentage of membrane-damaged cells by high pressure, in which PI is allowed to penetrate, was determined using two calibration methods based on the PI fluorescence signal obtained with cells killed either by a heat treatment (80°C for 15 min) or by a pressure treatment (400 MPa, 20°C, 10 min). Both calibrations were shown to be statistically different (P<0.05), particularly at acidic pH, suggesting that a difference in the penetration of PI into bacterial cells might depend on the mode of cell inactivation. These results corroborate the fact that the mechanism of microbial inactivation by high pressure is pH-dependent.

  16. Integrating Relational Reasoning and Knowledge Revision during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…

  17. Integrated and Independent Learning of Hand-Related Constituent Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Michael P.; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In almost all daily activities fingers of both hands are used in coordinated succession. The present experiments explored whether learning in such tasks pertains not only to the overall sequence spanning both hands but also to the constituent sequences of each hand. In a serial reaction time task, 2 repeating hand-related sequences were…

  18. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  19. Simulation of growing grains under orientation relation - dependent quadruple point dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.

    2015-04-01

    The growth behaviour of a specified grain embedded in matrix grains, for which the migration mobility of the quadruple points depended on the relation between the orientations of the growing and shrinking grains, was studied using a modified Potts MC-type threedimensional simulation. Large embedded grains continued to grow without being overcome by coarsening matrix grains, whereas small embedded grains disappeared, under the influence of the relative mobilities of the quadruple points, the composition of the matrix grain texture and the width of the grain size distribution of the matrix grains. These results indicate that orientation relation-dependent quadruple point dragging can affect the recrystallization texture during the grain coarsening stage.

  20. Musical expertise is related to altered functional connectivity during audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kraneburg, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle Cornelia; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical large-scale functional network underpinning audiovisual integration via magnetoencephalographic recordings. The reorganization of this network related to long-term musical training was investigated by comparing musicians to nonmusicians. Connectivity was calculated on the basis of the estimated mutual information of the sources’ activity, and the corresponding networks were statistically compared. Nonmusicians’ results indicated that the cortical network associated with audiovisual integration supports visuospatial processing and attentional shifting, whereas a sparser network, related to spatial awareness supports the identification of audiovisual incongruences. In contrast, musicians’ results showed enhanced connectivity in regions related to the identification of auditory pattern violations. Hence, nonmusicians rely on the processing of visual clues for the integration of audiovisual information, whereas musicians rely mostly on the corresponding auditory information. The large-scale cortical network underpinning multisensory integration is reorganized due to expertise in a cognitive domain that largely involves audiovisual integration, indicating long-term training-related neuroplasticity. PMID:26371305

  1. High integrity GPS/INS filter for precise relative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.

    A GPS/INS filter design for absolute and relative state estimation is discussed. The GPS code and Doppler measurements are used for absolute state estimation while the GPS carrier phase and Doppler measurements are used for relative state estimation. Real-time results obtained from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation and actual F-18 flight tests are presented. To ensure accurate state estimation, the observability of the GPS/INS system is analyzed analytically when the system is at rest and during maneuvers. The system observability enhancement during two different maneuvers is discussed. Simulation results illustrating the observability of the system during the different stages of the GPS/INS system operation are also presented. To allow successful use of the high-accuracy carrier phase measurements, two methods for resolving GPS integer ambiguity are introduced. The first combines an efficient method for obtaining the admissible integer ambiguity hypotheses within a probabilistic volume with an integer hypothesis testing method to reduce the convergence time with high probability to the GPS carrier phase integers. The second GPS integer ambiguity resolution method is based on a log-formulation of the Multiple Hypothesis Wald Sequential Probability Test (MHWSPT). The computational time requirement of the latter method is shown to be smaller than the former method. Real-time results are presented to show the performance of the two methods introduced.

  2. [The dynamics of the family that lives with and takes care of an elderly dependent relative].

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Hugo; Lopes, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Constant depletion of some functional capacities and an increasing vulnerability are associated with the ageing process. Eventually, the individual becomes dependent on someone and the family is the main supportive institution. In view of this situation, one question guided our study: What is the relation between the family dynamics and to live with and take care of an elderly dependent relative? Our purpose is to analyse how the care provided by the family works, relating the family dynamics with the level of dependency of that relative and the age of the caregivers. We developed a related and transversal study, with an intentionally sample composed by 80 families and 143 caregivers. An evaluation scale was used to measure the dependency level of the elderly anda family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scale (FACES III). We concluded that the elderly level of dependency does not change the cohesion and adaptability of the family. Nonetheless, we also observed that the age of the caregiver alters the family dynamics, what can lead to the development of a pathological picture.

  3. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential

  4. Integrating Temperature-Dependent Life Table Data into a Matrix Projection Model for Drosophila suzukii Population Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wiman, Nik G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Dalton, Daniel T.; Anfora, Gianfranco; Burrack, Hannah J.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Daane, Kent M.; Grassi, Alberto; Miller, Betsey; Tochen, Samantha; Wang, Xingeng; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US) and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix) and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit). Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations. PMID:25192013

  5. Relation between the alignment dependence of coercive force decrease ratio and the angular dependence of coercive force of ferrite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Hosokawa, Seiichi; Hoshijima, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The relation of the coercive force decrease ratio (CFDR) and the angular dependence of the coercive force (ADCF) of ferrite magnets and their temperature properties were investigated. When we compared that against the angle of the magnetization reverse area obtained from these calculation results, which was obtained from the Gaussian distribution of the grain alignment and the postulation that every grain follows the Kondorskii law or the 1/cos θ law, and against the angle of the reverse magnetization area calculated from the experiment CFDR data of these magnets, it was found that this latter expanded at room temperature, to 36° from the calculated angle, for magnet with α=0.96. It was also found that, as temperature increased from room temperature to 413 K, the angle of the reverse magnetization area of ferrite magnets obtained from the experiment data expanded from 36° to 41°. When we apply these results to the temperature properties of ADCF, it seems that the calculated ADCF could qualitatively and reasonably explain these temperature properties, even though the difference between the calculated angular dependence and the experimental data still exists in the high angle range. These results strongly suggest that the coercive force of these magnets is determined by the magnetic domain wall motion. The magnetic domain walls are strongly pinned at tilted grains, and when the domain walls are de-pinned from their pinning sites, the coercive force is determined.

  6. Obsessive passion: a dependency associated with injury-related risky behaviour in dancers.

    PubMed

    Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50(fs); 50(ms); Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence.

  7. A review of OSHA PSM citations relating to mechanical integrity of process piping

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, M.L.; Remson, A.C.; Yerger, C.M.

    1996-07-01

    OSHA`s process safety management (PSM) regulation has been in effect for more than three years. The regulation poses challenges for facilities in documenting the integrity of process piping systems. This paper summarizes the results of a project sponsored by the Materials Technology Institute (MTI) to compile PSM enforcement information relating to mechanical integrity W and process safety information (PSI) relating to equipment. This paper provides an analysis of how OSHA is citing violations of the PSM regulation as it relates to process piping. This information should be helpful to engineers and maintenance personnel who need guidance on how to ``OSHA-proof`` their mechanical integrity compliance for process piping systems.

  8. Two-loop planar master integrals for Higgs → 3 partons with full heavy-quark mass dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonciani, Roberto; Del Duca, Vittorio; Frellesvig, Hjalte; Henn, Johannes M.; Moriello, Francesco; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the analytic computation of all the planar master integrals which contribute to the two-loop scattering amplitudes for Higgs→ 3 partons, with full heavy-quark mass dependence. These are relevant for the NNLO corrections to fully inclusive Higgs production and to the NLO corrections to Higgs production in association with a jet, in the full theory. The computation is performed using the differential equations method. Whenever possible, a basis of master integrals that are pure functions of uniform weight is used. The result is expressed in terms of one-fold integrals of polylogarithms and elementary functions up to transcendental weight four. Two integral sectors are expressed in terms of elliptic integrals. We show that by introducing a one-dimensional parametrization of the integrals the relevant second order differential equation can be readily solved, and the solution can be expressed to all orders of the dimensional regularization parameter in terms of iterated integrals over elliptic kernels. We express the result for the elliptic sectors in terms of two and three-fold iterated integrals, which we find suitable for numerical evaluations. This is the first time that four-point multiscale Feynman integrals have been computed in a fully analytic way in terms of elliptic integrals.

  9. The relation between structural and functional connectivity depends on age and on task goals

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn H.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in neuroimaging studies examining structural (i.e., structural integrity of white matter tracts) and functional connectivity (e.g., correlations in neural activity throughout the brain). Although structural and functional connectivity changes have often been measured independently, examining the relation between these two measures is critical to understanding the specific function of neural networks and the ways they may differ across tasks and individuals. The current study addressed this question by examining the effect of age (treated as a continuous variable) and emotional valence on the relation between functional and structural connectivity. As prior studies have suggested that prefrontal regions may guide and regulate emotional memory search via functional connections with the amygdala, the current analysis focused on functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the left prefrontal cortex, and structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting prefrontal and temporal regions. Participants took part in a scanned retrieval task in which they recalled positive, negative, and neutral images associated with neutral titles. Aging was associated with a significant increase in the relation between measures of structural integrity (specifically, fractional anisotropy, or FA) along the uncinate fasciculus and functional connectivity between the left ventral prefrontal cortex and amygdala during positive event retrieval, but not negative or neutral retrieval. Notably, during negative event retrieval, age was linked to stronger structure-function relations between the amygdala and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, such that increased structural integrity predicted stronger negative functional connectivity in older adults only. These findings suggest that young and older adults may utilize a structural pathway to engage different retrieval and regulatory strategies, even when structural

  10. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  11. Factors Related to the Intent of Agricultural Educators To Adopt Integrated Agricultural Biotechnology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Kirby, Barbara; Flowers, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Recent legislation encourages the integration of academic content in agricultural education. In North Carolina, high school agricultural education programs can now choose to offer a state adopted integrated biotechnology curriculum. Empirical evidence was needed to identify and describe factors related to the intent of agricultural educators to…

  12. 76 FR 10893 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY... review draft of a document titled, ``First External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone... review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. EPA is releasing this...

  13. EPA Issues November 15, 2010 Memorandum: Integrated Reporting and Listing Decisions Related to Ocean Acidification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The memorandum provides information to assist regions and states in preparing and reviewing Integrated Reports related to ocean acidification (OA) impacts under Sections 303(d), 305(b) and 314 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  14. Relative Permeabilities: a pore-level model study of the capillary number dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Mason, G.; Bromhal, G.S.; Smith, D.H.

    2008-03-01

    Relative permeabilities are widely used by the petroleum industry in reservoir simulations of recovery strategies. In recent years, pore level modeling has been used to determine relative permeabilities at zero capillary number for a variety of more and more realistic model porous media. Unfortunately, these studies cannot address the issue of the observed capillary number dependence of the relative permeabilities. Several years ago, we presented a method for determining the relative permeabilities from pore-level modeling at general capillary number. We have used this method to determine the relative permeabilities at several capillary numbers and stable viscosity ratios. In addition, we have determined these relative permeabilities using one of the standard dynamic methods for determining relative permeabilities from core flood experiments. Our results from the two methods are compared with each other and with experimental results.

  15. Reexamination of relations between the Myers-Briggs type indicator and field dependence-independence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; McCutcheon, J W

    1988-12-01

    The Group Embedded Figures Test and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator were administered to 210 undergraduate and graduate students. Bivariate relations between the embedded figures test and the Indicator scales of Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judgment-Perception (JP) were nonsignificant while the relation between scores on embedded figures and Sensing-Intuition (SN) was statistically significant. ESFP, ISFJ, and ESFJ types were significantly more field-dependent than the INFP and ENTP types.

  16. Chapter 2. General theoretical perspectives of narrative analysis of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; Lilja, John; von Braun, Therese; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    This chapter provides a short introduction to, and an overview for, using narrative analysis in the understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and drugs. Important theoretical and methodological dimensions are discussed. Some tentative conclusions, limitations, and unresolved critical issues concerning the use of narrative research methods in the analysis of substance use-related dependency problems are also presented.

  17. Success in a High School Completion Program and Its Relation to Field Dependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnarumma, Theresa; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This study explored the cognitive style of field dependence-independence (FDI) and its relation to student attrition and performance on the General Educational Development Test and the Test of Adult Basic Education. Resultant correlations are discussed in terms of the usefulness of FDI in assessing the needs of adult learners. (Author/SK)

  18. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  19. The Localization of Long-Distance Dependency Components: Integrating the Focal-lesion and Neuroimaging Record

    PubMed Central

    Piñango, Maria M.; Finn, Emily; Lacadie, Cheryl; Constable, R. Todd

    2016-01-01

    In the sentence “The captain who the sailor greeted is tall,” the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of “the captain” as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia. We test the hypothesis that this localization incongruence emerges from an interaction of memory and linguistic constraints involved in the real-time implementation of these dependencies and which had not been previously isolated. Capitalizing on a long-standing psycholinguistic understanding of LDDs as the workings of an active filler, we distinguish two linguistically defined mechanisms: GAP-search, triggered by the retrieval of the relative pronoun, and GAP-completion, triggered by the retrieval of the embedded verb. Each mechanism is hypothesized to have distinct memory demands and given their distinct linguistic import, potentially distinct brain correlates. Using fMRI, we isolate the two mechanisms by analyzing their relevant sentential segments as separate events. We manipulate LDD-presence/absence and GAP-search type (direct/indirect) reflecting the absence/presence of intervening islands. Results show a direct GAP-search—LIF cortex correlation that crucially excludes the LPST cortex. Notably, indirect GAP-search recruitment is confined to supplementary-motor and lower-parietal cortex indicating that GAP presence alone is not enough to engage predictive functions in the LIF cortex. Finally, GAP-completion shows recruitment implicating the dorsal pathway including: the supplementary motor cortex, left supramarginal cortex, precuneus

  20. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  1. Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effects in the nucleus accumbens relate to relapse in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Garbusow, Maria; Schad, Daniel J; Sebold, Miriam; Friedel, Eva; Bernhardt, Nadine; Koch, Stefan P; Steinacher, Bruno; Kathmann, Norbert; Geurts, Dirk E M; Sommer, Christian; Müller, Dirk K; Nebe, Stephan; Paul, Sören; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Walter, Henrik; Smolka, Michael N; Sterzer, Philipp; Rapp, Michael A; Huys, Quentin J M; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse. Pavlovian-to-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) may be one of those behavioral phenomena contributing to relapse, capturing how Pavlovian conditioned (contextual) cues determine instrumental behavior (e.g. alcohol seeking and intake). We used a PIT paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of classically conditioned Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental choices in n = 31 detoxified patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and n = 24 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Patients were followed up over a period of 3 months. We observed that (1) there was a significant behavioral PIT effect for all participants, which was significantly more pronounced in alcohol-dependent patients; (2) PIT was significantly associated with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in subsequent relapsers only; and (3) PIT-related NAcc activation was associated with, and predictive of, critical outcomes (amount of alcohol intake and relapse during a 3 months follow-up period) in alcohol-dependent patients. These observations show for the first time that PIT-related BOLD signals, as a measure of the influence of Pavlovian cues on instrumental behavior, predict alcohol intake and relapse in alcohol dependence.

  2. Relationship between Alcohol Dependence, Escape Drinking, and Early Neural Attention to Alcohol-Related Cuess

    PubMed Central

    Dickter, Cheryl L.; Forestell, Catherine A.; Hammett, Patrick J.; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previous work has indicated that implicit attentional biases to alcohol-related cues are indicative of susceptibility to alcohol dependence and escape drinking, or drinking to avoid dysphoric mood or emotions. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine whether alcohol dependence and escape drinking were associated with early neural attentional biases to alcohol cues. Methods EEG data were recorded from 54 college students who reported that they regularly drank alcohol, while they viewed alcohol and control pictures that contained human content (active) or no human content (inactive). Results Those who were alcohol dependent showed more neural attentional bias to the active alcohol-related stimuli than to the matched control stimuli early in processing, as indicated by N1 amplitude. Escape drinkers showed greater neural attention to the active alcohol cues than non-escape drinkers, as measured by larger N2 amplitudes. Conclusions While alcohol dependence is associated with enhanced automatic attentional biases early in processing, escape drinking is associated with more controlled attentional biases to active alcohol cues during a relatively later stage in processing. These findings reveal important information about the time-course of attentional processing in problem drinkers and have important implications for addiction models and treatment. PMID:24292342

  3. Numerical study on source-distance dependency of head-related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Otani, Makoto; Hirahara, Tatsuya; Ise, Shiro

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the source-distance dependency of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) on the horizontal and median sagittal planes using the boundary-element method and a dummy head scanned with laser and computer tomography scanners. First, the HRTF spectra are compared among various source positions in a head-centered coordinate system, confirming that the major HRTF spectral features vary with source distance as stated in previous works. Furthermore, the HRTF spectra are compared in an ear-centered coordinate system, revealing how the outer ear angle of incidence affects the source-distance dependency of the HRTFs. Next, the comparison across coordinate systems reveals that the source-distance dependency of the ipsilateral HRTFs on the horizontal plane is mainly attributable to the outer ear angle of incidence, whereas the contralateral HRTFs vary with the source distance mainly due to the head's presence. Finally, results also show that, in an ear-centered coordinate system, the ipsilateral HRTFs do not depend strongly on a source distance greater than 0.2 m from the center of the head, whereas the contralateral HRTFs depend on source distance less than 1.8 m. Results also show that HRTFs on the median sagittal plane depend on a source distance of less than 0.4 m.

  4. Relative humidity and temperature dependence of mechanical degradation of natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, YiHui; Zhong, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical degradation of natural fiber composites is studied with the consideration of the relative humidity and the temperature. A nonlinear constitutive model is established, which employs an internal variable to describe the mechanical degradation related to the energy dissipation during moisture absorption. The existing experimental researches demonstrated that the mechanical degradation is an irreversible thermodynamic process induced by the degradation of fibers and the damages of interfaces between fiber and matrix, both of which depend on the variation of the relative humidity or the temperature. The evolution of the mechanical degradation is obtained through the determination of dissipation rates as a function of the relative humidity and the temperature. The theoretically predicted mechanical degradations are compared with experimental results of sisal fiber reinforced composites subject to different relative humidity and temperatures, and a good agreement is found.

  5. Mnemonic discrimination relates to perforant path integrity: An ultra-high resolution diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ilana J; Stark, Craig E L

    2016-03-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20-87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network.

  6. Mnemonic Discrimination Relates to Perforant Path Integrity: An Ultra-High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Pattern separation describes the orthogonalization of similar inputs into unique, non-overlapping representations. This computational process is thought to serve memory by reducing interference and to be mediated by the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Using ultra-high in-plane resolution diffusion tensor imaging (hrDTI) in older adults, we previously demonstrated that integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the dentate gyrus from entorhinal cortex, was associated with mnemonic discrimination, a behavioral outcome designed to load on pattern separation. The current hrDTI study assessed the specificity of this perforant path integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationship relative to other cognitive constructs (identified using a factor analysis) and white matter tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix, corpus callosum) in 112 healthy adults (20–87 years). Results revealed age-related declines in integrity of the perforant path and other medial temporal lobe (MTL) tracts (hippocampal cingulum, fornix). Controlling for global effects of brain aging, perforant path integrity related only to the factor that captured mnemonic discrimination performance. Comparable integrity-mnemonic discrimination relationships were also observed for the hippocampal cingulum and fornix. Thus, whereas perforant path integrity specifically relates to mnemonic discrimination, mnemonic discrimination may be mediated by a broader MTL network. PMID:26149893

  7. Color priming in pop-out search depends on the relative color of the target.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stefanie I; Valuch, Christian; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In visual search for pop-out targets, search times are shorter when the target and non-target colors from the previous trial are repeated than when they change. This priming effect was originally attributed to a feature weighting mechanism that biases attention toward the target features, and away from the non-target features. However, more recent studies have shown that visual selection is strongly context-dependent: according to a relational account of feature priming, the target color is always encoded relative to the non-target color (e.g., as redder or greener). The present study provides a critical test of this hypothesis, by varying the colors of the search items such that either the relative color or the absolute color of the target always remained constant (or both). The results clearly show that color priming depends on the relative color of a target with respect to the non-targets but not on its absolute color value. Moreover, the observed priming effects did not change over the course of the experiment, suggesting that the visual system encodes colors in a relative manner from the start of the experiment. Taken together, these results strongly support a relational account of feature priming in visual search, and are inconsistent with the dominant feature-based views.

  8. Tissue characterization by imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenderka, Klaus V.; Gaertner, Tilio; Cobet, Ulrich; Zacharias, Mario; Heynemann, Hans

    2000-04-01

    Conventional B-scan systems only use the amplitude information of the backscattered signals for imaging. By imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient it is possible to improve the image contrast and to reduce system effects. Based on spectral analysis of rf echo signals, a procedure was developed to correct for system specific effects and to determine the relative backscatter coefficient. A new image with improved contrast results from grayscale or color coding of the frequency components of the relative backscatter coefficient. The method was applied to in vivo measurements of human prostate and transplanted kidney. For cancerous prostate tissue the relative backscatter coefficient is about 8 dB lower than for normal tissue regions. The results of the investigations on kidneys show no correlation to the current function of the organ. Certainly the different course of the frequency dependence of the relative backscatter coefficient of renal cortex and calices regions allows a contrast improvement. The method provides a system independent imaging procedure with improved image contrast for tissues with different scattering behavior and slightly reduced spatial resolution. Imaging the relative backscatter coefficient will not substitute the conventional B-mode image, but it is a useful tool providing additional information about the tissue state.

  9. Statistical Learning of Probabilistic Nonadjacent Dependencies by Multiple-Cue Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Esther; Christiansen, Morten H.; Misyak, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that dependencies between nonadjacent elements can be acquired by statistical learning when each element predicts only one other element (deterministic dependencies). The present study investigates statistical learning of probabilistic nonadjacent dependencies, in which each element predicts several other elements…

  10. The Relational Self Revealed: Integrative Conceptualization and Implications for Interpersonal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Serena; Boucher, Helen C.; Tapias, Molly Parker

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer a new, integrative conceptualization of the relational self based on a synthesis of recent approaches to the self and significant others. This conceptualization provides a sharper and fuller definition of the relational self than does any existing approach alone and a common framework to interpret findings from separate…

  11. Integrating hydropower and intermittent climate-related renewable energies: a call for hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjorn; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Hingray, Benoit; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Raynaud, Damien; Renard, Benjamin; Sauquet, Eric; Sauterleute, Julian-Friedrich; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the debate about the role of hydropower as energy storage and balancing energy source in context of high intermittency and variability of solar and wind energy exposes hydrologists to new challenges. There is a common consensus that a high penetration of wind and solar energies can only be achieved if the issues to their intermittent power outputs are solved - issues which can be at least partially approached by means of hydropower systems. Indeed, unlike wind and solar energies which are only produced when wind and sun are available, hydro resources can be stored in reservoirs for later use. Finally, the energy production should balance the energy demand which is to a large degree, controlled by weather variables, especially temperature. However, despite substantial work on the space-time variability of each individual hydro-meteorological variable, advances on the joint analysis of the processes that are underlying this integration are more limited. In this commentary, we analyze three specific challenges dedicated to the hydrological community. They aim to improve the integration of hydropower with solar and wind energy sources to make more effective the use of renewable energy and water resources. These challenges are: i) the need to provide a new hydro-meteorological framework for the analysis of the space-time co-fluctuations between runoff regimes and solar, wind and temperature variables; ii) understanding how processes like land-use and climate change affect the nature of these co-fluctuations; and iii) the need to develop means for a quantitative analysis of interactions between the use of water for power generation and other water uses including the preservation of aquatic ecosystems. In some way, the success of climate change mitigation policies based on high intermittent energy integration will depend on how these different challenges have been achieved by hydrologist community. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX

  12. Task-dependent signal variations in EEG error-related potentials for brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, I.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. A major difficulty of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is dealing with the noise of EEG and its signal variations. Previous works studied time-dependent non-stationarities for BCIs in which the user’s mental task was independent of the device operation (e.g., the mental task was motor imagery and the operational task was a speller). However, there are some BCIs, such as those based on error-related potentials, where the mental and operational tasks are dependent (e.g., the mental task is to assess the device action and the operational task is the device action itself). The dependence between the mental task and the device operation could introduce a new source of signal variations when the operational task changes, which has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to analyse task-dependent signal variations and their effect on EEG error-related potentials.Approach. The work analyses the EEG variations on the three design steps of BCIs: an electrophysiology study to characterize the existence of these variations, a feature distribution analysis and a single-trial classification analysis to measure the impact on the final BCI performance.Results and significance. The results demonstrate that a change in the operational task produces variations in the potentials, even when EEG activity exclusively originated in brain areas related to error processing is considered. Consequently, the extracted features from the signals vary, and a classifier trained with one operational task presents a significant loss of performance for other tasks, requiring calibration or adaptation for each new task. In addition, a new calibration for each of the studied tasks rapidly outperforms adaptive techniques designed in the literature to mitigate the EEG time-dependent non-stationarities.

  13. Prefrontal Cortex Organization: Dissociating Effects of Temporal Abstraction, Relational Abstraction, and Integration with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  14. A structure-based model of semantic integrity constraints for relational data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasdorf, William J.; Ulberg, Karen J.; Baugh, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Data base management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which users access large volumes of data. Ensuring data accuracy through integrity constraints is a central aspect of DBMS use. However, many DBMSs still lack adequate integrity support. In additon, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support the role of a constraint classification system - has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the data base structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the arbitrary specification of any constraint. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering data base, and various implementation issues are discussed.

  15. Body temperature-dependent action of baclofen in rat stomach. Relation to acid secretion and ulcerogenicity.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Nishiwaki, H; Niida, H; Okabe, S

    1990-04-01

    The effect of baclofen (PCPGABA) on acid secretion, motility, and mucosa was investigated in the anesthetized rat stomach under various body temperatures (BT: 28-38 degrees C), and they were compared with those of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an acid stimulant through cytoglycopenia. Under these conditions PCPGABA induces lesions dose-dependently (greater than 1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) in both the stomach and duodenum, and this action was dependent on BT; lowering of BT enhanced the ulcerogenicity. PCPGABA (3 mg/kg) had no effect on acid secretion at higher BT (36-38 degrees C) but produced a marked increase of acid output at lower BT (30-32 degrees C). 2DG caused a stimulation of acid output and gastric lesions without BT dependency, but the duodenal ulcerogenicity enhanced at lower BT. Gastric motility was enhanced significantly by these two agents to similar degrees, at either high or low BT. Neither PCPGABA nor 2DG affected alkaline secretion in the duodenum, while lowering of BT by itself reduced alkaline secretory responses. The above changes caused by PCPGABA and 2DG were blocked by both atropine and vagotomy. These results suggest that (1) acid stimulatory and ulcerogenic action of PCPGABA may involve a temperature-dependent process but does not relate to a cytoglycopenia, and (2) the vagus nerve mediating acid secretion and motility may be different in the temperature dependency.

  16. Working with the relational unconscious: an integration of intrapsychic and relational analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolson, Peter

    2012-04-01

    From its inception, psychoanalysis has tended to idealize the curative value of insight while devaluing the mutative significance of the analytic relationship. This paper argues that applying the construct of the "relational unconscious" in clinical practice offers a possible resolution of this "mind-relationship" rift. From this perspective, transference and countertransference provoke a continual intersubjective/interpersonal enactment of a co-created infantile drama emanating from the internal worlds of analyst and analysand in which a vital form of parental and/or self loving is at stake. Case vignettes demonstrate how to apply the relational unconscious in clinical practice.

  17. Genomic characterization of viral integration sites in HPV-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Bodelon, Clara; Untereiner, Michael E; Machiela, Mitchell J; Vinokurova, Svetlana; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes the majority of anogenital cancers and a subset of head and neck cancers. The HPV genome is frequently found integrated into the host genome of invasive cancers. The mechanisms of how it may promote disease progression are not well understood. Thoroughly characterizing integration events can provide insights into HPV carcinogenesis. Individual studies have reported limited number of integration sites in cell lines and human samples. We performed a systematic review of published integration sites in HPV-related cancers and conducted a pooled analysis to formally test for integration hotspots and genomic features enriched in integration events using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). Over 1,500 integration sites were reported in the literature, of which 90.8% (N = 1,407) were in human tissues. We found 10 cytobands enriched for integration events, three previously reported ones (3q28, 8q24.21 and 13q22.1) and seven additional ones (2q22.3, 3p14.2, 8q24.22, 14q24.1, 17p11.1, 17q23.1 and 17q23.2). Cervical infections with HPV18 were more likely to have breakpoints in 8q24.21 (p = 7.68 × 10(-4) ) than those with HPV16. Overall, integration sites were more likely to be in gene regions than expected by chance (p = 6.93 × 10(-9) ). They were also significantly closer to CpG regions, fragile sites, transcriptionally active regions and enhancers. Few integration events occurred within 50 Kb of known cervical cancer driver genes. This suggests that HPV integrates in accessible regions of the genome, preferentially genes and enhancers, which may affect the expression of target genes.

  18. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  19. Operational constraints on state-dependent formulations of quantum error-disturbance trade-off relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-05-01

    We argue for an operational requirement that all state-dependent measures of disturbance should satisfy. Motivated by this natural criterion, we prove that in any d-dimensional Hilbert space and for any pair of noncommuting operators, A and B, there exists a set of at least 2d -1 zero-noise, zero-disturbance (ZNZD) states, for which the first observable can be measured without noise and the second will not be disturbed. Moreover, we show that it is possible to construct such ZNZD states for which the expectation value of the commutator [A,B] does not vanish. Therefore any state-dependent error-disturbance relation, based on the expectation value of the commutator as a lower bound, must violate the operational requirement. We also discuss Ozawa's state-dependent error-disturbance relation in light of our results and show that the disturbance measure used in this relation exhibits unphysical properties. We conclude that the trade-off is inevitable only between state-independent measures of error and disturbance.

  20. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  1. On the metallicity dependence of the [Y/Mg]-age relation for solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, Sofia; Howes, Louise M.; McMillan, Paul J.; Stonkutė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies of solar twins in the solar neighbourhood have shown a tight correlation between various elemental abundances and age, in particular [Y/Mg]. If this relation is real and valid for other types of stars as well as elsewhere in the Galaxy, it would provide a very powerful tool to derive ages of stars without the need to resort to determining their masses (evolutionary stage) very precisely. The method would also likely work if the stellar parameters have relatively large errors. The studies presented in the recent literature span a narrow range of [Fe/H]. By studying a larger sample of solar neighbourhood dwarfs with a much larger range of [Fe/H], we find that the relation between [Y/Mg] and age depends on the [Fe/H] of the stars. Hence, it appears that the [Y/Mg]-age relation is unique to solar analogues.

  2. Factors mediating plastid dependency and the origins of parasitism in apicomplexans and their close relatives

    PubMed Central

    Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Burki, Fabien; Howe, Alexis T.; Kolísko, Martin; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexans are a major lineage of parasites, including causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis. How such highly adapted parasites evolved from free-living ancestors is poorly understood, particularly because they contain nonphotosynthetic plastids with which they have a complex metabolic dependency. Here, we examine the origin of apicomplexan parasitism by resolving the evolutionary distribution of several key characteristics in their closest free-living relatives, photosynthetic chromerids and predatory colpodellids. Using environmental sequence data, we describe the diversity of these apicomplexan-related lineages and select five species that represent this diversity for transcriptome sequencing. Phylogenomic analysis recovered a monophyletic lineage of chromerids and colpodellids as the sister group to apicomplexans, and a complex distribution of retention versus loss for photosynthesis, plastid genomes, and plastid organelles. Reconstructing the evolution of all plastid and cytosolic metabolic pathways related to apicomplexan plastid function revealed an ancient dependency on plastid isoprenoid biosynthesis, predating the divergence of apicomplexan and dinoflagellates. Similarly, plastid genome retention is strongly linked to the retention of two genes in the plastid genome, sufB and clpC, altogether suggesting a relatively simple model for plastid retention and loss. Lastly, we examine the broader distribution of a suite of molecular characteristics previously linked to the origins of apicomplexan parasitism and find that virtually all are present in their free-living relatives. The emergence of parasitism may not be driven by acquisition of novel components, but rather by loss and modification of the existing, conserved traits. PMID:25717057

  3. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  4. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  5. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP

    PubMed Central

    Bickford, Paula C.; Browning, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is widely accepted as a cellular substrate for memory formation. Age-related declines in the expression of both NMDAR-dependent LTP and NMDAR subunit proteins in the CA1 region of the hippocampus have been well characterized and likely underlie age-related memory impairment. In the current study, we examined NMDAR-dependent LTP in young Fischer 344 rats (4 months old) and aged rats (24 months old) given either a control diet or a diet supplemented with blueberry extract for 6–8 weeks. NMDAR-dependent LTP was evoked by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the presence of nifedipine, to eliminate voltage-gated calcium channel LTP. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were increased by 57% 1 h after HFS in young animals, but this potentiation was reduced to 31% in aged animals. Supplementation of the diet with blueberry extract elevated LTP (63%) in aged animals to levels seen in young. The normalization of LTP may be due to the blueberry diet preventing a decline in synaptic strength, as measured by the slope of the fEPSP for a given fiber potential. The blueberry diet did not prevent age-related declines in NMDAR protein expression. However, phosphorylation of a key tyrosine residue on the NR2B subunit, important for increasing NMDAR function, was enhanced by the diet, suggesting that an increase in NMDAR function might overcome the loss in protein. This report provides evidence that dietary alterations later in life may prevent or postpone the cognitive declines associated with aging. PMID:19424850

  6. Health related quality of life and care dependency among elderly hospital patients: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Ate; Hakverdioğlu, Gülendam; Muszalik, Marta; Andela, Richtsje; Korhan, Esra Akın; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Many countries in Europe and the world have to cope with an aging population. Although health policy in many countries aims at increasing disability-free life expectancy, elderly patients represent a significant proportion of all patients admitted to different hospital departments. The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the care dependency status among elderly hospital patients. In 2012, a descriptive survey was administered to a convenience sample of 325 elderly hospital patients (> 60 years) from The Netherlands (N = 125), from Poland (N = 100), and from Turkey (N = 100). We employed the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Measurement System and the Care Dependency Scale. FACIT is a collection of HRQOL questionnaires that assess multidimensional health status in people with various chronic illnesses. From demographic variables, gender (female) (r = -0.13, p < 0.05), age and informal care given by family members (r = -0.27 to 0.27, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with the care dependency status for the whole samples. All HRQOL variables, hearing aid and duration of illness correlated with care dependency status (r = -0.20 to 0.50, p < 0.01). Moreover, the FACIT sum score (Poland and Turkey) and functional wellbeing (The Netherlands) are significantly associated with the decrease in care dependency status. Thus, the FACIT variables are the most powerful indicators for care dependency. The study provides healthcare professionals insight into improvement of quality of care in all three countries.

  7. Dose- and Rate-Dependent Effects of Cocaine on Striatal Firing Related to Licking

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chengke; Mittler, Taliah; Duke, Dawn C.; Zhu, Yun; Pawlak, Anthony P.; West, Mark O.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the role of striatal mechanisms in cocaine-induced stereotyped licking, we investigated the acute effects of cocaine on striatal neurons in awake, freely moving rats before and after cocaine administration (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg). Stereotyped licking was induced only by the high dose. Relative to control (saline), cocaine reduced lick duration and concurrently increased interlick interval, particularly at the high dose, but it did not affect licking rhythm. Firing rates of striatal neurons phasically related to licking movements were compared between matched licks before and after injection, minimizing any influence of sensorimotor variables on changes in firing. Both increases and decreases in average firing rate of striatal neurons were observed after cocaine injection, and these changes exhibited a dose-dependent pattern that strongly depended on predrug firing rate. At the middle and high doses relative to the saline group, the average firing rates of slow firing neurons were increased by cocaine, resulting from a general elevation of movement-related firing rates. In contrast, fast firing neurons showed decreased average firing rates only in the high-dose group, with reduced firing rates across the entire range for these neurons. Our findings suggest that at the high dose, increased phasic activity of slow firing striatal neurons and simultaneously reduced phasic activity of fast firing striatal neurons may contribute, respectively, to the continual initiation of stereotypic movements and the absence of longer movements. PMID:17991811

  8. Dependency aspect of caregiver burden is uniquely related to cognitive impairment in Veterans.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jennifer M; Collins, Robert L; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pacheco, Vitor; LeMaire, Ashley; Benge, Jared

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial toll of caring for an individual with dementia is an important, if understudied, concept. For practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the relation between patient characteristics and different facets of caregiver burden is important for guiding treatment and prevention efforts. The current study analyzed the dimensions of caregiver burden and the relation between caregiver burden and results of neuropsychological testing. Participants included 243 dyads of caregivers and Veterans referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Caregivers completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) to assess caregiver burden. Patients completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring the domains of attention/processing speed, memory, language, and executive functioning. A principal components analysis of the ZBI revealed a three-factor structure: psychosocial burden, dependency burden, and guilt. Correlations with neuropsychological test performance by Veteran patients suggested that test performance in the memory, attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and emotional functioning domains were solely related to the caregiver dependency burden factor of the ZBI. Additional analyses suggested severity of dementia and number of tests in the impaired range further influenced reported caregiver burden. The current study is one of the few studies examining caregiver burden in relation to neuropsychological functioning in a mixed clinical sample and has important implications for clinical practice.

  9. The dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on large-scale environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Zahid, H. Jabran; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relation between gas-phase oxygen abundance and stellar mass - the MZ relation - as a function of the large-scale galaxy environment parametrized by the local density. The dependence of the MZ relation on the environment is small. The metallicity where the MZ relation saturates and the slope of the MZ relation are both independent of the local density. The impact of the large-scale environment is completely parametrized by the anticorrelation between local density and the turnover stellar mass where the MZ relation begins to saturate. Analytical modelling suggests that the anticorrelation between the local density and turnover stellar mass is a consequence of a variation in the gas content of star-forming galaxies. Across ˜1 order of magnitude in local density, the gas content at a fixed stellar mass varies by ˜5 per cent. Variation of the specific star formation rate with the environment is consistent with this interpretation. At a fixed stellar mass, galaxies in low-density environments have lower metallicities because they are slightly more gas-rich than galaxies in high-density environments. Modelling the shape of the mass-metallicity relation thus provides an indirect means to probe subtle variations in the gas content of star-forming galaxies.

  10. A "concrete view" of aging: event related potentials reveal age-related changes in basic integrative processes in language.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Meyer, Aaron M; Federmeier, Kara D

    2012-01-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by changes in both structural and functional cerebral organization. Although verbal knowledge seems to be relatively stable across the lifespan, there are age-related changes in the rapid use of that knowledge during on-line language processing. In particular, aging has been linked to reduce effectiveness in preparing for upcoming words and building an integrated sentence-level representation. The current study assessed whether such age-related changes extend even to much simpler language units, such as modification relations between a centrally presented adjective and a lateralized noun. Adjectives were used to elicit concrete and abstract meanings of the same, polysemous lexical items (e.g., "green book" vs. "interesting book"). Consistent with findings that lexical information is preserved with age, older adults, like younger adults, exhibited concreteness effects at the adjectives, with more negative responses to concrete adjectives over posterior (300-500 ms; N400) and frontal (300-900 ms) channels. However, at the noun, younger adults exhibited concreteness-based predictability effects linked to left hemisphere processing and imagery effects linked to right hemisphere processing, contingent on whether the adjectives and nouns formed a cohesive conceptual unit. In contrast, older adults showed neither effect, suggesting that they were less able to rapidly link the adjective-noun meaning to form an integrated conceptual representation. Age-related changes in language processing may thus be more pervasive than previously realized.

  11. On Integrating Variables and Separating Facts in the Complex Relationship between Dependency and Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Presents a reply by Robert Bornstein to comments from Chronister and regarding his article, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." In addition to raising some important issues regarding the link between dependency and domestic violence, the comments by Chronister and…

  12. Spatiotemporal Dependency of Age-Related Changes in Brain Signal Variability

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A. R.; Vakorin, V.; Kovacevic, N.; Wang, H.; Diaconescu, A.; Protzner, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has focused on the variability of network dynamics in maturation. Such variability seems to reflect the spontaneous formation and dissolution of different functional networks. We sought to extend these observations into healthy aging. Two different data sets, one EEG (total n = 48, ages 18–72) and one magnetoencephalography (n = 31, ages 20–75) were analyzed for such spatiotemporal dependency using multiscale entropy (MSE) from regional brain sources. In both data sets, the changes in MSE were timescale dependent, with higher entropy at fine scales and lower at more coarse scales with greater age. The signals were parsed further into local entropy, related to information processed within a regional source, and distributed entropy (information shared between two sources, i.e., functional connectivity). Local entropy increased for most regions, whereas the dominant change in distributed entropy was age-related reductions across hemispheres. These data further the understanding of changes in brain signal variability across the lifespan, suggesting an inverted U-shaped curve, but with an important qualifier. Unlike earlier in maturation, where the changes are more widespread, changes in adulthood show strong spatiotemporal dependence. PMID:23395850

  13. Time-dependent q-deformed bi-coherent states for generalized uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouba, Laure

    2015-07-01

    We consider the time-dependent bi-coherent states that are essentially the Gazeau-Klauder coherent states for the two dimensional noncommutative harmonic oscillator. Starting from some q-deformations of the oscillator algebra for which the entire deformed Fock space can be constructed explicitly, we define the q-deformed bi-coherent states. We verify the generalized Heisenberg's uncertainty relations projected onto these states. For the initial value in time, the states are shown to satisfy a generalized version of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. For the initial value in time and for the parameter of noncommutativity θ = 0, the inequalities are saturated for the simultaneous measurement of the position-momentum observables. When the time evolves, the uncertainty products are different from their values at the initial time and do not always respect the generalized uncertainty relations.

  14. Unconscious Processing of Facial Emotional Valence Relation: Behavioral Evidence of Integration between Subliminally Perceived Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Jerwen; Cui, Qian; Zhao, Guang; Qiu, Jiang; Tu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Although a few studies have investigated the integration between some types of unconscious stimuli, no research has yet explored the integration between unconscious emotional stimuli. This study was designed to provide behavioral evidence for the integration between unconsciously perceived emotional faces (same or different valence relation) using a modified priming paradigm. In two experiments, participants were asked to decide whether two faces in the target, which followed two subliminally presented faces of same or different emotional expressions, were of the same or different emotional valence. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the prime and the target was manipulated (0, 53, 163 ms). In Experiment 1, prime visibility was assessed post-experiment. In Experiment 2, it was assessed on each trial. Interestingly, in both experiments, unconsciously processed valence relation of the two faces in the prime generated a negative priming effect in the response to the supraliminally presented target, independent of the length of ISI. Further analyses suggested that the negative priming was probably caused by a motor response incongruent relation between the subliminally perceived prime and the supraliminally perceived target. The visual feature incongruent relation across the prime and target was not found to play a role in the negative priming. Because the negative priming was found at short ISI, an attention mechanism as well as a motor inhibition mechanism were proposed in the generation of the negative priming effect. Overall, this study indicated that the subliminal valence relation was processed, and that integration between different unconsciously perceived stimuli could occur. PMID:27622600

  15. Activity-dependent signaling: influence on plasticity in circuits controlling fear-related behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Julia L; Martinowich, Keri

    2015-01-01

    Fear regulation is impaired in anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Patients experience heightened fear expression and reduced ability to extinguish fear memories. Because fear regulation is abnormal in these disorders and extinction recapitulates current treatment strategies, understanding the underlying mechanisms is vital for developing new treatments. This is critical because although extinction-based exposure therapy is a mainstay of treatment, relapse is common. We examine recent findings describing changes in network activity and functional connectivity within limbic circuits during fear regulation, and explore how activity-dependent signaling contributes to the neural activity patterns that control fear and anxiety. We review the role of the prototypical activity-dependent molecule, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose signaling has been critically linked to regulation of fear behavior. PMID:26485574

  16. Population declines of tuna and relatives depend on their speed of life

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Jordá, M. J.; Mosqueira, I.; Freire, J.; Dulvy, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Larger-bodied species in a wide range of taxonomic groups including mammals, fishes and birds tend to decline more steeply and are at greater risk of extinction. Yet, the diversity in life histories is governed not only by body size, but also by time-related traits. A key question is whether this size-dependency of vulnerability also holds, not just locally, but globally across a wider range of environments. We test the relative importance of size- and time-related life-history traits and fishing mortality in determining population declines and current exploitation status in tunas and their relatives. We use high-quality datasets of half a century of population trajectories combined with population-level fishing mortalities and life-history traits. Time-related traits (e.g. growth rate), rather than size-related traits (e.g. maximum size), better explain the extent and rate of declines and current exploitation status across tuna assemblages, after controlling for fishing mortality. Consequently, there is strong geographical patterning in population declines, such that populations with slower life histories (found at higher cooler latitudes) have declined most and more steeply and have a higher probability of being overfished than populations with faster life histories (found at tropical latitudes). Hence, the strong, temperature-driven, latitudinal gradients in life-history traits may underlie the global patterning of population declines, fisheries collapses and local extinctions. PMID:26156763

  17. Genetics of ageing-related changes in brain white matter integrity - a review.

    PubMed

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C; Mather, Karen A; Wen, Wei; Schofield, Peter R; Kwok, John B J; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2013-01-01

    White matter (WM) plays a vital role in the efficient transfer of information between grey matter regions. Modern imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have enabled the examination of WM microstructural changes across the lifespan, but there is limited knowledge about the role genetics plays in the pattern and aetiology of age-related WM microstructural changes. Family and twin studies suggest that the heritability of WM integrity measures changes over the lifespan, with the common DTI measure, fractional anisotropy (FA), showing moderate to high heritability in adults. However, few heritability studies have been undertaken in older adults. Linkage studies in middle-aged adults suggest that specific regions on chromosomes 3 and 15 may harbour genetic variants for WM integrity. A number of studies have investigated candidate genes, with the APOE ɛ4 polymorphism being the most frequently studied. Although these candidate gene studies suggest associations of particular genes with WM integrity measures in some specific brain regions, the findings remain inconsistent due to differences in their methodologies, samples and the outcome measures used. The APOE ɛ4 allele has been associated with decreased WM integrity (FA) in the cingulum, corpus callosum and parahippocampal gyrus. Only one genome-wide association study of global WM integrity measures in older adults has been published, and reported suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms await replication. Overall, genetic age-related WM integrity studies are lacking and a concerted effort to examine the genetic determinants of age-related decline in WM integrity is clearly needed to improve our understanding of the ageing brain.

  18. When evidence of heat-related vulnerability depends on the contrast measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2017-02-01

    Many studies assessing which population subgroups are more vulnerable to heat-related mortality and morbidity have been conducted in recent years. However, given the non-linear (U or J shaped) relationship of temperature with mortality and morbidity, they generally consider only a single contrast measure to report evidence of heat-related vulnerability, despite the possibility that vulnerability depends on the selected contrast measure. In this manuscript, we highlight the importance of considering such issue in further studies by providing evidence for and against heat-related vulnerability using two different temperature contrast measures. We conducted time series analyses to characterize the association between mortality and mean daily temperature in Montreal, Canada (1990-2010). We used age (≥65 vs. 0-64 years) as the effect modifier in stratified analyses. We assessed the presence of effect modification using Cochran Q tests. As contrast measures, we used (1) the percentage change in the outcome above 25 °C, obtained through spline functions showing a linear relationship after this threshold and (2) a comparison of two percentiles (26 vs. 20 °C) of the temperature. We found that evidence of effect modification depended on the contrast measure used. We encourage researchers aiming to identify populations more vulnerable to heat to perform sensitivity analyses using different contrast measures.

  19. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  20. THE EFFECT OF METALLICITY-DEPENDENT T-τ RELATIONS ON CALIBRATED STELLAR MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre

    2014-04-10

    Mixing length theory is the predominant treatment of convection in stellar models today. Usually described by a single free parameter, α, the common practice is to calibrate it using the properties of the Sun, and apply it to all other stellar models as well. Asteroseismic data from Kepler and CoRoT provide precise properties of other stars which can be used to determine α as well, and a recent study of stars in the Kepler field of view found α to vary with metallicity. Interpreting α obtained from calibrated stellar models, however, is complicated by the fact that the value for α depends on the surface boundary condition of the stellar model, or T-τ relation. Calibrated models that use typical T-τ relations, which are static and insensitive to chemical composition, do not include the complete effect of metallicity on α. We use three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to extract metallicity-dependent T-τ relations and use them in calibrated stellar models. We find the previously reported α-metallicity trend to be robust, and not significantly affected by the surface boundary condition of the stellar models.

  1. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69%) variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple litters of fawns. Our

  2. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

    2015-01-01

    Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69%) variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple litters of fawns. Our

  3. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  4. Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Technology-Dependent Children.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M

    2015-07-01

    Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.

  5. Scale-dependent relative dispersion measurements from the Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haza, Angelique; Poje, Andrew; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Griffa, Annalisa; Haus, Brian; Huntley, Helga; Hogan, Patrick; Jacobs, Gregg; Kirwan, Danny; Lipphardt, Bruce; Novelli, Guillaume; Olascoaga, Josefina; Beron-Vera, Francisco; Reniers, Ad; Ryan, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The scale-dependent Lagrangian dispersion metrics, such as the Finite Scale Lyapunov Exponent, are suitable to study multi-scale interaction of ocean flows. Of particular interest is the possible impact of submesoscale flows on transport in the ocean, for applied problems such as oil spill. Results will be presented from the GLAD experiment, which was configured to optimize in-situ submesoscale relative dispersion measurements in the Gulf of Mexico near DeSoto Canyon from a release of more than 300 surface drifters.

  6. MASSCLEANCOLORS-MASS-DEPENDENT INTEGRATED COLORS FOR STELLAR CLUSTERS DERIVED FROM 30 MILLION MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M. E-mail: margaret.hanson@uc.edu

    2010-04-10

    We present Monte Carlo models of open stellar clusters with the purpose of mapping out the behavior of integrated colors with mass and age. Our cluster simulation package allows for stochastic variations in the stellar mass function to evaluate variations in integrated cluster properties. We find that UBVK colors from our simulations are consistent with simple stellar population (SSP) models, provided the cluster mass is large, M {sub cluster} {>=} 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}. Below this mass, our simulations show two significant effects. First, the mean value of the distribution of integrated colors moves away from the SSP predictions and is less red, in the first 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} years in UBV colors, and for all ages in (V - K). Second, the 1{sigma} dispersion of observed colors increases significantly with lower cluster mass. We attribute the former to the reduced number of red luminous stars in most of the lower mass clusters and the latter to the increased stochastic effect of a few of these stars on lower mass clusters. This latter point was always assumed to occur, but we now provide the first public code able to quantify this effect. We are completing a more extensive database of magnitudes and colors as a function of stellar cluster age and mass that will allow the determination of the correlation coefficients among different bands, and improve estimates of cluster age and mass from integrated photometry.

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Final Report, Feb 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases f...

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft, Feb 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of ...

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft, Jun 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant scienc...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Second External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant scienc...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Third External Review Draft) for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  13. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (Final Report). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases ...

  14. Aging-related changes in auditory and visual integration measured with MEG

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Julia M.; Knoefel, Janice E.; Adair, John; Hart, Blaine; Aine, Cheryl J.

    2010-01-01

    As noted in the aging literature, processing delays often occur in the central nervous system with increasing age, which is often attributable in part to demyelination. In addition, differential slowing between sensory systems has been shown to be most discrepant between visual (up to 20 ms) and auditory systems (< 5 ms). Therefore, we used MEG to measure the multisensory integration response in auditory association cortex in young and elderly participants to better understand the effects of aging on multisensory integration abilities. Results show a main effect for reaction times (RTs); the mean RTs of the elderly were significantly slower than the young. In addition, in the young we found significant facilitation of RTs to the multisensory stimuli relative to both unisensory stimuli, when comparing the cumulative distribution functions, which was not evident for the elderly. We also identified a significant interaction between age and condition in the superior temporal gyrus. In particular, the elderly had larger amplitude responses (~100 ms) to auditory stimuli relative to the young when auditory stimuli alone were presented, whereas the amplitude of responses to the multisensory stimuli was reduced in the elderly, relative to the young. This suppressed cortical multisensory integration response in the elderly, which corresponded with slower RTs and reduced RT facilitation effects in the elderly, has not been reported previously and may be related to poor cortical integration based on timing changes in unisensory processing in the elderly. PMID:20713130

  15. Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of ...

  16. Integrated Schools and Intergroup Relations in Northern Ireland: The Importance of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Caitlin; Furey, Andrea; Hughes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Integrated schools were established in Northern Ireland in the early 1980s. With an explicit intention to build better relations between Catholics and Protestants, it has an intuitive appeal in a society which has long experienced sectarian division. Whilst the sector has attracted considerable research, less is understood about how…

  17. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is announcing the availability of the <...

  18. Temperature Dependence of the Kinetic Energy of the Correlated Electron Plasma by Restricted Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Keith; Deymier, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in orbital-free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT), particularly with regard to temperature dependent functionals, has promise for the simulation of warm dense matter (WDM) systems. WDM includes systems with densities of an order of magnitude beyond ambient or more and temperatures measured in kilokelvin. A challenge for the development of temperature dependent OF-DFT functionals is the lack of benchmark information with temperature and pressure dependence on simple models under WDM conditions. We present an approach to fill this critical gap using the restricted path-integral molecular dynamics (rPIMD) method. Electrons are described as harmonic necklaces within the discrete path integral representation while quantum exchange takes the form of cross linking between electron necklaces. A molecular dynamics algorithm is used to sample phase space and the fermion sign problem is addressed by restricting the density matrix to positive values. The temperature dependence of kinetic energies for the strongly coupled electron plasma is presented for a number of Wigner-Seitz radii in terms of a fourth order Sommerfeld expansion. Supported by US DoE Grant DE-SC0002139

  19. Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age‐related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjurstrom, Martin F.; Olmstead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Sleep disturbance is a prominent complaint in cocaine and alcohol dependence. This controlled study evaluated differences of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep in cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent subjects, and examined whether substance dependence interacts with age to alter slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Design Cross‐sectional comparison. Setting Los Angeles and San Diego, CA, USA. Participants Abstinent cocaine‐dependent subjects (n = 32), abstinent alcohol‐dependent subjects (n = 73) and controls (n = 108); mean age 40.3 years recruited 2005–12. Measurements PSG measures of sleep continuity and sleep architecture primary outcomes of Stage 3 sleep and REM sleep. Covariates included age, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index and depressive symptoms. Findings Compared with controls, both groups of substance dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep (P < 0.001). A substance dependence × age interaction was found in which both cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent groups showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than controls (P < 0.05 for all), and cocaine‐dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than alcoholics (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, REM sleep was increased in both substance‐dependent groups (P < 0.001), and cocaine and alcohol dependence were associated with earlier age‐related increase in REM sleep (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture, including increased rapid eye movement sleep and accelerated age‐related loss of slow wave, Stage 3 sleep. PMID:26749502

  20. Dependence of kHz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies on accretion-related parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkut, M. Hakan; Catmabacak, Onur; Duran, Sivan; Çatmabacak, Önder

    2016-07-01

    To study the possible dependence of kHz QPO frequencies on the parameters such as the mass accretion rate, the surface magnetic field strength, mass, and radius of the neutron star, we consider the up-to-date distribution of neutron star LMXBs in the kHz QPO frequency versus X-ray luminosity plane. We confirm the absence of any correlation between QPO frequencies and luminosity in the ensemble of LMXBs. Searching for the dependence of QPO data on accretion-related parameters, we find a correlation between the lower kHz QPO frequency and the parameter combining mass accretion rate with magnetic field strength. The correlation cannot be adequately described by a simple power law due to observed scattering of individual source data in the ensemble of Z and atoll sources. Based on disk-magnetosphere boundary region, the model function for QPO frequency can delineate the correlation taking into account the scattering of individual sources. In addition to mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength, the model function also depends on the radial width of the boundary region near the magnetopause. Modelling the variation of the width with mass accretion rate, we also provide an explanation for the parallel tracks phenomenon observed in the case of individual sources.

  1. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir relation for one-dimensional time-dependent diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, A.; Peter, W.; Jones, M. E.

    The steady-state Child-Langmuir relation between current and applied voltage has been a basic principle upon which all modern diode physics has been based. With advances in pulsed power technology and diode design, new devices which operate in vastly different parameter regimes have recently become of interest. Many of these devices cannot be said to satisfy the strict requirements necessary for Child-Langmuir flow. For instance, in a recent pulsed electron device for use in high-current accelerators, the applied voltage is sinusoidal in time. In another case, development of sources for heavy ion fusion necessitates understanding of transient current oscillations when the voltage is applied abruptly. We derive the time-dependent relationship between the emitted current and time-dependent applied voltage in a nonrelativistic planar diode. The relationship is valid for arbitrary voltage shape V(t) applied to the diode for times less than the beam-front transit time across the gap. Using this relationship, transient and time-dependent effects in the start-up phase of any nonrelativistic diode can be analzyed.

  2. Rescuing effects of RXR agonist bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss depend on neuronal LRP1.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masaya; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Yamazaki, Yu; Liu, Chia-Chen; Rogers, Justin; Bu, Guojun; Kanekiyo, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a critical role in maintaining synaptic integrity by transporting cholesterol to neurons through the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1). Bexarotene, a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, has been reported to have potential beneficial effects on cognition by increasing brain apoE levels and lipidation. To investigate the effects of bexarotene on aging-related synapse loss and the contribution of neuronal LRP1 to the pathway, forebrain neuron-specific LRP1 knockout (nLrp1(-/-)) and littermate control mice were administered with bexarotene-formulated diet (100mg/kg/day) or control diet at the age of 20-24 months for 8 weeks. Upon bexarotene treatment, levels of brain apoE and ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) were significantly increased in both mice. While levels of PSD95, glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit (NR1), which are key postsynaptic proteins that regulate synaptic plasticity, were decreased with aging, they were restored by bexarotene treatment in the brains of control but not nLrp1(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of bexarotene on synaptic integrity depend on the presence of neuronal LRP1. However, we also found that bexarotene treatment led to the activation of glial cells, weight loss and hepatomegaly, which are likely due to hepatic failure. Taken together, our results demonstrate that apoE-targeted treatment through the RXR pathway has a potential beneficial effect on synapses during aging; however, the therapeutic application of bexarotene requires extreme caution due to its toxic side effects.

  3. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·−, MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·− and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·− and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets. PMID:28295023

  4. Nitrogen addition and clonal integration alleviate water stress of dependent ramets of Indocalamus decorus under heterogeneous soil water environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Hu, Jun-Jing; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Qing-Ping; Cai, Han-Jiang

    2017-03-15

    Water and nitrogen are two of the most important factors for plant growth and development. However, little is known about effects of N on water translocation between connected bamboo ramets. We performed experiment connected Indocalamus decorus ramets in adjacent pots with different soil water contents and three N levels. We determined antioxidase activities, concentration of osmotic adjustment products, O2·(-), MDA and photosynthetic pigments, and electrolyte leakage rate in paired unit. When N supply to supporting ramets increased, their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA significantly increased, while antioxidase activities and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments in connected dependent ramets increased markedly as their electrolyte leakage rates and contents of O2·(-) and MDA decreased greatly. When N addition to dependent ramets increased, antioxidant enzyme activity and contents of osmotic adjustment products and photosynthetic pigments decreased in both ramets, but electrolyte leakage rates and O2·(-) and MDA contents increased significantly. Therefore, N addition to either supporting or dependent ramets can improve water integration among I. decorus ramets. N addition to supporting ramets promotes water translocation and alleviates water stress of dependent ramets, but N addition to dependent ramets exacerbates drought stress damage to dependent ramets.

  5. Uncertainty-dependent activity within the ventral striatum predicts task-related changes in response strategy.

    PubMed

    Buzzell, George A; Roberts, Daniel M; Fedota, John R; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja; McDonald, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has demonstrated that the ventral striatum (VS) encodes confidence in perceptual decisions. However, it remains unclear whether perceptual uncertainty can signal the need to adapt behavior (such as by responding more cautiously) and whether such behavioral changes are related to uncertainty-dependent activity within the VS. Changes in response strategy have previously been observed following errors and are associated with both medial frontal cortex (MFC) and VS, two components of the performance-monitoring network. If uncertainty can elicit changes in response strategy (slowing), then one might hypothesize that these changes rely on the performance-monitoring network. In the present study, we investigated the link between perceptual uncertainty and task-related behavioral adaptations (response slowing and accuracy increases), as well as how such behavioral changes relate to uncertainty-dependent activity within MFC and VS. Our participants performed a two-choice perceptual decision-making task in which perceptual uncertainty was reported on each trial while behavioral and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. Analysis of the behavioral data revealed that uncertain (but correct) responses led to slowing on subsequent trials, a phenomenon that was positively correlated with increased accuracy. Critically, post-uncertainty slowing was negatively correlated with the VS activity elicited by uncertain responses. In agreement with previous reports, increases in MFC activation were observed for uncertain responses, although MFC activity was not correlated with post-uncertainty slowing. These results suggest that perceptual uncertainty can serve as a signal to adapt one's response strategy and that such behavioral changes are closely tied to the VS, a key node in the performance-monitoring network.

  6. Modulation of sensory-motor integration as a general mechanism for context dependence of behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Kim Lisa; Pitts, Natalie Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Social communication is context-dependent, with both the production of signals and the responses of receivers tailored to each animal's internal needs and external environmental conditions. We propose that this context dependence arises because of neural modulation of the sensory-motor transformation that underlies the social behavior. Neural systems that are restricted to individual behaviors may be modulated at early stages of the sensory or motor pathways for optimal energy expenditure. However, when neural systems contribute to multiple important behaviors, we argue that the sensory-motor relay is the likely site of modulation. Plasticity in the sensory-motor relay enables subtle context dependence of the social behavior while preserving other functions of the sensory and motor systems. We review evidence that the robust responses of anurans to conspecific signals are dependent on reproductive state, sex, prior experience, and current context. A well-characterized midbrain sensory-motor relay establishes signal selectivity and gates locomotive responses to sound. The social decision-making network may modulate this auditory-motor transformation to confer context dependence of anuran reproductive responses to sound. We argue that similar modulation may be a general mechanism by which vertebrates prioritize their behaviors.

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-12-20

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H{sub 2} abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H{sub 2} abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H{sub 2} explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H{sub 2} relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H{sub 2} formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  8. An exploratory event-related potential study of multisensory integration in sensory over-responsive children.

    PubMed

    Brett-Green, Barbara A; Miller, Lucy J; Schoen, Sarah A; Nielsen, Darci M

    2010-03-19

    Children who are over-responsive to sensation have defensive and "fight or flight" reactions to ordinary levels of sensory stimulation in the environment. Based on clinical observations, sensory over-responsivity is hypothesized to reflect atypical neural integration of sensory input. To examine a possible underlying neural mechanism of the disorder, integration of simultaneous multisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation was studied in twenty children with sensory over-responsivity (SOR) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Three types of sensory stimuli were presented and ERPs were recorded from thirty-two scalp electrodes while participants watched a silent cartoon: bilateral auditory clicks, right somatosensory median nerve electrical pulses, or both simultaneously. The paradigm was passive; no behavioral responses were required. To examine integration, responses to simultaneous multisensory auditory-somatosensory stimulation were compared to the sum of unisensory auditory plus unisensory somatosensory responses in four time-windows: (60-80 ms, 80-110 ms, 110-150 ms, and 180-220 ms). Specific midline and lateral electrode sites were examined over scalp regions where auditory-somatosensory integration was expected based on previous studies. Midline electrode sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz) showed significant integration during two time-windows: 60-80 ms and 180-220 ms. Significant integration was also found at contralateral electrode site (C3) for the time-window between 180 and 220 ms. At ipsilateral electrode sites (C4 and CP6), no significant integration was found during any of the time-windows (i.e. the multisensory ERP was not significantly different from the summed unisensory ERP). These results demonstrate that MSI can be reliably measured in children with SOR and provide evidence that multisensory auditory-somatosensory input is integrated during both early and later stages of sensory information processing, mainly over fronto-central scalp regions.

  9. NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting

    SciTech Connect

    Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouch, Zdenek; Kostrouchova, Marta

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} NHR-23 is a critical regulator of nematode development and molting. {yields} The manuscript characterizes the loss-of-function phenotype of an nhr-23 mutant. {yields} Whole genome expression analysis identifies new potential targets of NHR-23. {yields} Hedgehog-related genes are identified as NHR-23 dependent genes. {yields} New link between sterol mediated signaling and regulation by NHR-23 is found. -- Abstract: NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.

  10. Differential Induction of TLR3-Dependent Innate Immune Signaling by Closely Related Parasite Species

    PubMed Central

    Beiting, Daniel P.; Peixoto, Lucia; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Wherry, E. John; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Brodsky, Igor E.; Roos, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The closely related protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum display similar life cycles, subcellular ultrastructure, invasion mechanisms, metabolic pathways, and genome organization, but differ in their host range and disease pathogenesis. Type II (γ) interferon has long been known to be the major mediator of innate and adaptive immunity to Toxoplasma infection, but genome-wide expression profiling of infected host cells indicates that Neospora is a potent activator of the type I (α/β) interferon pathways typically associated with antiviral responses. Infection of macrophages from mice with targeted deletions in various innate sensing genes demonstrates that host responses to Neospora are dependent on the toll-like receptor Tlr3 and the adapter protein Trif. Consistent with this observation, RNA from Neospora elicits TLR3-dependent type I interferon responses when targeted to the host endo-lysosomal system. Although live Toxoplasma fail to induce type I interferon, heat-killed parasites do trigger this response, albeit much weaker than Neospora, and co-infection studies reveal that T. gondii actively suppresses the production of type I interferon. These findings reveal that eukaryotic pathogens can be potent inducers of type I interferon and that related parasite species interact with this pathway in distinct ways. PMID:24505488

  11. Frontal Metabolite Concentration Deficits in Opiate Dependence Relate to Substance Use, Cognition, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Donna E; Durazzo, Timothy C; Schmidt, Thomas P; Abé, Christoph; Guydish, Joseph; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. Methods Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy. Results were compared to 28 controls (CON) and 35 alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), commonly investigated treatment-seekers providing context for OD evaluation. Metabolite concentrations were measured from ACC, DLPFC, OFC and parieto-occipital cortical (POC) regions. Results Compared to CON, OD had lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), creatine +phosphocreatine (Cr) and myo-Inositol (mI) in the DLPFC and lower NAA, Cr, and mI in the ACC. OD, ALC, and CON were equivalent on metabolite levels in the POC and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration did not differ between groups in any region. In OD, prefrontal metabolite deficits in ACC Glu as well as DLPFC NAA and choline containing metabolites (Cho) correlated with poorer working memory, executive and visuospatial functioning; metabolite deficits in DLPFC Glu and ACC GABA and Cr correlated with substance use measures. In the OFC of OD, Glu and choline-containing metabolites were elevated and lower Cr concentration related to higher nonplanning impulsivity. Compared to 3 week abstinent ALC, OD had significant DLPFC metabolite deficits. Conclusion The anterior frontal metabolite profile of OD differed significantly from that of CON and ALC. The frontal lobe metabolite abnormalities in OD and their neuropsychological correlates may play a role in treatment outcome and could be explored as specific targets for improved OD treatment. PMID:27695638

  12. Neonatal neuropsychology: emerging relations of neonatal sensory-motor responses to white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Maya; Marom, Ronella; Berger, Irit; Ben Bashat, Dafna; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Ben-Sira, Liat; Artzi, Moran; Uliel, Shimrit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny

    2014-09-01

    The neonatal period is considered to be essential for neurodevelopment and wellbeing throughout the life span, yet little is known about brain-behavior relationships in the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between neonatal sensory-motor regulation and white-matter (WM) integrity of major fiber tracts in the neonatal period. We hypothesized that WM integrity of sensory-motor systems would predict neurobehavioral maturation during the first month of life. Forty-nine premature neonates underwent magnetic-resonance-imaging at term. Diffusion-tensor-imaging analysis was performed in major WM tracts along with repeated neonatal neurobehavioral evaluations assessing sensory reactivity and motor regulation. Difficulties in one or more behavioral sub-category, mostly in auditory and visual attention, hypotonicity and jitteriness, were documented in 78.3% infants at term. Sixty-six percent of infants experienced difficulties, mostly in auditory attention, head-neck control, hypotonicity and motor asymmetry, at 44 weeks. Attention difficulties were associated with reduced integrity of cerebral and superior cerebellar peduncles; while tonicity was associated with reduced integrity of the corpus-callosum and inferior-posterior tracts. Overall, results showed that early maturing tracts were related with the degree of typicality of sensory reactivity status while late maturing tracts were related with the degree of typicality of tonic regulation. WM integrity and maturation factors explained 40.2% of the variance in neurobehavior at 44 weeks. This study suggests that in preterm neonates, deviant sensory-motor reactivity can be detected very early in development in manners that are related to lower integrity/maturational level of early and late maturing fiber tracts.

  13. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-03-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  14. Tacrolimus Triggers Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1-Dependent Relapse of Pancreatitis-Related Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuka; Tsubota, Maho; Sugo, Hiiragi; Wakitani, Kohei; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Wada, Kyoichi; Takada, Mitsutaka; Oita, Akira; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in nociceptors is directly phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase C, and involved in the signaling of pancreatic pain. On the other hand, Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels expressed in nociceptors are functionally upregulated by phosphorylation with protein kinase A and also play a role in pancreatitis-related pain. Calcineurin, a phosphatase, negatively regulates various channel functions including TRPV1, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome by tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant, has been a clinical problem. We thus examined the effect of tacrolimus on pancreatitis-related pain in mice. Repeated treatment with cerulein caused referred hyperalgesia accompanying acute pancreatitis, which was unaffected by tacrolimus. Pancreatitis-related symptoms disappeared in 24 h, whereas the referred hyperalgesia recurred following the administration of tacrolimus, which was abolished by the blockers of TRPV1 but not T-type Ca2+ channels. Thus, tacrolimus appears to cause the TRPV1-dependent relapse of pancreatitis-related pain, suggesting the involvement of calcineurin in the termination of pancreatic pain.

  15. Targeting Cognitive-Affective Risk Mechanisms in Stress-Precipitated Alcohol Dependence: An Integrated, Biopsychosocial Model of Automaticity, Allostasis, and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  16. Integrated Approaches to Drug Discovery for Oxidative Stress-Related Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induces dysregulation of functional networks in the retina, resulting in retinal diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Although various therapies have been developed to reduce oxidative stress in retinal diseases, most have failed to show efficacy in clinical trials. This may be due to oversimplification of target selection for such a complex network as oxidative stress. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have facilitated the collection of multilevel omics data, which has driven growth in public databases and in the development of bioinformatics tools. Integration of the knowledge gained from omics databases can be used to generate disease-related biological networks and to identify potential therapeutic targets within the networks. Here, we provide an overview of integrative approaches in the drug discovery process and provide simple examples of how the approaches can be exploited to identify oxidative stress-related targets for retinal diseases. PMID:28053689

  17. Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

  18. Integrating tobacco dependence counseling into electronic dental records: a multi-method approach.

    PubMed

    Rush, William A; Schleyer, Titus K L; Kirshner, Michael; Boyle, Raymond; Thoele, Merry Jo; Lenton, P A; Asche, Steve; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Spallek, Heiko; Durand, Emily C; Enstad, Chris J; Huntley, Charles L; Rindal, D Brad

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has historically seen tobacco dependence as a medical problem. As a consequence, dentistry has not adopted or developed effective interventions to deal with tobacco dependence. With the expanded use of electronic dental records, the authors identified an opportunity to incorporate standardized expert support for tobacco dependence counseling during the dental visit. Using qualitative results from observations and focus groups, a decision support system was designed that suggested discussion topics based on the patient's desire to quit and his or her level of nicotine addiction. Because dental providers are always pressed for time, the goal was a three-minute average intervention interval. To fulfill the provider's need for an easy way to track ongoing interventions, script usage was recorded. This process helped the provider track what he or she had said to the patient about tobacco dependence during previous encounters and to vary the messages. While the individual elements of the design process were not new, the combination of them proved to be very effective in designing a usable and accepted intervention. The heavy involvement of stakeholders in all components of the design gave providers and administrators ownership of the final product, which was ultimately adopted for use in all the clinics of a large dental group practice in Minnesota.

  19. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  20. Task dependence of decision- and choice-related activity in monkey oculomotor thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M. Gabriela; Zhu, Dantong; May, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Oculomotor signals circulate within putative recurrent feedback loops that include the frontal eye field (FEF) and the oculomotor thalamus (OcTh). To examine how OcTh contributes to visuomotor control, and perceptually informed saccadic choices in particular, neural correlates of perceptual judgment and motor selection in OcTh were evaluated and compared with those previously reported for FEF in the same subjects. Monkeys performed three tasks: a choice task in which perceptual decisions are urgent, a choice task in which identical decisions are made without time pressure, and a single-target, delayed saccade task. The OcTh yielded far fewer task-responsive neurons than the FEF, but across responsive pools, similar neuron types were found, ranging from purely visual to purely saccade related. Across such types, the impact of the perceptual information relevant to saccadic choices was qualitatively the same in FEF and OcTh. However, distinct from that in FEF, activity in OcTh was strongly task dependent, typically being most vigorous in the urgent task, less so in the easier choice task, and least in the single-target task. This was true for responsive and nonresponsive cells alike. Neurons with exclusively motor-related activity showed strong task dependence, fired less, and differed most patently from their FEF counterparts, whereas those that combined visual and motor activity fired most similarly to their FEF counterparts. The results suggest that OcTh activity is more distantly related to saccade production per se, because its degree of commitment to a motor choice varies markedly as a function of ongoing cognitive or behavioral demands. PMID:26467516

  1. Properties of Linear Integral Equations Related to the Six-Vertex Model with Disorder Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2011-10-01

    One of the key steps in recent work on the correlation functions of the XXZ chain was to regularize the underlying six-vertex model by a disorder parameter α. For the regularized model it was shown that all static correlation functions are polynomials in only two functions. It was further shown that these two functions can be written as contour integrals involving the solutions of a certain type of linear and non-linear integral equations. The linear integral equations depend parametrically on α and generalize linear integral equations known from the study of the bulk thermodynamic properties of the model. In this note we consider the generalized dressed charge and a generalized magnetization density. We express the generalized dressed charge as a linear combination of two quotients of Q-functions, the solutions of Baxter's t-Q-equation. With this result we give a new proof of a lemma on the asymptotics of the generalized magnetization density as a function of the spectral parameter.

  2. Relative performance of mutual information estimation methods for quantifying the dependence among short and noisy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shiraj; Bandyopadhyay, Sharba; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Saigal, Sunil; Erickson, David J., III; Protopopescu, Vladimir; Ostrouchov, George

    2007-08-01

    Commonly used dependence measures, such as linear correlation, cross-correlogram, or Kendall’s τ , cannot capture the complete dependence structure in data unless the structure is restricted to linear, periodic, or monotonic. Mutual information (MI) has been frequently utilized for capturing the complete dependence structure including nonlinear dependence. Recently, several methods have been proposed for the MI estimation, such as kernel density estimators (KDEs), k -nearest neighbors (KNNs), Edgeworth approximation of differential entropy, and adaptive partitioning of the XY plane. However, outstanding gaps in the current literature have precluded the ability to effectively automate these methods, which, in turn, have caused limited adoptions by the application communities. This study attempts to address a key gap in the literature—specifically, the evaluation of the above methods to choose the best method, particularly in terms of their robustness for short and noisy data, based on comparisons with the theoretical MI estimates, which can be computed analytically, as well with linear correlation and Kendall’s τ . Here we consider smaller data sizes, such as 50, 100, and 1000, and within this study we characterize 50 and 100 data points as very short and 1000 as short. We consider a broader class of functions, specifically linear, quadratic, periodic, and chaotic, contaminated with artificial noise with varying noise-to-signal ratios. Our results indicate KDEs as the best choice for very short data at relatively high noise-to-signal levels whereas the performance of KNNs is the best for very short data at relatively low noise levels as well as for short data consistently across noise levels. In addition, the optimal smoothing parameter of a Gaussian kernel appears to be the best choice for KDEs while three nearest neighbors appear optimal for KNNs. Thus, in situations where the approximate data sizes are known in advance and exploratory data analysis and

  3. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information.

  4. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  5. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-03-01

    There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance.

  6. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  7. Cell wall integrity controls root elongation via a general 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-dependent, ethylene-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Dat L; Edmond, Clare; Harrington, Jennifer L; Nühse, Thomas S

    2011-06-01

    Cell expansion in plants requires cell wall biosynthesis and rearrangement. During periods of rapid elongation, such as during the growth of etiolated hypocotyls and primary root tips, cells respond dramatically to perturbation of either of these processes. There is growing evidence that this response is initiated by a cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism and dedicated signaling pathway rather than being an inevitable consequence of lost structural integrity. However, the existence of such a pathway in root tissue and its function in a broader developmental context have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that various types of cell wall stress rapidly reduce primary root elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This response depended on the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In agreement with the established ethylene signaling pathway in roots, auxin signaling and superoxide production are required downstream of ACC to reduce elongation. However, this cell wall stress response unexpectedly does not depend on the perception of ethylene. We show that the short-term effect of ACC on roots is partially independent of its conversion to ethylene or ethylene signaling and that this ACC-dependent pathway is also responsible for the rapid reduction of root elongation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This acute response to internal and external stress thus represents a novel, noncanonical signaling function of ACC.

  8. Different influences on lexical priming for integrative, thematic, and taxonomic relations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lara L.; Golonka, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Word pairs may be integrative (i.e., combination of two concepts into one meaningful entity; e.g., fruit—cake), thematically related (i.e., connected in time and place; e.g., party—cake), and/or taxonomically related (i.e., shared features and category co-members; e.g., muffin—cake). Using participant ratings and computational measures, we demonstrated distinct patterns across measures of similarity and co-occurrence, and familiarity for each relational construct in two different item sets. In a standard lexical decision task (LDT) with various delays between prime and target presentation (SOAs), target RTs and priming magnitudes were consistent across the three relations for both item sets. However, across the SOAs, there were distinct patterns among the three relations on some of the underlying measures influencing target word recognition (LSA, Google, and BEAGLE). These distinct patterns suggest different mechanisms of lexical priming and further demonstrate that integrative relations are distinct from thematic and taxonomic relations. PMID:22798950

  9. A multi-block infrastructure for three-dimensional time-dependent numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Ernst Nils; Tiglio, Manuel

    2006-08-01

    We describe a generic infrastructure for time evolution simulations in numerical relativity using multiple grid patches. After a motivation of this approach, we discuss the relative advantages of global and patch-local tensor bases. We describe both our multi-patch infrastructure and our time evolution scheme, and comment on adaptive time integrators and parallelization. We also describe various patch system topologies that provide spherical outer and/or multiple inner boundaries. We employ penalty inter-patch boundary conditions, and we demonstrate the stability and accuracy of our three-dimensional implementation. We solve both a scalar wave equation on a stationary rotating black hole background and the full Einstein equations. For the scalar wave equation, we compare the effects of global and patch-local tensor bases, different finite differencing operators and the effect of artificial dissipation onto stability and accuracy. We show that multi-patch systems can directly compete with the so-called fixed mesh refinement approach; however, one can also combine both. For the Einstein equations, we show that using multiple grid patches with penalty boundary conditions leads to a robustly stable system. We also show long-term stable and accurate evolutions of a one-dimensional nonlinear gauge wave. Finally, we evolve weak gravitational waves in three dimensions and extract accurate waveforms, taking advantage of the spherical shape of our grid lines.

  10. White matter integrity in small vessel disease is related to cognition

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, Anil M.; van Norden, Anouk G.W.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; Norris, David G.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes of presumed vascular origin, is common in elderly people and is related to cognitive impairment and dementia. One possible mechanism could be the disruption of white matter tracts (both within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) that connect distributed brain regions involved in cognitive functions. Here, we investigated the relation between microstructural integrity of the white matter and cognitive functions in patients with small vessel disease. The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion tensor and Magnetic resonance Cohort study is a prospective cohort study among 444 independently living, non-demented elderly with cerebral small vessel disease, aged between 5500 and 85 years. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging scanning and an extensive neuropsychological assessment. We showed that loss of microstructural integrity of the white matter at specific locations was related to specific cognitive disturbances, which was mainly located in the normal-appearing white matter (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons). The microstructural integrity in the genu and splenium showed the highest significant relation with global cognitive function and executive functions, in the cingulum bundle with verbal memory performance. Associations between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and most cognitive domains remained present after adjustment for WMH and lacunes. In conclusion, cognitive disturbances in subjects with cerebral small vessel disease are related to microstructural integrity of multiple white matter fibers (within WMH and normal-appearing white matter) connecting different cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:25737960

  11. Repair-dependent cell radiation survival and transformation: an integrated theory.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, John C

    2014-09-07

    The repair-dependent model of cell radiation survival is extended to include radiation-induced transformations. The probability of transformation is presumed to scale with the number of potentially lethal damages that are repaired in a surviving cell or the interactions of such damages. The theory predicts that at doses corresponding to high survival, the transformation frequency is the sum of simple polynomial functions of dose; linear, quadratic, etc, essentially as described in widely used linear-quadratic expressions. At high doses, corresponding to low survival, the ratio of transformed to surviving cells asymptotically approaches an upper limit. The low dose fundamental- and high dose plateau domains are separated by a downwardly concave transition region. Published transformation data for mammalian cells show the high-dose plateaus predicted by the repair-dependent model for both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. For the neoplastic transformation experiments that were analyzed, the data can be fit with only the repair-dependent quadratic function. At low doses, the transformation frequency is strictly quadratic, but becomes sigmodial over a wider range of doses. Inclusion of data from the transition region in a traditional linear-quadratic analysis of neoplastic transformation frequency data can exaggerate the magnitude of, or create the appearance of, a linear component. Quantitative analysis of survival and transformation data shows good agreement for ultraviolet radiation; the shapes of the transformation components can be predicted from survival data. For ionizing radiations, both neutrons and x-rays, survival data overestimate the transforming ability for low to moderate doses. The presumed cause of this difference is that, unlike UV photons, a single x-ray or neutron may generate more than one lethal damage in a cell, so the distribution of such damages in the population is not accurately described by Poisson statistics. However, the complete

  12. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  13. On the integration of fields and quanta in time dependent backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Esteban; Koch, Benjamin; Palma, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Field theories with global continuous symmetries may admit configurations in which time translation invariance is broken by the movement of homogeneous background fields evolving along the flat directions implied by the symmetries. In this context, the field fluctuations along the broken symmetry are well parametrized by a Goldstone boson field that may non-trivially interact with other fields present in the theory. These interactions violate Lorentz invariance as a result of the broken time translation invariance of the background, producing a mixing between the field content and the particle spectrum of the theory. In this article we study the effects of such interactions on the low energy dynamics of the Goldstone boson quanta, paying special attention to the role of the particle spectrum of the theory. By studying the particular case of a canonical two-field model with a mexican-hat potential, we analyze the derivation of the low energy effective field theory for the Goldstone boson, and discuss in detail the distinction between integrating fields v/s integrating quanta, to finally conclude that they are equivalent. In addition, we discuss the implications of our analysis for the study of systems where time translation invariance is broken, such as cosmic inflation and time crystals.

  14. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

    2010-04-06

    In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features.

  15. Compensating Level-Dependent Frequency Representation in Auditory Cortex by Synaptic Integration of Corticocortical Input

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Max F. K.; Ohl, Frank W.

    2017-01-01

    Robust perception of auditory objects over a large range of sound intensities is a fundamental feature of the auditory system. However, firing characteristics of single neurons across the entire auditory system, like the frequency tuning, can change significantly with stimulus intensity. Physiological correlates of level-constancy of auditory representations hence should be manifested on the level of larger neuronal assemblies or population patterns. In this study we have investigated how information of frequency and sound level is integrated on the circuit-level in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of the Mongolian gerbil. We used a combination of pharmacological silencing of corticocortically relayed activity and laminar current source density (CSD) analysis. Our data demonstrate that with increasing stimulus intensities progressively lower frequencies lead to the maximal impulse response within cortical input layers at a given cortical site inherited from thalamocortical synaptic inputs. We further identified a temporally precise intercolumnar synaptic convergence of early thalamocortical and horizontal corticocortical inputs. Later tone-evoked activity in upper layers showed a preservation of broad tonotopic tuning across sound levels without shifts towards lower frequencies. Synaptic integration within corticocortical circuits may hence contribute to a level-robust representation of auditory information on a neuronal population level in the auditory cortex. PMID:28046062

  16. Initial-state dependence of the quench dynamics in integrable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rigol, Marcos; Fitzpatrick, Mattias

    2011-09-15

    We identify and study classes of initial states in integrable quantum systems that, after the relaxation dynamics following a sudden quench, lead to near-thermal expectation values of few-body observables. In the systems considered here, those states are found to be insulating ground states of lattice hard-core boson Hamiltonians. We show that, as a suitable parameter in the initial Hamiltonian is changed, those states become closer to Fock states (products of single site states) as the outcome of the relaxation dynamics becomes closer to the thermal prediction. At the same time, the energy density approaches a Gaussian. Furthermore, the entropy associated with the generalized canonical and generalized grand-canonical ensembles, introduced to describe observables in integrable systems after relaxation, approaches that of the conventional canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We argue that those classes of initial states are special because a control parameter allows one to tune the distribution of conserved quantities to approach the one in thermal equilibrium. This helps in understanding the approach of all the quantities studied to their thermal expectation values. However, a finite-size scaling analysis shows that this behavior should not be confused with thermalization as understood for nonintegrable systems.

  17. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  18. The relation between auditory-nerve temporal responses and perceptual rate integration in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michelle L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Goehring, Jenny L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine auditory-nerve temporal response properties and their relation to psychophysical threshold for electrical pulse trains of varying rates ("rate integration"). The primary hypothesis was that better rate integration (steeper slope) would be correlated with smaller decrements in ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulation rate (shallower slope of the amplitude-rate function), reflecting a larger percentage of the neural population contributing more synchronously to each pulse in the train. Data were obtained for 26 ears in 23 cochlear-implant recipients. Electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitudes were measured in response to each of 21 pulses in a pulse train for the following rates: 900, 1200, 1800, 2400, and 3500 pps. Psychophysical thresholds were obtained using a 3-interval, forced-choice adaptive procedure for 300-ms pulse trains of the same rates as used for the ECAP measures, which formed the rate-integration function. For each electrode, the slope of the psychophysical rate-integration function was compared to the following ECAP measures: (1) slope of the function comparing average normalized ECAP amplitude across pulses versus stimulation rate ("adaptation"), (2) the rate that produced the maximum alternation depth across the pulse train, and (3) rate at which the alternating pattern ceased (stochastic rate). Results showed no significant relations between the slope of the rate-integration function and any of the ECAP measures when data were collapsed across subjects. However, group data showed that both threshold and average ECAP amplitude decreased with increased stimulus rate, and within-subject analyses showed significant positive correlations between psychophysical thresholds and mean ECAP response amplitudes across the pulse train. These data suggest that ECAP temporal response patterns are complex and further study is required to better understand the relative contributions of adaptation

  19. Integrative Care Therapies and Physiological and Pain-related Outcomes in Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Elizabeth E.; Luberto, Christina M.; Bogenschutz, Lois H.; Geiss, Sue; Wasson, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain management is a frequent problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Few studies examining effects of integrative care therapies on pain-related outcomes in neonates have included physiological outcomes or investigated the use of such therapies in a practice-based setting. Objective: The purpose of this practice-based retrospective study was to examine the associations between integrative care therapies, particularly massage and healing touch, and pain-related outcomes among hospitalized infants. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of a clinical database from a level III NICU regularly delivering integrative care therapies. Paired-samples t-tests were used to examine associations between integrative care therapies and 4 pre-post outcome measures: therapist-rated pain and presentation (ranging from asleep to agitated) and neonates' heart rate and oxygen saturation. Results: Of 186 patients (Mage=68 days), 58% were male and 67% were Caucasian. Sixty-two percent received both massage and healing touch; the remainder received a single therapy. From pre-post therapy, statistically significant changes were observed in infants' heart rate (Mpre=156 vs Mpost=140 per minute; P<.001), oxygen saturation (Mpre=95.0% vs.Mpost=97.4%; P<.001), and therapist-reported pain (Mpre=2.8 vs Mpost=0.2; P<.001) and presentation (Mpre=3.2 vs. Mpost=1.0; P<.001). Conclusion: Observed improvements in pain-related outcomes suggest that massage and healing touch may be useful integrative therapies to consider as pain management options in the NICU. PMID:26331102

  20. The criterion-related validity of integrity tests: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Roth, Philip L; Raymark, Patrick H; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N

    2012-05-01

    Integrity tests have become a prominent predictor within the selection literature over the past few decades. However, some researchers have expressed concerns about the criterion-related validity evidence for such tests because of a perceived lack of methodological rigor within this literature, as well as a heavy reliance on unpublished data from test publishers. In response to these concerns, we meta-analyzed 104 studies (representing 134 independent samples), which were authored by a similar proportion of test publishers and non-publishers, whose conduct was consistent with professional standards for test validation, and whose results were relevant to the validity of integrity-specific scales for predicting individual work behavior. Overall mean observed validity estimates and validity estimates corrected for unreliability in the criterion (respectively) were .12 and .15 for job performance, .13 and .16 for training performance, .26 and .32 for counterproductive work behavior, and .07 and .09 for turnover. Although data on restriction of range were sparse, illustrative corrections for indirect range restriction did increase validities slightly (e.g., from .15 to .18 for job performance). Several variables appeared to moderate relations between integrity tests and the criteria. For example, corrected validities for job performance criteria were larger when based on studies authored by integrity test publishers (.27) than when based on studies from non-publishers (.12). In addition, corrected validities for counterproductive work behavior criteria were larger when based on self-reports (.42) than when based on other-reports (.11) or employee records (.15).

  1. Secreted frizzled-related protein 3 regulates activity-dependent adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Sun, Jiaqi; Song, Juan; Kang, Eunchai; Jun, Heechul; Zhong, Chun; Su, Yijing; Guo, Junjie U; Wang, Marie Xun; Sailor, Kurt A; Kim, Ju-Young; Gao, Yuan; Christian, Kimberly M; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2013-02-07

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating mature neurons from adult neural stem cells, proceeds concurrently with ongoing neuronal circuit activity and is modulated by various physiological and pathological stimuli. The niche mechanism underlying the activity-dependent regulation of the sequential steps of adult neurogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that neuronal activity decreases the expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (sFRP3), a naturally secreted Wnt inhibitor highly expressed by adult dentate gyrus granule neurons. Sfrp3 deletion activates quiescent radial neural stem cells and promotes newborn neuron maturation, dendritic growth, and dendritic spine formation in the adult mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, sfrp3 reduction is essential for activity-induced adult neural progenitor proliferation and the acceleration of new neuron development. Our study identifies sFRP3 as an inhibitory niche factor from local mature dentate granule neurons that regulates multiple phases of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggests an interesting activity-dependent mechanism governing adult neurogenesis via the acute release of tonic inhibition.

  2. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    SciTech Connect

    Endsley, Mark A.; Somasunderam, Anoma D.; Li, Guangyu; Oezguen, Numan; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Murray, James L.; Rubin, Donald H.; Hodge, Thomas W.; and others

    2014-04-15

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes.

  3. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  4. Implication of p53-dependent cellular senescence related gene, TARSH in tumor suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Wakoh, Takeshi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Sugimoto, Masataka; Ishigami, Akihito; Shimada, Jun-ichi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2009-03-20

    A novel target of NESH-SH3 (TARSH) was identified as a cellular senescence related gene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) replicative senescence, the expression of which has been suppressed in primary clinical lung cancer specimens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of TARSH involved in pulmonary tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the reduction of TARSH gene expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system robustly inhibited the MEFs proliferation with increase in senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) activity. Using p53{sup -/-} MEFs, we further suggest that this growth arrest by loss of TARSH is evoked by p53-dependent p21{sup Cip1} accumulation. Moreover, we also reveal that TARSH reduction induces multicentrosome in MEFs, which is linked in chromosome instability and tumor development. These results suggest that TARSH plays an important role in proliferation of replicative senescence and may serve as a trigger of tumor development.

  5. Neurodevelopment. Dendrite morphogenesis depends on relative levels of NT-3/TrkC signaling.

    PubMed

    Joo, William; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Luo, Liqun

    2014-10-31

    Neurotrophins regulate diverse aspects of neuronal development and plasticity, but their precise in vivo functions during neural circuit assembly in the central brain remain unclear. We show that the neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase C (TrkC) is required for dendritic growth and branching of mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Sparse TrkC knockout reduced dendrite complexity, but global Purkinje cell knockout had no effect. Removal of the TrkC ligand neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from cerebellar granule cells, which provide major afferent input to developing Purkinje cell dendrites, rescued the dendrite defects caused by sparse TrkC disruption in Purkinje cells. Our data demonstrate that NT-3 from presynaptic neurons (granule cells) is required for TrkC-dependent competitive dendrite morphogenesis in postsynaptic neurons (Purkinje cells)--a previously unknown mechanism of neural circuit development.

  6. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  7. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  8. Integrating the Meaning of Person Names into Discourse Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The meaning of person names is determined by their associated information. This study used event related potentials to investigate the time course of integrating the newly constructed meaning of person names into discourse context. The meaning of person names was built by two-sentence descriptions of the names. Then we manipulated the congruence of person names relative to discourse context in a way that the meaning of person names either matched or did not match the previous context. ERPs elicited by the names were compared between the congruent and the incongruent conditions. We found that the incongruent names elicited a larger N400 as well as a larger P600 compared to the congruent names. The results suggest that the meaning of unknown names can be effectively constructed from short linguistic descriptions and that the established meaning can be rapidly retrieved and integrated into contexts. PMID:24349462

  9. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes.

  10. Modeling Earth's Disk-Integrated, Time-Dependent Spectrum: Applications to Directly Imaged Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Fujii, Yuka; NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, ISSI 'The Exo-Cartography Inverse Problem'

    2016-10-01

    Earth is our only example of a habitable world and is a critical reference point for potentially habitable exoplanets. While disk-averaged views of Earth that mimic exoplanet data can be obtained by interplanetary spacecraft, these datasets are often restricted in wavelength range, and are limited to the Earth phases and viewing geometries that the spacecraft can feasibly access. We can overcome these observational limitations using a sophisticated UV-MIR spectral model of Earth that has been validated against spacecraft observations in wavelength-dependent brightness and phase (Robinson et al., 2011; 2014). This model can be used to understand the information content - and the optimal means for extraction of that information - for multi-wavelength, time-dependent, disk-averaged observations of the Earth. In this work, we explore key telescope parameters and observing strategies that offer the greatest insight into the wavelength-, phase-, and rotationally-dependent variability of Earth as if it were an exoplanet. Using a generalized coronagraph instrument simulator (Robinson et al., 2016), we synthesize multi-band, time-series observations of the Earth that are consistent with large space-based telescope mission concepts, such as the Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor. We present fits to this dataset that leverage the rotationally-induced variability to infer the number of large-scale planetary surface types, as well as their respective longitudinal distributions and broadband albedo spectra. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of using such methods to identify and map terrestrial exoplanets surfaces with the next generation of space-based telescopes.

  11. Dependence the Integrated Energy of the Electromagnetic Response from Excitation Pulse Duration for Epoxy Samples With Sand Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, V. P.; Demikhova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of influence of the excitation pulse duration on the parameters of the electromagnetic response of epoxy samples with filler the quartz sand presented in the paper. The electric component of a response was registered by the capacitive sensors using a differential amplifier. Measurements were carried out at two frequencies of the master generator of 65 kHz and 74 kHz. The pulse duration was changing from 10 to 100 microseconds. The stepped sort of dependence of the integrated oscillations energy in the response from duration of the excitation pulse was discovered. The conclusion was made about the determining role of the normal oscillations in formation of such dependence.

  12. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit-related metrology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Gerome; Marks, Roger; Blackburn, David

    1990-12-01

    How the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) interacts with the GaAs community and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) initiative is described. The organization of a joint industry and government laboratory consortium for MMIC-related metrology research is described along with some of the initial technical developments at NIST done in support of the consortium.

  13. Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers in an Integrated Teacher Preparation Program for Grades 7-12: A 3-Year Study of Attitudes and Perceptions Related to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe a unique teacher licensure program for grades 7-12 that integrates mathematics, science, and technology education and (b) to explore the attitudes and perceptions related to the integration of mathematics, science, and technology education of three cohorts of preservice teachers enrolled in…

  14. Lessons Learned from Dependency Usage in HERA: Implications for THERP-Related HRA Methods

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Ronald L. Boring; Harold S. Blackman; Patrick H. McCabe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01

    Dependency occurs when the probability of success or failure on one action changes the probability of success or failure on a subsequent action. Dependency may serve as a modifier on the human error probabilities (HEPs) for successive actions in human reliability analysis (HRA) models. Discretion should be employed when determining whether or not a dependency calculation is warranted: dependency should not be assigned without strongly grounded reasons. Human reliability analysts may sometimes assign dependency in cases where it is unwarranted. This inappropriate assignment is attributed to a lack of clear guidance to encompass the range of scenarios human reliability analysts are addressing. Inappropriate assignment of dependency produces inappropriately elevated HEP values. Lessons learned about dependency usage in the Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA) system may provide clarification and guidance for analysts using first-generation HRA methods. This paper presents the HERA approach to dependency assessment and discusses considerations for dependency usage in HRA, including the cognitive basis for dependency, direction for determining when dependency should be assessed, considerations for determining the dependency level, temporal issues to consider when assessing dependency, (e.g., considering task sequence versus overall event sequence, and dependency over long periods of time), and diagnosis and action influences on dependency.

  15. Relative Humidity Dependent Optical Properties of Clay Aerosols and their Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust particles impact the Earth's radiative budget significantly because they comprise a large fraction of the total aerosol mass. Their impact is complex due to variable shapes and compositions that can cause optical properties to deviate from predictive models. A range of clay proxies for mineral dust including montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite have been interrogated with visible cavity ring down spectroscopy to determine the humidity dependent aerosol extinction. In addition, mixtures of montmorillonite with ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and three atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, and malonic acid) have been studied. The results are not always in agreement with simple models such as Mie theory or linear mixing rules based on the Zdanovskii, Stokes and Robinson method. Unexpected decreases in the fRH were observed for illite and kaolinite, but these can be explained based on physical and chemical composition. Similar to previous observations by other researchers, the deliquescence relative humidity was lower than predicted for mixed aerosols in cases where the salt fraction was large. The difference between experiment and model for all of the mixed aerosol species was greatest at higher relative humidity, especially above 80%. Explanations for these results will be discussed.

  16. Serotonin-related tryptophan in children with insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Rocío; Manjarrez, Gabriel; Nishimura, Elisa; Hernandez, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    In the course of the present research in school children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we observed that the free fraction of L-tryptophan, the free fraction of L-tryptophan/total L-tryptophan, and the free fraction of L-tryptophan/neutral amino acids ratios, are significantly reduced. The decrease of free fraction of L-tryptophan in plasma with a concomitant decrease of the free fraction of L-tryptophan/neutral amino acids ratio suggest a decrease in the transport of the precursor amino acid to the brain and in the serotonin synthesis rate, similar to that observed in diabetic animals. This finding may be of relevance in the pathophysiology and in the clinical picture, which could be related to an alteration of serotonin metabolism and neurotransmission in the brain and may be possibly related to neuropsychiatric disorders in diabetic school children. Thus we propose that the free fraction of L-tryptophan and the free fraction of L-tryptophan/neutral amino acids ratios may be clinically useful as indicators of brain serotonergic activity in these patients. In our laboratory, we are currently obtaining additional data on the functional role of the brain serotonergic system in humans to further support the relevance of our results.

  17. Polyglutamine-Expanded Huntingtin Exacerbates Age-Related Disruption of Nuclear Integrity and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport.

    PubMed

    Gasset-Rosa, Fatima; Chillon-Marinas, Carlos; Goginashvili, Alexander; Atwal, Ranjit Singh; Artates, Jonathan W; Tabet, Ricardos; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Bang, Anne G; Cleveland, Don W; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde

    2017-04-05

    Onset of neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, is strongly influenced by aging. Hallmarks of aged cells include compromised nuclear envelope integrity, impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport, and accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks. We show that mutant huntingtin markedly accelerates all of these cellular phenotypes in a dose- and age-dependent manner in cortex and striatum of mice. Huntingtin-linked polyglutamine initially accumulates in nuclei, leading to disruption of nuclear envelope architecture, partial sequestration of factors essential for nucleocytoplasmic transport (Gle1 and RanGAP1), and intranuclear accumulation of mRNA. In aged mice, accumulation of RanGAP1 together with polyglutamine is shifted to perinuclear and cytoplasmic areas. Consistent with findings in mice, marked alterations in nuclear envelope morphology, abnormal localization of RanGAP1, and nuclear accumulation of mRNA were found in cortex of Huntington's disease patients. Overall, our findings identify polyglutamine-dependent inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic transport and alteration of nuclear integrity as a central component of Huntington's disease.

  18. Intangible costs of alcohol dependence from the perspective of patients and their relatives: A contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2016-09-29

    Alcohol dependence causes multiple problems not only for the person suffering dependence but also for others. In this study, the contingent valuation method is proposed to measure the intangible effects of alcohol dependence from the perspective of the persons directly involved: the patients and their relatives. Interviews were conducted with 145 patients and 61 relatives. Intangible effects of alcohol dependence were determined based on willingness to pay for a hypothetical treatment for dependence, with different success scenarios (100% and 50%). The mean monthly willingness to pay among the alcohol-dependent population was €129 and €168, respectively, for the treatments with 100% and 50% success. The willingness to pay of relatives was greater in both scenarios (€307 and €420, respectively), which could be explained by their greater perception of the family, labour, and health problems resulting from alcohol dependence. Regression analysis showed that patients' willingness to pay is positively related to treatment efficacy, personal income and moderate health deterioration, and negatively related to feeling discouraged and depressed. The results from this study can be applied to economic valuation studies that aim to measure the benefits of programs intended to reduce the prevalence of alcohol dependence. The intangible costs estimated can be added to the direct and indirect costs commonly used.

  19. Path dependence of J in three numerical examples. [J integral in three crack propagation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karabin, M. E., Jr.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Three cracked geometries are studied with the aid of a new finite element model. The procedure employs a variable singularity at the crack tip that tracks changes in the material response during the loading process. Two of the problems are tension-loaded center-crack panels and the other is a three-point bend specimen. Results usually agree with other numerical and analytical analyses, except the finding that J is path dependent as a substantial plastic zone develops. Credible J values are obtained near the crack tip and J shows a significant increase as the radius of J path increases over two orders of magnitude. Incremental and deformation theories are identical provided the stresses exhibit proportionality found in the far field stresses but not near the tip.

  20. Interactions between parents of technology-dependent children and providers: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Jachimiec, Jennifer A; Obrecht, Jennifer; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2015-03-01

    This article is a review of the literature on the experiences of parents and their interactions with healthcare providers while caring for their technology-dependent child(ren) in their homes. Results are presented in the following themes: information needs, respect and partnership with healthcare providers, care coordination, and experiences with home healthcare nurses. Parents needed information and guidance and felt supported when providers recognized parents' expertise with the child's care, and offered reassurance and confirmation about their practices. Home healthcare clinicians provided supportive care in the home, but their presence created challenges for the family. By acknowledging and valuing the parents' expertise, healthcare providers can empower parents to confidently care for their child.

  1. Prize reinforcement contingency management for cocaine dependence: integration with group therapy in a methadone clinic.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes ranging from $1 to $100 for submitting cocainenegative samples and attending therapy. Patients in the CM condition submitted more cocaine-negative samples and attended more groups than patients in standard treatment. The best predictor of cocaine abstinence at follow-up was duration of abstinence during treatment. On average, patients in the CM condition earned $117 in prizes. Data from this study suggest that some aspects of reinforcement can be implemented in group therapy in community-based clinics.

  2. Direction-dependent arm kinematics reveal optimal integration of gravity cues

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, Jeremie; Berret, Bastien; Angelaki, Dora E; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2016-01-01

    The brain has evolved an internal model of gravity to cope with life in the Earth's gravitational environment. How this internal model benefits the implementation of skilled movement has remained unsolved. One prevailing theory has assumed that this internal model is used to compensate for gravity's mechanical effects on the body, such as to maintain invariant motor trajectories. Alternatively, gravity force could be used purposely and efficiently for the planning and execution of voluntary movements, thereby resulting in direction-depending kinematics. Here we experimentally interrogate these two hypotheses by measuring arm kinematics while varying movement direction in normal and zero-G gravity conditions. By comparing experimental results with model predictions, we show that the brain uses the internal model to implement control policies that take advantage of gravity to minimize movement effort. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16394.001 PMID:27805566

  3. An implicit fast Fourier transform method for integration of the time dependent Schrodinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.E.; Ritchie, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    One finds that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. The authors report investigations of this novel implicit split operator procedure. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems. A charge exchange calculation is presented as an example of the power of the method.

  4. The relational self revealed: integrative conceptualization and implications for interpersonal life.

    PubMed

    Chen, Serena; Boucher, Helen C; Tapias, Molly Parker

    2006-03-01

    The authors offer a new, integrative conceptualization of the relational self based on a synthesis of recent approaches to the self and significant others. This conceptualization provides a sharper and fuller definition of the relational self than does any existing approach alone and a common framework to interpret findings from separate literatures. The authors then present 5 propositions and evidence to support the thesis that relational selves exert a pervasive influence on interpersonal life. Specifically, relational selves (a) shape a wide range of psychological processes and outcomes, (b) exert their influence automatically, (c) serve basic orientation and meaning functions, (d) provide continuity and context-specific variability in personality, and (e) carry implications for psychological well-being. Discussion focuses on remaining issues and implications for future research.

  5. Bone-related complications of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Zahra; Shahar, Suzana; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Banihashem, Abdullah; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Hatef, Mohammad Reza; Esmaili, Habib Alah

    2013-07-01

    Thalassemia and the blood transfusion complications associated with it predispose children to poor bone health. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bone-related abnormalities and identify the bone health predictors within this population. One hundred and forty transfusion-dependent beta thalassemic subjects 8-18 years old in Mashhad, Iran, participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, bone-related biomarkers and bone densitometry, were assessed. The incidence of underweight and short stature was 33.6 and 41.4 %, respectively, which were indicators of malnutrition among thalassemic subjects in this study. Low bone density was detected in the lumbar spine and femoral region in 82 and 52 % of subjects, respectively. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were seen in 22 and 18.2 %, whilst vitamin D deficiency was present in more than 85 % of thalassemic children and adolescents. The relationships between weight, height and other anthropometric indices, serum calcium and bone markers, intake of macronutrients, zinc and vitamin E with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and femoral area were positively related, indicating that better nutritional status were associated with higher BMD and BMC values. Puberty, gender and serum osteocalcin were negative predictors for BMD and BMC values, whereas age, weight and height were the positive predictors. High incidence of low bone density and deficit in other aspects of bone health among thalassemia patients makes routine bone health assessment necessary for this vulnerable group. Considering influencing factors, dietary counseling and preventive supplementation therapy for this high risk group of children and adolescents may be necessary, although this should be assessed by intervention studies.

  6. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for probing the relative abundance of cyclin-dependent kinases in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Laetitia; Pellerano, Morgan; Coppolani, J B; Morris, May C

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependant kinases play a central role in coordinating cell growth and division, and in sustaining proliferation of cancer cells, thereby constituting attractive pharmacological targets. However, there are no direct means of assessing their relative abundance in living cells, current approaches being limited to antigenic and proteomic analysis of fixed cells. In order to probe the relative abundance of these kinases directly in living cells, we have developed a fluorescent peptide biosensor with biligand affinity for CDKs and cyclins in vitro, that retains endogenous CDK/cyclin complexes from cell extracts, and that bears an environmentally-sensitive probe, whose fluorescence increases in a sensitive fashion upon recognition of its targets. CDKSENS was introduced into living cells, through complexation with the cell-penetrating carrier CADY2 and applied to assess the relative abundance of CDK/Cyclins through fluorescence imaging and ratiometric quantification. This peptide biosensor technology affords direct and sensitive readout of CDK/cyclin complex levels, and reports on differences in complex formation when tampering with a single CDK or cyclin. CDKSENS further allows for detection of differences between different healthy and cancer cell lines, thereby enabling to distinguish cells that express high levels of these heterodimeric kinases, from cells that present decreased or defective assemblies. This fluorescent biosensor technology provides information on the overall status of CDK/Cyclin complexes which cannot be obtained through antigenic detection of individual subunits, in a non-invasive fashion which does not require cell fixation or extraction procedures. As such it provides promising perspectives for monitoring the response to therapeutics that affect CDK/Cyclin abundance, for cell-based drug discovery strategies and fluorescence-based cancer diagnostics.

  7. Obscurin is required for ankyrinB-dependent dystrophin localization and sarcolemma integrity

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, Davide; Giacomello, Emiliana; Lorenzini, Stefania; Rossi, Daniela; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo; Lange, Stephan; Peter, Angela K.; Chen, Ju

    2013-01-01

    Obscurin is a large myofibrillar protein that contains several interacting modules, one of which mediates binding to muscle-specific ankyrins. Interaction between obscurin and the muscle-specific ankyrin sAnk1.5 regulates the organization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in striated muscles. Additional muscle-specific ankyrin isoforms, ankB and ankG, are localized at the subsarcolemma level, at which they contribute to the organization of dystrophin and β-dystroglycan at costameres. In this paper, we report that in mice deficient for obscurin, ankB was displaced from its localization at the M band, whereas localization of ankG at the Z disk was not affected. In obscurin KO mice, localization at costameres of dystrophin, but not of β-dystroglycan, was altered, and the subsarcolemma microtubule cytoskeleton was disrupted. In addition, these mutant mice displayed marked sarcolemmal fragility and reduced muscle exercise tolerance. Altogether, the results support a model in which obscurin, by targeting ankB at the M band, contributes to the organization of subsarcolemma microtubules, localization of dystrophin at costameres, and maintenance of sarcolemmal integrity. PMID:23420875

  8. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    PubMed

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory.

  9. Simulation of Accurate Vibrationally Resolved Electronic Spectra: the Integrated Time-Dependent and Time-Independent Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien

    2014-06-01

    Two parallel theories including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky (i.e., mode mixing) effects, allowing different approximations for the description of excited state PES have been developed in order to simulate realistic, asymmetric, electronic spectra line-shapes taking into account the vibrational structure: the so-called sum-over-states or time-independent (TI) method and the alternative time-dependent (TD) approach, which exploits the properties of the Fourier transform. The integrated TI-TD procedure included within a general purpose QM code [1,2], allows to compute one photon absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, electronic circular dichroism, circularly polarized luminescence and resonance Raman spectra. Combining both approaches, which use a single set of starting data, permits to profit from their respective advantages and minimize their respective limits: the time-dependent route automatically includes all vibrational states and, possibly, temperature effects, while the time-independent route allows to identify and assign single vibronic transitions. Interpretation, analysis and assignment of experimental spectra based on integrated TI-TD vibronic computations will be illustrated for challenging cases of medium-sized open-shell systems in the gas and condensed phases with inclusion of leading anharmonic effects. 1. V. Barone, A. Baiardi, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, C. Cappelli, F. Lipparini Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 14, 12404, (2012) 2. A. Baiardi, V. Barone, J. Bloino J. Chem. Theory Comput., 9, 4097-4115 (2013)

  10. Integration of sensory force feedback is disturbed in CRPS-related dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mugge, Winfred; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.

  11. Myelination-related genes are associated with decreased white matter integrity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chavarria-Siles, Ivan; White, Tonya; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Lips, Esther; Ehrlich, Stefan; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D; Gollub, Randy L; Magnotta, Vincent A; Ho, Beng-Choon; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    Disruptions in white matter (WM) tract structures have been implicated consistently in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Global WM integrity--as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA)--is highly heritable and may provide a good endophenotype for genetic studies of schizophrenia. WM abnormalities in schizophrenia are not localized to one specific brain region but instead reflect global low-level decreases in FA coupled with focal abnormalities. In this study, we sought to investigate whether functional gene sets associated with schizophrenia are also associated with WM integrity. We analyzed FA and genetic data from the Mind Research Network Clinical Imaging Consortium to study the effect of multiple oligodendrocyte gene sets on schizophrenia and WM integrity using a functional gene set analysis in 77 subjects with schizophrenia and 104 healthy controls. We found that a gene set involved in myelination was significantly associated with schizophrenia and FA. This gene set includes 17 genes that are expressed in oligodendrocytes and one neuronal gene (NRG1) that is known to regulate myelination. None of the genes within the gene set were associated with schizophrenia or FA individually, suggesting that no single gene was driving the association of the gene set. Our findings support the hypothesis that multiple genetic variants in myelination-related genes contribute to the observed correlation between schizophrenia and decreased WM integrity as measured by FA.

  12. Integrated bioprocessing for the pH-dependent production of 4-valerolactone from levulinate in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Martin, Collin H; Wu, Danyi; Prather, Kristala L Jones

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are powerful biocatalysts capable of performing specific chemical transformations under mild conditions, yet as catalysts they remain subject to the laws of thermodynamics, namely, that they cannot catalyze chemical reactions beyond equilibrium. Here we report the phenomenon and application of using extracytosolic enzymes and medium conditions, such as pH, to catalyze metabolic pathways beyond their intracellular catalytic limitations. This methodology, termed "integrated bioprocessing" because it integrates intracellular and extracytosolic catalysis, was applied to a lactonization reaction in Pseudomonas putida for the economical and high-titer biosynthesis of 4-valerolactone from the inexpensive and renewable source levulinic acid. Mutant paraoxonase I (PON1) was expressed in P. putida, shown to export from the cytosol in Escherichia coli and P. putida using an N-terminal sequence, and demonstrated to catalyze the extracytosolic and pH-dependent lactonization of 4-hydroxyvalerate to 4-valerolactone. With this production system, the titer of 4-valerolactone was enhanced substantially in acidic medium using extracytosolically expressed lactonase versus an intracellular lactonase: from <0.2 g liter(-1) to 2.1 +/- 0.4 g liter(-1) at the shake flask scale. Based on these results, the production of 4-hydroxyvalerate and 4-valerolactone was examined in a 2-liter bioreactor, and titers of 27.1 g liter(-1) and 8.2 g liter(-1) for the two respective compounds were achieved. These results illustrate the utility of integrated bioprocessing as a strategy for enabling production from novel metabolic pathways and enhancing product titers.

  13. Dose-Related and Time-Dependent Development of Collagenase-Induced Tendinopathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Viganò, Marco; Stanco, Deborah; Bottagisio, Marta; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Setti, Stefania; de Girolamo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a big burden in clinics and it represents 45% of musculoskeletal lesions. Despite the relevant social impact, both pathogenesis and development of the tendinopathy are still under-investigated, thus limiting the therapeutic advancement in this field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent and time-related tissue-level changes occurring in a collagenase-induced tendinopathy in rat Achilles tendons, in order to establish a standardized model for future pre-clinical studies. With this purpose, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, treated by injecting collagenase type I within the Achilles tendon at 1 mg/mL (low dose) or 3 mg/mL (high dose). Tendon explants were histologically evaluated at 3, 7, 15, 30 and 45 days. Our results revealed that both the collagenase doses induced a disorganization of collagen fibers and increased the number of rounded resident cells. In particular, the high dose treatment determined a greater neovascularization and fatty degeneration with respect to the lower dose. These changes were found to be time-dependent and to resemble the features of human tendinopathy. Indeed, in our series, the acute phase occurred from day 3 to day 15, and then progressed towards the proliferative phase from day 30 to day 45 displaying a degenerative appearance associated with a very precocious and mild remodeling process. The model represents a good balance between similarity with histological features of human tendinopathy and feasibility, in terms of tendon size to create lesions and costs when compared to other animal models. Moreover, this model could contribute to improve the knowledge in this field, and it could be useful to properly design further pre-clinical studies to test innovative treatments for tendinopathy. PMID:27548063

  14. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  15. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.

  16. Singular integrals related to the Radon transform and boundary value problems.

    PubMed

    Phong, D H; Stein, E M

    1983-12-01

    Two classes of integral operators are introduced that combine features of Calderón-Zygmund singular integrals, the Hilbert integral, and the Radon transform. Examples and applications arising from integral geometry and several complex variables are discussed.

  17. Singular integrals related to the Radon transform and boundary value problems

    PubMed Central

    Phong, D. H.; Stein, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Two classes of integral operators are introduced that combine features of Calderón—Zygmund singular integrals, the Hilbert integral, and the Radon transform. Examples and applications arising from integral geometry and several complex variables are discussed. PMID:16593402

  18. Chapter 11. Narratives of clients' experiences of drug use and treatment of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    von Braun, Therese; Larsson, Sam; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    The article focuses on narratives of clients' experiences of using/misusing alcohol and drugs and includes comments on their therapeutic process during treatment for dependency on psychoactive drugs. It discusses the role of narratives that focus on clients' experiences of understanding the use/misuse of psychoactive drugs, emphasizing the importance of the narratives. Narrative therapy for substance-use-related dependency is discussed. Insight into the treatment processes of dependency, based on narrative case illustrations, is also provided.

  19. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples.

  20. White matter integrity of motor connections related to training gains in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Robert; Zimerman, Máximo; Timmermann, Jan E; Wessel, Maximilian J; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-06-01

    Impaired motor skill acquisition is a feature of older age. Acquisition of new motor skills requires the interplay between different cortical motor areas. Using diffusion tensor imaging we reconstructed cortico-cortical connections between the primary motor cortex (M1) and secondary motor areas in 11 older and 11 young participants who took part in a motor skill acquisition paradigm with the nondominant left hand. Examining the extent to which tract-related integrity correlated with training gains we found that white matter integrity of fibers connecting contralateral M1 with both contralateral (r = 0.85) and ipsilateral supplementary motor areas (r = 0.92) were positively associated in old participants. Also, fibers connecting contralateral M1 with ipsilateral dorsal premotor (r = 0.82) and fibers connecting ipsilateral dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area (r = 0.88) were positively related to skill acquisition (all p < 0.05). A similar structure-behavior relationship was not present in the young control subjects suggesting a critical role of brain structural integrity for motor learning in healthy aging.

  1. Review complementary and integrative interventions for cancer-related cognitive changes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive sequelae from a diagnosis of cancer and the subsequent treatment impact survivors’ quality of life and can interfere with both social relationships and employment. The search for evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies continues for both central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS cancer-related cognitive changes. Complementary therapies in conjunction with conventional medicine are being included in integrative programs designed to maximize symptom management in cancer treatment centers providing survivorship care. The purpose of this article is to review the existing evidence for the use of complementary and integrative interventions to prevent or treat cancer-related cognitive changes and to discuss the rationale for current and future research. Search terminology included: Complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine, cognition, cognitive function, and cancer, and yielded 20 studies that met criteria for inclusion. Preliminary results published to date indicate that some complementary therapies may be beneficial to cancer survivors experiencing cognitive concerns. A number of gaps in the literature remain primarily due to preliminary study designs, small sample sizes, lack of objective cognitive testing, and cognitive function not being a primary endpoint for much of the published work. PMID:26719850

  2. The Integration of Mathematics in Middle School Science: Student and Teacher Impacts Related to Science Achievement and Attitudes Towards Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Luisa

    Contemporary research has suggested that in order for students to compete globally in the 21st century workplace, pedagogy must shift to include the integration of science and mathematics, where teachers effectively incorporate the two disciplines seamlessly. Mathematics facilitates a deeper understanding of science concepts and has been linked to improved student perception of the integration of science and mathematics. Although there is adequate literature to substantiate students' positive responses to integration in terms of attitudes, there has been little empirical data to support significant academic improvement when both disciplines are taught in an integrated method. This research study, conducted at several school districts on Long Island and New York City, New York, examined teachers' attitudes toward integration and students' attitudes about, and achievement on assessments in, an integrated 8th grade science classroom compared to students in a non-integrated classroom. An examination of these parameters was conducted to analyze the impact of the sizeable investment of time and resources needed to teach an integrated curriculum effectively. These resources included substantial teacher training, planning time, collaboration with colleagues, and administration of student assessments. The findings suggest that students had positive outcomes associated with experiencing an integrated science and mathematics curriculum, though these were only weakly correlated with teacher confidence in implementing the integrated model successfully. The positive outcomes included the ability of students to understand scientific concepts within a concrete mathematical framework, improved confidence in applying mathematics to scientific ideas, and increased agreement with the usefulness of mathematics in interpreting science concepts. Implications of these research findings may be of benefit to educators and policymakers looking to adapt integrated curricula in order to

  3. Prioritizing cancer-related microRNAs by integrating microRNA and mRNA datasets

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Daeyong; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating the expression of target genes, and they are involved in cancer initiation and progression. Even though many cancer-related miRNAs were identified, their functional impact may vary, depending on their effects on the regulation of other miRNAs and genes. In this study, we propose a novel method for the prioritization of candidate cancer-related miRNAs that may affect the expression of other miRNAs and genes across the entire biological network. For this, we propose three important features: the average expression of a miRNA in multiple cancer samples, the average of the absolute correlation values between the expression of a miRNA and expression of all genes, and the number of predicted miRNA target genes. These three features were integrated using order statistics. By applying the proposed approach to four cancer types, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, we prioritized candidate cancer-related miRNAs and determined their functional roles in cancer-related pathways. The proposed approach can be used to identify miRNAs that play crucial roles in driving cancer development, and the elucidation of novel potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. PMID:27734929

  4. Integrative Analysis of Disease Signatures Shows Inflammation Disrupts Juvenile Experience-Dependent Cortical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Milo R.; Burman, Poromendro

    2016-01-01

    Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures. We tested the hypothesis that inflammation disrupts developmental cortical plasticity in vivo using the mouse ocular dominance model of experience-dependent plasticity in primary visual cortex. We found that the administration of systemic lipopolysaccharide suppressed plasticity during juvenile critical period with accompanying transcriptional changes in a particular set of molecular regulators within primary visual cortex. These findings suggest that inflammation may have unrecognized adverse consequences on the postnatal developmental trajectory and indicate that treating inflammation may reduce the burden of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28101530

  5. Functional properties of sodium channels do not depend on the cytoskeleton integrity.

    PubMed

    Moran, O; Tammaro, P; Nizzari, M; Conti, F

    2000-09-16

    Several observations suggest an interaction of the sodium channel alpha-subunit with the cytoskeletal structures. However, there is a wide variability in the results of experiments of heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and studies on mammalian cells are sometimes contradictory. In general, there has been no direct demonstration that ad hoc large perturbations of the cytoskeleton modify the intrinsic properties of the sodium channels expressed endogenously or heterologously in plasma membranes. We have studied in CHO cells transfected with the rat muscle sodium channel alpha-subunit the effects of two substances expected to produce drastic perturbations of the cytoskeletal structure: Cytochalasin-D, which depolymerizes microfilaments, and Colchicine, which inhibits the microtubules polymerization. We observed no significant differences in the voltage dependence, kinetic parameters and surface density of the expressed sodium channels after treatment of the cells with these substances. We conclude that the two known main components of the cytoskeleton do not interfere directly with the sodium channel function or with the heterologous expression of channels in the cell membrane.

  6. Calcium dependence of integrity of the actin cytoskeleton of proximal tubule cell microvilli.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Davis, J A; Nurko, S; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-08-01

    To better define the role of Ca2+ in pathophysiological alterations of the proximal tubule microvillus actin cytoskeleton, we studied freshly isolated tubules in which intracellular free Ca2+ was equilibrated with highly buffered, precisely defined medium Ca2+ levels using a combination of the metabolic inhibitor, antimycin, and the ionophore, ionomycin, in the presence of glycine, to prevent lethal membrane damage and resulting nonspecific changes. Increases of Ca2+ to > or = 10 microM were sufficient to initiate concurrent actin depolymerization, fragmentation of F-actin into forms requiring high-speed centrifugation for recovery, redistribution of villin to sedimentable fractions, and structural microvillar damage consisting of severe swelling and fragmentation of actin cores. These observations implicate Ca(2+)-dependent, villin-mediated actin cytoskeletal disruption in tubule cell microvillar damage under conditions conceivably present during pathophysiological states. However, despite prior evidence for cytosolic free Ca2+ increases of the same order of magnitude and similar structural microvillar alterations, Ca(2+)- and villin-mediated events did not appear to account for the initial microvillar damage that occurs during ATP depletion induced by antimycin alone or hypoxia.

  7. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  8. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kels, Andrew P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens ({S}_b^3/{Z}_r) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  9. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  10. Dependence of the Firearm-Related Homicide Rate on Gun Availability: A Mathematical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data. PMID:23923062

  11. Position-Dependent Ventricular Tachycardia Related to Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Paulino; Schurmann, Paul; Smith, Melanie; Valderrábano, Miguel; Lin, C. Huie

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old male who developed frequent nonsustained episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after being diagnosed with bioprosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) had been placed without complication less than 24 hours prior to the episodes. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred during the night, while sleeping, when he assumed a right lateral decubitus position with abduction of the right arm and placement of the forearm under his head. VT occurred repeatedly when such position was assumed again upon request, and it would terminate immediately when sitting upright. The PICC was repositioned in the superior vena cava without further VT. He was discharged home the same day and underwent successful aortic valve replacement 2 months later. Position-dependent VT related to PICC requires careful history taking and PICC repositioning to make the diagnosis. X-ray in different patient positions during PICC placement can be considered to evaluate for ventricular migration. PMID:27826374

  12. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context

    PubMed Central

    terHorst, Casey P.; Lennon, Jay T.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant–microbe interactions. PMID:24789894

  13. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  14. The relative abundance of hemocyte types in a polyphagous moth larva depends on diet.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Hemocytes are crucial cells of the insect immune system because of their involvement in multiple immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis and encapsulation. There are various types of hemocytes, each having a particular role in immunity, such that variation in their relative abundance affects the outcome of the immune response. This study aims to characterize these various types of hemocytes in larvae of the grapevine pest insect Eupoecilia ambiguella, and to assess variation in their concentration as a function of larval diet and immune challenge. Four types of hemocytes were found in the hemolymph of 5th instar larvae: granulocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes and spherulocytes. We found that the total concentration of hemocytes and the concentration of each hemocyte type varied among diets and in response to the immune challenge. Irrespective of the diet, the concentration of granulocytes increased following a bacterial immune challenge, while the concentration of plasmatocytes and spherulocytes differentially varied between larval diets. The concentration of oenocytoids did not vary among diets before the immune challenge but varied between larval diets in response to the challenge. These results suggest that the resistance of insect larvae to different natural enemies critically depends on the effect of larval diet on the larvae's investment into the different types of hemocytes.

  15. Event-related potential map differences depend on the prestimulus microstates.

    PubMed

    Kondákor, I; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Michel, C M; Lehmann, D

    1995-01-01

    The dependency of the landscapes of visually evoked, 47-channel, event-related potential (ERPs) on the functional microstates (momentary map landscape) just before stimulus arrival was investigated, in 12 volunteers. The prestimulus microstates were determined using the map at the last peak of Global Field Power before the stimulus. The landscapes of these maps were described by the electrode locations of the positive and negative extreme potentials, and assigned to basic classes. The two most frequently occurring map-classes were used (left anterior-right posterior, and right anterior-left posterior). ERP map series were averaged for each subject and each prestimulus microstate class. The Randomization-Monte Carlo MANOVA test was used to test the significance of the difference between the ERP map landscapes at each sample point (n = 128, 500 ms) associated with the two prestimulus microstates. At 16 samples the difference was significant at p < 0.05. The longest uninterrupted sequence (n = 9) of significant differences occurred between 164 and 195 ms, i.e. during the conventional component P200. The results demonstrate that the brain electric microstate at stimulus arrival crucially influences the active neuronal populations that contribute to the ERP. This suggests that the processing of information will differ as a function of the momentary brain microstate at information arrival.

  16. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  17. [Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  18. Integrative review of factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea during antineoplastic chemotherapy 1

    PubMed Central

    Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; Durant, Lais Corsino; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: integrative review conducted in four electronic databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS) using the key words: neoplasia, antineoplastic agents and nausea. Results: only 30 out of 1,258 papers identified met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent related factors were: being younger than 50 years old, motion sickness, being a woman, emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy, anxiety, conditioned stimulus, and expecting nausea after treatment. Conclusion: this review's findings, coupled with the incidence of nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reveal an important difference between evidence found and that used by NANDA International, Inc. Even though it provides an appropriate definition of related factors, it does not mention chemotherapy, despite the various studies addressing the topic using different designs and presenting various objectives and outcomes. PMID:27737380

  19. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  20. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base. PMID:26306271

  1. Analogical reasoning in baboons (Papio papio): flexible reencoding of the source relation depending on the target relation.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

    2013-09-01

    Analogical reasoning is a cornerstone of human cognition, but the extent and limits of analogical reasoning in animals remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that apes and monkeys can match relations with relations, suggesting that these species have the basic abilities for analogical reasoning. However, analogical reasoning in humans entails two additional cognitive processes that remain unexplored in animals. These include the ability to (1) flexibly reencode the relations instantiated by the source domain as a function of the relational properties of the target domain, and (2) to match relations across different stimulus dimensions. Using a two-dimensional relational matching-to-sample task, the present study demonstrates that these two abilities are in the scope of baboons, given appropriate training. These findings unveil the richness of the cognitive processes implicated during analogical reasoning in nonhuman primates and further reduce the apparent gap between animal and human cognition.

  2. Resistance against Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemogenesis in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-deficient scid mice associated with defective viral integration at the Spi-1 and Fli-1 site.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Maki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Aizawa, Shiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tatsumi, Kouichi; Noda, Yuko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2005-08-01

    Retroviral DNA integration is mediated by the viral protein integrase. However, elements of the host DNA repair machinery such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)-related protein kinase family system would play a role in the integration of viral DNA into the host DNA. Here, we show that a host PI-3K-related protein kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), plays a role in the specific integration of retroviral DNA and induction of retroviral diseases in vivo. DNA-PK-deficient scid mice inoculated with Friend leukemia virus (FLV) exhibited a random integration into their genomic DNA and expressed the viral envelope protein gp70. However, the specific integration of FLV at Spi-1 or Fli-1 sites did not occur in association with the significant resistance of scid mice to FLV-induced leukemogenesis. In contrast, the knockout of another member of the PI-3K-related protein kinase family, encoded by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, resulted in mice as sensitive to FLV-induced leukemogenesis as the wild type mice. FLV was specifically integrated into the DNA at Spi-1 and Fli-1 sites with significant expression of these transcription factors. These findings indicated that DNA-PK would be essential for controlling the in vivo integration of FLV at specific sites as well as the susceptibility to FLV-induced leukemogenesis.

  3. Automated detection of whole-cell mitochondrial motility and its dependence on cytoarchitectural integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Judith; Chou, Philip; Eckmann, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Current methodologies used for mitochondrial motility analysis tend to either overlook individual mitochondrial tracks or analyze only peripheral mitochondria instead of mitochondria in all regions of the cell. Furthermore, motility analysis of an individual mitochondrion is usually quantified by establishing an arbitrary threshold for “directed” motion. In this work, we created a custom, publicly available computational algorithm based on a previously published approach (Giedt et al., 2012) in order to characterize the distribution of mitochondrial movements at the whole-cell level, while still preserving information about single mitochondria. Our technique is easy to use, robust and computationally inexpensive. Images are first pre-processed for increased resolution, and then individual mitochondria are tracked based on object connectivity in space and time. When our method is applied to microscopy fields encompassing entire cells, we reveal that the mitochondrial net distances in fibroblasts follow a lognormal distribution within a given cell or group of cells. The ability to model whole-cell mitochondrial motility as a lognormal distribution provides a new quantitative paradigm by which to compare mitochondrial motility in naïve and treated cells. We further demonstrate that microtubule and microfilament depolymerization shift the lognormal distribution in directions which indicate decreased and increased mitochondrial movement, respectively. These findings advance earlier work on neuronal axons (Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993) by relating them to a different cell type, applying them on a global scale, and automating measurement of mitochondrial motility in general. PMID:25678368

  4. Automated detection of whole-cell mitochondrial motility and its dependence on cytoarchitectural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Chou, Philip; Eckmann, David M

    2015-07-01

    Current methodologies used for mitochondrial motility analysis tend to either overlook individual mitochondrial tracks or analyze only peripheral mitochondria instead of mitochondria in all regions of the cell. Furthermore, motility analysis of an individual mitochondrion is usually quantified by establishing an arbitrary threshold for "directed" motion. In this work, we created a custom, publicly available computational algorithm based on a previously published approach (Giedt et al., 2012. Ann Biomed Eng 40:1903-1916) in order to characterize the distribution of mitochondrial movements at the whole-cell level, while still preserving information about single mitochondria. Our technique is easy to use, robust, and computationally inexpensive. Images are first pre-processed for increased resolution, and then individual mitochondria are tracked based on object connectivity in space and time. When our method is applied to microscopy fields encompassing entire cells, we reveal that the mitochondrial net distances in fibroblasts follow a lognormal distribution within a given cell or group of cells. The ability to model whole-cell mitochondrial motility as a lognormal distribution provides a new quantitative paradigm for comparing mitochondrial motility in naïve and treated cells. We further demonstrate that microtubule and microfilament depolymerization shift the lognormal distribution in directions which indicate decreased and increased mitochondrial movement, respectively. These findings advance earlier work on neuronal axons (Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993. J Cell Sci 104:917-927) by relating them to a different cell type, applying them on a global scale, and automating measurement of mitochondrial motility in general.

  5. Three semi-discrete integrable systems related to orthogonal polynomials and their generalized determinant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Min; Chang, Xiang-Ke; Sun, Jian-Qing; Hu, Xing-Biao; Yeh, Yeong-Nan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized Toeplitz determinant solution for the generalized Schur flow and propose a mixed form of the two known relativistic Toda chains together with its generalized Toeplitz determinant solution. In addition, we also give a Hankel type determinant solution for a nonisospectral Toda lattice. All these results are obtained by technical determinant operations. As a bonus, we finally obtain some new combinatorial numbers based on the moment relations with respect to these semi-discrete integrable systems and give the corresponding combinatorial interpretations by means of the lattice paths.

  6. Cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qinqing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Wen, Xiaohui

    2008-03-26

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive conflict in audiovisual integration during an audiovisual task. ERP analyses revealed: (i) the anterior N1 and P1 were elicited in both matched and mismatched conditions and (ii) audiovisual mismatched answers elicited a more negative ERP deflection at 490 ms (N490) than matched answers. Dipole analysis of the difference wave (mismatched minus matched) localized the generator of the N490 to the posterior cingulate cortex, which may be involved in the control and modulation of conflict processing of Chinese characters when visual and auditory information is mismatched.

  7. Temperature-dependent, relative-rate study of the reactions of 1- and 2-butoxyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Cassanelli, P.; Cox, R. A.

    2003-04-01

    Alkoxyl radicals (RO\\cdot) are important intermediates in the chains of free radical reactions that constitute the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Generally there are a number of different reaction pathways available to alkoxyl radicals and, depending on conditions of temperature and the structure of RO\\cdot, these may be in competition. The major reactions of RO\\cdot are (1) reaction with O_2 to yield a carbonyl product and a hydroperoxy, HO_2, radical, (2) decomposition to yield a carbonyl product and a radical fragment, and (3) isomerisation via a six-membered transition state to yield a d-hydroxylated radical species. Thus the chemistry of alkoxyl radicals determines the atmospheric impact of the oxidation of a given VOC, in terms of the immediate effects of closed-shell products, and as a result of the further chemistry of free radical products. HO_2 can react with NO to yield photolabile NO_2 (and hence contribute to photochemical ozone formation), and organic radical fragments act to propagate the oxidation chain of reactions. As ozone has been identified to be an important greenhouse gas in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) region it is important to understand how temperature affects the relative rates of reactions (1) to (3), and thus how the presence of VOCs in the UTLS region affects the coupled chemistries of HO_x and O_3. In the present study, we have looked at the reactions of 1- and 2-butoxyl radicals (formed in the reaction of OH with butane) in terms of the relative rates of their bimolecular reactions with O_2 (1) and unimolecular processes (2,3). The two butoxyl radicals were studied separately and were formed directly from the photolysis of 1- or 2-butylnitrite. Experiments were carried out using a metre-long photochemical flow cell made of quartz. The temperature of the cell could be controlled and for the experiments carried out in the present study was operated between about 250 and 340 K. Reactant

  8. Real processing II: Extremal principles of irreversible thermodynamics, relations, generalizations and time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    We start presenting the extremal principles we will consider: The Statement of Helmholtz 1868 and Rayleigh (SHR) 1913, generalized by Reiser 1996, the Statement of Kelvin (SK) 1849, the Principle of Minimal Entropy Production (PME) of Prigogine 1947 for linear processes, that of Prigogine and Glansdorff 1954 for non-linear processes and finally, the Principle of Maximal Entropy (MEF) of Jaynes, 1957. First we show the relation between SHR and SK. This is a particular example for the property of Irreversible Thermodynamics (TIP) to treat all kinds of movements of fluids, compounds or any type of energy under the engineering term loss, or accurately spoken, entropy production. This possibility to treat different physical effects in the same manner causes by its simplification, considerable economical advantages of treating processes in the frame of TIP. For example, whereas a balance like the momentum balance (Navier-Stokes equation) has to distinguish between inertial, viscous or pressure effects, the PME treats the movements these effects cause with one term, and no pressure coupling or non-linearity is enclosed. Then we generalize the SK from potential velocity fields to general ones and show that it fits into the MEF. We continue with the generalization of the SHR from 1996 to compressible and non-Newtonian fluids. Further, we notice that these principles hold for time-dependent (non-stationary) processes. Therefore, the general fluid dynamical part of the PME 1947 can be generalized from stationary to time-dependent processes. We show that this is possible not only for velocity fields but also for scalar fields using as an example, the temperature in the case of heat conduction. We see that scalar fields need a transformation well known in mathematics. Comparing the PME 1954 with the completely generalized SHR we see that it holds also for non-linear processes. The same holds for the generalized SK. We close the consideration of extremal principles with the

  9. {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co reaction cross section: Thermal and resonance integral measurements and energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, Nora L.; Mesa, Joel; Vanin, Vito R.; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co thermal and resonance integral cross section were measured as 51(5) b and 20.0(19) b, respectively, by irradiating aliquots of {sup 57}Co solution sealed inside quartz bottles near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN research reactor and counting the gamma-ray residual activity. The irradiations were monitored using Au-Al alloy foils, with and without Cd cover. The gamma-ray measurements were performed with a shielded HPGe detector. Westcott formalism was applied for the average neutron flux determination. The cross section energy dependence was evaluated using the multilevel Breit-Wigner expression considering the first two resonances and the statistical model for energies above the second resonance. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section with neutron temperatures between 5 and 100 keV were also evaluated.

  10. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  11. Event-Related Potential Effects of Object Repetition Depend on Attention and Part-Whole Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, Angela; Thoma, Volker; de Fockert, Jan W.; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spatial attention and part-whole configuration on recognition of repeated objects were investigated with behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Short-term repetition effects were measured for probe objects as a function of whether a preceding prime object was shown as an intact image or coarsely scrambled (split into two halves) and whether or not it had been attended during the prime display. In line with previous behavioral experiments, priming effects were observed from both intact and split primes for attended objects, but only from intact (repeated same-view) objects when they were unattended. These behavioral results were reflected in ERP waveforms at occipital–temporal locations as more negative-going deflections for repeated items in the time window between 220 and 300 ms after probe onset (N250r). Attended intact images showed generally more enhanced repetition effects than split ones. Unattended images showed repetition effects only when presented in an intact configuration, and this finding was limited to the right-hemisphere electrodes. Repetition effects in earlier (before 200 ms) time windows were limited to attended conditions at occipito-temporal sites during the N1, a component linked to the encoding of object structure, while repetition effects at central locations during the same time window (P150) were found for attended and unattended probes but only when repeated in the same intact configuration. The data indicate that view-generalization is mediated by a combination of analytic (part-based) representations and automatic view-dependent representations. PMID:27721749

  12. An event-related potential examination of contour integration deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Pamela D; Abeles, Ilana Y; Silverstein, Steven M; Dias, Elisa C; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Calderone, Daniel J; Sehatpour, Pejman

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual organization, which refers to the ability to integrate fragments of stimuli to form a representation of a whole edge, part, or object, is impaired in schizophrenia. A contour integration paradigm, involving detection of a set of Gabor patches forming an oval contour pointing to the right or left embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabors, has been developed for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to assess contributions of early and later stages of processing to deficits in contour integration, as well as to develop an event-related potential (ERP) analog of this task. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 28 controls participated. The Gabor elements forming the contours were given a low or high degree of orientational jitter, making it either easy or difficult to identify the direction in which the contour was pointing. ERP results showed greater negative peaks at ~165 (N1 component) and ~270 ms for the low-jitter versus the high-jitter contours, with a much greater difference between jitter conditions at 270 ms. This later ERP component was previously termed Ncl for closure negativity. Source localization identified the Ncl in the lateral occipital object recognition area. Patients showed a significant decrease in the Ncl, but not N1, compared to controls, and this was associated with impaired behavioral ability to identify contours. In addition, an earlier negative peak was found at ~120 ms (termed N120) that differentiated jitter conditions, had a dorsal stream source, and differed between patients and controls. Patients also showed a deficit in the dorsal stream sensory P1 component. These results are in accord with impairments in distributed circuitry contributing to perceptual organization deficits and provide an ERP analog to the behavioral contour integration task.

  13. Female and Male Emotional Dependency and Its Relation to Eroticism in the Therapist-Client Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    Emotional dependency is a healthy and adaptive aspect of human development. Differences exist in how this dependency is labeled for men and for women. Women are socialized to attract men as life partners and achieve through their affiliation with others, not to be competent and ambitious on their own. Women have been expected to subordinate…

  14. 26 CFR 1.152-2 - Rules relating to general definition of dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., vacation, military service, or a custody agreement under which the legally adopted child is absent for less... dependent, he may be claimed as a dependent by A for 1959. (b) A payment to a wife which is includible in... prescribed relationship exists with respect to either spouse. Thus, a husband and wife making a joint...

  15. 26 CFR 1.152-2 - Rules relating to general definition of dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., vacation, military service, or a custody agreement under which the legally adopted child is absent for less... dependent, he may be claimed as a dependent by A for 1959. (b) A payment to a wife which is includible in... prescribed relationship exists with respect to either spouse. Thus, a husband and wife making a joint...

  16. 26 CFR 1.152-2 - Rules relating to general definition of dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., vacation, military service, or a custody agreement under which the legally adopted child is absent for less... dependent, he may be claimed as a dependent by A for 1959. (b) A payment to a wife which is includible in... prescribed relationship exists with respect to either spouse. Thus, a husband and wife making a joint...

  17. 26 CFR 1.152-2 - Rules relating to general definition of dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., vacation, military service, or a custody agreement under which the legally adopted child is absent for less... dependent, he may be claimed as a dependent by A for 1959. (b) A payment to a wife which is includible in... prescribed relationship exists with respect to either spouse. Thus, a husband and wife making a joint...

  18. 26 CFR 1.152-2 - Rules relating to general definition of dependent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., vacation, military service, or a custody agreement under which the legally adopted child is absent for less... dependent, he may be claimed as a dependent by A for 1959. (b) A payment to a wife which is includible in... prescribed relationship exists with respect to either spouse. Thus, a husband and wife making a joint...

  19. Relative contribution of articular cartilage's constitutive components to load support depending on strain rate.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, J M Párraga; Wilson, W; Ito, K; van Donkelaar, C C

    2017-02-01

    Cartilage is considered a biphasic material in which the solid is composed of proteoglycans and collagen. In biphasic tissue, the hydraulic pressure is believed to bear most of the load under higher strain rates and its dissipation due to fluid flow determines creep and relaxation behavior. In equilibrium, hydraulic pressure is zero and load bearing is transferred to the solid matrix. The viscoelasticity of the collagen network also contributes to its time-dependent behavior, and the osmotic pressure to load bearing in equilibrium. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contributions of hydraulic pressure, viscoelastic collagen stress, solid matrix stiffness and osmotic pressure to load carriage in cartilage under transient and equilibrium conditions. Unconfined compression experiments were simulated using a fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic model of articular cartilage, including water, fibrillar viscoelastic collagen and non-fibrillar charged glycosaminoglycans. The relative contributions of hydraulic and osmotic pressures and stresses in the fibrillar and non-fibrillar network were evaluated in the superficial, middle and deep zone of cartilage under five different strain rates and after relaxation. Initially upon loading, the hydraulic pressure carried most of the load in all three zones. The osmotic swelling pressure carried most of the equilibrium load. In the surface zone, where the fibers were loaded in tension, the collagen network carried 20 % of the load for all strain rates. The importance of these fibers was illustrated by artificially modifying the fiber architecture, which reduced the overall stiffness of cartilage in all conditions. In conclusion, although hydraulic pressure dominates the transient behavior during cartilage loading, due to its viscoelastic nature the superficial zone collagen fibers carry a substantial part of the load under transient conditions. This becomes increasingly important with higher strain rates. The

  20. Event-related potentials in adolescents with different cognitive styles: field dependence and field independence.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianghong; Mao, Wei; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xiating; Han, Chunyu; Lu, Changfeng; Huang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    Field dependence/independence (FD/FI) is an important dimension of personality and cognitive styles. Different ability in mobilizing and/or allocating mental-attentional capacity was considered to be the most possible explanation for the FDI cognitive style. Many studies on characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of attentional control indicated the existence of a dissociable sub-process of conflict-monitoring and "cognitive control" system. However, little was known about it. We might dissociate "cognitive control" system from conflict processing by taking advantage of the variable of the FDI cognitive style. In addition, essentially cognitive styles (FDI) are often widely studied in psychological and educational fields, but hardly in neuroscience. We speculated that ERP components could help to explain the difference between how FD and FI individuals process information. The purpose of the reported study was to explore the possible relation between the "cognitive control" system and the conflict processing system during stimulus-matching task. We first characterized the standard FD/FI of senior-high-school Han students in grade two in Beijing, China, based on 160 students with similar age, education, living and cultural background. Twenty-six adolescents were selected and divided into two groups (extreme FD group and extreme FI group) according to their Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) results (FD: 5-8; FI: 17-19). They were tested on both Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and stimulus-matching task. ERP was measured while the subjects performed the stimulus-matching tasks by categorizing two figures that were presented sequentially either as a match (same shape) or as a conflict (different shape) conditions. The results showed that the mean amplitude of N270 in FI group was higher relative to that in FD group at nearly all centrofrontal areas in the conflict condition. We conclude that the FDI cognitive styles could influence the conflict processing

  1. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. PMID:26977068

  2. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology.

    PubMed

    Price, S A; Schmitz, L

    2016-04-05

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart.

  3. Calcium dysregulation and neuroinflammation: Discrete and integrated mechanisms for age-related synaptic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Diana M.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the best biomarkers of age-related cognitive decline are closely linked to synaptic function and plasticity. This review highlights several age-related synaptic alterations as they relate to Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, through elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and neuroinflammation, through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Though distinct in many ways, Ca2+ and neuroinflammatory signaling mechanisms exhibit extensive cross-talk and bidirectional interactions. For instance, cytokine production in glial cells is strongly dependent on the Ca2+ dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, which shows elevated activity in animal models of aging and disease. In turn, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF, can augment the expression/activity of L-type voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels in neurons, leading to Ca2+ dysregulation, hyperactive calcineurin activity, and synaptic depression. Thus, in addition to discussing unique contributions of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation, this review emphasizes how these processes interact to hasten age-related synaptic changes. PMID:23751484

  4. Structure‐function integrity of the adult hippocampus depends on the transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R.; Baumann, L.; Fischer, J.; Seigfried, F. A.; De Bruyckere, E.; Liu, P.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.; Schwegler, H.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the only two brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Throughout life, cells of the neuronal stem cell niche undergo proliferation, differentiation and integration into the hippocampal neural circuitry. Ongoing adult neurogenesis is a prerequisite for the maintenance of adult hippocampal functionality. Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed by postmitotic granule cells in the developing as well as adult dentate gyrus. We previously showed a critical role of Bcl11b for hippocampal development. Whether Bcl11b is also required for adult hippocampal functions has not been investigated. Using a tetracycline‐dependent inducible mouse model under the control of the forebrain‐specific CaMKIIα promoter, we show here that the adult expression of Bcl11b is essential for survival, differentiation and functional integration of adult‐born granule cell neurons. In addition, Bcl11b is required for survival of pre‐existing mature neurons. Consequently, loss of Bcl11b expression selectively in the adult hippocampus results in impaired spatial working memory. Together, our data uncover for the first time a specific role of Bcl11b in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and function. PMID:26915960

  5. Sleep-Dependent Synaptic Down-Selection (I): Modeling the Benefits of Sleep on Memory Consolidation and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Nere, Andrew; Hashmi, Atif; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Sleep can favor the consolidation of both procedural and declarative memories, promote gist extraction, help the integration of new with old memories, and desaturate the ability to learn. It is often assumed that such beneficial effects are due to the reactivation of neural circuits in sleep to further strengthen the synapses modified during wake or transfer memories to different parts of the brain. A different possibility is that sleep may benefit memory not by further strengthening synapses, but rather by renormalizing synaptic strength to restore cellular homeostasis after net synaptic potentiation in wake. In this way, the sleep-dependent reactivation of neural circuits could result in the competitive down-selection of synapses that are activated infrequently and fit less well with the overall organization of memories. By using computer simulations, we show here that synaptic down-selection is in principle sufficient to explain the beneficial effects of sleep on the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, on gist extraction, and on the integration of new with old memories, thereby addressing the plasticity-stability dilemma. PMID:24137153

  6. Sleep-dependent synaptic down-selection (I): modeling the benefits of sleep on memory consolidation and integration.

    PubMed

    Nere, Andrew; Hashmi, Atif; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Sleep can favor the consolidation of both procedural and declarative memories, promote gist extraction, help the integration of new with old memories, and desaturate the ability to learn. It is often assumed that such beneficial effects are due to the reactivation of neural circuits in sleep to further strengthen the synapses modified during wake or transfer memories to different parts of the brain. A different possibility is that sleep may benefit memory not by further strengthening synapses, but rather by renormalizing synaptic strength to restore cellular homeostasis after net synaptic potentiation in wake. In this way, the sleep-dependent reactivation of neural circuits could result in the competitive down-selection of synapses that are activated infrequently and fit less well with the overall organization of memories. By using computer simulations, we show here that synaptic down-selection is in principle sufficient to explain the beneficial effects of sleep on the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, on gist extraction, and on the integration of new with old memories, thereby addressing the plasticity-stability dilemma.

  7. A pilot study of pain-related anxiety and smoking-dependence motives among persons with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ditre, Joseph W; Zale, Emily L; Kosiba, Jesse D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Complex interactions between pain and tobacco smoking have been of increasing interest to researchers and clinicians from a variety of disciplines. There is also recent evidence to suggest that pain-related anxiety may play an important role in the maintenance of tobacco dependence among persons with comorbid pain disorders. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the explanatory relevance of pain-related anxiety in relation to tobacco dependence among a sample of daily smokers with current chronic pain. Participants were recruited from the general population to complete an online survey that was developed to examine interrelations between chronic pain and tobacco smoking. Fifty-six of 129 (43%) daily smoking respondents met criteria for current chronic pain. Results indicated that pain-related anxiety accounted for a significant portion of the unique variance in total smoking dependence scores, and both primary and secondary dependence composite scores (as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives; Piper et al., 2004). It is noteworthy that these effects were observed above and beyond the variance accounted for by relevant sociodemographic factors, generalized anxiety, and pain severity. Pain-related anxiety was observed to be strongly associated with secondary dependence motives, which is consistent with a conceptualization of pain-related anxiety as an instrumental or situational motivator of smoking. These results suggest that tobacco smokers with comorbid pain disorders may be at risk for maintaining or exacerbating their dependence on tobacco, possibly due to individual differences in pain-related anxiety. These findings may help inform the development of tailored interventions for smokers with comorbid chronic pain.

  8. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  9. Dietary vitamin A regulates wingless-related MMTV integration site signaling to alter the hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liye; Sundberg, John P; Everts, Helen B

    2015-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair loss disease caused by a cell-mediated immune attack of the lower portion of the cycling hair follicle. Feeding mice 3-7 times the recommended level of dietary vitamin A accelerated the progression of AA in the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA. In this study, we also found that dietary vitamin A, in a dose dependent manner, activated the hair follicle stem cells (SCs) to induce the development and growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen), which may have made the hair follicle more susceptible to autoimmune attack. Our purpose here is to determine the mechanism by which dietary vitamin A regulates the hair cycle. We found that vitamin A in a dose-dependent manner increased nuclear localized beta-catenin (CTNNB1; a marker of canonical wingless-type Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus integration site family (WNT) signaling) and levels of WNT7A within the hair follicle bulge in these C3H/HeJ mice. These findings suggest that feeding mice high levels of dietary vitamin A increases WNT signaling to activate hair follicle SCs.

  10. [Health-related quality of life among patients with advanced cancer: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria Eliane Moreira; Sawada, Namie Okino; de França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier; da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Oliveira, Cecília Danielle Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    This integrative literature review aimed to characterize scientific articles on health-related quality of life - HRQoL - among patients with advanced cancer from national and international literature, and summarize those factors evidenced in the literature that contributed to the improvement or worsening of HRQoL among patients with advanced cancer. The search for materials was conducted in the following databases: CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, SciELO and LILACS. Among the 21 articles in the sample, 13 showed an improvement of HRQoL among patients with advanced cancer related to the development of physical, emotional and spiritual interventions. In eight studies, we identified predictive symptoms of low HRQoL, such as pain, fatigue, sleep disorders, depression, nutritional changes, and others. The results showed that clinical manifestations, which many times were inherent in cancer, such as factors that can lower patients' HRQoL, while physical, psychological and spiritual benefits resulting from therapeutic interventions may promote its improvement.

  11. A DPOAE assessment of outer hair cell integrity in ears with age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ueberfuhr, Margarete A; Fehlberg, Hannah; Goodman, Shawn S; Withnell, Robert H

    2016-02-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were used to assess outer hair cell (OHC) integrity in human ears with age-related hearing loss. Sound pressure measurements were made in the ear canal over the stimulus range 40-90 dB SPL (L2), with L1 = 0.45*L2 + 44 with F2 = 2 and 3 or 4 kHz. Model-generated DPOAE I/O functions were fit to DPOAE data to quantify the contribution of loss of nonlinearity (OHC loss) to the hearing loss. Results suggest OHC loss as a contributing cause of age-related hearing, regardless of audiogram configuration. It seems likely that OHC and strial pathology co-exist in ears with AHL.

  12. Provider Perspective on Integrative Medicine for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease–related Pain

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Holly; Darbari, Deepika S.; Meier, Emily Riehm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Integrative medicine (IM) approaches are sometimes used to manage sickle cell disease (SCD)–related pain. The purpose of this research is to (1) understand provider perspective towards the use of IM for pain in children with SCD at a large urban children's hospital and (2) provide recommendations on how to better promote IM for children and adolescents with SCD. Methods: After approval from the institutional review board, a qualitative case study approach was used with criterion-type purposeful sampling to select providers from the division of hematology to adequately inform the study. Semistructured interviews were completed using audiotape to facilitate transcription. NVivo 10 analytic software (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) was used to organize data into themes to answer the study questions. Results: Ten provider interviews were completed. Attitudes were generally positive, and most providers felt that IM is generally helpful. All providers reported that they do not optimally use integrative therapies for children with SCD. The barriers uncovered focused on lack of process for integration of IM, specifically that IM resources seem transient and based on short-term funding. Provider attitude towards CAM is generally positive, but provider comfort level is highly variable. No providers are completely comfortable with their knowledge base about IM, and increased knowledge is desired. Conclusions: Creation of protocols and processes to incorporate IM into management plans for patients with SCD could help to promote its use. Education of providers about utility and efficacy of IM for SCD-related pain and about existing resources would aid in promotion of IM for children with SCD. PMID:26937313

  13. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  14. Age and family relationship accentuate the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in relatives of patients with IDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, A.B.; Krischer, J.P.; Cuthbertson, D.D.

    1995-12-01

    The international community of diabetologists is rapidly becomine involved in intervention trials aimed at preventing insulin-dependent diabetes in high risk relatives. Whereas age and relationship to a proband with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus interacting with detected islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) are risk factors, their independent contribution to that risk remains unclear. In a prospective study of 6851 nondiabetic relatives of 2742 probands conducted between 1979-1993, we found age, but not relationship, to be a dramatic risk variable in ICA-positive persons as estimated by the Cox regression model. The 5-yr risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 66% for those found to have ICA detectable before age 10 yr, falling progressively to less than 16% for ICA-positive relatives over age 40 yr. In ICA-negative relatives, age and relationship are independent prognostic variables. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.

  16. Association study of 37 genes related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission and neurotrophic factors in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Castillo, N; Roncero, C; Grau-Lopez, L; Barral, C; Prat, G; Rodriguez-Cintas, L; Sánchez-Mora, C; Gratacòs, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Casas, M; Ribasés, M; Cormand, B

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine dependence is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which both environmental and genetic factors are involved. Several processes, that include reward and neuroadaptations, mediate the transition from use to dependence. In this regard, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems are clearly involved in reward and other cocaine-related effects, whereas neurotrophic factors may be responsible for neuroadaptations associated with cocaine dependence. We examined the contribution to cocaine dependence of 37 genes related to the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, neurotrophic factors and their receptors through a case-control association study with 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms selected according to genetic coverage criteria in 432 cocaine-dependent patients and 482 sex-matched unrelated controls. Single marker analyses provided evidence for association of the serotonin receptor HTR2A with cocaine dependence [rs6561333; nominal P-value adjusted for age = 1.9e-04, odds ratio = 1.72 (1.29-2.30)]. When patients were subdivided according to the presence or absence of psychotic symptoms, we confirmed the association between cocaine dependence and HTR2A in both subgroups of patients. Our data show additional evidence for the involvement of the serotoninergic system in the genetic susceptibility to cocaine dependence.

  17. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  18. Strategies for time-dependent PDE control with inequality constraints using an integrated modeling and simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, Ira; Prüfert, Uwe; Slawig, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    In Neitzel et al. (Strategies for time-dependent PDE control using an integrated modeling and simulation environment. Part one: problems without inequality constraints. Technical Report 408, Matheon, Berlin, 2007) we have shown how time-dependent optimal control for partial differential equations can be realized in a modern high-level modeling and simulation package. In this article we extend our approach to (state) constrained problems. "Pure" state constraints in a function space setting lead to non-regular Lagrange multipliers (if they exist), i.e. the Lagrange multipliers are in general Borel measures. This will be overcome by different regularization techniques. To implement inequality constraints, active set methods and barrier methods are widely in use. We show how these techniques can be realized in a modeling and simulation package. We implement a projection method based on active sets as well as a barrier method and a Moreau Yosida regularization, and compare these methods by a program that optimizes the discrete version of the given problem.

  19. Context-dependent signal integration by the GLI code: the oncogenic load, pathways, modifiers and implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Fritz; Ruiz I Altaba, Ariel

    2014-09-01

    Canonical Hedgehog (HH) signaling leads to the regulation of the GLI code: the sum of all positive and negative functions of all GLI proteins. In humans, the three GLI factors encode context-dependent activities with GLI1 being mostly an activator and GLI3 often a repressor. Modulation of GLI activity occurs at multiple levels, including by co-factors and by direct modification of GLI structure. Surprisingly, the GLI proteins, and thus the GLI code, is also regulated by multiple inputs beyond HH signaling. In normal development and homeostasis these include a multitude of signaling pathways that regulate proto-oncogenes, which boost positive GLI function, as well as tumor suppressors, which restrict positive GLI activity. In cancer, the acquisition of oncogenic mutations and the loss of tumor suppressors - the oncogenic load - regulates the GLI code toward progressively more activating states. The fine and reversible balance of GLI activating GLI(A) and GLI repressing GLI(R) states is lost in cancer. Here, the acquisition of GLI(A) levels above a given threshold is predicted to lead to advanced malignant stages. In this review we highlight the concepts of the GLI code, the oncogenic load, the context-dependency of GLI action, and different modes of signaling integration such as that of HH and EGF. Targeting the GLI code directly or indirectly promises therapeutic benefits beyond the direct blockade of individual pathways.

  20. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for women who were health conscious and who perceived their health to be at risk. Conclusions The integrated model proposed and tested in this study shows that the HBM, when combined with the TAM, is able to predict Internet use for health purposes. For women who subjectively evaluate their health as vulnerable to diseases and are concerned about their health, cognition beliefs in and positive affective feelings about the Internet come into play in determining the use of health-related Internet use. Furthermore, this study shows that engaging in health-related Internet use is a proactive behavior rather than a reactive behavior, suggesting that TAM dimensions have a significant mediating role in Internet health management. PMID:25700481

  1. The external work-pressure time integral relationships and the afterload dependence of Frank-Starling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sela, Gali; Landesberg, Amir

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart are elusive and the prevalent notion suggests that it is afterload independent. However, isolated fiber studies reveal that the afterload determines cardiac function through cross-bridge dependent mechanisms. The study explores the roles of the afterload, in situ. The LV was exposed by left-thoracotomy in adult sheep (72.6+/-8.2 kg, n=8). Pressure transducers were inserted into the LV and aorta, a flowmeter was placed around the aortic root, and the LV volume was assessed by sonocrystals. Occluders around the aorta and the inferior vena cava enabled control of the afterload and preload. Different afterloads were imposed by partial aortic occlusions. Transient inferior vena cava occlusions (IVCOs) were preformed whenever the afterload was steady. A highly linear relationship was found between the external work (EW) and pressure time integral (PTI) (R(2)=0.98+/-0.01) during each transient IVCO (n=48). The slope of the EW-PTI relationship (WPTiR) was preload independent since, for any given afterload, the EW and PTI lay on a straight line. Interestingly, the slope of the WPTiR was afterload dependant: The slope was 33.3+/-4.1 mJ/mmHg.s at baselines and decreased by 1.0+/-0.50 mJ/mmHg.s with every 1 mmHg.min/L increase in the peripheral resistance. A unique WPTiR was obtained during both the occlusion and release phases of each IVCO, while two distinct EW-preload or PTI-preload relationships were observed. The novel WPTiR ties the Frank (pressure development) and Starling (EW production) phenomena together. The dependence of the WPTiR on the afterload highlights the adaptive control of the Frank-Starling mechanisms to changes in the afterload.

  2. Integration of tumour and viral genomic characterisations in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Amaddeo, Giuliana; Cao, Qian; Ladeiro, Yannick; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Nault, Jean-Charles; Jaoui, Daphne; Gaston Mathe, Yann; Laurent, Christophe; Laurent, Alexis; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Calderaro, Julien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer. We characterised HCC associated with infection compared with non-HBV-related HCC to understand interactions between viral and hepatocyte genomic alterations and their relationships with clinical features. Methods Frozen HBV (n=86) or non-HBV-related (n=90) HCC were collected in two French surgical departments. Viral characterisation was performed by sequencing HBS and HBX genes and quantifying HBV DNA and cccDNA. Nine genes were screened for somatic mutations and expression profiling of 37 genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis was studied. Results HBX revealed frequent non-sense, frameshift and deletions in tumours, suggesting an HBX inactivation selected in HCC. The number of viral copies was frequently lower in tumour than in non-tumour tissues (p=0.0005) and patients with low HBV copies in the non-tumour liver tissues presented additional risk factor (HCV, alcohol or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, p=0.006). P53 was the most frequently altered pathway in HBV-related HCC (47%, p=0.001). Furthermore, TP53 mutations were associated with shorter survival only in HBV-related HCC (p=0.02) whereas R249S mutations were identified exclusively in migrants. Compared with other aetiologies, HBV-HCC were more frequently classified in tumours subgroups with upregulation of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and a progenitor phenotype. Finally, in HBV-related HCC, transcriptomic profiles were associated with specific gene mutations (HBX, TP53, IRF2, AXIN1 and CTNNB1). Conclusions Integrated genomic characterisation of HBV and non-HBV-related HCC emphasised the immense molecular diversity of HCC closely related to aetiologies that could impact clinical care of HCC patients. PMID:25021421

  3. Coherent states and uncertainty relations for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Um, Chung-In; George, Thomas F.; Pandey, Lakshmi N.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with evaluations of propagator and wave function for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency, exact coherent states are constructed. These coherent states satisfy the properties which coherent states should generally have.

  4. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    PubMed

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  5. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Engineered hierarchies of integrable potentials and related orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balondo Iyela, Daddy; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2013-09-01

    Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N = 1 and N = 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N ⩾ 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N ⩾ 3 general periodic hierarchies.

  6. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Engineered hierarchies of integrable potentials and related orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Balondo Iyela, Daddy; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2013-09-15

    Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N= 1 and N= 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N⩾ 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N⩾ 3 general periodic hierarchies.

  7. A Longitudinal Look at Attitudes and Perceptions Related to the Integration of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis of attitudes and perceptions related to the integration of mathematics, science, and technology education of preservice teachers preparing to teach STEM disciplines. Longitudinal data by individual cohort and across 7 years of the Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (MSAT)…

  8. Integrity in Presidential Leadership: Principles Related to Maintaining Integrity for College Presidents in the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Robert Riner, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study, utilizing a grounded theory methodological approach, focused on how former Christian college and university presidents maintain their integrity over the course of their lives and their time in office. Eight participants from a variety of theological backgrounds were identified by using purposeful sampling methods; the…

  9. Association of GABAA receptor α2 subunit gene (GABRA2) with alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strac, Dubravka Svob; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2015-12-03

    Alcohol dependence is a common chronic disorder precipitated by the complex interaction between biological, genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms of the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2 subunit (GABRA2) are associated with alcohol dependence in different populations of European ancestry. As aggression often occurs in the context of alcohol dependence, the aim of this study was to examine the allelic and haplotypic association of GABRA2 gene with alcohol dependence and related aggressive behavior in subjects of Eastern European (Croatian) origin. Genotyping of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the GABRA2 gene (rs567926, rs279858 and rs9291283) was performed in patients with alcohol dependence (N=654) and healthy control subjects (N=574). Alcohol-dependent participants were additionally subdivided according to the presence/absence of aggressive behavior and type of alcohol dependence according to the Cloninger's classification. The association of rs279858 with alcohol dependence yielded nominal significance level. Haplotype analysis revealed a high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for rs567926 and rs279858, but not for rs9291283 polymorphism in the GABRA2 gene. In patients with alcohol dependence, the A-C (rs567926 and rs279858) haplotype carriers were more likely to demonstrate aggressive behavior. The same haplotype (present only in 1.6% of all subjects) was significantly more often present in patients with a combination of early onset alcohol abuse and aggression, corresponding to the Cloninger's type II alcoholism subgroup. These findings support the involvement of GABRA2 gene in alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

  10. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, KM; Eadie, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.

  11. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  12. The sound-induced flash illusion reveals dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, David P.; Roudaia, Eugenie; Stapleton, John; McGinnity, T. Martin; Newell, Fiona N.

    2014-01-01

    While aging can lead to significant declines in perceptual and cognitive function, the effects of age on multisensory integration, the process in which the brain combines information across the senses, are less clear. Recent reports suggest that older adults are susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion (Shams et al., 2000) across a much wider range of temporal asynchronies than younger adults (Setti et al., 2011). To assess whether this cost for multisensory integration is a general phenomenon of combining asynchronous audiovisual input, we compared the time courses of two variants of the sound-induced flash illusion in young and older adults: the fission illusion, where one flash accompanied by two beeps appears as two flashes, and the fusion illusion, where two flashes accompanied by one beep appear as one flash. Twenty-five younger (18–30 years) and older (65+ years) adults were required to report whether they perceived one or two flashes, whilst ignoring irrelevant auditory beeps, in bimodal trials where auditory and visual stimuli were separated by one of six stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). There was a marked difference in the pattern of results for the two variants of the illusion. In conditions known to produce the fission illusion, older adults were significantly more susceptible to the illusion at longer SOAs compared to younger participants. In contrast, the performance of the younger and older groups was almost identical in conditions known to produce the fusion illusion. This surprising difference between sound-induced fission and fusion in older adults suggests dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration, consistent with the idea that these illusions are mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:25309430

  13. Motor neuron targeting of IGF-1 attenuates age-related external Ca2+-dependent skeletal muscle contraction in senescent mice.

    PubMed

    Payne, Anthony M; Messi, María Laura; Zheng, Zhenlin; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2007-04-01

    A population of fast muscle fibers from aging mice is dependent on external Ca(2+) to maintain tetanic force during repeated contractions. We hypothesized that age-related denervation in muscle fibers plays a role in initiating this contractile deficit, and that prevention of denervation by IGF-1 overexpression would prevent external Ca(2+)-dependent contraction in aging mice. IGF-1 overexpression in skeletal muscle prevents age-related denervation, and prevented external Ca(2+)-dependent contraction in this work. To determine if the effects of IGF-1 overexpression are on muscle or nerve, aging mice were injected with a tetanus toxin fragment-C (TTC) fusion protein that targets IGF-1 to spinal cord motor neurons. This treatment prevented external Ca(2+)-dependent contraction. We also show evidence that injections of the IGF-1-TTC fusion protein prevent age-related alterations to the nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junctions. We conclude that the slow age-related denervation of fast muscle fibers underlies dependence on external Ca(2+) to maintain tetanic force in a population of muscle fibers from senescent mice.

  14. Global analysis of ion dependence unveils hidden steps in DNA binding and bending by integration host factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Paula; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Kuznetsov, Serguei V.; Rice, Phoebe A.; Ansari, Anjum

    2013-09-01

    Proteins that recognize and bind to specific sites on DNA often distort the DNA at these sites. The rates at which these DNA distortions occur are considered to be important in the ability of these proteins to discriminate between specific and nonspecific sites. These rates have proven difficult to measure for most protein-DNA complexes in part because of the difficulty in separating the kinetics of unimolecular conformational rearrangements (DNA bending and kinking) from the kinetics of bimolecular complex association and dissociation. A notable exception is the Integration Host Factor (IHF), a eubacterial architectural protein involved in chromosomal compaction and DNA recombination, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to specific DNA sites and bends them into sharp U-turns. The unimolecular DNA bending kinetics has been resolved using both stopped-flow and laser temperature-jump perturbation. Here we expand our investigation by presenting a global analysis of the ionic strength dependence of specific binding affinity and relaxation kinetics of an IHF-DNA complex. This analysis enables us to obtain each of the underlying elementary rates (DNA bending/unbending and protein-DNA association/dissociation), and their ionic strength dependence, even under conditions where the two processes are coupled. Our analysis indicates interesting differences in the ionic strength dependence of the bi- versus unimolecular steps. At moderate [KCl] (100-500 mM), nearly all the ionic strength dependence to the overall equilibrium binding affinity appears in the bimolecular association/dissociation of an initial, presumably weakly bent, encounter complex, with a slope SKbi ≈ 8 describing the loglog-dependence of the equilibrium constant to form this complex on [KCl]. In contrast, the unimolecular equilibrium constant to form the fully wrapped specific complex from the initial complex is nearly independent of [KCl], with SKuni < 0.5. This result is counterintuitive because there

  15. Using integral dispersion relations to extend the LHC reach for new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Peter B.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-02-01

    Many models of electroweak symmetry breaking predict new particles with masses at or just beyond LHC energies. Even if these particles are too massive to be produced on-shell at the LHC, it may be possible to see evidence of their existence through the use of integral dispersion relations (IDRs). Making use of Cauchy's integral formula and the analyticity of the scattering amplitude, IDRs are sensitive in principle to changes in the cross section at arbitrarily large energies. We investigate some models of new physics. We find that a sudden, order-one increase in the cross section above new particle mass thresholds can be inferred well below the threshold energy. On the other hand, for two more physical models of particle production, we show that the reach in energy and the signal strength of the IDR technique is greatly reduced. The peak sensitivity for the IDR technique is shown to occur when the new particle masses are near the machine energy, an energy where direct production of new particles is kinematically disallowed, phase-space suppressed, or, if applicable, suppressed by the soft parton distribution functions. Thus, IDRs do extend the reach of the LHC, but only to a window around Mχ˜√sLHC .

  16. [Learning disorders in school children. An integrative approach, importance of the biological component and relational dimension].

    PubMed

    Balottin, U; Castellani, G; Guglielmino, C; Zambrino, C A; Borgatti, R

    1991-11-01

    This paper concerns the development of a diagnostic procedure for learning disorders, in line with a multifactorial approach in which the contributions of the organic and psychogenetic points of view are integrated to form a common interpretative model. The aim is to identify strategies for intervening at different levels. We examined 10 patients with learning disorders which came consecutively to our Division of Child Neuropsychiatry and an equal number of control subjects which were as old as the patients and begin school at the correct age. We used an integrative approach: we interviewed parents to know history, the relational, familial and sociocultural features and moreover, organic problems, if any, neurological examination and, if necessary, skull x-ray, EEG, skull CT; psychodynamic interview, drawing of human figure and family drawing; WISC; Bender test, Stambak test, Rorschach test, Blacky Pictures test. All the variables that could be quantified from the diagnostic protocols were compared statistically. Assessment of our case histories gives weight to the hypothesis of a multifactorial pathogenesis. We did find psychodynamic problems in all cases, and were able to identify aspects of generalised, and in particular, epistemophilic inhibition.

  17. Translational use of event-related potentials to assess circuit integrity in ASD.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Sahin, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Deficits in social cognition are the defining characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social cognition requires the integration of several neural circuits in a time-sensitive fashion, so impairments in social interactions could arise as a result of alterations in network connectivity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has revealed abnormalities in event related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory and visual sensory stimuli in humans with ASD, indicating disruption of neural connectivity. Similar abnormalities in sensory-evoked ERPs have been observed in animal models of ASD, suggesting that ERPs have the potential to provide a translational biomarker of the disorder. People with ASD also have abnormal ERPs in response to auditory and visual social stimuli, demonstrating functional disruption of the social circuit. To assess the integrity of the social circuit and characterize biomarkers of circuit dysfunction, novel EEG paradigms that use social stimuli to induce ERPs should be developed for use in animal models. The identification of a socially-relevant ERP that is consistent in animal models and humans would facilitate the development of pharmacological treatment strategies for the social impairments in ASD and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Hibbs, Carina S.; Shapiro, Kimron L.; Bracewell, R. Martyn; Singh, Krish D.; Linden, David E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80–100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination. PMID:21940605

  19. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Hibbs, Carina S; Shapiro, Kimron L; Bracewell, R Martyn; Singh, Krish D; Linden, David E J

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80-100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination.

  20. Independent representation of parts and the relations between them: evidence from integrative agnosia.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Peterson, Mary A; Moscovitch, Morris; Suzuki, Satoru

    2006-10-01

    Whether objects are represented as a collection of parts whose relations are coded independently remains a topic of ongoing discussion among theorists in the domain of shape perception. S. M., an individual with integrative agnosia, and neurologically intact ("normal") individuals learned initially to identify 4 target objects constructed of 2 simple volumetric parts. At test, the targets were mixed with distractors, some of which could be discriminated from the targets on the basis of a mismatching part, whereas the rest could be discriminated only on the basis of the altered spatial arrangements of parts. S. M. learned to identify the target objects, although at a rate slower than that of the normal participants. At test, he correctly rejected distractors on the basis of mismatching parts but was profoundly impaired at rejecting distractors made of the same local components but with mismatching spatial arrangements. These results suggest that encoding the spatial arrangements of parts of an object requires a mechanism that is different from that required for encoding the shape of individual parts, with the former selectively compromised in integrative agnosia.

  1. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement.

  2. Path integral method for predicting relative binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mulakala, Chandrika; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel approach for computing biomolecular interaction binding affinities based on a simple path integral solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. Computing the free energy of protein-ligand interactions can expedite structure-based drug design. Traditionally, the problem is seen through the lens of statistical thermodynamics. The computations can become, however, prohibitively long for the change in the free energy upon binding to be determined accurately. In this work we present a different approach based on a stochastic kinetic formalism. Inspired by Feynman's path integral formulation, we extend the theory to classical interacting systems. The ligand is modeled as a Brownian particle subjected to the effective non-bonding interaction potential of the receptor. This allows the calculation of the relative binding affinities of interacting biomolecules in water to be computed as a function of the ligand's diffusivity and the curvature of the potential surface in the vicinity of the binding minimum. The calculation is thus exceedingly rapid. In test cases, the correlation coefficient between actual and computed free energies is >0.93 for accurate data-sets. PMID:19275144

  3. Emergent Stimulus Relations Depend on Stimulus Correlation and Not on Reinforcement Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minster, Sara Tepaeru; Elliffe, Douglas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether novel stimulus relations would emerge from stimulus correlations when those relations explicitly conflicted with reinforced relations. In a symbolic matching-to-sample task using kanji characters as stimuli, we arranged class-specific incorrect comparison stimuli in each of three classes. After presenting either Ax…

  4. R-CBM in Spanish and in English: Differential Relations Depending on Student Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how performance on reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) in Spanish is related to performance on R-CBM in English. Parallel process growth models and quantile regression analyses were used to examine the relations between initial benchmark scores and growth and the consistency of the relations across student reading…

  5. Integrative network analysis reveals time-dependent molecular events underlying left ventricular remodeling in post-myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Pinet, Florence; Cuvelliez, Marie; Kelder, Thomas; Amouyel, Philippe; Radonjic, Marijana; Bauters, Christophe

    2017-02-03

    To elucidate the time-resolved molecular events underlying the LV remodeling (LVR) process, we developed a large-scale network model that integrates the 24 molecular variables (plasma proteins and non-coding RNAs) collected in the REVE-2 study at four time points (baseline, 1month, 3months and 1year) after MI. The REVE-2 network model was built by extending the set of REVE-2 variables with their mechanistic context based on known molecular interactions (1310 nodes and 8639 edges). Changes in the molecular variables between the group of patients with high LVR (>20%) and low LVR (<20%) were used to identify active network modules within the clusters associated with progression of LVR, enabling assessment of time-resolved molecular changes. Although the majority of molecular changes occur at the baseline, two network modules specifically show an increasing number of active molecules throughout the post-MI follow up: one involved in muscle filament sliding, containing the major troponin forms and tropomyosin proteins, and the other associated with extracellular matrix disassembly, including matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and laminin proteins. For the first time, integrative network analysis of molecular variables collected in REVE-2 patients with known molecular interactions allows insight into time-dependent mechanisms associated with LVR following MI, linking specific processes with LV structure alteration. In addition, the REVE-2 network model provides a shortlist of prioritized putative novel biomarker candidates for detection of LVR after MI event associated with a high risk of heart failure and is a valuable resource for further hypothesis generation.

  6. Developmental plasticity of spatial hearing following asymmetric hearing loss: context-dependent cue integration and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J

    2013-12-27

    Under normal hearing conditions, comparisons of the sounds reaching each ear are critical for accurate sound localization. Asymmetric hearing loss should therefore degrade spatial hearing and has become an important experimental tool for probing the plasticity of the auditory system, both during development and adulthood. In clinical populations, hearing loss affecting one ear more than the other is commonly associated with otitis media with effusion, a disorder experienced by approximately 80% of children before the age of two. Asymmetric hearing may also arise in other clinical situations, such as after unilateral cochlear implantation. Here, we consider the role played by spatial cue integration in sound localization under normal acoustical conditions. We then review evidence for adaptive changes in spatial hearing following a developmental hearing loss in one ear, and show that adaptation may be achieved either by learning a new relationship between the altered cues and directions in space or by changing the way different cues are integrated in the brain. We next consider developmental plasticity as a source of vulnerability, describing maladaptive effects of asymmetric hearing loss that persist even when normal hearing is provided. We also examine the extent to which the consequences of asymmetric hearing loss depend upon its timing and duration. Although much of the experimental literature has focused on the effects of a stable unilateral hearing loss, some of the most common hearing impairments experienced by children tend to fluctuate over time. We therefore propose that there is a need to bridge this gap by investigating the effects of recurring hearing loss during development, and outline recent steps in this direction. We conclude by arguing that this work points toward a more nuanced view of developmental plasticity, in which plasticity may be selectively expressed in response to specific sensory contexts, and consider the clinical implications of this.

  7. Situational awareness, relational coordination and integrated care delivery to hospitalized elderly in The Netherlands: a comparison between hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that interprofessional collaboration is crucial for integrated care delivery, yet we are still unclear about the underlying mechanisms explaining effectiveness of integrated care delivery to older patients. In addition, we lack research comparing integrated care delivery between hospitals. Therefore, this study aims to (i) provide insight into the underlying components ‘relational coordination’ and ‘situational awareness’ of integrated care delivery and the role of team and organizational context in integrated care delivery; and (ii) compare situational awareness, relational coordination, and integrated care delivery of different hospitals in the Netherlands. Methods This cross-sectional study took place in 2012 among professionals from three different hospitals involved in the delivery of care to older patients. A total of 215 professionals filled in the questionnaire (42% response rate).Descriptive statistics and paired-sample t-tests were used to investigate the level of situational awareness, relational coordination, and integrated care delivery in the three different hospitals. Correlation and multilevel analyses were used to investigate the relationship between background characteristics, team context, organizational context, situational awareness, relational coordination and integrated care delivery. Results No differences in background characteristics, team context, organizational context, situational awareness, relational coordination and integrated care delivery were found among the three hospitals. Correlational analysis revealed that situational awareness (r = 0.30; p < 0.01), relational coordination (r = 0.17; p < 0.05), team climate (r = 0.29; p < 0.01), formal internal communication (r = 0.46; p < 0.01), and informal internal communication (r = 0.36; p < 0.01) were positively associated with integrated care delivery. Stepwise multilevel analyses showed that formal internal

  8. Family-health professional relations in pediatric weight management: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Farnesi, B C; Ball, G D C; Newton, A S

    2012-06-01

    In this integrative review, we examined contemporary literature in pediatric weight management to identify characteristics that contribute to the relationship between families and health professionals and describe how these qualities can inform healthcare practices for obese children and families receiving weight management care. We searched literature published from 1980 to 2010 in three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL). Twenty-four articles identified family-health professional relationships were influenced by the following: health professionals' weight-related discussions and approaches to care; and parents' preferences regarding weight-related terminology and expectations of healthcare delivery. There was considerable methodological heterogeneity in the types of reports (i.e. qualitative studies, review articles, commentaries) included in this review. Overall, the findings have implications for establishing a positive clinical relationship between families and health professionals, which include being sensitive when discussing weight-related issues, using euphemisms when talking about obesity, demonstrating a non-judgmental and supportive attitude and including the family (children and parents) in healthcare interactions. Experimental research, clinical interventions and longitudinal studies are needed to build on the current evidence to determine how best to establish a collaborative partnership between families and health professionals and whether such a partnership improves treatment adherence, reduces intervention attrition and enhances pediatric weight management success.

  9. An integrated database of wood-formation related genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-06-16

    Wood, which consists mainly of plant cell walls, is an extremely important resource in daily lives. Genes whose products participate in the processes of cell wall and wood formation are therefore major subjects of plant science research. The Wood-Formation Related Genes database (WFRGdb, http://me.lzu.edu.cn/woodformation/) serves as a data resource center for genes involved in wood formation. To create this database, we collected plant genome data published in other online databases and predicted all cell wall and wood formation related genes using BLAST and HMMER. To date, 47 gene families and 33 transcription factors from 57 genomes (28 herbaceous, 22 woody and 7 non-vascular plants) have been covered and more than 122,000 genes have been checked and recorded. To provide easy access to these data, we have developed several search methods, which make it easy to download targeted genes or groups of genes free of charge in FASTA format. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses are also available online. WFRGdb brings together cell wall and wood formation related genes from all available plant genomes, and provides an integrative platform for gene inquiry, downloading and analysis. This database will therefore be extremely useful for those who focuses on cell wall and wood research.

  10. Age-related differences in practice-dependent resting-state functional connectivity related to motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Decreased neural plasticity is observed with healthy ageing in the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex thought to participate in motor learning and memory consolidation processes. In the present magnetoencephalography study, the post-training reorganization of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and its relation with motor learning and early consolidation in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) healthy participants were investigated. At the behavioral level, participants were trained on a motor sequence learning task then retested 20-30 min later for transient offline gains in performance. Using a sensorimotor seed-based approach, rsFC relying on beta band power envelope correlation was estimated immediately before and 10 min after the learning episode. Post-training changes in rsFC (from before to after learning) were correlated with motor learning performance and with the offline improvement in performance within the hour after learning. Young and old participants exhibited differential patterns of sensorimotor-related rsFC, bearing specific relationships with motor learning and consolidation. Our findings suggest that rsFC changes following learning reflect the offline processing of the new motor skill and contribute to the early memory consolidation within the hour after learning. Furthermore, differences in post-training changes in rsFC between young and old participants support the hypothesis that ageing modulates the neural circuits underlying the learning of a new motor skill and the early subsequent consolidation stages. Hum Brain Mapp 38:923-937, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. β-amyloid disrupts human NREM slow waves and related hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Mander, Bryce A.; Marks, Shawn M.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Independent evidence associates β-amyloid pathology with both NREM sleep disruption and memory impairment in older adults. However, whether the influence of β-amyloid pathology on hippocampus-dependent memory is, in part, driven by impairments of NREM slow wave activity (SWA) and associated overnight memory consolidation is unknown. Here, we show that β-amyloid burden within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is significantly correlated with the severity of impairment in NREM SWA generation. Moreover, reduced NREM SWA generation was further associated with impaired overnight memory consolidation and impoverished hippocampal-neocortical memory transformation. Furthermore, structural equation models revealed that the association between mPFC β-amyloid pathology and impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation is not direct, but instead, statistically depends on the intermediary factor of diminished NREM SWA. By linking β-amyloid pathology with impaired NREM SWA, these data implicate sleep disruption as a novel mechanistic pathway through which β-amyloid pathology may contribute to hippocampus-dependent cognitive decline in the elderly. PMID:26030850

  12. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and glutathione is required for NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1)-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Izabella; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes in animals and plants. Although its significant influence on plant immunity is well known, information about the exact regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the defense response to pathogens is still limited. We used genetic, biochemical, pharmacological approaches in combination with infection experiments to investigate the NO-triggered salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense response in Arabidopsis thaliana. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) promoted the nuclear accumulation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) protein accompanied by an elevated SA concentration and the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, leading to induced resistance of A. thaliana against Pseudomonas infection. Moreover, NO induced a rapid change in the glutathione status, resulting in increased concentrations of glutathione, which is required for SA accumulation and activation of the NPR1-dependent defense response. Our data imply crosstalk between NO and glutathione, which is integral to the NPR1-dependent defense signaling pathway, and further demonstrate that glutathione is not only an important cellular redox buffer but also a signaling molecule in the plant defense response.

  13. Time-Dependent and Time-Integrated Angular Analysis of B -> phi Ks pi0 and B -> phi K+ pi-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V

    2008-08-04

    We perform a time-dependent and time-integrated angular analysis of the B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}K*(892){sup 0}, {psi}K*{sub 2}(1430{sup 0}), and {psi}(K{pi}){sub S-wave}{sup 0} decays with the final sample of about 465 million B{bar B} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay, nine parameters for the vector-tensor decay, and three parameters for the vector-scalar decay, including the branching fractions, CP-violation parameters, and parameters sensitive to final state interaction. We use the dependence on the K{pi} invariant mass of the interference between the scalar and vector or tensor components to resolve discrete ambiguities of the strong and weak phases. We use the time-evolution of the B {yields} {psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel to extract the CP-violation phase difference {Delta}{phi}{sub 00} = 0.28 {+-} 0.42 {+-} 0.04 between the B and {bar B} decay amplitudes. When the B {yields} {psi}K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} channel is included, the fractions of longitudinal polarization f{sub L} of the vector-vector and vector-tensor decay modes are measured to be 0.494 {+-} 0.034 {+-} 0.013 and 0.901{sub -0.058}{sup +0.046} {+-} 0.037, respectively. This polarization pattern requires the presence of a helicity-plus amplitude in the vector-vector decay from a presently unknown source.

  14. The Relation of Patient Dependence to Home Health Aide Use in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Rachel K.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Brandt, Jason; Blacker, Deborah; Albert, Marilyn S.; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Background Although there has been much research devoted to understanding the predictors of nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, there is currently a lack of research concerning the predictors of home health care. The objective of this study was to examine whether the Dependence Scale can predict home health aide (HHA) use. Methods The sample is drawn from the Predictors Study, a large, multicenter cohort of patients with probable AD, prospectively followed annually for up to 7 years in three university-based AD centers in the United States. Markov analyses (n = 75) were used to calculate annual transition probabilities for the “new onset” of HHA use (instances where an HHA was absent at the previous visit, but present at the next visit) as a function of HHA presence at the preceding year’s visit and dependence level at that preceding year’s visit. Results The dependence level at the previous year’s visit was a significant predictor of HHA use at the next year’s visit. Three specific items of the Dependence Scale (needing household chores done for oneself, needing to be watched or kept company when awake, and needing to be escorted when outside) were significant predictors of the presence of an HHA. Conclusion The Dependence Scale is a valuable tool for predicting HHA use in AD patients. Obtaining a better understanding of home health care in AD patients may help delay NHP and have a positive impact on the health and well-being of both the caregiver and the patient. PMID:18840808

  15. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students' individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis.

  16. Does Feedback-Related Brain Response during Reinforcement Learning Predict Socio-motivational (In-)dependence in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Raufelder, Diana; Boehme, Rebecca; Romund, Lydia; Golde, Sabrina; Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1) a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2) its potential neurobiological basis. PMID:27199873

  17. Distress Tolerance as a Correlate of Tobacco Dependence and Motivation: Incremental Relations over and above Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Michael A; Khoddam, Rubin; Greenberg, Jodie B; Dyal, Stephanie R; Ameringer, Katherine J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-12-11

    Distress tolerance-the capacity to withstand distressing states-is implicated in the etiology of regular smoking. The present study extends past resarch by examining whether relations between perceived distress tolerance and smoking-related factors: (1) differ across subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, Absorption); (2) extend across measures of dependence, negative reinforcement smoking, and craving; and (3) are incremental to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results showed that global distress tolerance was associated with measures of dependence, negative reinforcement, and craving even after controlling for affective symptomatology. Subdimensions of distress tolerance were not uniquely related to smoking outcomes in unadjusted or adjusted models. These findings suggest that: (a) distress tolerance is uniquely implicated in smoking over and above affective symptomatology; and (b) specific subdimensions of distress tolerance do not provide more information about smoking-related characteristics than global dimensions; and

  18. Determination of the temperature-dependent cell membrane permeabilities using microfluidics with integrated flow and temperature control.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cifeng; Ji, Fujun; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong

    2017-02-28

    We developed an integrated microfluidic platform for instantaneous flow and localized temperature control. The platform consisted of a flow-focusing region for sample delivery and a cross-junction region embedded with a microheater for cell trapping and localized temperature control by using an active feedback control system. We further used it to measure the membrane transport properties of Jurkat cells, including the osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) and cell membrane permeabilities to water (Lp) and to cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in this study) (PS) at various temperatures (room temperature, 30 °C, and 37 °C). Such characteristics of cells are of great importance in many applications, especially in optimal cryopreservation. With the results, the corresponding activation energy for water and CPA transport was calculated. The comparison of the results from the current study with reference data indicates that the developed platform is a reliable tool for temperature-dependent cell behavior study, which provides valuable tools for general cell manipulation applications with precise temperature control.

  19. Time dependent integration of matrix metalloproteinases and their targeted substrates directs axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis following central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Linda L.; Chan, Julie L.; Doperalski, Adele E.; Reeves, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many investigators have reported how extracellular matrix molecules act to regulate neuroplasticity. The majority of these studies involve proteins which are targets of matrix metalloproteinases. Importantly, these enzyme/substrate interactions can regulate degenerative and regenerative phases of synaptic plasticity, directing axonal and dendritic reorganization after brain insult. The present review first summarizes literature support for the prominent role of matrix metalloproteinases during neuroregeneration, followed by a discussion of data contrasting adaptive and maladaptive neuroplasticity that reveals time-dependent metalloproteinase/substrate regulation of postinjury synaptic recovery. The potential for these enzymes to serve as therapeutic targets for enhanced neuroplasticity after brain injury is illustrated with experiments demonstrating that metalloproteinase inhibitors can alter adaptive and maladaptive outcome. Finally, the complexity of metalloproteinase role in reactive synaptogenesis is revealed in new studies showing how these enzymes interact with immune molecules to mediate cellular response in the local regenerative environment, and are regulated by novel binding partners in the brain extracellular matrix. Together, these different examples show the complexity with which metalloproteinases are integrated into the process of neuroregeneration, and point to a promising new angle for future studies exploring how to facilitate brain plasticity. PMID:25206824

  20. The Relative Position Priming Effect Depends on Whether Letters Are Vowels or Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., "csn" as a prime for "casino"). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only…

  1. Field dependence, practice, and low illumination as related to the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test.

    PubMed

    Fine, B J; Kobrick, J L

    1980-12-01

    36 soldiers were given the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test to: (1) validate published research in which a field-independent group had been found to be superior to a field-dependent group in discriminating colors; (2) investigate unpublished findings in which substantial improvement had been shown in color discrimination performance over five trials of the 100-Hue test; and (3) determine the effect of low illumination (25 w, 40 w, and 60 w) on performance of the color discrimination task. A field-independent and a field-central group each performed significantly more accurately than a field-dependent group under all illumination conditions, and seven repeated administrations at 100 w resulted in significant improvements in performance. Color discrimination in the 25-w condition was significantly poorer than in the other illumination conditions. The implications are discussed.

  2. Influenza virion RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: stimulation by guanosine and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, D; Kitron, N

    1975-01-01

    The activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of several influenza viruses is stimulated by guanosine. Depending upon the virus strain used, the stimulation of initial reaction rate is up to 10-fold. 5'-GMP, 3',5'-cyclic GMP, and 5'-GDP show lesser stimulation effects. No other nucleosides of 5'-NMPs stimulate, but the dinucleoside monophosphates GpG and GpC show large stimulations. We present evidence that the stimulation represents preferential initiation of genome complementary RNA chains with guanosine: (i) [3-H] guanosine is incorporated specifically at the 5'terminus of RNA in polymerase reaction mixes in vitro. (ii) This incorporation reaction has several properties similar to those of the virion polymerase elongation reaction. (iii) RNA made in the stimulated reaction behaves as complementary RNA in annealing kinetic studies, as does RNA labeled with [3-H]guanosine. PMID:163915

  3. A Shortest Dependency Path Based Convolutional Neural Network for Protein-Protein Relation Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Chanqin

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art methods for protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction are primarily based on kernel methods, and their performances strongly depend on the handcraft features. In this paper, we tackle PPI extraction by using convolutional neural networks (CNN) and propose a shortest dependency path based CNN (sdpCNN) model. The proposed method (1) only takes the sdp and word embedding as input and (2) could avoid bias from feature selection by using CNN. We performed experiments on standard Aimed and BioInfer datasets, and the experimental results demonstrated that our approach outperformed state-of-the-art kernel based methods. In particular, by tracking the sdpCNN model, we find that sdpCNN could extract key features automatically and it is verified that pretrained word embedding is crucial in PPI task. PMID:27493967

  4. Actions of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis: relation to use, abuse, dependence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-04-01

    Cannabis use disorders have been recently identified as a relevant clinical issue: a subset of cannabis smokers seeks treatment for their cannabis use, yet few succeed in maintaining long-term abstinence. The rewarding and positive reinforcing effects of the primary psychoactive component of smoked cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. The CB1 receptor has also been shown to mediate cannabinoid dependence and expression of withdrawal upon cessation of drug administration, a phenomenon verified across species. This paper will review findings implicating the CB1 receptor in the behavioural effects of exogenous cannabinoids with a focus on cannabinoid dependence and reinforcement, factors that contribute to the maintenance of chronic cannabis smoking despite negative consequences. Opioidergic modulation of these effects is also discussed.

  5. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date.

  6. Antisocial tendencies in alcohol-dependent men and their relation to harman, salsolinol and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Podschus, J; Dufeu, P; Schmidt, L G; Sallstrom-Baum, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-01-01

    Plasma dopamine, β-carbolines (norharman, harman) and isoquinolines ((R)- and (S)-salsolinol) were examined for their relationship to antisocial tendencies in 138 drinking men with an alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 criteria. Antisociality was assessed according to the following criteria: delinquency, involvement in fist-fights and homelessness. The personality structure was documented by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire of Cloninger. An early age of onset of alcohol dependence and a high degree of 'novelty seeking' were associated with antisocial tendencies. Of the β-carbolines and isoquinolines, harman and (S)-salsolinol were significantly decreased among antisocial alcoholics. Norharman, (R)-salsolinol and dopamine were not associated with antisocial personality. The contribution of endogenous alkaloids to the biological characterization of antisocial tendencies in alcoholics is described.

  7. BRAIN MORPHOLOGY AT ENTRY INTO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE IS RELATED TO RELAPSE PROPENSITY

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, VA; Durazzo, TC; Gazdzinski, S; Mon, A; Studholme, C; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined whether any differences in brain volumes at entry into alcohol dependence treatment differentiate subsequent Abstainers from Relapsers. Methods Individuals in alcohol dependence treatment (N=75) underwent magnetic resonance imaging approximately 6 ± 4 days after their last alcoholic drink, and 40 age-matched non-smoking light drinkers were studied as controls. At follow-up 7.8 ± 2.6 months later, 23 alcoholics (31%) had abstained from drinking and 52 (69%) had relapsed. Deformation morphometry compared Relapsers, Abstainers, and light drinkers. Results Compared to light drinkers, future Abstainers had smaller brain tissue volumes in the left amygdala, hippocampal head, and entorhinal cortex, and bilaterally in the thalamus and adjacent subcortical white matter (WM), and had larger volume in the left lateral orbitofrontal region. Compared to light drinkers, future Relapsers had smaller brain tissue volumes in the right middle temporal, occipital, and superior frontal WM. Compared to future Abstainers, future Relapsers had smaller tissue volumes primarily in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and surrounding WM. Results were virtually unaffected after controlling for common comorbidities. Conclusion At entry into alcohol dependence treatment, the brain structure of future Relapsers differs from that of future Abstainers. Future Relapsers have smaller brain volumes in regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward system that are critically involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, craving, and evaluation and anticipation of stimulus salience and hedonics. Structural abnormalities of this circuitry may confer greater risk for resumption of hazardous drinking after treatment and may contribute to the definition of a neurobiological relapse risk profile in alcohol dependence. PMID:21601177

  8. Responses to Violence Related Questionnaires by Delinquent, Truant and State-Dependent Boys Receiving Treatment in an Extended Day Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanksy, Marcia; Villanueva, Augusta M.; Bonfield, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Violence among adolescent boys in impoverished urban areas is a major public health problem. We assessed violence-related attitudes and beliefs and exposures among 29 delinquent, 22 truant and 12 dependent of the state adolescent boys who attended an urban publicly funded extended day program. One purpose of this study was to assess violence…

  9. Effects of a Psychological Intervention in a Primary Health Care Center for Caregivers of Dependent Relatives: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…

  10. Perfectionism dimensions and dependency in relation to personality vulnerability and psychosocial adjustment in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Schwartzman, Deborah; Looper, Karl J; Sigal, John J; Pierre, Andrena; Kotowycz, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The present study sought to illuminate self-criticism and personal standards dimensions of perfectionism and dependency as specific cognitive-personality vulnerability factors that might contribute to a better understanding of numerous psychosocial problem areas that are relevant to coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with clinically significant CAD completed self-report questionnaires. Zero-order correlations and factor analysis results revealed that self-criticism was primarily related to personality vulnerability (aggression/anger/hostility, Type D negative affectivity) and psychosocial maladjustment (depressive symptoms, worry, avoidant coping, support dissatisfaction), whereas personal standards was primarily related to adaptive coping (problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation) and dependency was primarily related to worry. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated the incremental utility of self-criticism, personal standards, and dependency in relation to (mal)adjustment over and above aggression/anger/hostility, negative affectivity, and social inhibition. Continued efforts to understand the role of perfectionism dimensions and dependency in CAD appear warranted.

  11. Childhood Maltreatment, Perceived Stress, and Stress-Related Coping in Recently Abstinent Cocaine Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Scott M.; Paliwal, Prashni; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined associations between a personal history of childhood maltreatment and the perceived stress and stress-coping styles of recently abstinent and treatment-engaged cocaine dependent adults. Fifty men and 41 women at an inpatient treatment and research facility were administered the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (D. P. Bernstein & L. Fink, 1998; D. P. Bernstein et al., 2003), the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), and the COPE Questionnaire (C. S. Carver, M. R. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze relationships while adjusting for relevant covariates. Findings indicate that overall childhood maltreatment severity was significantly associated with greater perceived stress and greater use of avoidance stress-coping strategies. These findings suggest that having a history of childhood maltreatment may influence how recently abstinent cocaine dependent individuals experience and cope with stress. Stress and stress-coping focused interventions may be particularly indicated for cocaine dependent individuals with histories of childhood maltreatment. PMID:17563143

  12. Fluctuations of the Red Blood Cell Membrane: Relation to Mechanical Properties and Lack of ATP Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Evans, James; Gratzer, Walter; Mohandas, Narla; Parker, Kim; Sleep, John

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed the fluctuations of the red blood cell membrane in both the temporal ((ω(s−1)) and spatial (q(m−1)) frequency domains. The cells were examined over a range of osmolarities leading to cell volumes from 50% to 170% of that in the isotonic state. The fluctuations of the isotonic cell showed an ∼q−3-dependence, indicative of a motion dominated by bending, with an inferred bending modulus of ∼9 × 10−19J. When the cells were osmotically swollen to just below the point of lysis (166% of physiological volume), a q−1-dependence of the fluctuations supervened, implying that the motion was now dominated by membrane tension; estimated as ∼1.3 × 10−4 nm−1. When, on the other hand, the cells were osmotically dehydrated, the fluctuation amplitude progressively decreased. This was caused by a rise in internal viscosity, as shown by measurements on resealed ghosts containing a reduced hemoglobin concentration, which displayed no such effect. We examined, in addition, cells depleted of ATP, before the onset of echinocytosis, and could observe no change in fluctuation amplitude. We conclude that the membrane fluctuations of the red cell are governed by bending modulus, membrane tension, and cytosolic viscosity, with little or no dependence on the presence or absence of ATP. PMID:18234829

  13. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously…

  14. Teacher-Education Student Perceptions for Stages of Concern Related to Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadrini, Virginia Horak

    2013-01-01

    In this study, research includes support for technology integration in the classroom. The National Education Technology Plan Summary (2010) included research to support the requirement of teachers to integrate technology into instruction. Teacher-education student programs need to include additional training for integrating technology into…

  15. Constituent Integration during the Processing of Compound Words: Does It Involve the Use of Relational Structures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that the processing of compound words involves the integration of the constituents, not much is known about what integration entails. Three experiments suggest that integration draws on both linguistic and conceptual knowledge about the constituents and the compound word; ease of processing (as reflected by…

  16. Identification and integration of sensory modalities: neural basis and relation to consciousness.

    PubMed

    Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2009-09-01

    A key question in studying consciousness is how neural operations in the brain can identify streams of sensory input as belonging to distinct modalities, which contributes to the representation of qualitatively different experiences. The basis for identification of modalities is proposed to be constituted by self-organized comparative operations across a network of unimodal and multimodal sensory areas. However, such network interactions alone cannot answer the question how sensory feature detectors collectively account for an integrated, yet phenomenally differentiated experiential content. This problem turns out to be different from, although related to, the binding problem. It is proposed that the neural correlate of an enriched, multimodal experience is constituted by the attractor state of a dynamic associative network. Within this network, unimodal and multimodal sensory maps continuously interact to influence each other's attractor state, so that a feature change in one modality results in a fast re-coding of feature information in another modality. In this scheme, feature detection is coded by firing-rate, whereas firing phase codes relational aspects.

  17. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  18. Expertise modulates the neural basis of context dependent recognition of objects and their relations.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim; Turella, Luca; Campitelli, Guillermo; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Recognition of objects and their relations is necessary for orienting in real life. We examined cognitive processes related to recognition of objects, their relations, and the patterns they form by using the game of chess. Chess enables us to compare experts with novices and thus gain insight in the nature of development of recognition skills. Eye movement recordings showed that experts were generally faster than novices on a task that required enumeration of relations between chess objects because their extensive knowledge enabled them to immediately focus on the objects of interest. The advantage was less pronounced on random positions where the location of chess objects, and thus typical relations between them, was randomized. Neuroimaging data related experts' superior performance to the areas along the dorsal stream-bilateral posterior temporal areas and left inferior parietal lobe were related to recognition of object and their functions. The bilateral collateral sulci, together with bilateral retrosplenial cortex, were also more sensitive to normal than random positions among experts indicating their involvement in pattern recognition. The pattern of activations suggests experts engage the same regions as novices, but also that they employ novel additional regions. Expert processing, as the final stage of development, is qualitatively different than novice processing, which can be viewed as the starting stage. Since we are all experts in real life and dealing with meaningful stimuli in typical contexts, our results underline the importance of expert-like cognitive processing on generalization of laboratory results to everyday life.

  19. A preliminary analysis on the dependence of the human diseases on the relative number of sunspot.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuehua; Song, Yi

    1996-03-01

    On the basis of the solar-terrestrial relations point of view, the paper investigates the influences of solar activities upon the human race. According to the data of Nanjing Hospital for Infectious Diseases, both the curve of the occurrence of various diseases and the relative number of sunspots with time are drawn, and their related coefficients are calculated. The preliminary results show that the incidences of typhus and scarlet fever keep in step with the 11-year cycle of solar activities, they get the maximum at the same year, while other diseases are not definite.

  20. Molecular and functional analysis of the XPBC/ERCC-3 promoter: transcription activity is dependent on the integrity of an Sp1-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L; Weeda, G; Jochemsen, A G; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H; van der Eb, A J

    1992-01-01

    The human XPBC/ERCC-3 gene, which corrects the excision-repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum group B cells and the UV-sensitive CHO mutant 27-1 cells, appears to be expressed constitutively in various cell types and tissues. We have analysed the structure and functionality of the XPBC/ERCC-3 promoter. Transcription of the XPBC/ERCC-3 gene is initiated from heterogeneous sites, with a major startpoint mapped at position -54 (relative to the translation start codon ATG). The promoter region does not possess classical TATA and CAAT elements, but it is GC-rich and contains three putative Sp1-binding sites. In addition, there are two elements related to the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element (CRE) and the 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-response element (TRE) in the 5'-flanking region. Transient expression analysis of XPBC/ERCC-3 promoter-CAT chimeric plasmids revealed that a 127-bp fragment, spanning position -129 to -3, is minimally required for the promoter activity. Transcription of the XPBC/ERCC-3 promoter depends on the integrity of a putative Sp1-binding site in close proximity to the major cap site. Band shift assays showed that this putative Sp1-binding site can interact specifically with a nuclear factor, most likely transcription factor Sp1 (or an Sp1-like factor) in vitro. Images PMID:1741247

  1. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  2. Age-dependent deterioration of nuclear pore complexes causes a loss of nuclear integrity in post-mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Maximiliano A.; Raices, Marcela; Panowski, Siler H.; Hetzer, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of these multi-protein transport channels in post-mitotic cells, where the mitotic renewal of pores is absent, is unknown. Here we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of nuclear pore components, like Nup153 and Nup50, are continuously exchanged at the NPC, scaffold nucleoporins, like the Nup107/160 complex, are extremely long-lived and remain incorporated in the nuclear membrane during the entire lifespan of a cell. In addition to a lack of nucleoporin expression and NPC turnover, we discovered an age-related deterioration of NPCs leading to a loss of the nuclear permeability barrier and the leaking of cytoplasmic proteins into the nuclear compartment. Our finding that nuclear ‘leakiness’ is dramatically accelerated during aging and that a subset of nucleoporins are found to be oxidatively damaged in old cells, suggest that the accumulation of damage at the NPC structure might be a crucial event in age-related loss of nuclear integrity. PMID:19167330

  3. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) Families.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-04

    spending pat- terns of the poor . Also, some researchers believe that valuing medical care in determining incomes can distort recipients’ relative poverty ...faster than the overall cost of living, and recent surveys have found low - income fami- lies spend less than one-third of their income on food. The poverty ...AR9 995 NFARE: INCOME AND RELATIVE POVERTY STATUS OF AFDC i/ (AIDMON FA IIS11H U EN R CONIG OFWASHINGTO DC HUMN RESOURCES DIV. S4 MOV 67

  4. Force-dependent development of neuropathic central pain and time-related CCL2/CCR2 expression after graded spinal cord contusion injuries of the rat.

    PubMed

    Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike; Juraschek, Mathias; Blömer, Ulrike; Lucius, Ralph; Mehdorn, Hubertus M; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2008-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in intractable chronic central pain syndromes. Recently chemokines such as CCL2 were identified as possible key integrators of neuropathic pain and inflammation after peripheral nerve lesion. The focus of the current study was the investigation of time-dependent CCL2 and CCR2 expression in relation to central neuropathic pain development after spinal cord impact lesions of 100, 150, or 200 kdyn force on spinal cord level T9 in adult rats. Below-level pain was monitored with weekly sensory testing for 42 days after SCI. In parallel expression of CCL2/CCR2 on cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels was investigated by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry early (7 days [7d]), intermediate (15d), and late (42d) after lesion. Cellular source and anatomical pain related expression was determined by double-immunohistochemistry. Force-defined SCI led to acute mechanical hypersensitivity in all lesion groups, and to persistent below-level pain in severely injured animals. While in the early post-operative time course, CCL2 and CCR2 were expressed in astroglia and granulocytes only on level T9; there was additional astroglial CCL2 expression in dorsal columns and dorsal horns above and below T9 of severely injured animals 42d after lesion. In dorsal horns (level L3-L5) of animals exhibiting chronic below-level pain CCL2 was co-expressed with transmitters and receptors that are involved in nociceptive processing like calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), Substance-P, vanilloid-receptor-1, and its activated phosphorylated form. These data demonstrate lesion grade dependence of below-level pain development and suggest chemokines as potential candidates for integrating inflammation and central neuropathic pain after SCI.

  5. Breadth and age-dependency of relations between cortical thickness and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Habeck, Christian; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Barulli, Daniel; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have identified a large number of neural measures that could be involved in age-related declines in cognitive functioning. A popular method of investigating neural-cognition relations has been to determine the brain regions in which a particular neural measure is associated with the level of specific cognitive measures. Although this procedure has been informative, it ignores the strong interrelations that typically exist among the measures in each modality. An alternative approach involves investigating the number and identity of distinct dimensions within the set of neural measures and within the set of cognitive measures prior to examining relations between the two types of measures. The procedure is illustrated with data from 297 adults between 20 and 79 years of age with cortical thickness in different brain regions as the neural measures, and performance on 12 cognitive tests as the cognitive measures. The results revealed that most of the relations between cortical thickness and cognition occurred at a general level corresponding to variance shared among different brain regions and among different cognitive measures. In addition, the strength of the thickness-cognition relation was substantially reduced after controlling the variation in age, which suggests that at least some of the thickness-cognition relations in age-heterogeneous samples may be attributable to the influence of age on each type of measure. PMID:26356042

  6. Dysregulation of host cellular genes targeted by human papillomavirus (HPV) integration contributes to HPV-related cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Shen, Congle; Zhao, Lijun; Wang, Jianliu; McCrae, Malcolm; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-03-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) viral DNA into the human genome has been postulated as an important etiological event during cervical carcinogenesis. Several recent reports suggested a possible role for such integration-targeted cellular genes (ITGs) in cervical carcinogenesis. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of HPV integration events was undertaken using data collected from 14 publications, with 499 integration loci on human chromosomes included. It revealed that HPV DNA preferred to integrate into intragenic regions and gene-dense regions of human chromosomes. Intriguingly, the host cellular genes nearby the integration sites were found to be more transcriptionally active compared with control. Furthermore, analysis of the integration sites in the human genome revealed that there were several integration hotspots although all chromosomes were represented. The ITGs identified were found to be enriched in tumor-related terms and pathways using gene ontology and KEGG analysis. In line with this, three of six ITGs tested were found aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer tissues. Among them, it was demonstrated for the first time that MPPED2 could induce HeLa cell and SiHa cell G1/S transition block and cell proliferation retardation. Moreover, "knocking out" the integrated HPV fragment in HeLa cell line decreased expression of MYC located ∼500 kb downstream of the integration site, which provided the first experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that integrated HPV fragment influence MYC expression via long distance chromatin interaction. Overall, the results of this comprehensive analysis implicated that dysregulation of ITGs caused by viral integration as possibly having an etiological involvement in cervical carcinogenesis.

  7. Morphology dependence of the optical properties of DALM related materials[Diazoluminomelanin

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner-Brown, K.B.; Ferris, K.F.; Kiel, J.L.; Albanese, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Diazoluminomelanin (DALM) is an electroluminescent polymer which has shown significant optical activity in response to perturbing fields. The current model for this process features optical excitation of a polymer backbone containing conducting conjugation, with subsequent energy transfer to a luminescent group. In this paper the authors have performed electronic structure calculations using the AM1 Hamiltonian with configuration interaction to estimate the electronic properties of two potential models for the DALM backbone. Contrary to the conventional picture of conjugation, the phenyl groups in the DALM backbone show significant twist angles (42--55{degree}) depending on substitutional group, resulting in localized electronic excitations.

  8. Decisions during Negatively-Framed Messages Yield Smaller Risk-Aversion-Related Brain Activation in Substance-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Rena; Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    A sizable segment of addiction research investigates the effects of persuasive message appeals on risky and deleterious behaviors. However, to date, little research has examined how various forms of message framing and corresponding behavioral choices might by mediated by risk-related brain regions. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain regions hypothesized to mediate the influence of message appeals on decision making in substance-dependent (SD) compared to non-substance-dependent (non-SD) individuals. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was modified to include positively-framed, negatively-framed, and control messages about long-term deck payoffs. In the positively-framed condition, the SD and non-SD groups showed improved decision-making performance that corresponded to higher risk-aversion-related brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI). In contrast, in the negatively-framed condition, the SD group showed poorer performance that corresponded to lower risk-aversion-related brain activity in the AI region. In addition, only the non-SD group showed a positive association between decision quality and greater risk-related activity in the ACC, regardless of message type. The findings suggest substance-dependent individuals may have reduced neurocognitive sensitivity in the ACC and AI regions involved in risk perception and aversion during decision-making, especially in response to framed messages that emphasize reduced prospects for long-term gains. PMID:23148798

  9. Paradoxical relationship between RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of several opioid receptor agonists and their liability to cause dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-hua; Sun, Jian-feng; Tao, Yi-min; Xu, Xue-jun; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-gen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between the RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of opiate agonists and their dependence liability by studying several potent analgesics with special profiles in the development of physical and psychological dependence. Methods: The effects of (−)-cis-(3R,4S,2′R) ohmefentanyl (F9202), (+)-cis-(3R,4S,2′S) ohmefentanyl (F9204), dihydroetorphine (DHE) and morphine on [35S]GTPγS binding, forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and receptor internalization were studied in CHO cells stably expressing HA-tagged μ-opioid receptors (CHO-HA-MOR). cAMP overshoot in response to the withdrawal of these compound treatments was also tested. Results: All four agonists exhibited the same rank order of activity in stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and induction of receptor internalization: DHE>F9204>F9202>morphine. Based on these findings and the previous in vivo analgesic data obtained from our and other laboratories, the RAVE values of the four agonists were calculated. The rank order of RAVE values was morphine>F9202>F9204>DHE. For the induction of cAMP overshoot, the rank order was F9202≥morphine>F9204≥DHE. Conclusion: Taken in combination with previous findings of these compounds' liability to develop dependence, the present study suggests that the agonist with the highest RAVE value seems to have a relatively greater liability to develop psychological dependence relative to the agonist with the lowest RAVE value. However, the RAVE values of these agonists are not correlated with their probability of developing physical dependence or inducing cAMP overshoot, a cellular hallmark of dependence. PMID:20228826

  10. Understanding stream geomorphic state in relation to ecological integrity: evidence using habitat assessments and macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, S Mazeika P; Watzin, Mary C; Hession, W Cully

    2004-11-01

    Scientists have long assumed that the physical structure and condition of stream and river channels have pervasive effects on biological communities and processes, but specific tests are few. To investigate the influence of the stream-reach geomorphic state on in-stream habitat and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, we compared measures of habitat conditions and macroinvertebrate community composition between stable and unstable stream reaches in a paired-study design. We also explored potential associations between these ecological measures and individual geomorphic characteristics and channel adjustment processes (degradation, aggradation, overwidening, and change in planform). We found that habitat quality and heterogeneity were closely tied to stream stability, with geomorphically stable reaches supporting better habitat than unstable reaches. Geomorphic and habitat assessment scores were highly correlated (r = 0.624, P < 0.006, n = 18). Stable reaches did not support significantly greater macroinvertebrate densities than unstable reaches (t = -0.415, P > 0.689, df = 8). However, the percent of the macroinvertebrate community in the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa was significantly correlated with the overall habitat assessment scores as well as with individual measures of geomorphic condition and habitat quality. While there is a clear need for more work in classifying and quantifying the responses of aquatic and aquatic-dependent biota to various geomorphic states and processes, this study provides solid preliminary evidence that macroinvertebrate communities are affected by the geomorphic condition of the stream reaches they inhabit and that geomorphic assessment approaches can be used as a tool for evaluating ecological integrity.

  11. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  13. The Relation Between Compulsive Sexual Behaviors and Aggression in a Substance-Dependent Population

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research supports a high comorbidity between compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) and SUDs, which are both classified by increased impulsivity. Literature has also indicated that increased impulsivity and substance use are associated with aggression. However, no known research has examined the relationship between CSBs and aggression among a substance dependent population. The purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship. Participants included 349 male patients in treatment for SUDs. Results indicated that after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and age, CSBs were significantly associated with total aggression, aggressive attitudes, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. This is the first known study to examine this relationship, thus continued research is needed to extend and replicate these findings. PMID:27445453

  14. Density dependent hadronic models and the relation between neutron stars and neutron skin thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Avancini, S. S.; Marinelli, J. R.; Menezes, D. P.; Moraes, M. M. W.; Providencia, C.

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, we investigate the main differences in the lead neutron skin thickness, binding energy, surface energy, and density profiles obtained with two different density dependent hadron models. Our results are calculated within the Thomas-Fermi approximation with two different numerical prescriptions and compared with results obtained with a common parametrization of the nonlinear Walecka model. The neutron skin thickness is a reflex of the equation of state properties. Hence, a direct correlation is found between the neutron skin thickness and the slope of the symmetry energy. We show that within the present approximations, the asymmetry parameter for low momentum transfer polarized electron scattering is not sensitive to the model differences.

  15. Drosophila intermediate neural progenitors produce lineage-dependent related series of diverse neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Jacob S.; Johnston, Rebecca; Ren, Qingzhong; Lee, Ying-Jou; Luan, Haojiang; Brody, Thomas; Odenwald, Ward F.; Lee, Tzumin

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila type II neuroblasts (NBs), like mammalian neural stem cells, deposit neurons through intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that can each produce a series of neurons. Both type II NBs and INPs exhibit age-dependent expression of various transcription factors, potentially specifying an array of diverse neurons by combinatorial temporal patterning. Not knowing which mature neurons are made by specific INPs, however, conceals the actual variety of neuron types and limits further molecular studies. Here we mapped neurons derived from specific type II NB lineages and found that sibling INPs produced a morphologically similar but temporally regulated series of distinct neuron types. This suggests a common fate diversification program operating within each INP that is modulated by NB age to generate slightly different sets of diverse neurons based on the INP birth order. Analogous mechanisms might underlie the expansion of neuron diversity via INPs in mammalian brain. PMID:24306106

  16. Protein C deficiency in insulin-dependent diabetes: a hyperglycemia-related phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Milani, M R; Giugliano, D

    1990-08-13

    In 30 insulin-dependent diabetic patients protein C (PC) antigen and PC activity were significantly lower than those of matched control healthy subjects. An inverse correlation between fasting plasma glucose and both PC concentration and activity was present in diabetics, while a direct correlation between PC concentration and PC activity was observed. Induced hyperglycemia in diabetic and normal subjects was able to decrease both PC antigen levels and PC activity, and heparin reversed in part this effect. In diabetic patients euglycemia obtained by insulin infusion restored to normal the depressed PC levels. Heparin did not alter both the basal PC concentration and activity in healthy controls. These data stress the major role of hyperglycemia in determining PC decrease in diabetics, and suggest that PC reduction is probably associated to hyperglycemia-enhanced thrombin formation.

  17. Informing cancer patient in relation to his type of personality: the dependent (oral) patient.

    PubMed

    Kallergis, G

    2011-01-01

    When a doctor has to break bad news to the cancer patient, he knows that the news will put a strain on his relationship with the patient. Bad news is any information that changes a person's view of the future in a negative way. The questions: "Do you tell the diagnosis or not? How much information do you reveal? Who do you inform about the diagnosis and/or what do you tell" are very frequent during scientific discussions. Must the patients know or do they also have the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how? The aim of this paper was to describe the dependent character or type of personality, so that a therapist can make a diagnosis in order to determine the informative approach.

  18. Myocardial oxidative damage is induced by cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in human cocaine-related overdose

    PubMed Central

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Frati, Paola; Micheli, Lucia; Neri, Margherita; Cipolloni, Luigi; Di Paolo, Marco; Pinchi, Enrica; Riezzo, Irene; Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Annamaria; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse cardiac specimens from human cocaine-related overdose, to verify the hypothesis that cardiac toxicity by acute exposure to high dosage of cocaine could be mediated by unbalanced myocardial oxidative stress, and to evaluate the apoptotic response. To address these issues, biochemical and immunohistological markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were evaluated. We found that i-NOS, NOX2 and nitrotyrosine expression were significantly higher in the hearts of subjects who had died from high doses of cocaine, compared to the control group. Increase of these markers was associated with a dramatic increase in 8-OHdG, another marker of oxidative stress. A high number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic myocells was observed in the study group compared to the control group. The immunoexpression of TNF-α was significantly higher in the cocaine group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we detected a significantly stronger immunoresponse to anti-SMAC/DIABLO in our study group compared to control cases. Both cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways appeared to be activated to a greater extent in the cocaine group than in the control group. Our results highlight the central role of oxidative stress in cocaine toxicity. High levels of NOS can promote the oxidation process and lead to apoptosis. PMID:28281685

  19. Relating physical state and reactivity: humidity dependent ozone uptake on tannic and shikimic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimer, S.; Huisman, A.; Krieger, U.; Lampimäki, M.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.; Ammann, M.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are an important focus of environmental research due to their effect on climate and human health. Recent findings show that organic aerosol particles are capable of forming amorphous solids and semi-solids under atmospheric conditions [1]. Such particles should be highly viscous, leading to low diffusivity within the bulk. This would then slow down eventual chemical reactions in the bulk, thereby increasing the lifetime of the organic compounds involved. First indications of such behavior were recently shown for the reaction of thin protein films with ozone [2]. To investigate the influence of the physical state on the reactivity of atmospherically relevant compounds, the uptake of ozone on two different organics was measured using a coated wall flow tube system. The investigated organic compounds are tannic acid, which is a proxy for atmospheric polyphenolic materials, and shikimic acid, a constituent of biomass burning aerosols. The viscosity of the organic film was adjusted by varying the humidity of the system, assuming a correlation between the two parameters due to water acting as a plasticizer. The investigated humidity range was 0% - 95% RH for tannic and 0% - 92% RH for shikimic acid. It was found that both of the compounds show a long term uptake of ozone which lasts for more than 20 h. The uptake coefficient is clearly humidity dependent and increases by close to two orders of magnitude between driest and wettest conditions. At a given humidity, shikimic acid is the more reactive compound. The measured humidity dependence supports the hypothesis that the uptake coefficient is a strong function of the diffusion coefficient of ozone in the organic film. 1. Virtanen, A., et al., An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles. Nature, 2010. 467(7317): p. 824-827. 2. Shiraiwa, M., et al., Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the

  20. Integration of PCR-Sequencing Analysis with Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification for Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Caciotti, Anna; Cavicchi, Catia; Rigoldi, Miriam; Parini, Rossella; Caserta, Marina; Chibbaro, Guido; Gasperini, Serena; Procopio, Elena; Donati, Maria Alice; Guerrini, Renzo; Morrone, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ALDOB gene impair the activity of the hepatic aldolase B enzyme, causing hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), an inherited autosomic recessive disease of carbohydrate metabolism, that can result in hypoglycemia, liver and kidney failure, coma, and death. Noninvasive diagnosis is possible by identifying mutant ALDOB alleles in suspected patients. We report the genetic characterization of a cohort of 18 HFI Caucasian patients, based on PCR-sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), with the identification of two novel genetic lesions: a small duplication c.940_941dupT (p.Trp314fsX22) and a large deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1. MLPA and long range-PCR (LR-PCR) also identified the recently reported g.7840_14288del6448 allele with a surprisingly high frequency (11%) within our patients' cohort. The most common p.Ala150Pro (44%), p.Ala175Asp (19%), p.Asn335Lys (8%), and/or the known c.360-363del4 (5%), p.Tyr204X (2.8%), IVS6 -2A>G (2.8%) mutant alleles were identified in 14 patients at a homozygous or compound-heterozygous level. The integration of PCR-sequencing analysis with exon-dosage tools [MLPA and quantitative fluorescent multiplex-PCR (QFM-PCR)] led to the full genotyping of patients within our cohort and to the identification of the new deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1.

  1. Integrated in silico-in vitro strategy for addressing cytochrome P450 3A4 time-dependent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Michael; Stoner, Chad; Ayscue, Robyn; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Jiang, Ying; West, Michael; Collins, Claire; Ekins, Sean

    2010-03-15

    Throughout the past decade, the expectations from the regulatory agencies for safety, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), pharmacokinetic, and disposition characterization of new chemical entities (NCEs) by pharmaceutical companies seeking registration have increased. DDIs are frequently assessed using in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methodologies. However, a key gap in this screening paradigm is a full structural understanding of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) on the cytochrome P450 systems, particularly P450 3A4. To address this, a number of high-throughput in vitro assays have been developed. This work describes an automated assay for TDI using two concentrations at two time points (2 + 2 assay). Data generated with this assay for over 2000 compounds from multiple therapeutic programs were used to generate in silico Bayesian classification models of P450 3A4-mediated TDI. These in silico models were validated using several external test sets and multiple random group testing (receiver operator curve value >0.847). We identified a number of substructures that were likely to elicit TDI, the majority containing indazole rings. These in vitro and in silico approaches have been implemented as a part of the Pfizer screening paradigm. The Bayesian models are available on the intranet to guide synthetic strategy, predict whether a NCE is likely to cause a TDI via P450 3A4, filter for in vitro testing, and identify substructures important for TDI as well as those that do not cause TDI. This represents an integrated in silico-in vitro strategy for addressing P450 3A4 TDI and improving the efficiency of screening.

  2. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  3. Replicon-dependent differentiation of symbiosis-related genes in Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons.

  4. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana C.; Lambert, Hilary K.; Grossman, Yael S.; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K.; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The dementia of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  5. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  6. Are experiences of sexual violence related to special needs in patients with substance use disorders? A study in opioid-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Gromus, Lil; Atabaki, Armita; Pawils, Silke; Verthein, Uwe; Reimer, Jens; Schulte, Bernd; Martens, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    A history of sexual violence has been related to more complex treatment needs in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Most of the existing studies, however, included patients with various types of SUD, did not examine gender differences and focused on a small range of clinical domains. Our sample consisted of opioid-dependent outpatients treated during a three-year period in a German metropolitan region. The analysis was based on a local case register and included all patients for whom information on lifetime sexual violence was available (N=3531; 68.3% males). In a case-control design, patients with a history of sexual violence were compared to patients without these experiences regarding a wide range of clinical and social factors indicative of potential needs. Almost two thirds (65.6%) of the female patients and 10.9% of the males reported experiences of sexual violence. Victims differed from non-victims across a variety of domains, including more psychiatric symptoms and suicide attempts, more legal problems, financial and family problems, as well as a higher use of services. In contrast to a previous study among alcohol-dependent patients, no gender differences became apparent. Our findings suggest that experiences of sexual violence are an indicator for more complex needs in opioid-dependent patients of both genders. In addition to integrated trauma-informed approaches, an effort needs to be made to link addiction facilities to further institutions to meet these complex needs.

  7. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  8. Integrity of Lichen Cell Membranes in Relation to Concentration of Airborne Elements

    PubMed

    Garty; Kloog; Cohen

    1998-02-01

    This study dealt with the impact of air pollution on the integrity of cell membranes in the lichen Ramalina duriaei. The lichen was transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site in Israel to more polluted sites, adjacent to a 40-year-old town, for a period of 10 months. The concentrations of K, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, Zn, P, Ba, Cu, Mg, Na, Pb, Ca, Mn, Sr, and S in lichen thalli were compared with injury caused to the cell membranes. The study indicates that electric conductivity reflects adequately cellular injury to lichen thalli transplanted to sites near a motorway, an oil-fueled power plant and a rural community (a kibbutz). The concentrations of S, B, Al, Cr, Fe, Si, Ti, and Zn correlated with injury in cell membranes of R. duriaei retrieved from the biomonitoring sites, whereas the concentration of K in the thalli correlated inversely with the electric conductivity parameter. Leakage of K from lichen thalli as a result of air pollutants is suggested. This K leakage correlates positively with concentrations of S and Cr in transplants of R. duriaei to the Ashdod region.

  9. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    PubMed

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Walther, Sebastian; Razavi, Nadja; Van Swam, Claudia; Fisler, Melanie Sarah; Soravia, Leila Maria; Andreotti, Jennifer; Schwab, Simon; Jann, Kay; Wiest, Roland; Horn, Helge; Müller, Thomas Jörg; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  10. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  11. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  12. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-10-13

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities.

  13. Task switching in traumatic brain injury relates to cortico-subcortical integrity.

    PubMed

    Leunissen, Inge; Coxon, James P; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-05-01

    Suppressing and flexibly adapting actions are a critical part of our daily behavioral repertoire. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients show clear impairments in this type of action control; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we tested whether white matter integrity of cortico-subcortical pathways could account for impairments in task switching, an important component of executive functioning. Twenty young adults with TBI and eighteen controls performed a switching task requiring attention to global versus local stimulus features. Diffusion weighted images were acquired and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to explore where white matter damage was associated with switching impairment. A crossing fiber model and probabilistic tractography further identified the specific fiber populations. Relative to controls, patients with a history of TBI had a higher switch cost and were less accurate. The TBI group showed a widespread decline in fractional anisotropy (FA) throughout the TBSS skeleton. FA in the superior corona radiata showed a negative relationship with switch cost. More specifically, this involved cortico-subcortical loops with the (pre-)supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. These findings provide evidence for damage to frontal-subcortical projections in TBI, which is associated with task switching impairments.

  14. Attachment Styles and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism and Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; De Santis, Sandro; Carrozzino, Danilo; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment and the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency have been proposed as risk factors for suicide in adolescents. The present study examines whether self-criticism and dependency mediate the relationship between insecure attachment styles and suicidality. A sample of 340 high-school students (73.2% females), ranging in age from 13 to 20 years (M = 16.47, SD = 1.52), completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The results partially support the expected mediation effects. Self-criticism, but not dependency, mediates the link between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and suicide-related behaviors. Implications for suicide risk assessment and management are discussed. PMID:28344562

  15. Could the improvement of obesity-related co-morbidities depend on modified gut hormones secretion?

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are a worldwide epidemic disease. Usual weight loss cures - as diets, physical activity, behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy - have been continuously implemented but still have relatively poor long-term success and mainly scarce adherence. Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective long term treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related co-morbidities, among them nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mortality. This article summarizes such variations in gut hormones following the current metabolic surgery procedures. The profile of gut hormonal changes after bariatric surgery represents a strategy for the individuation of the most performing surgical procedures to achieve clinical results. About this topic, experts suggest that the individuation of the crosslink among the gut hormones, microbiome, the obesity and the bariatric surgery could lead to new and more specific therapeutic interventions for severe obesity and its co-morbidities, also non surgical. PMID:25469034

  16. Age-dependent expression of osteochondrosis-related genes in equine leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L.; Piquemal, D.; Lejeune, J. P.; Vander Heyden, L.; Noguier, F.; Bruno, R.; Sandersen, C.; Serteyn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:  Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses which has a significant impact on the horse's welfare and performance. The early disturbance in the process of endochondral ossification progresses to inflammatory and repair processes in older horses. Previously, differentially expressed genes in leukocytes of OC-affected horses have been identified. The aim of the present study is to detect age-related changes in these differentially expressed genes. Materials and Methods:  The expression of OC-related genes was analysed by real-time PCR and subsequent statistical analysis (ΔΔCT) in the leukocytes of 135 Belgian Warmblood horses divided into three different age groups: <12 months (n=47), 18–24 months (n=50) >30 months (n=38). Results:  Relative expression of genes of horses less than 12 months of age showed significant induction of the genes MGAT4A, PRKCG, MHCI, ApoB, ApoB3G, B4GALT6 and a significantly lower expression of the genes OAS3. Horses of 18–24 months of age, showed a significantly higher expression of the genes TBC1D9, MGAT4A, IFIH1, MHCIIa and MMP1. Horses of more than 30 months of age showed a significantly higher expression of the genes MGAT4A, HP, SECTM1 compared with their age-matched control groups. Conclusions:  The study demonstrates that OC-related genes are differentially expressed in horses of different ages compared with their age-matched controls. Some of the genes may be implicated in cell signalling and differentiation as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, the causal relationship between the differentially expressed genes and the development and progression of the OC lesions needs to be determined. PMID:26392886

  17. The enhancement of stress-related memory by glucocorticoids depends on synapsin-Ia/Ib

    PubMed Central

    Revest, J-M; Kaouane, N; Mondin, M; Le Roux, A; Rougé-Pont, F; Vallée, M; Barik, J; Tronche, F; Desmedt, A; Piazza, P V

    2010-01-01

    The activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) by glucocorticoids increases stress-related memory through the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and the downstream transcription factor Egr-1. Here, using converging in vitro and in vivo approaches, respectively, GR-expressing cell lines, culture of hippocampal neurons, and GR genetically modified mice (GRNesCre), we identified synapsin-Ia/Ib as one of the effectors of the glucocorticoid signaling cascade. Stress and glucocorticoid-induced activation of the GR modulate synapsin-Ia/Ib through two complementary mechanisms. First, glucocorticoids driving Egr-1 expression increase the expression of synapsin-Ia/Ib, and second, glucocorticoids driving MAPK activation increase its phosphorylation. Finally, we showed that blocking fucosylation of synapsin-Ia/Ib in the hippocampus inhibits its expression and prevents the glucocorticoid-mediated increase in stress-related memory. In conclusion, our data provide a complete molecular pathway (GR/Egr-1/MAPK/Syn-Ia/Ib) through which stress and glucocorticoids enhance the memory of stress-related events and highlight the function of synapsin-Ia/Ib as molecular effector of the behavioral effects of stress. PMID:20368707

  18. Dependence of mechanical properties of lacewing egg stalks on relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Felix; Bertinetti, Luca; Masic, Admir; Scheibel, Thomas

    2012-11-12

    Silk fibers are well known for their mechanical properties such as strength and toughness and are lightweight, making them an interesting material for a variety of applications. Silk mechanics mainly rely on the secondary structure of the underlying proteins. Lacewing egg stalk silk proteins obtain a cross-β structure with individual β strands aligned perpendicular to the fiber axis. This structure is in contrast with that of silks of spiders or silkworms with β strands parallel to the fiber axis and to that of silks of honeybees with α helices arranged in coiled coils. On the basis of the cross-β structure the mechanical properties of egg stalks are different from those of other silks concerning extensibility, toughness, and bending stiffness. Here we show the influence of relative humidity on the mechanical behavior of lacewing egg stalks and propose a model based on secondary structure changes to explain the differences on a molecular level. At low relative humidity, the stalks rupture at an extension of 3%, whereas at high relative humidity the stalks rupture at 434%. This dramatic increase corresponds to breakage of hydrogen bonds between the β strands and a rearrangement thereof in a parallel-β structure.

  19. [Family health and infant palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    PubMed

    Rabello, Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-10-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and the IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary care provided by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for it.

  20. [Family Health Program and children palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    PubMed

    Rabello, Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF): four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary cares taken by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for such.

  1. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng; Byers, B.

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Measurements of Location-Dependent Nitric Oxide Levels on Skin Surface in relation to Acupuncture Point.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yejin; Kim, Misun; Nah, Jiseon; Suh, Minah; Lee, Youngmi

    2012-01-01

    Location-dependent skin surface's partial nitric oxide pressure (pNO) is studied using highly sensitive amperometric NO microsensor with a small sensing area (diameter  = 76 μm). The pNO level of LI4 (Hegu) acupuncture point is measured and compared with the pNO level of nonacupuncture point. In addition, the mapping of pNO is carried out over the left wrist skin area one- as well as two-dimensionally. Statistically higher pNO levels near the position of acupuncture points than non-acupuncture points are observed consistently, implying tight relationship between the level of NO release of skin and acupuncture points. The amperometric planar NO microsensor successfully monitors the heterogeneity of skin pNO distribution in high spatial resolution due to its advantageous features such as high sensitivity and small sensing dimension. The current study suggests the direct connection between NO and acupuncture points and possibly provides beneficial information to understand physiological roles and basis of the acupuncture points.

  3. Protection against deprivation amblyopia depends on relative not absolute daily binocular exposure.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Donald E; Sengpiel, Frank; Hamilton, David C; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Kennie, Jan

    2011-06-16

    Short daily periods of binocular exposure (BE) can offset longer single daily episodes of monocular exposure (ME) to prevent the development of deprivation amblyopia. To determine whether the outcome depended upon an absolute daily amount of BE or its proportion of the daily visual exposure, daily mixed visual input of 3 different durations (3.5, 7, or 12 h) was imposed on 3 cohorts of kittens. Measurements of the visual acuity of the deprived eye at the end of mixed daily visual input revealed that the acuity of the deprived eye developed to normal values so long as the proportion of the total exposure that was binocular was 30% or more. By contrast, the development of functional ocular dominance domains in V1 revealed by optical imaging suggests that normal domains emerge with a fixed amount of daily binocular exposure. The latter result is consistent with the effects of any daily period of ME, or BE, or both, effectively saturating with a small dose so that the effects of ME of any length can be offset by a short period of BE. The different result for vision may reflect neural events at higher and/or multiple levels in the visual pathway.

  4. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a case related to chickpea ingestion and review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chet G; Mace, Sean R

    2007-12-15

    : Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s). Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s) without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  5. The influence of strain rate dependency on the structure-property relations of porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Begonia, Mark T; Prabhu, Raj; Liao, Jun; Horstemeyer, Mark F; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the internal microstructure evolution of porcine brain during mechanical deformation. Strain rate dependency of porcine brain was investigated under quasi-static compression for strain rates of 0.00625, 0.025, and 0.10 s(-1). Confocal microscopy was employed at 15, 30, and 40% strain to quantify microstructural changes, and image analysis was implemented to calculate the area fraction of neurons and glial cells. The nonlinear stress-strain behavior exhibited a viscoelastic response from the strain rate sensitivity observed, and image analysis revealed that the mean area fraction of neurons and glial cells increased according to the applied strain level and strain rate. The area fraction for the undamaged state was 7.85 ± 0.07%, but at 40% strain the values were 11.55 ± 0.35%, 13.30 ± 0.28%, and 19.50 ± 0.14% for respective strain rates of 0.00625, 0.025, and 0.10 s(-1). The increased area fractions were a function of the applied strain rate and were attributed to the compaction of neural constituents and the stiffening tissue response. The microstructural variations in the tissue were linked to mechanical properties at progressive levels of compression in order to generate structure-property relationships useful for refining current FE material models.

  6. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jennifer M; Robb, Calum T; Craven, Thomas; Kipari, Tiina; Walsh, Timothy S; Haslett, Christopher; Kefala, Kallirroi; Rossi, Adriano G; Lucas, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27965411

  7. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26137589

  8. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease.

    PubMed

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-05-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease.

  9. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  10. Temperature dependence of Eu-related EPR spectra in CsBr:Eu needle image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Loncke, F.; Vrielinck, H.; Matthys, P.; Callens, F.; Tahon, J.-P.; Leblans, P.; Ahmad, I.; Goovaerts, E.

    2009-05-01

    Vacuum-deposited CsBr needle plates doped with Eu{sup 2+} have been investigated with Q ({approx}34 GHz) and W ({approx}95 GHz) band electron paramagnetic resonance in a large temperature interval (4 K: room temperature). At low temperatures (<35 K), two Eu-related centers were found with different symmetry (tetragonal and orthorhombic), while in earlier studies at room temperature only one center was found with tetragonal symmetry. Possible models for the three defects are investigated, taking into account their temperature behavior, their symmetry, and the atypical values of their zero-field splitting parameters.

  11. Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function strongly depends on the relative abundance of mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.

    2012-04-01

    The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from strongly positive to strongly negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and spatial patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and strong positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most

  12. Examining Passage-Related Local Item Dependence (LID) Using Q3 Indices in an EFL Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    This paper reports the results of an analysis of a reading comprehension test using the Q subscript 3 (Q3) statistics developed by W. Yen (1984). Yen's Q3 can be a useful tool for examining local item dependence in the context of a reading comprehension test in which a set of related items is followed by a reading passage. Q3 is basically a…

  13. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  14. An Investigation of Visual Contour Integration Ability in Relation to Writing Performance in Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Wong, Agnes S. K.; Chan, Jackson Y.; Lee, Amos Y. T.; Lam, Miko C. Y.; Wong, C. W.; Lu, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    A previous study found a visual deficit in contour integration in English readers with dyslexia (Simmers & Bex, 2001). Visual contour integration may play an even more significant role in Chinese handwriting particularly due to its logographic presentation (Lam, Au, Leung, & Li-Tsang, 2011). The current study examined the relationship…

  15. On the integrability of the motion of 3D-Swinging Atwood machine and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmandouh, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    In the present article, we study the problem of the motion of 3D- Swinging Atwood machine. A new integrable case for this problem is announced. We point out a new integrable case describing the motion of a heavy particle on a titled cone.

  16. The relative position priming effect depends on whether letters are vowels or consonants.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., csn as a prime for casino). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only subset primes contribute equally to this effect. Experiment 1 revealed that this subset priming effect emerged when primes were composed exclusively of consonants, compared with vowel-only primes (csn-casino vs. aia-animal). Experiment 2 tested the impact of letter frequency in this asymmetry. Subset priming effects were obtained for both high- and low-frequency consonants but not for vowels, which rules out a letter frequency explanation. Experiment 3 tested the role of phonology and its contribution to the priming effects observed, by decreasing the prime duration. The results showed virtually the same effects as in the previous experiments. Finally, Experiments 4 and 5 explored the influence of repeated letters in the primes on the magnitude of the priming effects obtained for consonant and vowel subset primes (iuo-dibujo and aea-madera vs. mgn-imagen and rtr-frutero). Again, the results confirmed the priming asymmetry. We propose that a functional distinction between consonants and vowels, mainly based on the lexical constraints imposed by each of these types of letters, might provide an explanation for the whole set of results.

  17. Examining the Flicker-Jitter Relation of K2 stars: the Dependence on Chromospheric Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Bastien et al. (2014) have shown that short timescale photometric variations from high-precision Kepler light curves, coined "flicker", can be linked to radial velocity (RV) noise, or "jitter", in chromospherically inactive stars. Observations of the sun show invariance in flicker over its 11-year activity cycle. Therefore, we seek to examine how well the relation holds for more active stars. Here we explore the relation between photometric flicker and RV jitter by extending the sample to stars observed by the recent K2 mission for which data have been released (Campaigns 0-8). The initial Kepler sample included 12 stars with surface gravities 3 < log(g) < 4.5, effective temperatures 4900 < Teff < 5900, and chromospheric activity -5.3 < log(R'HK) < -5.0. Our sample includes over 50 stars across a slightly wider range of surface gravities (2.5 < log(g) < 5), effective temperatures (4700 < Teff < 6100), and much larger range of chromospheric activity (-5.4 < log(R'HK) < -4.1). Additionally, we provide an empirical estimate for RV jitter based on the photometric flicker. Finally, we discuss the implications of this result on future RV follow-up for TESS and other future telescopes which will produce high-precision light curves.

  18. Modulation of age-related insulin sensitivity by VEGF-dependent vascular plasticity in adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Honek, Jennifer; Seki, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Hideki; Fischer, Carina; Li, Jingrong; Lim, Sharon; Samani, Nilesh J.; Zang, Jingwu; Cao, Yihai

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying age-related obesity and insulin resistance are generally unknown. Here, we report age-related adipose vascular changes markedly modulated fat mass, adipocyte functions, blood lipid composition, and insulin sensitivity. Notably, VEGF expression levels in various white adipose tissues (WATs) underwent changes uninterruptedly in different age populations. Anti-VEGF and anti- VEGF receptor 2 treatment in different age populations showed marked variations of vascular regression, with midaged mice exhibiting modest sensitivity. Interestingly, anti-VEGF treatment produced opposing effects on WAT adipocyte sizes in different age populations and affected vascular density and adipocyte sizes in brown adipose tissue. Consistent with changes of vasculatures and adipocyte sizes, anti-VEGF treatment increased insulin sensitivity in young and old mice but had no effects in the midaged group. Surprisingly, anti-VEGF treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity in midaged obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Our findings demonstrate that adipose vasculatures show differential responses to anti-VEGF treatment in various age populations and have therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity and diabetes with anti-VEGF-based antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:25271320

  19. Temperature-dependence of stress-related phenomena at confined dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono, Rahmat

    Efforts have been made to develop a simple but physically sound model. The model was specifically proposed to capture, explain, and estimate the temperature sensitivity and strengthening mechanism phenomena in small volume material with particular reference to the roles grain boundary and surface. Model-inspired phenomenology approach was applied to reveal the key mechanisms and find directions for a more complete constitutive model. The model was developed in the limited space where diffusion is insignificant. It was assumed that the plastic flow was predominantly governed by the thermally-activated process of dislocation glide overcoming barriers. Simple mathematical functions were formulated and evaluated to model the behavior. The figures of merit functions were fitted into the experimental data to evaluate physical parameters. Normalization was performed prior to the regression analysis to extract real variables and allow global evaluation. Behavior of the small volume materials subjected to temperature variation within the range of argument can be generally condensed, described and predicted by an exponential decay model. In particular, the models are able to explain the responsible mechanism behind the observed phenomena. Important findings had been concluded through the model application along with simplified observation and analysis. Surface is not a part of main strengthening mechanism. Thin film exhibits atypical high flow stress because of high density grain boundary and dislocation density, which is a true effect of confinement. Grain boundary strengthening becomes weaker and mechanism becomes short-range in thin films with small grains. Exponential decay model explains the temperature-dependence of flow stress behavior in small volume metallic materials with physical validity. The validity is proven by finding a direct connection of the model to the established physical mechanistic model in the field. Despite of quite a few limitations, it provides

  20. Hating the cute kitten or loving the aggressive pit-bull: EC effects depend on CS-US relations.

    PubMed

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to valence changes of initially neutral stimuli (CSs) through repeated pairings with positive or negative stimuli (USs). The current study is about the moderating role of qualifiers that specify the CS-US relation during these pairings. We show successful EC with pictures of men (CSs) and of liked/disliked animals or landscapes (USs). More importantly, the same pairings resulted in standard and reversed EC effects depending on semantic qualifier of the CS-US relation. CSs loving positive (negative) USs became more positive (negative), while CSs loathing positive (negative) USs became more negative (positive). These data favour a propositional EC account (De Houwer, 2009) over a purely associative account, as they show that it is not only relevant that CS and US are related, but how they are related.

  1. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-01-16

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  2. Age-related deficit in a bimanual joint position matching task is amplitude dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive load associated with joint position sense increases with age but does not necessarily result in impaired performance in a joint position matching task. It is still unclear which factors interact with age to predict matching performance. To test whether movement amplitude and direction are part of such predictors, young and older adults performed a bimanual wrist joint position matching task. Results revealed an age-related deficit when the target limb was positioned far from (25°) the neutral position, but not when close to (15°, 5°) the neutral joint position, irrespective of the direction. These results suggest that the difficulty associated with the comparison of two musculoskeletal states increases towards extreme joint amplitude and that older adults are more vulnerable to this increased difficulty. PMID:26347649

  3. Melanin- and carotenoid-dependent signals of great tits ( Parus major) relate differently to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauwe, Tom; Eens, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, the expression of secondary sexual characteristics is particularly sensitive to stress. Here, we investigated the expression of two conspicuous visual signals in great tits ( Parus major) in a metal pollution gradient. In three study sites with marked differences in metal contamination (mainly lead, cadmium, copper and zinc), we compared melanin and carotenoid colouration of great tits. While carotenoid colouration (yellow breast) was negatively related to metal pollution, the size of a melanin trait (breast stripe) was larger in the most polluted sites. Environmental pollutants not only affect the expression of conspicuous signals but may even enhance, directly or indirectly, a signal of male quality such as breast stripe. Our results also support the multiple messages hypothesis predicting that different signals highlight different aspects of geno- and phenotypic condition of the bearer.

  4. Nutrient Concentrations and Their Relations to the Biotic Integrity of Nonwadeable Rivers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Weigel, Brian M.; Graczyk, David J.

    2008-01-01

    this study is to provide the information needed to guide the development of regionally based nutrient criteria for Wisconsin streams and rivers. In this report, data collected, primarily in 2003, from 42 nonwadeable rivers are used to describe nutrient concentrations and their relations to the biotic integrity of rivers in Wisconsin. In a separate report by Robertson and others (2006a), the data collected from 240 wadeable streams are used to describe these relations in streams in Wisconsin. Reference water-quality conditions for nonwadeable rivers were found to be similar throughout Wisconsin (approximately 0.035 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for total P (TP), 0.500 mg/L for total N (TN), 4 micrograms per liter for suspended chlorophyll a (SCHL), and greater than 110 centimeters for Secchi-tube depth (SD)). For each category of the biotic community (SCHL, macroinvertebrates, and fish), a few indices were more strongly related to differences in nutrient concentrations than were others. For the indices most strongly related to nutrient concentrations, reference conditions were obtained with a regression approach, from values corresponding to the worst 75th-percentile value from a subset of minimally impacted streams (streams having reference nutrient concentrations), and from the best 25th-percentile value of all the data. Concentrations of TP and TN in nonwadeable rivers increased as the percentage of agricultural land in the basin increased; these increases resulted in increased SCHL concentrations and decreased SDs. The responses in SDs and SCHL concentrations to changes in nutrient concentrations were similar throughout most of the State except in rivers in the southeastern part, where SCHL concentrations were lower than would be expected given their nutrient concentrations. Rivers in the southeastern part of the State had high concentrations of total suspended sediment compared to the SCHL concentrations. Many biotic indices responded to increases in nu

  5. Metabolic efficiency in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to temperature dependent growth and biomass yield.

    PubMed

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Yang, Xuelian; Reuss, Matthias; Pörtner, Hans Otto

    2015-08-01

    Canonized view on temperature effects on growth rate of microorganisms is based on assumption of protein denaturation, which is not confirmed experimentally so far. We develop an alternative concept, which is based on view that limits of thermal tolerance are based on imbalance of cellular energy allocation. Therefore, we investigated growth suppression of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the supraoptimal temperature range (30-40°C), i.e. above optimal temperature (Topt). The maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of biomass, its concentration and yield on glucose (Yx/glc) were measured across the whole thermal window (5-40°C) of the yeast in batch anaerobic growth on glucose. Specific rate of glucose consumption, specific rate of glucose consumption for maintenance (mglc), true biomass yield on glucose (Yx/glc(true)), fractional conservation of substrate carbon in product and ATP yield on glucose (Yatp/glc) were estimated from the experimental data. There was a negative linear relationship between ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations and specific growth rate at any growth conditions, whilst the energy charge was always high (~0.83). There were two temperature regions where mglc differed 12-fold, which points to the existence of a 'low' (within 5-31°C) and a 'high' (within 33-40°C) metabolic mode regarding maintenance requirements. The rise from the low to high mode occurred at 31-32°C in step-wise manner and it was accompanied with onset of suppression of μmax. High mglc at supraoptimal temperatures indicates a significant reduction of scope for growth, due to high maintenance cost. Analysis of temperature dependencies of product formation efficiency and Yatp/glc revealed that the efficiency of energy metabolism approaches its lower limit at 26-31°C. This limit is reflected in the predetermined combination of Yx/glc(true), elemental biomass composition and degree of reduction of the growth substrate. Approaching the limit implies a reduction of the safety margin

  6. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  7. Accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation method using a transfer relation scheme for electron repulsion integrals with high angular momenta and long contractions

    SciTech Connect

    Hayami, Masao; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2015-05-28

    An efficient algorithm for the rapid evaluation of electron repulsion integrals is proposed. The present method, denoted by accompanying coordinate expansion and transferred recurrence relation (ACE-TRR), is constructed using a transfer relation scheme based on the accompanying coordinate expansion and recurrence relation method. Furthermore, the ACE-TRR algorithm is extended for the general-contraction basis sets. Numerical assessments clarify the efficiency of the ACE-TRR method for the systems including heavy elements, whose orbitals have long contractions and high angular momenta, such as f- and g-orbitals.

  8. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Sumethasorn, Matt; Turner, Thomas L

    2016-11-15

    Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  9. The relation between overcommitment and burnout: does it depend on employee job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Zaniboni, Sara; Balducci, Cristian; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Using the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory as a framework, we hypothesized a maladaptive role played by overcommitment in the escalation of burnout. We further specified our model by testing an interaction effect of job satisfaction. By using a longitudinal design, we proposed a moderated mediational model in which burnout at Time 1 (T1) increases overcommitment, which in turn leads to more burnout one month later. We further expected to find a moderating role of job satisfaction in the link between overcommitment and burnout at Time 2 (T2). A group of 86 white-collar workers in personnel services in Italy (longitudinal response rate = 77.48%) participated in our study. The findings supported our hypotheses even when controlling for gender and role stressors. In particular, by using bootstrapping procedures to test mediation, we found evidence that employees reporting burnout tend to develop a maladaptive coping style, i.e., overcommitment, which in turn increases burnout over time. This relation was particularly strong for dissatisfied employees. These results highlight the importance of overcommitment for burnout escalation, as well as of job satisfaction, since it may mitigate, at least in the short term, the effect of such dysfunctional strategies.

  10. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Sánchez-Mateos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as “bath salts,” are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months. He presents paranoid delusions, intense anxiety, and visual and kinesthetic hallucinations. He also shows intense craving, compulsive drug use, general malaise, and weakness. After four weeks of admission and antipsychotic treatment, delusions completely disappear. The patient is reinfected with hepatitis C. Discussion. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex and slamming have been reported in several European cities, but not in Spain. Psychotic symptoms have been associated with mephedrone and other SCs' consumption, with the IV route being prone to produce more severe symptomatology and addictive conducts. In the case we report, paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications are described. PMID:27247820

  11. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone.

    PubMed

    Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Rodríguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Gómez-Arnau, Jorge; Sánchez-Mateos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synthetic cathinones (SCs), also known as "bath salts," are β-ketone amphetamine compounds derived from cathinone, a psychoactive substance found in Catha edulis. Mephedrone is the most representative SC. Slamming is the term used for the intravenous injection of these substances in the context of chemsex parties, in order to enhance sex experiences. Using IV mephedrone may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressive behavior, and suicide ideation. Case. We report the case of a 25-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with psychotic symptoms after slamming mephedrone almost every weekend for the last 4 months. He presents paranoid delusions, intense anxiety, and visual and kinesthetic hallucinations. He also shows intense craving, compulsive drug use, general malaise, and weakness. After four weeks of admission and antipsychotic treatment, delusions completely disappear. The patient is reinfected with hepatitis C. Discussion. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex and slamming have been reported in several European cities, but not in Spain. Psychotic symptoms have been associated with mephedrone and other SCs' consumption, with the IV route being prone to produce more severe symptomatology and addictive conducts. In the case we report, paranoid psychosis, addiction, and medical complications are described.

  12. Relative importance of evolutionary dynamics depends on the composition of microbial predator-prey community.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Dupont, Alessandra; Bass, David; Murrell, David J; Bell, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Community dynamics are often studied in subsets of pairwise interactions. Scaling pairwise interactions back to the community level is, however, problematic because one given interaction might not reflect ecological and evolutionary outcomes of other functionally similar species interactions or capture the emergent eco-evolutionary dynamics arising only in more complex communities. Here we studied this experimentally by exposing Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 prey bacterium to four different protist predators (Tetrahymena pyriformis, Tetrahymena vorax, Chilomonas paramecium and Acanthamoeba polyphaga) in all possible single-predator, two-predator and four-predator communities for hundreds of prey generations covering both ecological and evolutionary timescales. We found that only T. pyriformis selected for prey defence in single-predator communities. Although T. pyriformis selection was constrained in the presence of the intraguild predator, T. vorax, T. pyriformis selection led to evolution of specialised prey defence strategies in the presence of C. paramecium or A. polyphaga. At the ecological level, adapted prey populations were phenotypically more diverse, less stable and less productive compared with non-adapted prey populations. These results suggest that predator community composition affects the relative importance of ecological and evolutionary processes and can crucially determine when rapid evolution has the potential to change ecological properties of microbial communities.

  13. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D.