Science.gov

Sample records for dependent fluxes due

  1. Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, James W; Torres, Jorge H; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective technique to protect the epidermis during cutaneous laser therapies. Spraying a cryogen onto the skin surface creates a time-varying heat flux, effectively cooling the skin during and following the cryogen spurt. In previous studies mathematical models were developed to predict the human skin temperature profiles during the cryogen spraying time. However, no studies have accounted for the additional cooling due to residual cryogen left on the skin surface following the spurt termination. We formulate and solve an inverse heat conduction (IHC) problem to predict the time-varying surface heat flux both during and following a cryogen spurt. The IHC formulation uses measured temperature profiles from within a medium to estimate the surface heat flux. We implement a one-dimensional sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperatures measured within an in vitro model in response to a cryogen spurt. Solution accuracy and experimental errors are examined using simulated temperature data. Heat flux following spurt termination appears substantial; however, it is less than that during the spraying time. The estimated time-varying heat flux can subsequently be used in forward heat conduction models to estimate temperature profiles in skin during and following a cryogen spurt and predict appropriate timing for onset of the laser pulse.

  2. Plasma flux-dependent lipid A deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ahmed, Musahid; Liu, Suet Yi; Fang, Yigang; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of gas plasma flux on endotoxin lipid A film deactivation. To study the effect of the flux magnitude of reactive species, a modified low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with O radical flux ˜1016 cm-2 s-1 was used. After ICP exposures, it was observed that while the Fourier transform infrared absorbance of fatty chains responsible for the toxicity drops by 80% through the film, no obvious film endotoxin deactivation is seen. This is in contrast to that previously observed under low flux exposure conducted in a vacuum beam system: near-surface only loss of fatty chains led to significant film deactivation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of changes at the film surface did not appear to correlate with the degree of deactivation. Lipid A films need to be nearly completely removed in order to detect significant deactivation under high flux conditions. Additional high reactive species flux experiments were conducted using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet and a UV/ozone device. Exposure of lipid A films to reactive species with these devices showed similar deactivation behaviour. The causes for the difference between low and high flux exposures may be due to the nature of near-surface structural modifications as a function of the rate of film removal.

  3. Flux concentrations on solar dynamic components due to mispointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylicki, Daniel S.

    1992-11-01

    Mispointing of the solar dynamic (SD) concentrator designed for use on Space Station Freedom (SSF) causes the optical axis of the concentrator to be nonparallel to the incoming rays from the Sun. This causes solar flux not to be focused into the aperture hole of the receiver and may position the flux on other SSF components. A Rocketdyne analysis has determined the thermal impact of off-axis radiation due to mispointing on elements of the SD module and photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The conclusion was that flux distributions on some of the radiator components, the two-axis gimbal rings, the truss, and the PV arrays could present problems. The OFFSET computer code was used at Lewis Research Center to further investigate these flux distributions incident on components. The Lewis study included distributions for a greater range of mispoint angles than the Rocketdyne study.

  4. Chromospheric heating due to internetwork magnetic flux cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosic, Milan; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; De Pontieu, Bart; Bellot Rubio, Luis; Ortiz, Ada; Esteban Pozuelo, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The heating of the solar chromosphere is one of the most intriguing unanswered problems in solar physics. It is believed that this phenomenon may significantly be supported by small-scale internetwork (IN) magnetic fields. Indeed, cancellations of IN magnetic flux patches might be an efficient way to transport flux and energy from the photosphere to the chromosphere. Because of this, it is essential to determine where they occur, the rates at which they proceed, and understand their influence on the chromosphere. Here we study the spatial and temporal evolution of IN cancelling patches using high resolution, multiwavelength, coordinated observations obtained with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST). Employing multi-line inversions of the Mg II h&k lines we show that cancelling events, while occurring ubiquitously over IN regions, produce clear signatures of heating in the upper atmospheric layers. Using the RADYN code we determine the energy released due to cancellations of IN elements and discuss about their impact on the dynamics and energetics of the solar chromosphere.

  5. Modeling flux noise in SQUIDs due to hyperfine interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Yu, Clare C

    2012-06-15

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux noise in superconducting quantum interference devices and indicate that these spins are able to relax without conserving total magnetization. We present a model of 1/f flux noise in which electron spins on the surface of metals can relax via hyperfine interactions. Our results indicate that flux noise would be significantly reduced in superconducting materials where the most abundant isotopes do not have nuclear moments, such as zinc and lead.

  6. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  7. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  8. Turbulent transport of fast ions due to magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiwisch, Adam

    The transport of fast ions in magnetic flux ropes in a laboratory plasma is studied. Strong perturbing flux ropes (deltaE ~175 V/m, deltaB ~7 G) are generated by secondary cathode-anode pair at the upgraded LArge Plasma Device (LAPD). A 500-1000 eV lithium ion test beam is passed through the turbulent region and recollected by a gridded collimated analyzer, revealing enhanced fast ion broadening attributable to flux rope perturbations. The broadening is observed to be well in excess of Coulomb scattering levels. Monte Carlo simulation is performed with model electrostatic and magnetic fields, revealing negligible spreading as a result of the magnetic perturbations. Modeled electrostatic perturbations are observed to broaden the beam by 3.0 mm2 at the closest recollection plane, increasing as the transit time squared further downstream. Transport attributed to electrostatic fluctuations has been shown to decrease with energy while magnetic transport does not. Enhanced fast ion transport observed during the flux rope off phase is presently unexplained.

  9. g Dependent particle concentration due to sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Zouganelis, George D.

    2012-11-01

    Sedimentation of particles in a fluid has long been used to characterize particle size distribution. Stokes' law is used to determine an unknown distribution of spherical particle sizes by measuring the time required for the particles to settle a known distance in a fluid of known viscosity and density. In this paper, we study the effects of gravity on sedimentation by examining the resulting particle concentration distributed in an equilibrium profile of concentration C m, n above the bottom of a container. This is for an experiment on the surface of the Earth and therefore the acceleration of gravity had been corrected for the oblateness of the Earth and its rotation. Next, at the orbital altitude of the spacecraft in orbit around Earth the acceleration due to the central field is corrected for the oblateness of the Earth. Our results show that for experiments taking place in circular or elliptical orbits of various inclinations around the Earth the concentration ratio C m, n / C m, ave , the inclination seems to be the most ineffective in affecting the concentration among all the orbital elements. For orbital experiment that use particles of diameter d p =0.001 μm the concentration ratios for circular and slightly elliptical orbits in the range e=0-0.1 exhibit a 0.009 % difference. The concentration ratio increases with the increase of eccentricity, which increases more for particles of larger diameters. Finally, for particles of the same diameter concentration ratios between Earth and Mars surface experiments are related in the following way C_{(m,n)_{mathit{Earth}}} = 0.99962 C_{(m,n)_{mathit{Mars}}}.

  10. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  11. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  12. Spatial pattern dynamics due to the fitness gradient flux in evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    deForest, Russ; Belmonte, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a nondiffusive spatial coupling term into the replicator equation of evolutionary game theory. The spatial flux is based on motion due to local gradients in the relative fitness of each strategy, providing a game-dependent alternative to diffusive coupling. We study numerically the development of patterns in one dimension (1D) for two-strategy games including the coordination game and the prisoner's dilemma, and in two dimensions (2D) for the rock-paper-scissors game. In 1D we observe modified traveling wave solutions in the presence of diffusion, and asymptotic attracting states under a frozen-strategy assumption without diffusion. In 2D we observe spiral formation and breakup in the frozen-strategy rock-paper-scissors game without diffusion. A change of variables appropriate to replicator dynamics is shown to correctly capture the 1D asymptotic steady state via a nonlinear diffusion equation.

  13. Dependence of Global Poynting Flux on IMF By

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, Beate K.; Gjerloev, Jesper W.

    2014-05-01

    In this study we present the dependence of the global Poynting flux on the IMF By orientation. The amount of energy that enters the near Earth system from the solar wind and IMF interacting with the geomagnetic field is a function of the solar wind speed and pressure and the IMF orientation. All the various published coupling models show that the polarity of the IMF By component does not change the energy input. In contrast the global convection patterns and thus the ionospheric Pedersen currents depends on the IMF By polarity. This apparent contrast between input (from the solar wind) and output (energy dissipating Pedersen currents) raises to the question: To what extend is the global Poynting flux dependent on the IMF By polarity. We have performed a large statistical study using abrupt transitions in the IMF By component (polarity changes) as measured by the ACE spacecraft. The effect of other solar wind parameters such as the solar wind pressure is minimized by selecting events where these are nearly constant. We use electric field distribution from SuperDARN and field-aligned current distributions from AMPERE to calculate the global distribution of the Poynting Flux. We show events as well statistical results to answer the science objective. The study emphasizes the global dynamic behavior of the ionosphere in its response to changes in the external driver (IMF).

  14. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  15. Heat flux due to poloidal electric field in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The heat flux due to poloidally varying electrostatic potential is calculated in the banana regime. This electrostatic potential determined self-consistently from charge neutrality is shown to increase the electron heat flux by a factor {radical}{ital m}{sub {ital i}}/{ital m}{sub {ital e}} compared with that when this potential is neglected, where {ital m}{sub {ital e}} and {ital m}{sub {ital i}} are the masses of electron and ion, respectively.

  16. Critical heat flux phenomena depending on pre-pressurization in transient heat input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongdoc; Fukuda, Katsuya; Liu, Qiusheng

    2017-07-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) levels that occurred due to exponential heat inputs for varying periods to a 1.0-mm diameter horizontal cylinder immersed in various liquids were measured to develop an extended database on the effect of various pressures and subcoolings by photographic study. Two main mechanisms of CHF were found. One mechanism is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability (HI) which starts at steady-state CHF upon fully developed nucleate boiling, and the other mechanism is due to the explosive process of heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation (HSN) which occurs at a certain HSN superheat in originally flooded cavities on the cylinder surface. The incipience of boiling processes was completely different depending on pre-pressurization. Also, the dependence of pre-pressure in transient CHFs changed due to the wettability of boiling liquids. The objective of this work is to clarify the transient CHF phenomena due to HI or HSN by photographic.

  17. Permeate flux inflection due to concentration polarization in crossflow membrane filtration: A novel analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    A convection-diffusion equation for membrane filtration is analytically solved assuming fast crossflow velocity of a simple shear flow tangential to the membrane surface. In the direction normal to the membrane surface, solute concentration varies in a partially exponential and partially power-wise manner. The permeate flux in an asymptotic limit is proportional to the inverse square root of the distance from the inlet of the membrane channel. Osmotic pressure due to retained solutes on the membrane surface controls the profile of the permeate flux, which undergoes an inflection along the tangential direction if applied pressure is more than four times the feed osmotic pressure.

  18. The sediment-water flux of HOCs due to "diffusion" or is there a well-mixed layer? If there is, does it matter?

    PubMed

    Lick, Wilbert

    2006-09-15

    In most present modeling of the sediment-water flux of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), the flux due to sediment erosion/deposition is described explicitly by means of a sediment transport model, while the remaining components of the flux (molecular diffusion, bioturbation, and groundwater flow) are lumped together and modeled as a "diffusive" flux. This diffusive flux is usually described by means of a mass transfer approximation with the implicit assumption of a well-mixed contaminant layer of thickness h in the sediments. On the basis of recent experiments and theoretical modeling, the justification forthis assumption and the quantification of this diffusive flux are discussed here. In particular, for HOCs with large partition coefficients, it is argued that a well-mixed layer often may not exist, and, when it does, it is slow to form; that h is difficult to define and even harder to quantify; and that, as far as long-term predictions (up to 100 years) of this diffusive flux are concerned, the exact value for h probably does not matter. What does matter are the magnitudes and time dependencies of each of the components of the flux and the interactions between the diffusive flux and the flux due to erosion/deposition.

  19. Vertical heat and salt fluxes due to resolved and parameterized meso-scale Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Storch, Jin-Song; Haak, Helmuth; Hertwig, Eileen; Fast, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Using a suite of simulations with the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPIOM) at resolutions of about 0.1°, 0.4° and 1.5°, we study the impact of resolved and parameterized vertical eddy fluxes on the long-standing biases obtained when running MPIOM at low resolutions. In the 0.1° simulation, the eddy heat and salt fluxes have three features in common. First, their horizontal area averages are both upward, counteracting the downward fluxes due to time-mean circulations. Second, their divergences at intermediate depths are both negative, acting to cool and to freshen water masses, thereby reducing the major long-standing warm and saline biases of the low-resolution MPIOM at these depths. Third, both the heat and salt budgets are dominated by a balance between the divergence of eddy flux and that of mean flux. The vertical profiles of the tendency forcing due to parameterized eddies resemble those due to resolved eddies. This resemblance does not guarantee a bias reduction, as the tendency forcing terms are much less well compensated in the 0.4°- and 1.5°-simulation than in the 0.1°-simulation. When concentrating on the eddy-induced transports, we identify two situations in which the eddy effect is not appropriately represented by the GM-parameterization. One emphasizes the importance of the mean tracer distribution and the other the importance of the simulated isoneutral slope in determining the eddy-induced transports. Given the mean salinity distribution in the Southern ocean, characterized by a tongue of fresh Antarctic Intermediate Water, the salinity advection via eddy-induced transport tends to strengthen, rather than to weaken, the saline biases. Due to the density biases in a widened region of the Agulhas current in the low-resolution runs, the isoneutral slope vectors are erroneous and the large parameterized eddy-induced transports do not occur where they should.

  20. The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.

    2016-04-01

    Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in archeomagnetic field model CALS3k.4b of Korte and Constable (2011; PEPI, 188, 247-259). We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify and track RPFs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes, and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition that takes the magnetic equator as a reference. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate towards higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behaviour similar to the non-filtered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 AD is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above. Comparison of tracking of RFPs among various archeomagnetic field models was also performed and gives more complex results.

  1. The time dependence of reversed archeomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.

    2015-02-01

    Archeomagnetic field models may provide important insights to the geodynamo. Here we investigate the existence and mobility of reversed flux patches (RFPs) in an archeomagnetic field model. We introduce topological algorithms to define, identify, and track RFPs. In addition, we explore the relations between RFPs and dipole changes and apply robustness tests to the RFPs. In contrast to previous definitions, patches that reside on the geographic equator are adequately identified based on our RFPs definition. Most RFPs exhibit a westward drift and migrate toward higher latitudes. Undulations of the magnetic equator and RFPs oppose the axial dipole moment (ADM). Filtered models show a tracking behavior similar to the nonfiltered model, and surprisingly new RFPs occasionally emerge. The advection and diffusion of RFPs have worked in unison to yield the decrease of the ADM at recent times. The absence of RFPs in the period 550-1440 A.D. is related to a low in intermediate degrees of the geomagnetic power spectrum. We thus hypothesize that the RFPs are strongly dependent on intermediate spherical harmonic degrees 4 and above.

  2. Reduction of evaporative flux in bean leaves due to chitosan treatment assessed by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, N.; Cabrini, R.; Faoro, F.; Gargano, M.; Gomarasca, S.; Iriti, M.; Picchi, V.; Soave, C.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared thermography can be used as a tool for evaluating antitranspirant treatment through the measurement of evaporative fluxes. The aim of this work is to compare the leaf surface temperatures of plant treated with chitosan (CHT), a potential stomatal-closing antitranspirant, with temperatures of leaves treated with the commercially available antitranspirant Vapor Gard®, a film-forming polyterpene. The main problem in the correct evaluation of stomatal conductance at leaf level is due to the need of performing a measurement in a completely non-invasive method. The main advantage of thermographic method is the possibility to acquire information about instantaneous conditions of transpiration over a large number of plants, with no need of sampling and avoiding any contact with plants. Tests on bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris) showed the applicability of the thermal imaging to discriminate plants with different evaporation rate due to treatment with different antitranspirant compounds. Quantitative evaluation of evaporative flux and stomatal conductance was obtained through reference measurements on standards with calibrated conductance. Non-destructive gravimetric measurements were used in order to get a reliable evaluation of evaporative fluxes. In conclusion, thermographic approach, in climatic chamber, seems to be a valid tool for rapidly screening the performance of different antitranspirant products.

  3. Scene identification probabilities for evaluating radiation flux errors due to scene misidentification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manalo, Natividad D.; Smith, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The scene identification probabilities (Pij) are fundamentally important in evaluations of the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiation-flux errors due to the scene misidentification. In this paper, the scene identification error probabilities were empirically derived from data collected in 1985 by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer when the ERBE satellite and the NOAA-9 spacecraft were rotated so as to scan alongside during brief periods in January and August 1985. Radiation-flux error computations utilizing these probabilities were performed, using orbit specifications for the ERBE, the Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and the SCARAB missions for a scene that was identified as partly cloudy over ocean. Typical values of the standard deviation of the random shortwave error were in the order of 1.5-5 W/sq m, but could reach values as high as 18.0 W/sq m as computed from NOAA-9.

  4. Scene identification probabilities for evaluating radiation flux errors due to scene misidentification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manalo, Natividad D.; Smith, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The scene identification probabilities (Pij) are fundamentally important in evaluations of the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiation-flux errors due to the scene misidentification. In this paper, the scene identification error probabilities were empirically derived from data collected in 1985 by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer when the ERBE satellite and the NOAA-9 spacecraft were rotated so as to scan alongside during brief periods in January and August 1985. Radiation-flux error computations utilizing these probabilities were performed, using orbit specifications for the ERBE, the Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and the SCARAB missions for a scene that was identified as partly cloudy over ocean. Typical values of the standard deviation of the random shortwave error were in the order of 1.5-5 W/sq m, but could reach values as high as 18.0 W/sq m as computed from NOAA-9.

  5. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitude of elevation effects due to changes in solar and sky fluxes, on interpretation of single thermal images and composite products such as temperature difference and thermal inertia, are examined. Simple expressions are derived for the diurnal behavior of the two parameters, by fitting field observations in one tropic (Hawaii) and two semi-arid climates (Wyoming and Colorado) (Hummer-Miller, 1981). It is shown that flux variations with elevation can cause changes in the mean diurnal temperature gradient from -4 to -14 degrees C/km, evaluated at 2000 m. Changes in the temperature-difference gradient of 1 to 2 degrees C/km are also produced which is equivalent to an effective thermal-inertia gradient of 100 W s(exp 1/2)/sq m-K-km. An example is presented showing an elevation effect of 12 degrees C on the day and night thermal scenes of a test site in Arizona.

  6. Quantify the continuous dependence of SST-turbulent heat flux relationship on spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Furong; Sang, Huiyan; Jing, Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Relationship among different quantities usually changes in the time, spatial, and spectral domains due to the complicated dynamics in the geosystem. In this study, we propose a general statistical modeling approach to address this problem and apply the approach to evaluating the continuous dependence of relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and turbulent heat flux (T-Q relationship) on spatial scales. In the Kuroshio extension region, it is found that the turbulent heat flux (defined positive upward) anomalies are positively correlated to SST anomalies at scales ranging from 150 km to 4000 km. The T-Q relationship stays stable at mesoscales (<1000 km) with a regression coefficient α of 26 W/(m2K). However, its value decreases rapidly as scales further increase. In addition, α exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle with coherent phase at all the scales. The largest and smallest values occur in winter and summer, respectively.

  7. Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

  8. Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

    Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

  9. The study of variations of low energy cosmic helium's flux (up to 6 MeV) due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayan, M.; Davoudifar, P.; Bagheri, Z.

    2017-04-01

    In General, the flux of low energy cosmic rays varies with time due to solar activities. The cosmic particle fluxes were studied using data of satellites near the Earth. In this work, first we studied the variations of particle fluxes from 1 Jan to 31 Dec 2000 and 35 events were selected. Then we proposed a relation for cosmic particle flux as a function of time and rigidity in the time of approaching ejecta to the Earth. The coefficients of the relation were calculated using experimental data of particle fluxes from ACE satellite. Finally, we compare time variations of these coefficients for different events.

  10. Net Fluorescein Flux Across Corneal Endothelium Strongly Suggests Fluid Transport is due to Electro-osmosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J M; Cacace, V; Kusnier, C F; Nelson, R; Rubashkin, A A; Iserovich, P; Fischbarg, J

    2016-08-01

    We have presented prior evidence suggesting that fluid transport results from electro-osmosis at the intercellular junctions of the corneal endothelium. Such phenomenon ought to drag other extracellular solutes. We have investigated this using fluorescein-Na2 as an extracellular marker. We measured unidirectional fluxes across layers of cultured human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells. SV-40-transformed HCE layers were grown to confluence on permeable membrane inserts. The medium was DMEM with high glucose and no phenol red. Fluorescein-labeled medium was placed either on the basolateral or the apical side of the inserts; the other side carried unlabeled medium. The inserts were held in a CO2 incubator for 1 h (at 37 °C), after which the entire volume of the unlabeled side was collected. After that, label was placed on the opposite side, and the corresponding paired sample was collected after another hour. Fluorescein counts were determined with a (Photon Technology) DeltaScan fluorometer (excitation 380 nm; emission 550 nm; 2 nm bwth). Samples were read for 60 s. The cells utilized are known to transport fluid from the basolateral to the apical side, just as they do in vivo in several species. We used 4 inserts for influx and efflux (total: 20 1-h periods). We found a net flux of fluorescein from the basolateral to the apical side. The flux ratio was 1.104 ± 0.056. That difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00006, t test, paired samples). The endothelium has a definite restriction at the junctions. Hence, an asymmetry in unidirectional fluxes cannot arise from osmosis, and can only point instead to paracellular solvent drag. We suggest, once more, that such drag is due to electro-osmotic coupling at the paracellular junctions.

  11. Magnetic flux noise in dc SQUIDs: temperature and geometry dependence.

    PubMed

    Anton, S M; Birenbaum, J S; O'Kelley, S R; Bolkhovsky, V; Braje, D A; Fitch, G; Neeley, M; Hilton, G C; Cho, H-M; Irwin, K D; Wellstood, F C; Oliver, W D; Shnirman, A; Clarke, John

    2013-04-05

    The spectral density S(Φ)(f) = A(2)/(f/1 Hz)(α) of magnetic flux noise in ten dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with systematically varied geometries shows that α increases as the temperature is lowered; in so doing, each spectrum pivots about a nearly constant frequency. The mean-square flux noise, inferred by integrating the power spectra, grows rapidly with temperature and at a given temperature is approximately independent of the outer dimension of a given SQUID. These results are incompatible with a model based on the random reversal of independent, surface spins.

  12. Dependence of Electron Flux on Electron Temperature in Spacecraft Charging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    those at lower energies fall . For a given energy E, the maxi- mum of the flux curve is located at T=(2£/3). in agreement with Eq. (111. Figure 0... Bastille Day event, 2000. The spacecraft potential (negative kV) rises whenever the electron tempera- ture exceeds a critical value (from Ref. 7

  13. The evolution of future geogenic matter fluxes due Enhanced Weathering: Results from the Antwerp Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Weiss, Andreas; Struyf, Eric; Schoelynck, Jonas; Meire, Patrick; Amann, Thorben

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of geogenic matter fluxes in soils due the application of rock products ontop of soils is relevant to evaluate alteration of soil solutions and saturation states of solutes. In the future the practice of applying rock products will continue and areas affected will likely spread (Hartmann et al., 2013). This trend will likely be fuelled by attempts to optimize carbon dioxide removal by increasing biomass production, soil organic carbon stocks, increase crop production or afforestation. All those efforts demand a certain amount of geogenic nutrients, which need to be replaced. To investigate the release patterns and the downward transport of an array of elements, and to study their fate as well as reaction processes, altered through this practice, a mesocosm experiment was established at Antwerp University. Extended results will be presented (c.f., Weiss et al., 2014) focusing on the release and transport of DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and Mg (magnesium) in the soil column downwards after the application of 22 kg m-2 olivine powder. Elevated DIC and Mg concentrations are detected in case of olivine is applied to mesocosms with wheat and barley, if compared to the mesocsoms without plants, and without olivine. The change patterns in concentrations and fluxes will be discussed. Hartmann, J., et al. (2013) Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification. Reviews of Geophysics; 51(2), 113-149. doi: 10.1002/rog.20004 Weiss, A., et al. (2014) The overlooked compartment of the critical-zone-complex, considering the evolution of future geogenic matter fluxes: Agricultural topsoils. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 10, 339-342. doi:10.1016/j.proeps.2014.08.032

  14. Gravity Shifting Due to Distribution of Momentum in Black Hole and its Relation with Time Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeygian, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-04-01

    There are many local convection systems of heat and mass in black holes. These large scale coupled systems including planets and molten masses which generate momentum in black hole and consequently generate coupled gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Therefore black hole's gravity is shifting due to distribution of masses/momentum in its convection systems. Two massive black holes which merged at a distance of 1.3 billion light years far from the Earth, produced different momentum and energy before, during, and after the event in different locations of the black hole. This energy and momentum produced gravitational waves which radiated away and recorded on September 14, 2015 by two detectors of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational Observatories (LIGO) in USA. On the other hand, the nature of time is wavy-like motion of the matter and nature of space is jerky-like motion of the matter. These two natures of space-time can be matched on wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. And also magnitude of the time for an atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles [Gholibeigian, adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS.APR.D1032G]. ∑ ⃗R(mv, σ,τ ) = (pnucleons + pelectrons) In which ⃗Ris time flux, σ&τare space and time coordinates on the string world sheet and p is momentum. Therefore, gravitational waves which travel from black hole to us including different fluxes of time which accompaniment propagated gravitational waves of momentum. As an observable factor, we can look at the 7 milliseconds difference of recorded at the time of arrival of the signals on September 14, 2015 by detector in Livingston before detector in Hanford. This difference of recorded time of signal GW150914 by LIGO cannot be due to warped space-time, because 3002 kilometers distance between two detectors with respect to the 1.3 billion light years (distance of black hole to detectors) is like zero! So, this 7 milliseconds difference between two time's fluxes can be due to

  15. Flux-Rope Twist in Eruptive Flares and CMEs: Due to Zipper and Main-Phase Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, E. R.; Longcope, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of three-dimensional reconnection when a twisted flux tube erupts during an eruptive flare or coronal mass ejection is considered. The reconnection has two phases: first of all, 3D "zipper reconnection" propagates along the initial coronal arcade, parallel to the polarity inversion line (PIL); then subsequent quasi-2D "main-phase reconnection" in the low corona around a flux rope during its eruption produces coronal loops and chromospheric ribbons that propagate away from the PIL in a direction normal to it. One scenario starts with a sheared arcade: the zipper reconnection creates a twisted flux rope of roughly one turn (2π radians of twist), and then main-phase reconnection builds up the bulk of the erupting flux rope with a relatively uniform twist of a few turns. A second scenario starts with a pre-existing flux rope under the arcade. Here the zipper phase can create a core with many turns that depend on the ratio of the magnetic fluxes in the newly formed flare ribbons and the new flux rope. Main phase reconnection then adds a layer of roughly uniform twist to the twisted central core. Both phases and scenarios are modeled in a simple way that assumes the initial magnetic flux is fragmented along the PIL. The model uses conservation of magnetic helicity and flux, together with equipartition of magnetic helicity, to deduce the twist of the erupting flux rope in terms the geometry of the initial configuration. Interplanetary observations show some flux ropes have a fairly uniform twist, which could be produced when the zipper phase and any pre-existing flux rope possess small or moderate twist (up to one or two turns). Other interplanetary flux ropes have highly twisted cores (up to five turns), which could be produced when there is a pre-existing flux rope and an active zipper phase that creates substantial extra twist.

  16. Subsurface deuterium bubble formation in W due to low-energy high flux deuterium plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Qu, S. L.; Shi, L. Q.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-03-01

    The deuterium (D) bubbles formed in W exposed to high flux D plasma were researched by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After D plasma exposure at 500 K and 1000 K, a layer of nano-sized bubbles were homogenously distributed in W subsurface region. The D bubbles were homogenously nucleated due to the high D concentration, and the nucleation process is not related to the vacancy defects. At low temperature (500 K), D bubbles can grow by surface blistering, which caused different nano scale morphologies on different surfaces. At high temperature (1000 K), D bubbles mainly grow by vacancy clustering, which caused pinholes on the surface.

  17. Soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes due to land use conversions at the European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.; Campling, P.

    2012-04-01

    (HOC) assimilated depends on the yields, as these directly relate to potential residue production, and on the prevailing climate with cold temperatures and dry moisture regimes being less favourable. Incorporating all crop residues into the soil results in HOC fluxes that range from 1.36 tonnes HOC/ha for oilseed and 1.14 tonnes HOC/ha for cereal to 0.54 tonnes/ha for sugar beet. The HOC fluxes drop to 0.69, 0.58 and 0.05 tonnes HOC/ha respectively when all residues are removed, e.g. for bio-energy purposes. Taking into account the projected areas for cereals (65 Mha), oilseed (10 Mha) and sugarbeet (2 Mha) in 2030, shows that residue management of cereals has a much larger impact on carbon fluxes to the agricultural soil than oilseed and sugar beet. The removal of all crop residues result in a lowering of soil organic carbon stocks, a reduction of humified organic carbon fluxes into the soil and an increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. A significant minimum percentage of crop residues should be retained in the soils. Land management, land use changes and climate change have a significant influence on soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes across the EU-27. Determining the soil sequestration potential necessitates soil monitoring to provide evidence on the state of, and change, in agricultural soils, allowing to evaluate its effectiveness.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF RF LOSSES DUE TO TRAPPED FLUX IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Alex Gurevich

    2008-01-23

    Trapped magnetic field in superconducting niobium is a well known cause of radio-frequency (RF) residual losses. In this contribution, we present the results of RF tests on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large grain niobium before and after allowing a fraction of the Earth’s magnetic field to be trapped in the cavity during the cooldown below the critical temperature Tc. This experiment has been done on the cavity before and after a low temperature baking. Temperature mapping allowed us to determine the location of hot-spots with high losses and to measure their field dependence. The results show not only an increase of the low-field residual resistance, but also a larger increase of the surface resistance for intermediate RF field (higher "medium field Qslope"), which depends on the amount of the trapped flux. These additional field-dependent losses can be described as losses of pinned vortices oscillating under the applied RF magnetic field.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF RF LOSSES DUE TO TRAPPED FLUX IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Alex Gurevich

    2008-01-23

    Trapped magnetic field in superconducting niobium is a well known cause of radio-frequency (RF) residual losses. In this contribution, we present the results of RF tests on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large grain niobium before and after allowing a fraction of the Earth magnetic field to be trapped in the cavity during the cooldown below the critical temperature Tc. This experiment has been done on the cavity before and after a low temperature baking. Temperature mapping allowed us to determine the location of hot-spots with high losses and to measure their field dependence. The results show not only an increase of the low-field residual resistance, but also a larger increase of the surface resistance for intermediate RF field (higher “medium field Q-slope”), which depends on the amount of the trapped flux. These additional field-dependent losses can be described as losses of pinned vortices oscillating under the applied RF magnetic field.

  20. Scale dependent controls of stream water temperatures - interaction of advective and diffusive energy fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus

    2017-04-01

    fluxes were estimated with a sine curve model (amplitude of 300 W/m2, which includes all relevant fluxes by definition). For specific types of rivers we can clearly determine the scale transformation of WTA from being dominated by upstream processes (advective energy transport via surface discharges) to local processes (local energy budget and groundwater dependent processes). Moreover, we found for scales of 10 km and larger that WTAs can be locally more or less completely dampened out by the overlay of advective and local diffusive fluxes. Up to date this process has not been mentioned in the literature due to the lack of necessary temporal and/or spatial resolution of water quality monitoring stations. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the controls of locally observable water temperatures and should be considered for water quality management and stream ecology, e.g. for the planning of water quality monitoring stations or river restorations.

  1. Magnetic Flux Noise in dc SQUIDs: Temperature and Geometry Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    with a slope that flattens at higher frequencies as the white noise from the shunt resistors becomes significant. At low frequencies (f & 101 Hz) and...ðfÞ. We performed a least squares fit to SðfÞ ¼ A2=ðf=1 HzÞ þ C2, representing the flux 1=f noise and the white noise from the resistive shunts, to...we made measure- ments at dI=d ¼ 0, enabling us to determine the critical current 1=f noise . We verified that the power spectrum of the white noise

  2. Thermodynamics of deposition flux-dependent intrinsic film stress

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; Rost, Marcel J.

    2016-01-01

    Vapour deposition on polycrystalline films can lead to extremely high levels of compressive stress, exceeding even the yield strength of the films. A significant part of this stress has a reversible nature: it disappears when the deposition is stopped and re-emerges on resumption. Although the debate on the underlying mechanism still continues, insertion of atoms into grain boundaries seems to be the most likely one. However, the required driving force has not been identified. To address the problem we analyse, here, the entire film system using thermodynamic arguments. We find that the observed, tremendous stress levels can be explained by the flux-induced entropic effects in the extremely dilute adatom gas on the surface. Our analysis justifies any adatom incorporation model, as it delivers the underlying thermodynamic driving force. Counterintuitively, we also show that the stress levels decrease, if the barrier(s) for adatoms to reach the grain boundaries are decreased. PMID:26888311

  3. Dependence of Convective Heat Flux Calculations on Roughness Lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The zero plane displacement height (d) and aerodynamic roughness length (z0) can be determined separately for momentum, heat, and humidity by using a procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method for solving non-linear equations. This procedure is used to analyze profile data previously collected by Lo (1977) in a forested area in Canada and by Morgan et al (1971) on a field at the University of California at Davis (UCD) in the United States. The UCD data base is used to show the effects of allowing for different roughness lengths (zom,z0h,z0q) in calculating sensible and latent heat flux densities from bulk transfer coefficients.

  4. Device-structure dependence of shift in SQUID characteristics by flux trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Toshikazu; Takeda, Eriko; Takagi, Kazumasa

    1994-02-01

    Shifts in voltage-flux characteristics of a SQUID by flux trapping have been measured to study effectiveness of guard ring structure on shielding of magnetic field. The measurements are made under controlled magnetic field. Magnitude of the shift depends on the device structure. It is found that there exists a threshold field for the flux trapping, and the field is reduced by introducing the guard-ring in the SQUID. Comparing to the SQUID without the structure, the SQUID with it needs higher-grade shielding to prevent the flux trapping during cooling down.

  5. Dependence of divertor heat flux widths on heating power, flux expansion, and plasma current in the NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the dependence of the lower divertor surface heat flux profiles, measured from infrared thermography and mapped magnetically to the mid-plane on loss power into the scrape-off layer (P{sub LOSS}), plasma current (I{sub p}), and magnetic flux expansion (f{sub exp}), as well as initial results with lithium wall conditioning in NSTX. Here we extend previous studies [R. Maingi et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 196-200] to higher triangularity similar to 0.7 and higher I{sub p} {le} 1.2 MA. First we note that the mid-plane heat flux width mapped to the mid-plane, {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is largely independent of P{sub LOSS} for P{sub LOSS} {ge} 4 MW. {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is also found to be relatively independent of f{sub exp}; peak heat flux is strongly reduced as f{sub exp} is increased, as expected. Finally, {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is shown to strongly contract with increasing I{sub p} such that {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} {alpha} I{sub p}{sup -1.6} with a peak divertor heat flux of q{sub div,peak} similar to 15 MW/m{sup 2} when I{sub p} = 1.2 MA and P{sub LOSS} similar to 6 MW. These relationships are then used to predict the divertor heat flux for the planned NSTX-Upgrade, with heating power between 10 and 15 MW, B{sub t} = 1.01 and I{sub p}= 2.0 MA for 5 s.

  6. EFT for vortices with dilaton-dependent localized flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Diener, Ross; Williams, M.

    2015-11-01

    We study how codimension-two objects like vortices back-react gravitationally with their environment in theories (such as 4D or higher-dimensional supergravity) where the bulk is described by a dilaton-Maxwell-Einstein system. We do so both in the full theory, for which the vortex is an explicit classical `fat brane' solution, and in the effective theory of `point branes' appropriate when the vortices are much smaller than the scales of interest for their back-reaction (such as the transverse Kaluza-Klein scale). We extend the standard Nambu-Goto description to include the physics of flux-localization wherein the ambient flux of the external Maxwell field becomes partially localized to the vortex, generalizing the results of a companion paper [4] from N=2 supergravity as the end-point of a hierarchical limit in which the Planck mass first and then the supersymmetry breaking scale are sent to infinity. We define, in the parent supergravity model, a new symplectic frame in which, in the rigid limit, manifest symplectic invariance is preserved and the electric and magnetic Fayet-Iliopoulos terms are fully originated from the dyonic components of the embedding tensor. The supergravity origin of several features of the resulting rigid supersymmetric theory are then elucidated, such as the presence of a traceless SU(2)- Lie algebra term in the Ward identity and the existence of a central charge in the supersymmetry algebra which manifests itself as a harmless gauge transformation on the gauge vectors of the rigid theory; we show that this effect can be interpreted as a kind of "superspace non-locality" which does not affect the rigid theory on space-time. To set the stage of our analysis we take the opportunity in this paper to provide and prove the relevant identities of the most general dyonic gauging of Special-Kaehler and Quaternionic-Kaehler isometries in a generic N=2 model, which include the supersymmetry Ward identity, in a fully symplectic-covariant formalism.

  7. Estimate of neutral atoms contribution to the Mercury exosphere due to a new flux of micrometeoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Patrizia; Bruno, Marco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Meteoroid impacts are an important source of neutral atoms in the exosphere of Mercury. Recent papers attribute to impacting particles smaller than 1 cm most of the contribution to exospheric gases. In this work we calculate the vapour and neutral atoms production rates on Mercury, as due to the impacts of micrometeoroids in the size range between 5-100 μm according to the new dynamical model of Borin et al. (2009). The calculations have been performed taking into account two different calibration sources for the meteoroid flux provided by Love and Brownlee (1993) (as for Borin et al., 2009) and by Grun et al. (1985). Moreover, we give different values of the vapour production rates assuming both asteroidal and cometary sources of the dust particles (Wiegert, 2009; Dermott et al., 2002). Following the assumption that the surface of the planet is spatially homogeneous and made up of regolith with anorthositic composition (Cremonese et al., 2005) we provide the production rate for different neutral atoms.

  8. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  9. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  10. Biotin dependency due to a defect in biotin transport

    PubMed Central

    Mardach, Rebecca; Zempleni, Janos; Wolf, Barry; Cannon, Martin J.; Jennings, Michael L.; Cress, Sally; Boylan, Jane; Roth, Susan; Cederbaum, Stephen; Mock, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a 3-year-old boy with biotin dependency not caused by biotinidase, holocarboxylase synthetase, or nutritional biotin deficiency. We sought to define the mechanism of his biotin dependency. The child became acutely encephalopathic at age 18 months. Urinary organic acids indicated deficiency of several biotin-dependent carboxylases. Symptoms improved rapidly following biotin supplementation. Serum biotinidase activity and Biotinidase gene sequence were normal. Activities of biotin-dependent carboxylases in PBMCs and cultured skin fibroblasts were normal, excluding biotin holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Despite extracellular biotin sufficiency, biotin withdrawal caused recurrent abnormal organic aciduria, indicating intracellular biotin deficiency. Biotin uptake rates into fresh PBMCs from the child and into his PBMCs transformed with Epstein Barr virus were about 10% of normal fresh and transformed control cells, respectively. For fresh and transformed PBMCs from his parents, biotin uptake rates were consistent with heterozygosity for an autosomal recessive genetic defect. Increased biotin breakdown was ruled out, as were artifacts of biotin supplementation and generalized defects in membrane permeability for biotin. These results provide evidence for a novel genetic defect in biotin transport. This child is the first known with this defect, which should now be included in the identified causes of biotin dependency. PMID:12070309

  11. Evidence for a possible calcium flux dependent cardiomyopathy in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, J.L.; Wicker, P.; Manley, W.; Brendel, A.J.; Lefort, G.; San Galli, F.; Commenges-Ducos, M.; Latapie, J.L.; Riviere, J.; Ducassou, D.

    1985-05-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the impaired functional cardiac reserve to exercise in hyperthyroidism is related to alterations in the regulation of calcium transport. In 2l hyperthyroid patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured using equilibrium gated radionuclide angiocardiography at rest and during supine dynamic exercise. After a recovery period, the patients performed a second exercise study after random administration of Verapamil, a calcium entry blocker (11 pts), or propanolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist (10 pts) for comparison. The results showed i) normal resting LVEF with no significant change during exercise before any medication, ii) resting LVEF significantly decreased after Propanolol, and no significantly changed after Verapamil, iii) during exercise, significant increase of LVEF after Verapamil, and no significant change after Propanolol. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that abnormal change in LVEF during exercise in hyperthyroidism seems independent of beta adrenergic activation, and suggest a reversible functional cardiomyopathy dependent of calcium transporting systems.

  12. Direction dependence of cosmological parameters due to cosmic hemispherical asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Aluri, Pavan K.; Das, Santanu; Shaikh, Shabbir; Souradeep, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Persistent evidence for a cosmic hemispherical asymmetry in the temperature field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by both WMAP as well as PLANCK increases the possibility of its cosmological origin. Presence of this signal may lead to different values for the standard model cosmological parameters in different directions, and that can have significant implications for other studies where they are used. We investigate the effect of this cosmic hemispherical asymmetry on cosmological parameters using non-isotropic Gaussian random simulations injected with both scale dependent and scale independent modulation strengths. Our analysis shows that As and ns are the most susceptible parameters to acquire position dependence across the sky for the kind of isotropy breaking phenomena under study. As expected, we find maximum variation arises for the case of scale independent modulation of CMB anisotropies. We find that scale dependent modulation profile as seen in PLANCK data could lead to only 1.25σ deviation in As in comparison to its estimate from isotropic CMB sky.

  13. A time-dependent approach to flux calculation in molecular photofragmentation: Vibrational predissociation of HF-DF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong H.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, John Z. H.

    1995-01-01

    We present in this paper a time-dependent approach to the calculation of photofragmentation dynamics using the flux formulation. The method is essentially a time-dependent version of the flux formulation for photodissociation calculation recently pursued by Manolopoulos and Alexander. In the present approach, the partial decay width of photofragmentation is obtained by calculating the flux at a given surface using a time-dependent method. This particular time-dependent approach for photofragmentation has two principal advantages. First, it is superior in computational scaling: CPU time ∝Nα(α<2) vs N3 in standard time-independent propagation method. Second, it is quite straightforward to handle the photofragmentation process involving rearrangement with the application of optical potentials. In addition, no bound state projection is necessary using the time-dependent flux method, which is required using the time-dependent golden rule method. This time-dependent method is applied to the calculation of decay width for vibrational predissociation of hydrogen-bonded HFDF, and the computed lifetime are compared with the recent experimental measurement of Farrell and Nesbitt. We also present the results of the full dimensional (6D) calculation of bound state energies for the HFDF complex. The exact dissociation energies are calculated to be 1057.33 cm-1 for (HF)2, 1166.6 cm-1 for (DF)2, 1142.7 cm-1 for HF-DF, and 1078.4 cm-1 for DF-HF. All theoretical calculations have used the SQSBDE potential energy surface due to Quack and Suhm.

  14. Study of Dynamic Buckling of FG Plate Due to Heat Flux Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, L.

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with a FEM analysis of dynamic buckling of functionally graded clamped plates under heat flux loading with huge power. The materials of structures as well as their properties are varying in each layer across the plate thickness formulated by the power law distribution. The heat flux was applied evenly to the whole ceramic surface. The analysis was developed in the ANSYS 14.5 software. The duration of the heat flux loading equal to a period of natural fundamental flexural vibrations of given structures was taken into consideration. To implement large deflections of structures, the Green-Lagrange nonlinear-displacement equations and the incremental Newton-Raphson algorithm were applied. An evaluation of the dynamic response of structures was carried out on basis of the Budiansky-Hutchinson criterion. The studies were conducted for different volume fraction distributions and different shapes of the heat flux loading. The computation results of the heat flux versus maximal plate deflection are shown and discussed.

  15. Analytical estimation show low depth-independent water loss due to vapor flux from deep aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selker, John S.

    2017-06-01

    Recent articles have provided estimates of evaporative flux from water tables in deserts that span 5 orders of magnitude. In this paper, we present an analytical calculation that indicates aquifer vapor flux to be limited to 0.01 mm/yr for sites where there is negligible recharge and the water table is well over 20 m below the surface. This value arises from the geothermal gradient, and therefore, is nearly independent of the actual depth of the aquifer. The value is in agreement with several numerical studies, but is 500 times lower than recently reported experimental values, and 100 times larger than an earlier analytical estimate.

  16. The seasonal dependence of relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer van Allen Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; McPherron, R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that geomagnetic activity shows a marked seasonal dependence. This effect has been attributed to the seasonal variation of the Earth's dipole tilt angle exposing the magnetosphere to an increased southward component of the interplanetary field (the Russell-McPherron effect) or an increased solar wind velocity (the axial/equinoctial effect). We examine the seasonal dependence of relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer Van Allen belt. An earlier investigation by Baker et. al., (1999) found that the relativistic electron fluxes do show a strong seasonal dependence with the equinoctial electron fluxes being almost three times higher than the solstitial fluxes. We extend this previous investigation using data obtained by sensors onboard SAMPEX. This study of the seasonal dependence is based on data with a higher time resolution as compared to the earlier study. The results of our analysis show that the peak electron fluxes are shifted in time from the nominal equinoctial times. We discuss some possible implications of our observations in the context of electron energization in the Earth's magnetosphere. Baker, D.N., S.G. Kanekal, T.I. Pulkkinen, and J.B. Blake, Equinoctial and solstitial averages of magnetospheric relativistic electrons: A strong semiannual modulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, No. 20, 3193-3196, 1999.

  17. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  18. The potential for regional-scale bias in top-down CO2 flux estimates due to atmospheric transport errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Fung, I.; Liu, J.; Hayek, M. N.; Andrews, A. E.

    2014-09-01

    Estimates of CO2 fluxes that are based on atmospheric data rely upon a meteorological model to simulate atmospheric CO2 transport. These models provide a quantitative link between surface fluxes of CO2 and atmospheric measurements taken downwind. Therefore, any errors in the meteorological model can propagate into atmospheric CO2 transport and ultimately bias the estimated CO2 fluxes. These errors, however, have traditionally been difficult to characterize. To examine the effects of CO2 transport errors on estimated CO2 fluxes, we use a global meteorological model-data assimilation system known as "CAM-LETKF" to quantify two aspects of the transport errors: error variances (standard deviations) and temporal error correlations. Furthermore, we develop two case studies. In the first case study, we examine the extent to which CO2 transport uncertainties can bias CO2 flux estimates. In particular, we use a common flux estimate known as CarbonTracker to discover the minimum hypothetical bias that can be detected above the CO2 transport uncertainties. In the second case study, we then investigate which meteorological conditions may contribute to month-long biases in modeled atmospheric transport. We estimate 6 hourly CO2 transport uncertainties in the model surface layer that range from 0.15 to 9.6 ppm (standard deviation), depending on location, and we estimate an average error decorrelation time of ∼2.3 days at existing CO2 observation sites. As a consequence of these uncertainties, we find that CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes would need to be biased by at least 29%, on average, before that bias were detectable at existing non-marine atmospheric CO2 observation sites. Furthermore, we find that persistent, bias-type errors in atmospheric transport are associated with consistent low net radiation, low energy boundary layer conditions. The meteorological model is not necessarily more uncertain in these conditions. Rather, the extent to which meteorological uncertainties

  19. The thermal dependence of Na+ flux in isolated liver cells from ectotherms and endotherms.

    PubMed

    Else, Paul L

    2016-07-15

    The thermal dependence (0-40°C) of Na(+) flux in isolated liver cells of three endotherms (mice, rat and rabbit) was compared with that of ectotherms in the form of a thermally tolerant amphibian (cane toad), a cold-water fish (rainbow trout) and a thermophilic reptile (lizard). Mammals were found to share similar high rates of Na(+) flux (3.0-3.7 nmol Na(+) mg(-1) protein min(-1)) at their normal body temperatures (36-39°C). These Na(+) flux rates were significantly greater (P<0.0004-0.0001) than those of the ectotherms, which shared similar low rates of Na(+) flux (0.7-1.3 nmol Na(+) mg(-1) protein min(-1)) at their very different normal acclimated body temperatures (15°C for trout, 25°C for toad and 37°C for the lizard species). Trout, which possess highly unsaturated membranes (similar to those of mammals), showed a Na(+) flux with high thermal sensitivity at low temperatures similar to that found in mammals at higher temperatures. The thermal sensitivity of toad Na(+) flux was significantly less (P<0.05-0.01) than that of rat and rabbit. Trout Na(+) flux did not increase with increasing temperature much above 20°C, whereas all other species measured increased their Na(+) flux with increasing temperature up to 40°C. In conclusion, at normal operating body temperatures, the rate of Na(+) flux is much lower in ectotherms. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The Formation of Magnetic Depletions and Flux Annihilation Due to Reconnection in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Opher, M.; Richardson, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    The misalignment of the solar rotation axis and the magnetic axis of the Sun produces a periodic reversal of the Parker spiral magnetic field and the sectored solar wind. The compression of the sectors is expected to lead to reconnection in the heliosheath (HS). We present particle-in-cell simulations of the sectored HS that reflect the plasma environment along the Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories, specifically including unequal positive and negative azimuthal magnetic flux as seen in the Voyager data. Reconnection proceeds on individual current sheets until islands on adjacent current layers merge. At late time, bands of the dominant flux survive, separated by bands of deep magnetic field depletion. The ambient plasma pressure supports the strong magnetic pressure variation so that pressure is anticorrelated with magnetic field strength. There is little variation in the magnetic field direction across the boundaries of the magnetic depressions. At irregular intervals within the magnetic depressions are long-lived pairs of magnetic islands where the magnetic field direction reverses so that spacecraft data would reveal sharp magnetic field depressions with only occasional crossings with jumps in magnetic field direction. This is typical of the magnetic field data from the Voyager spacecraft. Voyager 2 data reveal that fluctuations in the density and magnetic field strength are anticorrelated in the sector zone, as expected from reconnection, but not in unipolar regions. The consequence of the annihilation of subdominant flux is a sharp reduction in the number of sectors and a loss in magnetic flux, as documented from the Voyager 1 magnetic field and flow data.

  1. Knickpoint Generation and Persistence Following Base-Level Fall: An Examination of Erosional Thresholds in Sediment Flux Dependent Erosion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, B. T.; Whipple, K. X.; Gasparini, N. M.; Wobus, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    drainage area. We are also able to track sediment flux during the transient adjustment and monitor its influence on the propagation of the incisional signal. We find that depending on which sediment flux dependent erosion model is used, hanging valleys can be generated at tributary junctions where sediment and water discharge decrease dramatically. We also find that as the incision signal propagates up the mainstem, the magnitude and rate of incision diminishes and results in differing responses between upstream and downstream tributaries. The hanging valleys we observe forming within the model have variable longevities and styles of decay. At present the model does not adequately represent the processes responsible for this decay, but demonstrates need for further study. If hanging valleys are generated due to thresholds in sediment flux dependent erosion models, we may be currently underestimating the response times of river basins during the transient response to incision.

  2. Large flux change due to the intervening cold absorbers in NGC 3516

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, K.; Negoro, H.; Hong, S.; Mihara, T.

    2004-06-01

    NGC3516 in the low flux state shows a flat energy spectrum (photon index ~1) and an intense narrow iron line. Such spectra are also observed in other Seyfert galaxies, and a broad bump structure around 6 keV above the 'flat' power-law spectrum has been interpreted as the gravitationally red-shifted iron line, disk reflection, or cold and/or warm absorbers. However, six years if BeppoSAX observations, including our latest three ones in 2001, clearly demonstrate that energy spectra above 20 keV always exhibit steep power-laws with photon indices ~2, and the flux changes only by a factor of 2, while the soft X-ray flux by a factor of ~10. From this fact, using BeppoSAX and ASCA data, we have concluded that the flat spectrum results from reprocessed, and partially covered power-laws with Γ~1.8 by warm matter nearby the central source and a cold absorber moved in the line of sight, respectively, and that the broad iron line and disk reflection components are less significant than one ever thought. Thus, the long-term spectral variations can be considered by intervening absorbers rather than changes in the accretion rate.

  3. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Treesearch

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  4. KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY IN CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES DUE TO AZIMUTHAL SHEAR FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Goossens, M.

    2010-04-01

    Transverse oscillations of coronal loops are often observed and have been theoretically interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Numerical simulations by Terradas et al. suggest that shear flows generated at the loop boundary during kink oscillations could give rise to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Here, we investigate the linear stage of the KHI in a cylindrical magnetic flux tube in the presence of azimuthal shear motions. We consider the basic, linearized MHD equations in the beta = 0 approximation and apply them to a straight and homogeneous cylindrical flux tube model embedded in a coronal environment. Azimuthal shear flows with a sharp jump of the velocity at the cylinder boundary are included in the model. We obtain an analytical expression for the dispersion relation of the unstable MHD modes supported by the configuration, and compute analytical approximations of the critical velocity shear and the KHI growth rate in the thin tube limit. A parametric study of the KHI growth rates is performed by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. We find that fluting-like modes can develop a KHI in timescales comparable to the period of kink oscillations of the flux tube. The KHI growth rates increase with the value of the azimuthal wavenumber and decrease with the longitudinal wavenumber. However, the presence of a small azimuthal component of the magnetic field can suppress the KHI. Azimuthal motions related to kink oscillations of untwisted coronal loops may trigger a KHI, but this phenomenon has not been observed to date. We propose that the azimuthal component of the magnetic field is responsible for suppressing the KHI in a stable coronal loop. The required twist is small enough to prevent the development of the pinch instability.

  5. Dependence of the Heat Flux Width on the Connection Length in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, M. A.; Lasnier, C. J.; Soukhanovski, V. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Petrie, T. W.; Snyder, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    The heat flux width characterizes the scale length of peak power deposition in the divertor. The total heat flux width, λint ~λq + 1 . 74 S , has contributions from the scrape-off layer itself, characterized by the quantity λq, and from the private flux region, characterized by a Gaussian-like width, S. Most work to date has focused on the physics of λq, with the essential finding that it depends approximately inversely on the plasma current. Here, the emphasis is on the S parameter and, in particular, its dependence on the connection length, Lconn. Data from high X-point discharges (Lconn ~ 30 m) have been used to extend the DIII-D heat flux width database beyond discharges with a standard divertor configuration (Lconn ~ 20 m). Snowflake divertor discharges (Lconn > 40 m) will also be analyzed to further extend the range of Lconn. Preliminary results indicate that S increases with Lconn, consistent with S being determined by a diffusive process. This result has important implications for advanced divertor designs as it demonstrates that long connection lengths increase the heat flux width. Supported by the US DOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344 and the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  6. Dependence of Large-Scale Global Poynting Flux on IMF By Polarity Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the dependence of the global Poynting flux on the IMF By polarity change. The amount of energy that enters the magnetosphere from the solar wind is a function of the solar wind speed and pressure and the IMF orientation and magnitude. All the various published coupling models show that the polarity of the IMF By component does not change the energy input. In contrast the global convection patterns, and thus the ionospheric Pedersen currents, depend on IMF By polarity. This seems to imply that the ionospheric energy deposition is a function of IMF By polarity. Thus, there appear to be a fundamental difference between the input (from the solar wind) and the output (energy dissipating Pedersen currents). We, therefore, ask the question: To what extend is the global Poynting flux dependent on the IMF By polarity? We have performed a statistical study evaluating 59 abrupt transitions in the IMF By component (polarity changes) as measured by the ACE spacecraft. The effect of other solar wind coupling parameters, such as the IMF Bz component, are minimized by selecting events where these are nearly constant. We use electric field distributions from SuperDARN and field-aligned current distributions from AMPERE to calculate the global distribution of the Poynting Flux. To minimize the effect of magnetospheric energy unloading we focus on the 06-18 MLT region. We further investigate the dependence on solar induced conductivity. We find that the Poynting flux is slightly larger for positive IMF By compared to negative By conditions. For a low conductivity (not sunlit) ionosphere the Poynting flux is smaller than in the high conductivity (sunlit) ionosphere and we find a smaller dependence on IMF By polarity. The study emphasizes the global dynamic behavior of the ionosphere in its response to changes in the external driver (IMF).

  7. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Weimin.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f<50 kHz) current density fluctuations are consistent with the global resistive tearing instabilities predicted by 3-D MHD simulations. At frequencies above 50 kHz, the magnetic fluctuations were detected to be localized with a radial correlation length of about 1--2 cm. These modes are locally resonant modes since the measured dominant mode number spectra match the local safety factor q. The net charged particle flux induced by magnetic fluctuations was obtained by measuring the correlation term <{tilde j}{sub {parallel}} {tilde B}{sub r}>. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence.

  8. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Weimin

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f<50 kHz) current density fluctuations are consistent with the global resistive tearing instabilities predicted by 3-D MHD simulations. At frequencies above 50 kHz, the magnetic fluctuations were detected to be localized with a radial correlation length of about 1--2 cm. These modes are locally resonant modes since the measured dominant mode number spectra match the local safety factor q. The net charged particle flux induced by magnetic fluctuations was obtained by measuring the correlation term <$\\tilde{j}$$\\parallel$ $\\tilde{B}$r>. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence.

  9. Turbulent momentum transport due to the beating between different tokamak flux surface shaping effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.

    2017-02-01

    Introducing up-down asymmetry into the tokamak magnetic equilibria appears to be a feasible method to drive fast intrinsic toroidal rotation in future large devices. In this paper we investigate how the intrinsic momentum transport generated by up-down asymmetric shaping scales with the mode number of the shaping effects. Making use the gyrokinetic tilting symmetry (Ball et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045023), we study the effect of envelopes created by the beating of different high-order shaping effects. This reveals that the presence of an envelope can change the scaling of the momentum flux from exponentially small in the limit of large shaping mode number to just polynomially small. This enhancement of the momentum transport requires the envelope to be both up-down asymmetric and have a spatial scale on the order of the minor radius.

  10. Nonequilibrium corrections in the pressure tensor due to an energy flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Cascante, Raquel; Faraudo, Jordi

    1996-12-01

    The form P=a(u,v)U+b(u,v)J→J→ for the pressure tensor for a system submitted to an energy flux J→ (U being the identity matrix, u the specific energy, and v the specific volume) widely used for anisotropic radiation and proposed to be more general by Domínguez and Jou [

    Phys. Rev. E 51, 158 (1995)
    ] has been recently questioned by R. E. Nettleton [
    Phys. Rev. E 53, 1241 (1996)
    ]. We provide a physical basis, in a completely different way, for this expression for anisotropic radiation and ultrarelativistic gases and we criticize some previous physical interpretations. We recall the necessity of an understanding of this kind of expression in a thermodynamic framework.

  11. Observation of Classical-Quantum Crossover of 1 /f Flux Noise and Its Paramagnetic Temperature Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C. M.; Chen, Yu; Sank, D.; Petukhov, A. G.; White, T. C.; Kafri, Dvir; Chiaro, B.; Megrant, A.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Graff, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Shabani, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2017-02-01

    By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around 2 kBT /h ≈1 GHz , allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a 1 /f power law that matches the magnitude of the 1 /f noise near 1 Hz. The antisymmetric component displays a 1 /T dependence below 100 mK, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Extrapolating the two-sided spectrum predicts the linewidth and reorganization energy of incoherent resonant tunneling between flux qubit wells.

  12. Generation mechanism of L-value dependence of oxygen flux enhancements during substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kistler, L. M.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures charged particles with an energy range from ~eV to ~ tens of keV. The observation shows that the energy flux of the particles increases inside the geosynchronous orbit during substorms. For some night-side events around the apogee, the energy flux of O+ ion enhances below ~10 keV at lower L shell, whereas the flux below ~8 keV sharply decreases at higher L shells. This structure of L-energy spectrogram of flux is observed only for the O+ ions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the generation mechanism of the structure by using numerical simulations. We utilized the global MHD simulation developed by Tanaka et al (2010, JGR) to simulate the electric and magnetic fields during substorms. We performed test particle simulation under the electric and magnetic fields by applying the same model introduced by Nakayama et al. (2015, JGR). In the test particle simulation each test particle carries the real number of particles in accordance with the Liouville theorem. Using the real number of particles, we reconstructed 6-dimensional phase space density and differential flux of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. We obtained the following results. (1) Just after the substorm onset, the dawn-to-dusk electric field is enhanced to ~ 20 mV/m in the night side tail region at L > 7. (2) The O+ ions are accelerated and transported to the inner region (L > ~5.5) by the large-amplitude electric field. (3) The reconstructed L-energy spectrogram shows a similar structure to the Van Allen Probes observation. (4) The difference in the flux enhancement between at lower L shell and higher L shells is due to two distinct acceleration processes: adiabatic and non-adiabatic. We will discuss the relationship between the particle acceleration and the structure of L-energy spectrogram of flux enhancement in detail.

  13. Higher order treatment on temporal derivative of angular flux for time-dependent MOC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, K.; Endo, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kamiyama, Y.; Kirimura, K.

    2013-07-01

    A new kinetic analysis method, whose angular dependence of temporal derivative for angular flux is accurately treated within practical memory requirement, is proposed. The method of characteristics (MOC) is being widely used for reactor analysis thanks to the advances of numerical algorithms and computer hardware. However, the computational resources, i.e., the memory capacity, can be still a crucial problem for rigorous kinetic calculations using MOC. In the straightforward approach for kinetic calculation using MOC, the segment-averaged angular fluxes should be stored on the memory in order to explicitly calculate the temporal derivative of the angular flux, which would require huge memory. Thus, in the conventional kinetic calculation code using MOC, the temporal derivative of the angular flux has been approximated as angularly isotropic in order to reduce the memory requirement (isotropic assumption). However, the approximation error caused by the conventional isotropic assumption has not been thoroughly and quantitatively investigated so far and an accurate kinetic calculation method, which can quantitatively estimate the above approximation error within practical memory storage, has not been developed. The present study tries to address this issue with a newly developed approach. Effect of the approximate treatment for the temporal derivative of angular flux is evaluated through benchmark calculations. (authors)

  14. The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from measured and observed meteorological data.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Philipp; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Rieder, Harald; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Maturilli, Marion; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we investigate the determination accuracy of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). We study especially the UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties in radiation fluxes, whose impacts on UTCI are evaluated via the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). We assume "normal conditions", which means that usual meteorological information and data are available but no special additional measurements. First, the uncertainty arising only from the measurement uncertainties of the meteorological data is determined. Here, simulations show that uncertainties between 0.4 and 2 K due to the uncertainty of just one of the meteorological input parameters may be expected. We then analyse the determination accuracy when not all radiation data are available and modelling of the missing data is required. Since radiative transfer models require a lot of information that is usually not available, we concentrate only on the determination accuracy achievable with empirical models. The simulations show that uncertainties in the calculation of the diffuse irradiance may lead to Tmrt uncertainties of up to ±2.9 K. If long-wave radiation is missing, we may expect an uncertainty of ±2 K. If modelling of diffuse radiation and of longwave radiation is used for the calculation of Tmrt, we may then expect a determination uncertainty of ±3 K. If all radiative fluxes are modelled based on synoptic observation, the uncertainty in Tmrt is ±5.9 K. Because Tmrt is only one of the four input data required in the calculation of UTCI, the uncertainty in UTCI due to the uncertainty in radiation fluxes is less than ±2 K. The UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties of the four meteorological input values are not larger than the 6 K reference intervals of the UTCI scale, which means that UTCI may only be wrong by one UTCI scale. This uncertainty may, however, be critical at the two temperature extremes, i.e. under extreme hot or extreme cold conditions.

  15. Excessive magnetic field flux density distribution from overhead isolated powerline conductors due to neutral line current.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    Overhead isolated powerline conductors (hereinafter: "OIPLC") are the most compact form for distributing low voltage currents. From the known physics of magnetic field emission from 3-phase power lines, it is expected that excellent symmetry of the 120° shifted phase currents and where compact configuration of the 3-phase+neutral line exist, the phase current vectorial summation of the magnetic field flux density (MFFD) is expected to be extremely low. However, despite this estimation, an unexpectedly very high MFFD was found in at least three towns in Israel. This paper explains the reasons leading to high MFFD emissions from compact OIPLC and the proper technique to fix it. Analysis and measurement results had led to the failure hypothsis of neutral line poor connection design and poor grounding design of the HV-LV utility transformers. The paper elaborates on the low MFFD exposure level setup by the Israeli Environmental Protection Office which adopted a rather conservative precaution principal exposure level (2 mG averaged over 24 h).

  16. INCLINATION-DEPENDENT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FLUX PROFILES FROM STRONG LENSING OF THE KERR SPACETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, E.

    2013-01-10

    Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr spacetime, we find that the observed X-ray flux is strongly influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-dependent flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future reference. We further study the dependence of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The strong lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of {approx}10 for normal quasars in some cases, and a further factor of {approx}10 for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and BAL quasars, we find that the inclination angle dependence of the magnification ratios can significantly change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter {alpha}{sub ox}, 0.3838log F {sub 2keV}/F {sub 2500A}, can differ by {approx}0.1-0.2 between normal and BAL quasars, depending on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BAL quasars.

  17. Sea State Dependent Air-Sea Fluxes in Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, J.; Liu, B.; Kim, H. S. S.; Chawla, A.; Mehra, A.; Reichl, B. G.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.

    2016-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes of heat and momentum affect hurricane, tropical and extratropical storm intensities. Sea surface waves are an important processes to account for in modeling air-sea fluxes because wind stress and upper ocean mixing, through Langmuir turbulence and Stoke's drift, are sea-state dependent. We present a three-way coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model which accounts for sea-state dependent air/sea fluxes. The wave model, WAVEWATCH III, calculates the wind stress, which is highly dependent on the high-frequency part of the wave spectrum. The high frequency part of the wave spectrum or tail is chosen so that the drag coefficient is reduced for wind speeds greater than 20 m/s as in the FY2016 operational version of HWRF. To demonstrate the impact of including waves in the coupled model, we show results comparing the two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean model to the three way coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model for hurricane/tropical/extratropical storms. It is indicated that by including the reduced drag coefficients as well as other surface wave related coupling processes, storm intensities are better predicted in the three-way coupled HWRF system.

  18. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  19. Magnetic Flux Concentrations in Stratified Turbulent Plasma Due to Negative Effective Magnetic Pressure Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, S.; Brandenburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    al. 2013). When the field is vertical, the resulting magnetic flux concentrations lead to the magnetic spots and can be of equipartition field strength. DNS, MFS, and implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) confirm that in a proper parameter regime, vertical imposed fields lead to the formation of circular magnetic spots (Brandenburg et al. 2014).

  20. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  1. Calculations of increased solar UV fluxes and DUV doses due to stratospheric-ozone depletions

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1982-02-01

    Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed in the middle ultraviolet spectral region for aerosol-loaded atmospheres with the goal of determining the solar irradiance at the ground and quantifying the irradiance perturbations due to the presence of aerosols and various ozone depletions. The extent of the increase of UV-B radiation as a function of wave-length and solar zenith angle is calculated for five model atmospheres. In addition, the damaging ultraviolet dose rates and radiation amplification factors are evaluated at different latitudes and seasons for erythemal and DNA action spectra.

  2. Rapid Melting and Solidification of a Surface Due to a Moving Heat Flux,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-22

    HSU, R MEHRABIAN N00014-78-C-0 75 U7NCLASSIFIED NL*nuu..nn...I m hEhhhhE EllElllllEEE-mu.!IIIII .. ..........- 7 FŘ RAPID MELTING AND...JOLIDIFICATION OF AJURFACE DUE TO; S. iou,4"S. C./Hsu *m tR ,ehrabian ~~~~~ABST RA CT.. // /{a ’ \\Rapid melting and solidification of a semi-infinite substrate...constant and equal. It is also assumed that the substrate, pure aluminum used as example, melts and solidifies at a single temperature. Temperature

  3. Deflection and Distortion of CME internal magnetic flux rope due to the interaction with a structured solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, D.; Iju, T.; Hayashi, K.; Fujiki, K.; Tokumaru, M.; Kusano, K.

    2016-12-01

    CMEs are the most violent driver of geospace disturbances, and therefore their arrival to the Earth position is an important factor in space weather forecast. The dynamics of CME propagation is strongly affected by the interaction with background solar wind. To understand the interaction between a CME and background solar wind, we performed three-dimensional MHD simulations of the propagation of a CME with internal twisted magnetic flux rope into a structured bimodal solar wind. We compared three different cases in which an identical CME is launched into an identical bimodal solar wind but the launch dates of the CME are different. Each position relative to the boundary between slow and fast solar winds becomes almost in the slow wind stream region, almost in the fast wind stream region, or in vicinity of the boundary of the fast and slow solar wind stream (that grows to CIR). It is found that the CME is most distorted and deflected eastward in the case near the CIR, in contrast to the other two cases. The maximum strength of southward magnetic field at the Earth position is also highest in the case near CIR. The results are interpreted that the dynamic pressure gradient due to the back reaction from pushing the ahead slow wind stream and due to the collision behind fast wind stream hinders the expansion of the CME internal flux rope into the direction of the solar wind velocity gradient. As a result, the expansion into the direction to the velocity gradient is slightly enhanced and results in the enhanced deflection and distortion of the CME and its internal flux rope. These results support the pileup accident hypothesis proposed by Kataoka et al. (2015) to form unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure.

  4. Transient Convection Due to Imposed Heat Flux: Application to Liquid-Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.; Chato, David J.; Doherty, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    A model problem is considered that addresses the effect of heat load from an ambient laboratory environment on the temperature rise of liquid nitrogen inside an enclosure. This model has applications to liquid acquisition devices inside the cryogenic storage tanks used to transport vapor-free propellant to the main engine. We show that heat loads from Q = 0.001 to 10 W, with corresponding Rayleigh numbers from Ra = 109 to 1013, yield a range of unsteady convective states and temperature rise in the liquid. The results show that Q = 1 to 10 W (Ra = 1012 to 1013) yield temperature distributions along the enclosure height that are similar in trend to experimental measurements. Unsteady convection, which shows selfsimilarity in its planforms, is predicted for the range of heat-load conditions. The onset of convection occurs from a free-convection-dominated base flow that becomes unstable against convective instability generated at the bottom of the enclosure while the top of the enclosure is convectively stable. A number of modes are generated with small-scale thermals at the bottom of the enclosure in which the flow selforganizes into two symmetric modes prior to the onset of the propagation of the instability. These symmetric vertical modes transition to asymmetric modes that propagate as a traveling-wave-type motion of convective modes and are representative of the asymptotic convective state of the flow field. Intense vorticity production is created in the core of the flow field due to the fact that there is shear instability between the vertical and horizontal modes. For the higher Rayleigh numbers, 1012 to 1013, there is a transition from a stationary to a nonstationary response time signal of the flow and temperature fields with a mean value that increases with time over various time bands and regions of the enclosure.

  5. He bombardment of WEST tungsten grades: surface morphology changes and flux dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijazi, H.; Martin, C.; Meyer, F. W.; Bannister, M. E.; Cabie, M.; Campos, A.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Corre, Y.; Richou, M.; Addab, Y.; Roubin, P.

    2016-10-01

    We report measurements of the surface morphology changes induced by He ion bombardment of WEST grades polycrystalline tungsten at conditions relevant for the WEST He campaign (T =400-1000 °C and flux range 0.3-5.1020 m-2s-1).218 eV He impact energy bombardments were carried out at the ORNL MIRF, using a high-flux deceleration module and beam flux monitor. Surface analyses were performed at the PIIM laboratory using electron microscopy techniques (FIB-SEM and EBSD). At fluxes below 2.1020 m-2s-1, nano-wavy structures and pinholes are observed on individual grains, together with sub-surface bubbles. Interestingly, the wavy structures and pinholes were found preferentially on grains with surface orientations near 101 and 001, respectively. At fluxes above 2.1020 m-2s-1, the individual grain-to-grain variability disappears and the entire surface is covered by nano-fuzz structures. These results suggest that, at around 2.1020 m-2s-1, ion beam bombardment produces significant sub-surface damages with a high bubble density due to He saturation leading to a possible scenario that bubbles burst to form pinholes and then nanofuzz. Detailed analyses of the correlation between the grain orientation and the wavy structure as well as of the surface erosion, roughness and emissivity are underway. Research supported by A*MIDEX sponsored by the Investissements d'Avenir French program. Research at ORNL supported by the Office of Fusion Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Frequency dependent power and energy flux density equations of the electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhibbullah, M.; Haleem, Ashraf M. Abdel; Ikuma, Yasuro

    The calculation of the power and energy of the electromagnetic wave is important for numerous applications. There are some equations to compute the power and energy density of the electromagnetic wave radiation. For instance, the Poynting vector is frequently used to calculate the power density. However those including the Poynting vector are not perfect to represent the actual values because the equations are frequency independent. In the present study we have derived the frequency-dependent equations to calculate the power and energy flux density of the electromagnetic wave by help of the classical electromagnetic theories. It is seems that the Poynting vector with a certain electric and magnetic fields is correct only for a specific frequency. However our equations are perfect to calculate the values of the power and energy flux density for all frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation. The equations may help to develop the applications of the electromagnetic wave radiation.

  7. Magnetic Flux Concentrations in Stratified Turbulent Plasma Due to Negative Effective Magnetic Pressure Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    We study a system of a highly stratified turbulent plasma. In such a system, when the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough and there is a background field of suitable strength, a new effect will play role in con- centrating magnetic fields such that it leads to the formation of magnetic spots and bipolar regions. This effect is due to the fact that the turbu- lent pressure is suppressed by the large-scale magnetic field, which adds a negative term to the total mean-field (effective) pressure. This leads to an instability, which is known as the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of isothermally forced turbulence have shown that NEMPI leads to the formation of spots in the presence of an imposed field. Our main aim now is to use NEMPI to explain the formation of active regions and sunspots. To achieve this goal, we need to move progressively to more realistic models. Here we extend our model by allowing the magnetic field to be generated by a dy- namo. A dynamo plays an important role in solar activity. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate NEMPI in the presence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields. Mean-field simulations (MFS) of such systems in spheri- cal geometry have shown how these two instabilities work in concert. In fact NEMPI will be activated as long as the strength of the magnetic field generated by the dynamo is in a proper range (for more detail see Jab- bari et al. 2013). In our new study, we use DNS to investigate a similar system. The turbulence is forced in the entire spherical shell, but the forc- ing is made helical in the lower 30% of the shell, similar to the model of Mitra et al. (2014). We perform simulations using the Pencil Code for different density contrasts and other input parameters. We applied ver- tical field boundary conditions in the r direction. The results show that, when the stratification is high enough, intense bipolar regions form and as time passes, they expand

  8. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.

  9. An experimental measurement of metal multilayer X-ray reflectivity degradation due to intense X-ray flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockaday, Mary Yvonne Pottenger

    1987-06-01

    The degradation of the X-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense X-ray flux was investigated. Molybdenum-carbon, paladium-carbon, and tungsten-carbon metal multilayers were used. Data for two separate shots were analyzed. For a pure neon gas shot at 420 TW, the reflectivity of the multilayer at 15 cm decayed rapidly with respect to the still-rising signal of the multilayer at 150 cm. The onset time of the decay corresponded to an integrated dose of 5.27 J/sq cm. For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A conduction factor of 8.9 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/sq cm and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/sq cm.

  10. Changes in catchment-scale water fluxes due to time-variant soil hydraulic properties in a subtropical agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Gao, Lei; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, temporal fluxes in hydraulic properties due to tillage, grazing, crop root growth and cycles of wetting and drying influenced by irrigation, could have large impacts at catchment scale. These effects are particularly evident in tropical climates where long periods of drought are followed by intense rainfall that greatly exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. This work explores the impact of the seasonal development of crops and the shifts in time between crop types on soil physical properties and the relative changes in the probability distribution of the water storage and fluxes dynamics. We focussed on an agricultural catchment in south east China where the climatic conditions include periods of droughts and heavy rainfall. Using coupled 1-dimension and semi-distributed catchment modelling combined with basic water balance data and both on-site and literature values for soil and crop properties, we investigated the impact of soil physical changes in the root-zone of the soil over different time scales ranging from daily to annual. Our results also showed that the resulting time-variant spatial patterns in soil water storage and flow had an impact on the integrated catchment runoff response at different times of the year.

  11. Satellite derived precipitation and freshwater flux variability and its dependence on the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Axel; Bakan, Stephan; Graßl, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    The variability of satellite retrieved precipitation and freshwater flux from the `Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data' (HOAPS) is assessed with special emphasis on the `North Atlantic Oscillation' (NAO). To cover also land areas, a novel combination of the satellite derived precipitation climatology with the rain gauge based `Full Data Reanalysis Product Version 4', of the `Global Precipitation Climatology Centre' (GPCC) is used. This yields unique high-resolution, quasi-global precipitation fields compiled from two independent data sources. Over the ocean, the response of the freshwater balance and the related parameters to the NAO is investigated for the first time by using a purely satellite based data set. A strong dependence of precipitation patterns to the state of the NAO is found. On synoptic scale this is in accordance with earlier findings by other satellite based and reanalysis products. Furthermore, the consistency of the combined HOAPS-3/GPCC data set allows also detailed regional analyses of precipitation patterns. The response of HOAPS-3 freshwater flux to the NAO is dominated by precipitation at mid and high latitudes, while for the subtropical regions the feedback of the evaporation is stronger.

  12. Synchronizing chromosome segregation by flux-dependent force equalization at kinetochores

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Irina; Pereira, António J.; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Cameron, Lisa A.; Salmon, Edward D.

    2009-01-01

    The synchronous movement of chromosomes during anaphase ensures their correct inheritance in every cell division. This reflects the uniformity of spindle forces acting on chromosomes and their simultaneous entry into anaphase. Although anaphase onset is controlled by the spindle assembly checkpoint, it remains unknown how spindle forces are uniformly distributed among different chromosomes. In this paper, we show that tension uniformity at metaphase kinetochores and subsequent anaphase synchrony in Drosophila S2 cells are promoted by spindle microtubule flux. These results can be explained by a mechanical model of the spindle where microtubule poleward translocation events associated with flux reflect relaxation of the kinetochore–microtubule interface, which accounts for the redistribution and convergence of kinetochore tensions in a timescale comparable to typical metaphase duration. As predicted by the model, experimental acceleration of mitosis precludes tension equalization and anaphase synchrony. We propose that flux-dependent equalization of kinetochore tensions ensures a timely and uniform maturation of kinetochore–microtubule interfaces necessary for error-free and coordinated segregation of chromosomes in anaphase. PMID:19581410

  13. Single machine scheduling and due date assignment with past-sequence-dependent setup time and position-dependent processing time.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Chou-Jung; Hsu, Hua-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(4)) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(3)) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  14. Voltage-Dependent Regulation of Complex II Energized Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fan; Fink, Brian D.; Yu, Liping; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria is generally measured during state 4 respiration (no ATP production) or state 3 (maximal ATP production at high ADP availability). However, mitochondria in vivo do not function at either extreme. Here we used ADP recycling methodology to assess muscle mitochondrial function over intermediate clamped ADP concentrations. In so doing, we uncovered a previously unrecognized biphasic respiratory pattern wherein O2 flux on the complex II substrate, succinate, initially increased and peaked over low clamped ADP concentrations then decreased markedly at higher clamped concentrations. Mechanistic studies revealed no evidence that the observed changes in O2 flux were due to altered opening or function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or to changes in reactive oxygen. Based on metabolite and functional metabolic data, we propose a multifactorial mechanism that consists of coordinate changes that follow from reduced membrane potential (as the ADP concentration in increased). These changes include altered directional electron flow, altered NADH/NAD+ redox cycling, metabolite exit, and OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized pattern for complex II energized O2 flux. Moreover, our findings suggest that the ADP recycling approach might be more widely adapted for mitochondrial studies. PMID:27153112

  15. Quantifying the uncertainty of eddy covariance fluxes due to the use of different software packages and combinations of processing steps in two contrasting ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, Ivan; Peltola, Olli; Nordbo, Annika; Järvi, Leena; Rannik, Üllar

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro®, two public software packages for post-field processing of eddy covariance data. Datasets including carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour fluxes measured over 2 months at a wetland in southern Finland and carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes measured over 3 months at an urban site in Helsinki were processed and analysed. The purpose was to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages and to evaluate the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. Turbulent fluxes calculated with a reference combination of processing steps were in good agreement, the systematic difference between the two software packages being up to 2.0 and 6.7 % for half-hour and cumulative sum values, respectively. The raw data preparation and processing steps were consistent between the software packages, and most of the deviations in the estimated fluxes were due to the flux corrections. Among the different calculation procedures analysed, the spectral correction had the biggest impact for closed-path latent heat fluxes, reaching a nocturnal median value of 15 % at the wetland site. We found up to a 43 % median value of deviation (with respect to the run with all corrections included) if the closed-path carbon dioxide flux is calculated without the dilution correction, while the methane fluxes were up to 10 % lower without both dilution and spectroscopic corrections. The Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) and spectroscopic corrections were the most critical steps for open-path systems. However, we found also large spectral correction factors for the open-path methane fluxes, due to the sensor separation effect.

  16. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENT HEATING OF OPEN FLUX TUBES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA, AND SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamic modeling of BRAID. We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty and nanoflare-like in nature, and we analyze the amount of energy lost via dissipative heating in transient events throughout the simulation. The average energy in these events is 10{sup 21.91} erg, within the “picoflare” range, and many events reach classical “nanoflare” energies. We also estimated the multithermal distribution of temperatures that would result from the heating-rate variability, and found good agreement with observed widths of coronal differential emission measure distributions. The results of the modeling presented in this paper provide compelling evidence that turbulent heating in the solar atmosphere by Alfvén waves accelerates the solar wind in open flux tubes.

  17. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation.

  18. Dissociation and dissociative ionization of H2+ using the time-dependent surface flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-12-01

    The time-dependent surface flux method developed for the description of electronic spectra L. Tao and A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 013021 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/1/013021; A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 085008 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/8/085008] is extended to treat dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of H2+ interacting with strong laser pulses. By dividing the simulation volume into proper spatial regions associated with the individual reaction channels and monitoring the probability flux, the joint energy spectrum for the dissociative ionization process and the energy spectrum for dissociation is obtained. The methodology is illustrated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a collinear one-dimensional model of H2+ with electronic and nuclear motions treated exactly and validated by comparison with published results for dissociative ionization. The results for dissociation are qualitatively explained by analysis based on dressed diabatic Floquet potential energy curves, and the method is used to investigate the breakdown of the two-surface model.

  19. Current-dependent flux flow resistance and resonant current steps in BSCCO intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunmi; Urayama, Shinya; Wang, Huabing; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; Inomata, Kunihiro; Nagao, Masanori; Sung Yun, Kyung; Takano, Yoshihiko; Lee, Kiejin; Hatano, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    We report a current dependence of flux flow resistance (FFR) and transport properties in intrinsic Jospehson junctions (IJJs) under magnetic fields parallel to an ab-plane. In Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d IJJs with the ab-plane dimensions of 1.8×10.5 μm2, the oscillations of FFR have been observed with two apparent periods of 0.382 T in low fields and 0.765 T in high fields. The dominant period Hp=0.765 T is decided by a sample width and corresponds to the field for adding one flux quantum per layer. Under certain conditions, we also observed the mergence of two peaks on the oscillating FFR with half period 1/2Hp into one peak with the period Hp in low fields and the inversions between bottoms and peaks in high fields. We found that this current-dependent FFR implying information of vortex lattice correlates with the transport properties such as current steps on current voltage curves.

  20. Spin-dependent beating patterns in thermoelectric properties: Filtering the carriers of the heat flux in a Kondo adatom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seridonio, A. C.; Siqueira, E. C.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Shelykh, I. A.; Figueira, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties of a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas hosting a Kondo adatom hybridized with a STM tip. Such a setup is treated within the single-impurity Anderson model in combination with the atomic approach for the Green's functions. Due to the spin dependence of the Fermi wave numbers, the electrical and thermal conductances together with thermopower and Lorenz number reveal beating patterns as a function of the STM tip position in the Kondo regime. In particular, by tuning the lateral displacement of the tip with respect to the adatom vicinity, the temperature, and the position of the adatom level, one can change the sign of the Seebeck coefficient through charge and spin. This opens a possibility of the microscopic control of the heat flux analogously to that established for the electrical current.

  1. Seasonal to interannual depth-dependent changes in phosphorus flux in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; O'Neill, L.; Thunell, R.

    2004-12-01

    One of the major removal pathways of phosphorus (P) from the water column is through the formation, sinking, and burial of particles formed during marine biological production. Yet the flux of P containing particles to the seafloor remains one of the least studied components of the P cycle. In this study, particulate inorganic P (PIP) and particulate organic P (POP) fluxes were measured in a series of samples collected from sediment traps ranging in depth from 275 to 1255 m from November 1995 - November 2002 in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. PIP concentrations averaged 40- 60 % (depending on depth) of the total particulate P (TPP) measured in the traps. PIP fluxes decreased by 75 % between the surface and deep waters, from a median of 28.6 to 6.3 \\mu mol m-2 d-1, whereas POP fluxes decreased by only 50 %, from 17.2 to 8.5 \\mu mol m-2 d-1. TPP, PIP and POP all vary seasonally and higher fluxes follow higher production during the upwelling season from late January to April. The relationship between particulate organic C (POC) and POP is relatively constant (POC:POP = 283) throughout the entire water column over the entire period (r2 = 0.58). However, there is a much tighter relationship between POP and POC in upwelling (January through April, r2 = 0.85) versus non upwelling (May through December, r2 = 0.40) seasons. Furthermore, upwelling, and hence higher production appears to be associated with higher POC:POP ratios (327 versus 258 in non upwelling periods). Higher than Redfield POC:POP ratios may indicate that preferential release of P containing organic matter is occurring, but if true, it is restricted to the upper 250 m of the water column above the shallowest sediment trap. An alternative explanation may be that the composition of plankton in the Cariaco Basin does not conform to the Redfield-ratio. Plankton tow samples collected over the upper 200 m with a > 200 um mesh had POC:POP ratios of 294 +/- 38. However, there is no other evidence that the euphotic zone

  2. A Strategy to Estimate the Systematic Uncertainty of Eddy Covariance Fluxes due to the Post-field Raw Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Fratini, Gerardo; Fidaleo, Marcello; Papale, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Among several sources of uncertainty characterising the fluxes of atmospheric constituents to and from a given ecosystem calculated using the eddy covariance (EC) methodology, the systematic error due to the corrections applied in the post-field raw data processing is still relatively unknown. We performed an extensive analysis aiming at quantifying this portion of the uncertainty for the CO2 exchange, and at defining a strategy of processing to be generically applied as to understand this uncertainty. We selected 11 years of raw EC data from 9 stations all over the Europe, corresponding to 4 different setups. Then we chose 2 or 3 possible valid options for each of the 8 most relevant corrections to be applied to the raw data, and produced as many outputs (1-year-long calculated hourly and half-hourly fluxes) as the combinations of all the different options (full-factorial design). Statistical analysis was used to quantify and characterise the uncertainty (n-way ANOVA) both on the (half-)hourly and the yearly cumulative fluxes. Factorial design of Experiment (DOE) was used to select a relatively small sub-group of combinations of processing options (fractional factorial design) to be applied to a given dataset in order to quantify the processing uncertainty, with a limited loss of information as compared to the full factorial. Our results show that: (i) the variability as expressed by the inter-quartile range (IQR) of the cumulate CO2 flux is between 50 and 400 gC m-2 year-1. (ii) The importance of the single corrections (factors) in terms of variance explained is not constant among datasets, but a general trend is found such that the coordinate rotation (CR) and the trend removal (TR) have often a high weight on the overall uncertainty (i.e. between 10% and 50%), while the importance of the time-lag compensation (TL) is highly variable. (iii) 2x2 interactions between factors have some importance, mostly between the most relevant ones. (iv) The percentage error of

  3. Variations in net CO2 flux across a tropical savanna landscape due to spatial variations in hydrology and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Santanna, F. B.; Lobo, F. D. A., Sr.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2016-12-01

    The savanna vegetation of Brazil (Cerrado) accounts for 20-25% of the land cover of Brazil; however, large spatial variations in vegetation type, hydrology, and land use presumably result in large spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem mass and energy exchange. We used eddy covariance to measure the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of grass-dominated Cerrado (campo sujo) over three years and partitioned the flux footprint into three sectors that varied with respect to seasonal hydrology (flooded vs. upland) and land use (mowed vs. unmowed). We hypothesized that spatial variations in hydrology and land use would cause spatial variations in the direction and magnitude of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Average daily NEE during the wet season for the flooded and unmowed upland sectors ranged between -0.75- -3.25 umol m-2 s-1, while NEE fluxes for the mowed sector ranged between -0.60- +1.50 umol m-2 s-1 (negative values indicate net ecosystem CO2 uptake). Thus, over the 3 year study period the mowed sector was a not source of CO2 to the atmosphere while the flooded and upland sectors were net CO2 sinks during the wet season. In contrast, both upland and flooded sectors were net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere during the dry season while the mowed sector was approximately in balance. Mowing savanna grasses during the dry season caused net daytime NEE (a proxy for net photosynthesis) to increase significantly compared to the flooded and upland surfaces; however, mowed areas had lower daytime NEE during the wet season compared to the other sectors. Nighttime rates of NEE (a proxy for ecosystem respiration) were similar for all sectors regardless of season and land use. Thus, differences in NEE due to seasonal variations in hydrology and land use acted to alter photosynthetic C gain rather than respiration. Our results indicate that the NEE of grass-dominated Cerrado is very sensitive to land management practices that alter leaf area index and photosynthetic C

  4. Metabolic flux model for an anchorage-dependent MDCK cell line: characteristic growth phases and minimum substrate consumption flux distribution.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Aljoscha; Sidorenko, Yury; Dauner, Michael; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2008-09-01

    Up to now cell-culture based vaccine production processes only reach low productivities. The reasons are: (i) slow cell growth and (ii) low cell concentrations. To address these shortcomings, a quantitative analysis of the process conditions, especially the cell growth and the metabolic capabilities of the host cell line is required. For this purpose a MDCK cell based influenza vaccine production process was investigated. With a segregated growth model four distinct cell growth phases are distinguished in the batch process. In the first phase the cells attach to the surface of the microcarriers and show low metabolic activity. The second phase is characterized by exponential cell growth. In the third phase, preceded by a change in oxygen consumption, contact inhibition leads to a decrease in cell growth. Finally, the last phase before infection shows no further increase in cell numbers. To gain insight into the metabolic activity during these phases, a detailed metabolic model of MDCK cell was developed based on genome information and experimental analysis. The MDCK model was also used to calculate a theoretical flux distribution representing an optimized cell that only consumes a minimum of carbon sources. Comparing this minimum substrate consumption flux distribution to the fluxes estimated from experiments unveiled high overflow metabolism under the applied process conditions.

  5. An experimental measurement of metal multilayer x-ray reflectivity degradation due to intense x-ray flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.Y.P.

    1987-06-01

    The degradation of the x-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense x-ray flux was investigated. The Z-pinch plasma produced by PROTO II of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was used as the source. The plasma generated total x-ray yields of as much as 40 kJ with up to 15 kJ in the neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines in nominal 20-ns pulses. Molybdenum-carbon, palladium-carbon, and tungsten-carbon metal multilayers were placed at 15 and 150 cm from the plasma center. The multilayers were at nominal angles of 5/sup 0/ and 10/sup 0/ to diffract the neon resonance lines. The time-integrated x-ray reflection of the metal multilayers was monitored by x-ray film. A fluorescer-fiber optic-visible streak camera detector system was then used to monitor the time-resolved x-ray reflection characteristics of 135 A- 2d tungsten-carbon multilayers. A large specular component in the reflectivity prevented determination of the rocking curve of the multilayer. For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A ''conduction factor'' of 82 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/cm/sup 2/ and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/cm/sup 2/. 82 refs., 66 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux modulates cellular bioenergetics and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Patrick J.; Chandramoorthy, Harish C.; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Zhang, Xueqian; Cárdenas, César; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Rajan, Sudarsan; Vallem, Sandhya; Chen, Xiongwen; Foskett, J. Kevin; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Houser, Steven R.; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent bioenergetics has been implicated in various pathophysiological settings, including neurodegeneration and myocardial infarction. Although mitochondrial Ca2+ transport has been characterized, and several molecules, including LETM1, have been identified, the functional role of LETM1-mediated Ca2+ transport remains unresolved. This study examines LETM1-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and bioenergetics in multiple cell types, including fibroblasts derived from patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). The results show that both mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and efflux rates are impaired in LETM1 knockdown, and similar phenotypes were observed in ΔEF hand, D676A D688KLETM1 mutant-overexpressed cells, and in cells derived from patients with WHS. Although LETM1 levels were lower in WHS-derived fibroblasts, the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter components MCU, MCUR1, and MICU1 remain unaltered. In addition, the MCU mitoplast patch-clamp current (IMCU) was largely unaffected in LETM1-knockdown cells. Silencing of LETM1 also impaired basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly via complex IV inactivation and ATP production. Remarkably, LETM1 knockdown also resulted in increased reactive oxygen species production. Further, LETM1 silencing promoted AMPK activation, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest. Reconstitution of LETM1 or antioxidant overexpression rescued mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and bioenergetics. These findings reveal the role of LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in shaping cellular bioenergetics.—Doonan, P J., Chandramoorthy, H. C., Hoffman, N. E., Zhang, X., Cárdenas, C., Shanmughapriya, S., Rajan, S., Vallem, S., Chen, X., Foskett, J. K., Cheung, J. Y., Houser, S. R., Madesh, M. LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux modulates cellular bioenergetics and proliferation. PMID:25077561

  7. Does energy flux predict density-dependence? An empirical field test.

    PubMed

    Ghedini, Giulia; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-09-26

    Changes in population density alter the availability, acquisition and expenditure of resources by individuals, and consequently their contribution to the flux of energy in a system. Whilst both negative and positive density-dependence have been well studied in natural populations, we are yet to estimate the underlying energy flows that generate these patterns and the ambivalent effects of density make prediction difficult. Ultimately, density-dependence should emerge from the effects of conspecifics on rates of energy intake (feeding) and expenditure (metabolism) at the organismal level, thus determining the discretionary energy available for growth. Using a model system of colonial marine invertebrates, we measured feeding and metabolic rates across a range of population densities to calculate how discretionary energy per colony changes with density and test whether this energy predicts observed patterns in organismal size across densities. We found that both feeding and metabolic rates decline with density but that feeding declines faster, and that this discrepancy is the source of density-dependent reductions in individual growth. Importantly, we could predict the size of our focal organisms after 8 weeks in the field based on our estimates of energy intake and expenditure. The effects of density on both energy intake and expenditure overwhelmed the effects of body size; even though higher density populations had smaller colonies (with higher mass-specific biological rates), density effects meant that these smaller colonies had lower mass-specific rates overall. Thus, to predict the contribution of organisms to the flux of energy in populations it seems necessary not only to quantify how rates of energy intake and expenditure scale with body size, but also how they scale with density given that this ecological constraint can be a stronger driver of energy use than the physiological constraint of body size. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  8. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS).

  9. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A new model called “PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0” was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth’s atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model’s applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS). PMID:27490175

  10. Flux dependence of the morphology of a tetracene film on hydrogen-passivated Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Qin, X. R.

    2006-03-15

    The initial stage of vacuum evaporated tetracene films on hydrogen-passivated Si(100) substrates has been investigated using ex situ atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional (3D) islands and dendrites are obtained at low deposition rates near equilibrium growth conditions. By increasing the deposition rate to a proper range away from equilibrium conditions, terraced grains are formed with layers of standing molecules and good film connectivity. 3D grains with a high aspect ratio appear once the deposition rate is beyond the optimized range. These flux-dependent results indicate a kinetic path for the formation of uniform tetracene films. The initial growth patterns are discussed within the frame of the morphological instability theory.

  11. Scalings for unsteady natural convection boundary layers on an evenly heated plate with time-dependent heating flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenxian; Armfield, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    It is of fundamental significance, especially with regard to application, to fully understand the flow behavior of unsteady natural convection boundary layers on a vertical plate heated by a time-dependent heat flux. Such an understanding is currently scarce. In this paper, the scaling analysis by Lin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 79, 066313 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.066313] using a simple three-region structure for the unsteady natural convection boundary layer of a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with Pr >1 under isothermal heating was substantially extended for the case when the heating is due to a time-varying sinusoidal heat flux. A series of scalings was developed for the thermal boundary thickness, the plate temperature, the viscous boundary thicknesses, and the maximum vertical velocity within the boundary layer, which are the major parameters representing the flow behavior, in terms of the governing parameters of the flow, i.e., the Rayleigh number Ra, the Prandtl number Pr, and the dimensionless natural frequency fn of the time-varying sinusoidal heat flux, at the start-up stage, at the transition time scale which represents the ending of the start-up stage and the beginning of the transitional stage of the boundary-layer development, and at the quasi-steady stage. These scalings were validated by comparison to 10 full numerical solutions of the governing equations with Ra, Pr, and fn in the ranges 106≤Ra≤109, 3≤Pr≤100, and 0.01≤fn≤0.1 and were shown in general to provide an accurate description of the flow at different development stages, except for high-Pr runs in which a further, although weak, Pr dependence is present, which cannot be accurately predicted by the current scaling analysis using the simple three-region structure, attributed to the non-boundary-layer nature of the velocity field with high-Pr fluids. Some scalings at the transition time scale and at the quasi-steady stage also produce noticeable deviations from the numerical results when

  12. The local time-dependant characteristics of flux rope at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruilong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wei, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Flux rope, which is often called as plasmoid when the guide field is small, is an important process to transfer magnetic flux and plasmas in the magnetosphere of terrestrial and planetary magnetosphere. At Earth, the formation of flux rope in the magnetotail is mainly controlled by the "Dungey-cycle", which is associated with the acceleration of electrons and loss of plasma in the magnetosphere. At giant planets (i.e., Saturn and Jupiter), the "Vasyliunas-cycle" is an additional important (might be dominant) process to generate flux ropes. The information of how flux rope is formed and evolved at giant planets is pivotal in understanding the energy coupling process at these planets. The Cassini spacecraft has detected an amount of flux rope events in the Saturnian magnetosphere. In this work, the guide field, axis orientation, and electron properties are compared between the flux ropes recorded at different local times. We also compare the characteristics with the flux rope at Earth.

  13. A Experimental Measurement of Metal Multilayer X-Ray Reflectivity Degradation due to Intense X-Ray Flux.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockaday, Mary Yvonne Pottenger

    The degradation of the x-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense x -ray flux was investigated. The Z-pinch plasma produced by PROTO II of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was used as the source. The plasma generated total x-ray yields of as much as 40 kJ with up to 15 kJ in the neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines in nominal 20-ns pulses. Molybdenum-carbon, paladium-carbon, and tungsten -carbon metal multilayers were placed at 15 and 150 cm from the plasma center. The multilayers were at nominal angles of 5(DEGREES) and 10(DEGREES) to diffract the neon resonance lines. The time-integrated x-ray reflection of the metal multilayers was monitored by x-ray film. A fluorescer -fiber optic-visible streak camera detector system was then used to monitor the time-resolved x-ray reflection characteristics of 135 (ANGSTROM)- 2d tungsten-carbon multilayers. A large specular component in the reflectivity prevented determination of the rocking curve of the multilayer. Data for two separate shots were analyzed. For a pure neon gas shot at a power level of 420 TW, the reflectivity of the multilayer at 15 cm decayed rapidly with respect to the still-rising signal of the multilayer at 150 cm. The onset time of the decay corresponded to an integrated dose of 5.27 J/cm('2). For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A "conduction factor" of 82 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/cm('2) and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/cm('2).

  14. Flux dependence of cluster formation in neutron-irradiated weld material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Hein, H.; Kammel, M.

    2008-03-01

    The effect of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is an unresolved issue. Small-angle neutron scattering was measured for a neutron-irradiated RPV weld material containing 0.22 wt% impurity Cu. The experiment was focused on the influence of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters at fixed fluence. The aim was to separate and tentatively interpret the effect of flux on the characteristics of the cluster size distribution. We have observed a pronounced effect of neutron flux on cluster size, whereas the total volume fraction of irradiation-induced clusters is insensitive to the level of flux. The result is compatible with a rate theory model according to which the range of applied fluxes covers the transition from a flux-independent regime at lower fluxes to a regime of decelerating cluster growth. The results are confronted with measured irradiation-induced changes of mechanical properties. Despite the observed flux effect on cluster size, both yield stress increase and transition temperature shift turned out to be independent of flux. This is in agreement with the volume fraction of irradiation-induced clusters being insensitive to the level of flux.

  15. Arsenic Inhibits Autophagic Flux, Activating the Nrf2-Keap1 Pathway in a p62-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Alexandria; Zheng, Yi; Tao, Shasha; Wang, Huihui; Whitman, Samantha A.; White, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway is a protective mechanism promoting cell survival. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway by natural compounds has been proven to be an effective strategy for chemoprevention. Interestingly, a cancer-promoting function of Nrf2 has recently been observed in many types of tumors due to deregulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 axis, which leads to constitutive activation of Nrf2. Here, we report a novel mechanism of Nrf2 activation by arsenic that is distinct from that of chemopreventive compounds. Arsenic deregulates the autophagic pathway through blockage of autophagic flux, resulting in accumulation of autophagosomes and sequestration of p62, Keap1, and LC3. Thus, arsenic activates Nrf2 through a noncanonical mechanism (p62 dependent), leading to a chronic, sustained activation of Nrf2. In contrast, activation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane (SF) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) depends upon Keap1-C151 and not p62 (the canonical mechanism). More importantly, SF and tBHQ do not have any effect on autophagy. In fact, SF and tBHQ alleviate arsenic-mediated deregulation of autophagy. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that arsenic causes prolonged activation of Nrf2 through autophagy dysfunction, possibly providing a scenario similar to that of constitutive activation of Nrf2 found in certain human cancers. This may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. PMID:23589329

  16. Isotopically nonstationary 13C flux analysis of changes in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolism due to high light acclimation

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Fangfang; Jazmin, Lara J.; Young, Jamey D.; ...

    2014-11-03

    Improving plant productivity is an important aim for metabolic engineering. There are few comprehensive methods that quantitatively describe leaf metabolism, although such information would be valuable for increasing photosynthetic capacity, enhancing biomass production, and rerouting carbon flux toward desirable end products. Isotopically nonstationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) has been previously applied to map carbon fluxes in photoautotrophic bacteria, which involves model-based regression of transient 13C-labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites. However, experimental and computational difficulties have hindered its application to terrestrial plant systems. Here, we performed in vivo isotopic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes with 13CO2 and estimated fluxes throughout leafmore » photosynthetic metabolism by INST-MFA. Plants grown at 200 µmol m$-$2s$-$1 light were compared with plants acclimated for 9 d at an irradiance of 500 µmol∙m$-$2∙s$-$1. Approximately 1,400 independent mass isotopomer measurements obtained from analysis of 37 metabolite fragment ions were regressed to estimate 136 total fluxes (54 free fluxes) under each condition. The results provide a comprehensive description of changes in carbon partitioning and overall photosynthetic flux after long-term developmental acclimation of leaves to high light. Despite a doubling in the carboxylation rate, the photorespiratory flux increased from 17 to 28% of net CO2 assimilation with high-light acclimation (Vc/Vo: 3.5:1 vs. 2.3:1, respectively). In conclusion, this study highlights the potential of 13C INST-MFA to describe emergent flux phenotypes that respond to environmental conditions or plant physiology and cannot be obtained by other complementary approaches.« less

  17. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  18. Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.

  19. Dependence of the Peak Fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles on CME 3D Parameters from STEREO and SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the relationships between the peak fluxes of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) 3D parameters (speed, angular width, and separation angle) obtained from SOHO, and STEREO-A/B for the period from 2010 August to 2013 June. We apply the STEREO CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) to the SEP-associated CMEs to obtain 3D speeds and 3D angular widths. The separation angles are determined as the longitudinal angles between flaring regions and magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft, which are calculated by the assumption of a Parker spiral field. The main results are as follows. (1) We find that the dependence of the SEP peak fluxes on CME 3D speed from multiple spacecraft is similar to that on CME 2D speed. (2) There is a positive correlation between SEP peak flux and 3D angular width from multiple spacecraft, which is much more evident than the relationship between SEP peak flux and 2D angular width. (3) There is a noticeable anti-correlation (r = -0.62) between SEP peak flux and separation angle. (4) The multiple-regression method between SEP peak fluxes and CME 3D parameters shows that the longitudinal separation angle is the most important parameter, and the CME 3D speed is secondary on SEP peak flux.

  20. Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales.

    PubMed

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Bastviken, David; Conrad, Ralf; Gudasz, Cristian; St-Pierre, Annick; Thanh-Duc, Nguyen; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2014-03-27

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century. Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to expected increases in global temperature is therefore fundamental to predicting whether the carbon cycle will mitigate or accelerate climate change. Methanogenesis is the terminal step in the remineralization of organic matter and is carried out by strictly anaerobic Archaea. Like most other forms of metabolism, methanogenesis is temperature-dependent. However, it is not yet known how this physiological response combines with other biotic processes (for example, methanotrophy, substrate supply, microbial community composition) and abiotic processes (for example, water-table depth) to determine the temperature dependence of ecosystem-level CH4 emissions. It is also not known whether CH4 emissions at the ecosystem level have a fundamentally different temperature dependence than other key fluxes in the carbon cycle, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Here we use meta-analyses to show that seasonal variations in CH4 emissions from a wide range of ecosystems exhibit an average temperature dependence similar to that of CH4 production derived from pure cultures of methanogens and anaerobic microbial communities. This average temperature dependence (0.96 electron volts (eV)), which corresponds to a 57-fold increase between 0 and 30°C, is considerably higher than previously observed for respiration (approximately 0.65 eV) and photosynthesis (approximately 0.3 eV). As a result, we show that both the emission of CH4 and the ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions increase markedly with seasonal increases in temperature. Our findings suggest that global warming may have a large impact on the relative contributions of CO2 and CH

  1. Water and Carbon Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Region Floodplain: Multiple Approaches to Constrain Estimates of Seasonal- and Depth Dependent Fluxes at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M. E.; Christensen, J. N.; Bill, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Hobson, C.; Dayvault, R.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    at the soil surface are consistent with estimates based on season- and temperature-dependent diffusion and respiration within the vadose zone. Thus, fairly predictable seasonal variations in water table elevation, evapotranspiration, and temperature can help constrain estimates of water and carbon fluxes.

  2. Concentration dependency in nicotine skin penetration flux from aqueous solutions reflects vehicle induced changes in nicotine stratum corneum retention.

    PubMed

    Kuswahyuning, Rina; Roberts, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to understand the mechanism by which the steady state flux of nicotine across the human skin from aqueous solutions is markedly decreased at higher nicotine concentrations. Nicotine's steady state flux through human epidermis and its amount in the stratum corneum for a range of aqueous nicotine solutions was determined using Franz diffusion cells, with the nicotine analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nicotine's thermodynamic activity in the various solutions was estimated from its partial vapour pressure and stratum corneum hydration was determined using a corneometer. The amount of nicotine retained in the stratum corneum was estimated from the nicotine amount found in individual stratum corneum tape strips and a D-Squame determined weight for each strip. The observed steady state flux of nicotine across human epidermis was found to show a parabolic dependence on nicotine concentration, with the flux proportional to its thermodynamic activity up to a concentration of 48% w/w. The nicotine retention in the stratum corneum showed a similar dependency on concentration whereas the diffusivity of nicotine in the stratum corneum appeared to be concentration independent. This retention, in turn, could be estimated from the extent of stratum corneum hydration and the nicotine concentration in the applied solution and volume of water in the skin. Nonlinear dependency of nicotine skin flux on its concentration results from a dehydration induced decrease in its stratum corneum retention at higher concentration and not dehydration induced changes nicotine diffusivity in the stratum corneum.

  3. Correcting "static" measurements of vapor pressure for time dependence due to diffusion and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert F

    2015-12-10

    The static method for measuring vapor pressure assumes that the sample is pure and that its temperature is steady and uniform. In practice, the measured pressure may be time dependent due to evaporative cooling after pumping on the sample, transpiration of the sample in a temperature gradient, or diffusion of an impurity out of the sample. An impurity cannot be avoided if the sample is decomposing. This article identifies and quantifies various causes of time dependence, and it includes an analysis that can obtain the vapor pressure from the time-dependent pressure of a decomposing sample. The analysis was applied to measurements of TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium), whose decomposition continuously generated a volatile impurity. The corrected vapor pressures obtained for three TEMAH samples at 39 °C agreed to within ±1 %, even though the partial pressure of the impurity was as much as 7 times larger.

  4. Subduction factory: 4. Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keken, Peter E.; Hacker, Bradley R.; Syracuse, Ellen M.; Abers, Geoff A.

    2011-01-01

    A recent global compilation of the thermal structure of subduction zones is used to predict the metamorphic facies and H2O content of downgoing slabs. Our calculations indicate that mineralogically bound water can pass efficiently through old and fast subduction zones (e.g., in the western Pacific), whereas hot subduction zones such as Cascadia see nearly complete dehydration of the subducting slab. The top of the slab is sufficiently hot in all subduction zones that the upper crust, including sediments and volcanic rocks, is predicted to dehydrate significantly. The degree and depth of dehydration in the deeper crust and uppermost mantle are highly diverse and depend strongly on composition (gabbro versus peridotite) and local pressure and temperature conditions. The upper mantle dehydrates at intermediate depths in all but the coldest subduction zones. On average, about one third of the bound H2O subducted globally in slabs reaches 240 km depth, carried principally and roughly equally in the gabbro and peridotite sections. The predicted global flux of H2O to the deep mantle is smaller than previous estimates but still amounts to about one ocean mass over the age of the Earth. At this rate, the overall mantle H2O content increases by 0.037 wt % (370 ppm) over the age of the Earth. This is qualitatively consistent with inferred H2O concentrations in the Earth's mantle assuming that secular cooling of the Earth has increased the efficiency of volatile recycling over time.

  5. Measuring the angular and seasonal dependence of the cosmic ray flux at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depoian, Amanda; Bellis, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The angular dependence of cosmic rays hitting the Earth's surface is affected by solar winds, the Earth's magnetic field, attenuation factors, and other effects. The overall flux can be affected by the height and density of the atmosphere, which can vary seasonally. This seasonal modulation can affect the analyses of dark matter direct detection experiments, which also look for a modulation in dark matter recoils. We have constructed a standard cosmic ray telescope, consisting of two scintillating paddles, the associate photomultiplier tubes, and some older electronics. We will be pushing the sensitivity and stability of this detector to measure angular and temporal rates over the winter and spring and look for any seasonal variations that can be correlated with environmental conditions. While the location at the Earth's surface in Albany, NY is quite different than the underground laboratories where many dark matter experiments take place, we run this experiment as a proof-of-principle to see what seasonal effects can be measured with the basic equipment available in some undergraduate labs.

  6. PLANETESIMAL FORMATION IN MAGNETOROTATIONALLY DEAD ZONES: CRITICAL DEPENDENCE ON THE NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu

    2012-07-01

    Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) affects planetesimal formation by inducing diffusion and collisional fragmentation of dust particles. We examine conditions preferred for planetesimal formation in MRI-inactive 'dead zones' using an analytic dead-zone model based on our recent resistive MHD simulations. We argue that successful planetesimal formation requires not only a sufficiently large dead zone (which can be produced by tiny dust grains) but also a sufficiently small net vertical magnetic flux (NVF). Although often ignored, the latter condition is indeed important since the NVF strength determines the saturation level of turbulence in MRI-active layers. We show that direct collisional formation of icy planetesimal across the fragmentation barrier is possible when the NVF strength is lower than 10 mG (for the minimum-mass solar nebula model). Formation of rocky planetesimals via the secular gravitational instability is also possible within a similar range of the NVF strength. Our results indicate that the fate of planet formation largely depends on how the NVF is radially transported in the initial disk formation and subsequent disk accretion processes.

  7. Quantitative analysis of some mechanisms affecting the yield of oxidative phosphorylation: dependence upon both fluxes and forces.

    PubMed

    Rigoulet, M; Leverve, X; Fontaine, E; Ouhabi, R; Guérin, B

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to show how the quantitative definition of the different parameters involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation makes it possible to characterize the mechanisms by which the yield of ATP synthesis is affected. Three different factors have to be considered: (i) the size of the different forces involved (free energy of redox reactions and ATP synthesis, proton electrochemical difference); (ii) the physical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane in terms of leaks (H+ and cations); and finally (iii) the properties of the different proton pumps involved in this system (kinetic properties, regulation, modification of intrinsic stoichiometry). The data presented different situations where one or more of these parameters are affected, leading to a different yield of oxidative phosphorylation. (1) By manipulating the actual flux through each of the respiratory chain units at constant protonmotive force in yeast mitochondria, we show that the ATP/O ratio decreases when the flux increases. Moreover, the highest efficiency was obtained when the respiratory rate was low and almost entirely controlled by the electron supply. (2) By using almitrine in different kinds of mitochondria, we show that this drug leads to a decrease in ATP synthesis efficiency by increasing the H+/ATP stoichiometry ofATP synthase (Rigoulet M et al. Biochim Biophys Acta 1018: 91-97, 1990). Since this enzyme is reversible, it was possible to test the effect of this drug on the reverse reaction of the enzyme i.e. extrusion of protons catalyzed by ATP hydrolysis. Hence, we are able to prove that, in this case, the decrease in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation is due to a change in the mechanistic stoichiometry of this proton pump. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a modification in oxidative phosphorylation yield by a change in mechanistic stoichiometry of one of the proton pumps involved. (3) In a model of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency

  8. Oxygen dependence of metabolic fluxes and energy generation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A

    PubMed Central

    Jouhten, Paula; Rintala, Eija; Huuskonen, Anne; Tamminen, Anu; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja; Maaheimo, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Background The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adjust to external oxygen availability by utilizing both respirative and fermentative metabolic modes. Adjusting the metabolic mode involves alteration of the intracellular metabolic fluxes that are determined by the cell's multilevel regulatory network. Oxygen is a major determinant of the physiology of S. cerevisiae but understanding of the oxygen dependence of intracellular flux distributions is still scarce. Results Metabolic flux distributions of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A growing in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1 with 20.9%, 2.8%, 1.0%, 0.5% or 0.0% O2 in the inlet gas were quantified by 13C-MFA. Metabolic flux ratios from fractional [U-13C]glucose labelling experiments were used to solve the underdetermined MFA system of central carbon metabolism of S. cerevisiae. While ethanol production was observed already in 2.8% oxygen, only minor differences in the flux distribution were observed, compared to fully aerobic conditions. However, in 1.0% and 0.5% oxygen the respiratory rate was severely restricted, resulting in progressively reduced fluxes through the TCA cycle and the direction of major fluxes to the fermentative pathway. A redistribution of fluxes was observed in all branching points of central carbon metabolism. Yet only when oxygen provision was reduced to 0.5%, was the biomass yield exceeded by the yields of ethanol and CO2. Respirative ATP generation provided 59% of the ATP demand in fully aerobic conditions and still a substantial 25% in 0.5% oxygenation. An extensive redistribution of fluxes was observed in anaerobic conditions compared to all the aerobic conditions. Positive correlation between the transcriptional levels of metabolic enzymes and the corresponding fluxes in the different oxygenation conditions was found only in the respirative pathway. Conclusion 13C-constrained MFA enabled quantitative determination of intracellular fluxes in conditions of

  9. Probability Density Functions of Floating Potential Fluctuations Due to Local Electron Flux Intermittency in a Linear ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Eiki; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    An intermittent behavior of local electron flux in a laboratory ECR plasma is statistically analyzed by means of probability density functions (PDFs). The PDF constructed from a time series of the floating potential signal on a Langmuir probe has a fat tail in the negative value side, which reflects the intermittency of the local electron flux. The PDF of the waiting time, which is defined by the time interval between two successive events, is found to exhibit an exponential distribution, suggesting that the phenomenon is characterized by a stationary Poisson process. The underlying Poisson process is also confirmed by the number of events in given time intervals that is Poisson distributed.

  10. Quantifying particle size and turbulent scale dependence of dust flux in the Sahara using aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Philip D.; Parker, Douglas J.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Dorsey, James R.; Brooks, Ian M.; Dean, Angela R.; Crosier, Jonathon; McQuaid, James B.; Washington, Richard

    2014-06-01

    The first size-resolved airborne measurements of dust fluxes and the first dust flux measurements from the central Sahara are presented and compared with a parameterization by Kok (2011a). High-frequency measurements of dust size distribution were obtained from 0.16 to 300 µm diameter, and eddy covariance fluxes were derived. This is more than an order of magnitude larger size range than previous flux estimates. Links to surface emission are provided by analysis of particle drift velocities. Number flux is described by a -2 power law between 1 and 144 µm diameter, significantly larger than the 12 µm upper limit suggested by Kok (2011a). For small particles, the deviation from a power law varies with terrain type and the large size cutoff is correlated with atmospheric vertical turbulent kinetic energy, suggesting control by vertical transport rather than emission processes. The measured mass flux mode is in the range 30-100 µm. The turbulent scales important for dust flux are from 0.1 km to 1-10 km. The upper scale increases during the morning as boundary layer depth and eddy size increase. All locations where large dust fluxes were measured had large topographical variations. These features are often linked with highly erodible surface features, such as wadis or dunes. We also hypothesize that upslope flow and flow separation over such features enhance the dust flux by transporting large particles out of the saltation layer. The tendency to locate surface flux measurements in open, flat terrain means these favored dust sources have been neglected in previous studies.

  11. Performance of scene dependent angular models in deriving top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes from satellite radiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Vemury, Sastri

    1990-01-01

    The ERB experiment algorithm is applied to the Nimbus-7 scanner data for June 1979 to analyze the performance of scene-dependent angular models. The ERBE-derived albedo and LW flux are compared to results from the sorting-into-angular-bins (SAB) method described by Arking and Vemury (1984) and the ERB Matrix algorithm described by Jacobowitz et al. (1984). Results are given for the variation of ERBE-derived flux with viewing zenith angle. Comparing results derived from the ERBE algorithm and from the SAB method, zonal mean differences for the month were less than 0.01 for albedo and 2 W/ sq m for longwave flux. When compared to the ERB matrix algorithm, the ERBE algorithm gives less dependence on viewing zenith angle for SW fluxes, but more for LW fluxes. Cloud results from the ERBE method using broadband Nimbus-7 ERB radiances are compared with the new cloud ERB data results of Stowe et al. (1988). Agreement typically within 0.10 was found.

  12. Convective radial energy flux due to resonant magnetic perturbations and magnetic curvature at the tokamak plasma edge

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, F. A.; Beyer, P.; Fuhr, G.; Monnier, A.; Benkadda, S.

    2014-08-15

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work, we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry, the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindrical geometry, but in toroidal geometry the convective thermal flux and the poloidal rotation appear only with the islands overlapping of the linear coupling between neighbouring poloidal wavenumbers m, m – 1, and m + 1.

  13. Underestimates of sensible heat flux due to vertical velocity measurement errors in non-orthogonal sonic anemometers

    Treesearch

    John M. Frank; William J. Massman; Brent E. Ewers

    2013-01-01

    Sonic thermometry and anemometry are fundamental to all eddy-covariance studies of surface energy balance. Recent studies have suggested that sonic anemometers with non-orthogonal transducers can underestimate vertical wind velocity (w) and sensible heat flux (H) when compared to orthogonal designs. In this study we tested whether a non-orthogonal sonic anemometer (...

  14. The Dependence of the Geoeffectiveness of Interplanetary Flux Rope on Its Orientation, with Possible Application to Geomagnetic Storm Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Ye, Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2007-02-01

    Interplanetary magnetic clouds (MCs) are one of the main sources of large non-recurrent geomagnetic storms. With the aid of a force-free flux rope model, the dependence of the intensity of geomagnetic activity (indicated by Dst index) on the axial orientation (denoted by θ and φ in GSE coordinates) of the magnetic cloud is analyzed theoretically. The distribution of the Dst values in the ( θ, φ) plane is calculated by changing the axial orientation for various cases. It is concluded that (i) geomagnetic storms tend to occur in the region of θ<0°, especially in the region of θ≲-45°, where larger geomagnetic activity could be created; (ii) the intensity of geomagnetic activity varies more strongly with θ than with φ; (iii) when the parameters B 0 (the magnetic field strength at the flux rope axis), R 0 (the radius of the flux rope), or V (the bulk speed) increase, or | D| (the shortest distance between the flux rope axis and the x-axis in GSE coordinates) decreases, a flux rope not only can increase the intensity of geomagnetic activity, but also is more likely to create a storm, however the variation of n (the density) only has a little effect on the intensity; (iv) the most efficient orientation (MEO) in which a flux rope can cause the largest geomagnetic activity appears at φ˜0° or ˜ 180°, and some value of θ which depends mainly on D; (v) the minimum Dst value that could be caused by a flux rope is the most sensitive to changes in B 0 and V of the flux rope, and for a stronger and/or faster MC, a wider range of orientations will be geoeffective. Further, through analyzing 20 MC-caused moderate to large geomagnetic storms during 1998 2003, a long-term prediction of MC-caused geomagnetic storms on the basis of the flux rope model is proposed and assessed. The comparison between the theoretical results and the observations shows that there is a close linear correlation between the estimated and observed minimum Dst values. This suggests that using

  15. Analysis, quantification, and mitigation of electrical variability due to layout dependent effects in SOC designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangang; Zwolinski, Mark; Appleby, Andrew; Scoones, Mark; Caldwell, Sonia; Azam, Touqeer; Hurat, Philippe; Pitchford, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Variability in performance and power of 40nm and 28nm CMOS cells is highly dependent on the context in which the cells are used. In this study, the effects of context on a number of clock tree cells from standard cell libraries have been investigated. The study also demonstrated how the Litho Electrical Analyzer (LEA) tool from Cadence® is used to analyze the context-dependent variability. During the study, it was observed that the device characteristics including Vth, Idsat, and Ioff are significantly affected by Layout Dependent Effects (LDE), resulting in variability of performance and power of standard cells. Moreover, the dummy diffusions acting as mitigation process offered limited improvement for the effects of context. On the other hand, the cell level variability due to stress was analyzed. So, it is suggested that the relative variability of a cell is determined by its size and structure, and the variability can be improved to some extent by editing the cells' structure. Based on the analysis of the physical sources and properties of LDE, this paper presents a set of layout guidelines for mitigating layout dependent variability of 40 and 28nm CMOS cells.

  16. ATP synthase-mediated proton fluxes and phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria: dependence on delta mu H.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, M; Petronilli, V; Azzone, G F

    1986-08-13

    The dependence of the proton flux through the ATP synthases of rat liver mitochondria on a driving force composed mainly of a potassium diffusion potential was determined and compared with the relationship between rate of phosphorylation and delta mu H given by titrations with the respiratory inhibitor malonate. The two functions are in good agreement in the lower part of the delta mu H range covered. However, the maximal proton fluxes through the ATP synthases are much lower than needed to account for the rate of State 3 phosphorylation sustained by the same mitochondria oxidizing succinate. Possible reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  17. Bi flux-dependent MBE growth of GaSbBi alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Rajpalke, M. K.; Linhart, W. M.; Yu, K. M.; ...

    2015-03-05

    The incorporation of Bi in GaSb1-xBix alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated as a function of Bi flux at fixed growth temperature (275 °C) and growth rate (1 μm h⁻¹). The Bi content is found to vary proportionally with Bi flux with Bi contents, as measured by Rutherford backscattering, in the range 0 < x ≤ 4.5%. The GaSbBi samples grown at the lowest Bi fluxes have smooth surfaces free of metallic droplets. The higher Bi flux samples have surface Bi droplets. The room temperature band gap of the GaSbBi epitaxial layers determined from optical absorption decreases linearlymore » with increasing Bi content with a reduction of ~32 meV/%Bi.« less

  18. The local time dependence of the anisotropic solar cosmic ray flux.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the solar cosmic radiation flux over the earth is not uniform, but the result of complex phenomena involving the interplanetary magnetic field, the geomagnetic field and latitude and longitude of locations on the earth. The latitude effect relates to the geomagnetic shield; the longitude effect relates to local time. For anisotropic solar cosmic ray events the maximum particle flux is always along the interplanetary magnetic field direction, sometimes called the Archimedean spiral path from the sun to the earth. During anisotropic solar cosmic ray event, the locations on the earth viewing "sunward" into the interplanetary magnetic field direction will observe the largest flux (when adjustments are made for the magnetic latitude effect). To relate this phenomena to aircraft routes, for anisotropic solar cosmic ray events that occur during "normal quiescent" conditions, the maximum solar cosmic ray flux (and corresponding solar particle radiation dose) will be observed in the dawn quadrant, ideally at about 06 hours local time.

  19. Potential and flux field landscape theory. I. Global stability and dynamics of spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2013-09-28

    We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general spatially dependent non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for spatially independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to spatially dependent stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium spatially dependent systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium spatially dependent systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the spatially dependent system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is

  20. ENERGY INJECTION VIA FLUX EMERGENCE ON THE SUN DEPENDING ON THE GEOMETRIC SHAPE OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Magara, T.

    2011-04-20

    Flux emergence is a complicated process involving flow and magnetic field, which provides a way of injecting magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere. We show that energy injection via this complicated process is characterized by a physical quantity called the emergence velocity, which is determined by the spatial relationship between the flow velocity and magnetic field vectors. By using this quantity, we demonstrate that the geometric shape of magnetic field might play an important role in the energy injection via flux emergence.

  1. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  2. Intensity-dependent quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray flux of GX5 - 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Jansen, F.; Van Paradijs, J.; Van Den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray flux of the bright galactic bulge source GX5 - 1 shows intensity-dependent quasi-periodic oscillations between 20 and 40 Hz, appearing as a broad peak in the power spectrum whose centroid frequency, width, and integrated excess power strongly depend on the source intensity. The strength and steepness of low-frequency noise present in the power spectra below 15 Hz also depend on the source intensity. No evidence is found for coherent X-ray pulsations between 0.5 and 2000 Hz. Possible mechanisms to explain these new phenomena are discussed.

  3. Energy dependent time delays of kHz oscillations due to thermal Comptonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2014-12-01

    We study the energy dependent photon variability from a thermal Comptonizing plasma that is oscillating at kHz frequencies. In particular, we solve the linearized time-dependent Kompaneets equation and consider the oscillatory perturbation to be either in the soft photon source or in the heating rate of the plasma. For each case, we self consistently consider the energy balance of the plasma and the soft photon source. The model incorporates the possibility of a fraction of the Comptonized photons impinging back into the soft photon source. We find that when the oscillation is due to the soft photon source, the variation of the fractional root mean sqaure (rms) is nearly constant with energy and the time-lags are hard. However, for the case when the oscillation is due to variation in the heating rate of the corona, and when a significant fraction of the photons impinge back into the soft photon source, the rms increases with energy and the time-lags are soft. As an example, we compare the results with the ˜850 Hz oscillation observed on 1996 March 3 for 4U 1608-52 and show that both the observed soft time-lags as well as the rms versus energy can be well described by such a model where the size of the Comptonizing plasma is ˜1 km. Thus, modelling of the time-lags as due to Comptonization delays, can provide tight constraints on the size and geometry of the system. Detailed analysis would require well-constrained spectral parameters.

  4. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2017-02-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α, in {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤10 ° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤10 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  5. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  6. Vertical winds and momentum fluxes due to equatorial planetary scale waves using all-sky meteor radar over Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egito, F.; Andrioli, V. F.; Batista, P. P.

    2016-11-01

    In the equatorial region planetary scale waves play an important role transporting significant amount of energy and momentum through atmosphere. Quantifying the momentum transported by these waves and its effects on the mean flow is rather important. Direct estimates of the momentum flux transported by waves require horizontal and vertical wind measurements. Ground-based meteor radars have provided continuous and reliable measurements of the horizontal wind components in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region and have contributed to improve our knowledge of the dynamics of this region. However, instrumental limitations hinder its use for measuring vertical winds and momentum fluxes. On the other hand, according to Babu et al (2012), all- sky meteor radars are able to infer tridimensional winds when using a large number of meteor echoes centered at the meteor ablation peak. Following this approach, we have used measurements performed by a Meteor Radar installed at São João do Cariri, Brazil (7.4°S; 36.5°W) in order to measure vertical winds and calculate the momentum flux transported by equatorial planetary scale waves. In order to evaluate the accuracy of vertical wind values we have performed several tests based on a simple model considering real meteor distributions and theoretical equations for the MLT winds motion. From our tests, we inferred that Brazilian meteor radar data can be used for this purpose with an accuracy of 1.8 m/s. The results show that the vertical wind presents magnitudes of a few meters per second and occasionally reaches magnitudes around 10 m/s. Below 92 km the vertical wind is predominantly upward during the whole year and above exhibits a semi-annual oscillation with downward phase during the equinoxes. Variations associated to planetary scale waves in the vertical wind are also observed and some of them appear simultaneously in the zonal and meridional wind as well. Largest wave induced amplitudes in the vertical wind

  7. Chronic Stress Improves NO- and Ca2+ Flux-Dependent Vascular Function: A Pharmacological Study.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salome

    2015-01-23

    Background: Stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Objective: This study aimed at assessing whether chronic stress induces vascular alterations, and whether these modulations are nitric oxide (NO) and Ca2+ dependent. Methods: Wistar rats, 30 days of age, were separated into 2 groups: control (C) and Stress (St). Chronic stress consisted of immobilization for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week, 15 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was assessed. Vascular studies on aortic rings were performed. Concentration-effect curves were built for noradrenaline, in the presence of L-NAME or prazosin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and KCl. In addition, Ca2+ flux was also evaluated. Results: Chronic stress induced hypertension, decreased the vascular response to KCl and to noradrenaline, and increased the vascular response to acetylcholine. L-NAME blunted the difference observed in noradrenaline curves. Furthermore, contractile response to Ca2+ was decreased in the aorta of stressed rats. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the vascular response to chronic stress is an adaptation to its deleterious effects, such as hypertension. In addition, this adaptation is NO- and Ca2+-dependent. These data help to clarify the contribution of stress to cardiovascular abnormalities. However, further studies are necessary to better elucidate the mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction associated with stressors. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)Fundamento: Estresse está associado com complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivos: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar se o estresse crônico induz alterações vasculares, e se essas alterações são dependentes de óxido nítrico (NO) e Ca2+. Métodos: Ratos machos Wistar com 30 dias de idade foram separados em 2 grupos: controle (C) e Estresse (St). Utilizou-se estresse crônico de imobilização por 1 hora/dia, 5 dias/semana, 15 semanas. Pressão arterial sistólica foi avaliada. A função vascular foi

  8. Time-dependent Radial Transport of Electron Distributions Due to ECCD in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Prater, R.; Petty, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    The radial transport modeling capability in the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck collisional-rf quasilinear code[1] has been greatly improved and the self-consistent time-dependent toroidal electric field added, making the code truly a ``Fokker-Planck-Transport'' code. The time-dependent, coupled 3D Fokker-Planck equation and the Ampere-Faraday Law equation are solved for the electron distribution, f( u,θu,ρ,t ), and the toroidal loop voltage, Vloop( ρ,t ). A fully 3D, time-implicit solution of the FP equation using sparse-matrix methods[2] is coupled to a new iterative toroidal electric field solve. The DIII-D ECH experiment is in an intermediate driven regime with τtransport τslowing[3] for the EC driven electrons. Results will be reported for time-evolution of radial profiles of current density, fast electrons, and toroidal loop voltage due to EC heating and current drive in DIII-D. [1] R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, 1992; USDOC NTIS No. 93002962. [2] Y. Peysson et al., Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, 15th Topical Conference, Moran, Wyoming (2003). [3] R.W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205001 (2002).

  9. Osteosclerosis Due to Notch Gain of Function Is Solely Rbpj-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianning; Chen, Shan; Yang, Tao; Dawson, Brian; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Osteosclerosis is a pathological bone disease characterized by an increase in bone formation over bone resorption. Genetic factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease are poorly understood. Dysregulation or mutation in many components of Notch signaling pathway results in a wide range of human developmental disorders and cancers including bone diseases. Our previous study found that activation of the Notch signaling in osteoblasts promotes cell proliferation and inhibits differentiation, leading to an osteosclerotic phenotype in transgenic mice. In the present study, we report a longer lived mouse model that also develops osteosclerosis and a genetic manipulation that completely rescues the phenotype. Conditionally cre-activated expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) in vivo exclusively in committed osteoblasts caused massive osteosclerosis with growth retardation and abnormal vertebrae. Importantly, selective deletion of a Notch nuclear effector - Rbpj in osteoblasts completely suppressed the osteosclerotic and growth retardation phenotypes. Furthermore, cellular and molecular analyses of bones from the rescued mice confirmed that NICD-dependent molecular alterations in osteoblasts were completely reversed by removal of the Rbpj pathway. Together, our observations show that the osteosclerosis due to activation of Notch signaling in osteoblasts is canonical in nature since it depends solely on Rbpj signaling. As such, it identifies Rbpj as a specific target for manipulating Notch signaling in a cell autonomous fashion in osteoblasts in bone diseases where Notch may be dysregulated. PMID:20499347

  10. Temperature dependency of bidirectional flux in the rat intestine subjected to graded ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the effect of temperature and ischemia on permeation of fluorescently-labeled dextran (M.W. = 4 kDa; FD4) across rat intestinal mucosa. Permeability was evaluated ex vivo using an everted gut sac technique in both the mucosal-to-serosal (M-->S) and serosal-to-mucosal (S-->M) directions. At baseline (B), 30-min of ischemia (I-30) and 60-min of ischemia (I-60), intestinal segments were prepared and incubated at 37 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 30 min. Clearance (nl/min/cm2) was calculated based on the accumulated amount of FD4 at 30 min. Both M-->S and S-->M fluxes increased with increasing temperature at B, I-30 and I-60. Ischemic gut (I-30 and I-60) had about a three-fold higher (M-->S)/(S-->M) flux ratio than that of normal gut (p < 0.001). At 4 degrees C, neither M-->S nor S-->M flux was different between B and I-30, but both M-->S and S-->M fluxes significantly increased at I-60, suggesting an increase in permeation via a passive mechanism. Increased bidirectional fluxes at 37 degrees C were obtained in the I-30 and I-60 gut sacs when compared to B. We conclude that FD4 is actively transported across the intestinal mucosa in the S-->M direction and that ischemic injury increases passive diffusion of the probe across the gut wall.

  11. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  12. Application of the 15N gas-flux method for measuring in situ N2 and N2O fluxes due to denitrification in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems and comparison with the acetylene inhibition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, Fotis; Stott, Andrew; Ullah, Sami

    2016-03-01

    Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilized agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in-house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps and a copper-based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 µL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Preconcentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N gas-flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests, and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. The minimum detectable flux rates were 4 µg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique in the same land use types correlated (r = 0.58) with the denitrification rates measured under the 15N gas-flux method, but were underestimated by a factor of 4, and this was partially attributed to the incomplete inhibition of N2O reduction to N2, under a relatively high soil moisture content, and/or the catalytic NO decomposition in the presence of acetylene. Even though relatively robust for in situ denitrification measurements, methodological

  13. Numerical Study of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for Viscoelastic Flow Due to an Exponentially Stretching Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Khan, Junaid; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the flow and heat transfer in upper-convected Maxwell fluid above an exponentially stretching surface. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is employed for the formulation of the energy equation. This model can predict the effects of thermal relaxation time on the boundary layer. Similarity approach is utilized to normalize the governing boundary layer equations. Local similarity solutions are achieved by shooting approach together with fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and Newton’s method. Our computations reveal that fluid temperature has inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation time. Further the fluid velocity is a decreasing function of the fluid relaxation time. A comparison of Fourier’s law and the Cattaneo-Christov’s law is also presented. Present attempt even in the case of Newtonian fluid is not yet available in the literature. PMID:26325426

  14. Numerical Study of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for Viscoelastic Flow Due to an Exponentially Stretching Surface.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Khan, Junaid; Mustafa, M; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the flow and heat transfer in upper-convected Maxwell fluid above an exponentially stretching surface. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is employed for the formulation of the energy equation. This model can predict the effects of thermal relaxation time on the boundary layer. Similarity approach is utilized to normalize the governing boundary layer equations. Local similarity solutions are achieved by shooting approach together with fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration technique and Newton's method. Our computations reveal that fluid temperature has inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation time. Further the fluid velocity is a decreasing function of the fluid relaxation time. A comparison of Fourier's law and the Cattaneo-Christov's law is also presented. Present attempt even in the case of Newtonian fluid is not yet available in the literature.

  15. Application of the 15N-Gas Flux method for measuring in situ N2 and N2O fluxes due to denitrification in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems and comparison with the acetylene inhibition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgouridis, F.; Ullah, S.; Stott, A.

    2015-08-01

    Soil denitrification is considered the most un-constrained process in the global N cycle due to uncertain in situ N2 flux measurements, particularly in natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems. 15N tracer approaches can provide in situ measurements of both N2 and N2O simultaneously, but their use has been limited to fertilised agro-ecosystems due to the need for large 15N additions in order to detect 15N2 production against the high atmospheric N2. For 15N-N2 analyses, we have used an "in house" laboratory designed and manufactured N2 preparation instrument which can be interfaced to any commercial continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The N2 prep unit has gas purification steps, a copper based reduction furnace, and allows the analysis of small gas injection volumes (4 μL) for 15N-N2 analysis. For the analysis of N2O, an automated Tracegas Pre-concentrator (Isoprime Ltd) coupled to an IRMS was used to measure the 15N-N2O (4 mL gas injection volume). Consequently, the coefficient of variation for the determination of isotope ratios for N2 in air and in standard N2O (0.5 ppm) was better than 0.5 %. The 15N Gas-Flux method was adapted for application in natural and semi-natural land use types (peatlands, forests and grasslands) by lowering the 15N tracer application rate to 0.04-0.5 kg 15N ha-1. For our chamber design (volume / surface = 8:1) and a 20 h incubation period, the minimum detectable flux rates were 4 μg N m-2 h-1 and 0.2 ng N m-2 h-1 for the N2 and N2O fluxes respectively. The N2 flux ranged between 2.4 and 416.6 μg N m-2 h-1, and the grassland soils showed on average 3 and 14 times higher denitrification rates than the woodland and organic soils respectively. The N2O flux was on average 20 to 200 times lower than the N2 flux, while the denitrification product ratio (N2O/N2 + N2O) was low, ranging between 0.03 and 13 %. Total denitrification rates measured by the acetylene inhibition technique under the same field conditions

  16. Treatment of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist depot

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, V. N; Latronico, A.; Arnhold, I.; Lo, L.; Domenice, S.; Albano, M.; Fragoso, M.; Mendonca, B.

    1999-01-01

    The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a congenital malformation consisting of a heterotopic mass of nervous tissue that contains GnRH neurosecretory neurons attached to the tuber cinereum or the floor of the third ventricle. HH is a well recognised cause of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty (GDPP). Long term data are presented on eight children (five boys and three girls) with GDPP due to HH. Physical signs of puberty were observed before 2 years of age in all patients. At presentation with sexual precocity, the mean height standard deviation (SD) for chronological age was +1.60 (1.27) and the mean height SD for bone age was −0.92 (1.77). Neurological symptoms were absent at presentation and follow up. The hamartoma diameter ranged from 5 to 18 mm and did not change in six patients who had magnetic resonance imaging follow up. All patients were treated clinically with GnRH agonists (GnRH-a). The duration of treatment varied from 2.66 to 8.41 years. Seven of the eight children had satisfactory responses to treatment, shown by regression of pubertal signs, suppression of hormonal levels, and improvement of height SD for bone age and predicted height. One patient had a severe local reaction to GnRH-a with failure of hormonal suppression and progression of pubertal signs. It seems that HH is benign and that GnRH-a treatment provides satisfactory and safe control for most children with GDPP due to HH.

 PMID:10325702

  17. Estimating total horizontal aeolian flux within shrub-invaded groundwater-dependent meadows using empirical and mechanistic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, Kimberly R.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Kaste, James M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Li, Junran

    2013-06-01

    erosion is a significant environmental problem that removes soil resources from sensitive ecosystems and contributes to air pollution. In regions of shallow groundwater, friable (puffy) soils are maintained through capillary action, surface evaporation of solute-rich soil moisture, and protection from mobilization by groundwater-dependent grasses and shrubs. When a reduction in vegetation cover occurs through any disturbance process, there is potential for aeolian transport and dust emission. We find that as mean gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height increases, total horizontal aeolian sediment flux increases and explains 58% of the variation in total horizontal aeolian sediment flux. We also test a probabilistic model of wind erosion based on gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height (the Okin model), which predicts measured total horizontal aeolian sediment flux more closely than another commonly used model based on the average plant area observed in profile (Raupach model). The threshold shear velocity of bare soil appears to increase as gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height increases, reflecting either surface armoring or reduced interaction between the groundwater capillary zone and surface sediments. This work advances understanding of the importance of measuring gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height for empirically estimating Q and for structuring process-based models of desert wind erosion in groundwater-dependent vegetation.

  18. Composition Dependent Evolution in Mass Flux from Binary Trichloroethene/Tetrachloroethene-DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. I.; Cápiro, N. L.; Granbery, E. K.; Pennell, K. D.

    2010-12-01

    In order to accurately predict the efficacy of subsurface remediation for sites contaminated with multicomponent dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), it is necessary to link changes in aqueous phase contaminant discharge with source composition and distribution. Dissolution from a binary 1:1 (molar) mixture of trichloroethene- (TCE) and tetrachloroethene- (PCE) DNAPL was measured in three separate 2-dimensional aquifer cells (100 x 48 x 1.4 cm) that were packed with different background media (1:1 mixture 20:30 and 40:50 mesh; 20:30 mesh and 40:50 mesh Accusand) and low permeability zones. Initial DNAPL source zone architectures were varied to yield ganglia to pool (GTP) ratios of 0.44, 1.56, and 1.72. Down-gradient plume evolution and DNAPL spatial distribution were measured every 5 pore volumes (PV) from side port samples and a light transmission system that allowed non-invasive measurement of volumetric DNAPL saturation and source descriptive metrics at a resolution of 0.03 to 0.08 mm2. Flux-averaged PCE and TCE effluent concentrations were measured every 0.7 PVs from a fully screened effluent chamber. To accelerate changes in source zone architecture and overall mass removal, two surfactant floods (4% w/w Tween 80) were completed after mass discharge from the source zone reached a steady state. Mass flux reductions for a given amount of DNAPL mass removed were found to correspond strongly to the molar composition of DNAPL in the source zone and the initial DNAPL saturation distribution metric (e.g., GTP). Percent reductions in mass flux from the aquifer cells with ganglia dominated architectures were 98 and 72% for TCE and PCE respectively, with a final overall NAPL source zone molar ratio of 0.49:0.51 TCE: PCE ; and 97 and 79% for TCE and PCE with molar ratios of 0.19:0.81 TCE:PCE. Reductions in mass flux from the pool dominated source zone were 90 and 53% for TCE and PCE with a final overall DNAPL source zone mole fraction of 0.26:0.74 TCE:PCE. These

  19. Gravity wave activity in the thermosphere inferred from GOCE data, and its dependence on solar flux conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Doornbos, Eelco; Massarweh, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on the effect of solar flux conditions on the dynamics of Gravity Waves (GW) in thermosphere. Air density and cross-wind in situ estimates from the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometers are analyzed for the whole mission duration. The analysis was performed in the Fourier spectral domain averaging spectral results over periods of 2 months close to solstices. First the Amplitude Spectral Density (ASD) and the Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC) of physical parameters are linked to local gravity waves. Then, a new GW marker (called Cf3) was introduced here to constrain GWs activity under Low, Medium and High solar flux conditions, showing a clear solar dumping effect on GW activity. Most of GW signal has been found in a spectral range above 8 mHz in GOCE data, meaning a maximum horizontal wavelength around 1000 km. The level GW activity at GOCE altitude is strongly decreasing with increasing solar flux. Furthermore, a shift in the dominant frequency with solar flux conditions has been noted, leading to a larger horizontal wavelengths (from 200 to 500 km) during high solar flux conditions. The influence of correlated error sources, between air density and cross-winds, is discussed. Consistency of the spectral domain results has been verified in time-domain with a global mapping of high frequency perturbations along GOCE orbit. This analysis shows a clear dependence with geomagnetic latitude with strong perturbations at magnetic poles, and an extension to lower latitudes favoured by low solar activity conditions. Various possible causes of this spatial trend are discussed.

  20. Alteration of the oxygen-dependent reactivity of de novo Due Ferri proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Amanda J.; Pires, Marcos M.; Snyder, Rae Ana; Wu, Yibing; Jo, Hyunil; Kulp, Daniel W.; Butch, Susan E.; Calhoun, Jennifer R.; Szyperski, Thomas G.; Solomon, Edward I.; Degrado, William F.

    2012-11-01

    De novo proteins provide a unique opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationships of metalloproteins in a minimal, well-defined and controlled scaffold. Here, we describe the rational programming of function in a de novo designed di-iron carboxylate protein from the Due Ferri family. Originally created to catalyse the O2-dependent, two-electron oxidation of hydroquinones, the protein was reprogrammed to catalyse the selective N-hydroxylation of arylamines by remodelling the substrate access cavity and introducing a critical third His ligand to the metal-binding cavity. Additional second- and third-shell modifications were required to stabilize the His ligand in the core of the protein. These structural changes resulted in at least a 106-fold increase in the relative rate between the arylamine N-hydroxylation and hydroquinone oxidation reactions. This result highlights the potential for using de novo proteins as scaffolds for future investigations of the geometric and electronic factors that influence the catalytic tuning of di-iron active sites.

  1. Methanol emissions from maize: Ontogenetic dependence to varying light conditions and guttation as an additional factor constraining the flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffar, A.; Schoon, N.; Digrado, A.; Bachy, A.; Delaplace, P.; du Jardin, P.; Fauconnier, M.-L.; Aubinet, M.; Heinesch, B.; Amelynck, C.

    2017-03-01

    Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural crops are believed to be a large source of methanol, emission inventories from those crop ecosystems are still scarce and little information is available concerning the driving mechanisms for methanol production and emission at different developmental stages of the plants/leaves. This study focuses on methanol emissions from Zea mays L. (maize), which is vastly cultivated throughout the world. Flux measurements have been performed on young plants, almost fully grown leaves and fully grown leaves, enclosed in dynamic flow-through enclosures in a temperature and light-controlled environmental chamber. Strong differences in the response of methanol emissions to variations in PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) were noticed between the young plants, almost fully grown and fully grown leaves. Moreover, young maize plants showed strong emission peaks following light/dark transitions, for which guttation can be put forward as a hypothetical pathway. Young plants' average daily methanol fluxes exceeded by a factor of 17 those of almost fully grown and fully grown leaves when expressed per leaf area. Absolute flux values were found to be smaller than those reported in the literature, but in fair agreement with recent ecosystem scale flux measurements above a maize field of the same variety as used in this study. The flux measurements in the current study were used to evaluate the dynamic biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission model of Niinemets and Reichstein. The modelled and measured fluxes from almost fully grown leaves were found to agree best when a temperature and light dependent methanol production function was applied. However, this production function turned out not to be suitable for modelling the observed emissions from the young plants

  2. Ion Outflow in the Dayside Cusp Ionosphere and its Dependence on Soft Electron Energy Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.; Clemmons, J. H.; Oksavik, K.; Pfaff, R. F.; Steigies, C. T.; Yau, A. W.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the origin of low energy (Ek<10 eV) ion upflows in Earth's low-altitude dayside cusp region. The Cusp-2002 sounding rocket flew from Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, on 14 December 2002, carrying plasma and field instrumentation to an altitude of 768 km. The Suprathermal Ion Imager, a two-dimensional energy/arrival-angle spectrograph, observed large (>500 m/s) O+ upflows within the cusp at altitudes between 640 km and 768 km. We report a significant association between ion upflow and precipitating magnetosheath electron energy flux in this altitude range, but no causal links between upflow and either wave power or the magnitude of the dc electric field. The correspondence between upflow and logarithm of the electron energy flux suggests a mechanism whereby ions are accelerated locally by ambipolar electric fields that are driven by the soft electrons. Significant ion upflows are not observed for electron energy fluxes below ˜1010 eV cm-2s-1, which suggests that any ambipolar fields present above 640 km must be in equilibrium with gravity and pressure gradients under this condition. The lack of correspondence between │E│ and upflow on the one hand, and wave power and upflow on the other, does not rule out these processes, but implies that, if operating, they are not local to the measurement region. We observe narrow regions of large downflow that imply either a re-balancing of the ionosphere toward a low-Te equilibrium during which gravity dominates the pressure gradients, or convection of the upflowing ions away from the precipitation region, outside of which the ions must fall back into equilibrium at lower altitudes.

  3. Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. II. Finite Plasma Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.

    2014-04-01

    The propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is an area that has been thoroughly studied for idealised static and steady state magnetised plasma systems applied to numerous solar structures. By applying the generalisation of a temporally varying background density to an open magnetic flux tube, mimicking the observed slow evolution of such waveguides in the solar atmosphere, further investigations into the propagation of both fast and slow MHD waves can take place. The assumption of a zero-beta plasma (no gas pressure) was applied in Williamson and Erdélyi ( Solar Phys. 2013, doi:10.1007/s11207-013-0366-9, Paper I) is now relaxed for further analysis here. Firstly, the introduction of a finite thermal pressure to the magnetic flux tube equilibrium modifies the existence of fast MHD waves which are directly comparable to their counterparts found in Paper I. Further, as a direct consequence of the non-zero kinetic plasma pressure, a slow MHD wave now exists, and is investigated. Analysis of the slow wave shows that, similar to the fast MHD wave, wave amplitude amplification takes place in time and height. The evolution of the wave amplitude is determined here analytically. We conclude that for a temporally slowly decreasing background density both propagating magnetosonic wave modes are amplified for over-dense magnetic flux tubes. This information can be very practical and useful for future solar magneto-seismology applications in the study of the amplitude and frequency properties of MHD waveguides, e.g. for diagnostic purposes, present in the solar atmosphere.

  4. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C.

    2014-05-13

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes and variances above, within and beneath a tall closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime subcanopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at time scales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime subcanopy heat flux cospectra. The daytime momentum flux cospectra inside the canopy and in the subcanopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of themore » momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the subcanopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed mean wind speed profile. In the canopy at night at the smallest resolved scales, we find relatively large momentum fluxes (compared to at larger scales), and increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing time scale, consistent with very small eddies likely generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum but not heat. We find unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the subcanopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately; however, single source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the subcanopy and above-canopy layers. Modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies are likely underestimated using typical values of the Stanton number.« less

  5. Prediction of thermal-stress and deformations due to phase change in solidifying objects via flux/stress based finite element representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, K. K.; Namburu, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents numerical simulations for the prediction of thermal-stress and deformation fields resulting from phase change in solidifying bodies employing new finite element representations. The formulations herein demonstrated provide different perspectives and physical interpretation for the modeling/analysis of thermo-mechanical problems and possess several inherent advantages. In comparison to traditional approaches for solving similar problems, the paper employs new flux/stress based representations to enhance the overall effectiveness. Comparative numerical applications validate applicability of the formulations for predicting the temperature induced deformations and stresses resulting from effects due to phase change.

  6. Optogenetics in Developmental Biology: using light to control ion flux-dependent signals in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Spencer Adams, Dany; Lemire, Joan M; Kramer, Richard H; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bioelectricity, electrical signaling among non-excitable cells, is now known to regulate proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, and patterning during development. The extraordinary temporal and spatial resolution offered by optogenetics could revolutionize the study of bioelectricity the same way it has revolutionized neuroscience. There is, however, no guide to adapting optogenetics to patterning systems. To fill this gap, we used optogenetic reagents, both proteins and photochemical switches, to vary steady-state bioelectrical properties of non-spiking embryonic cells in Xenopus laevis. We injected mRNA for various proteins, including Channelrhodopsins and Archaerhodopsin, into 1-8 cell embryos, or soaked embryos in media containing photochemical switches, then examined the effect of light and dark on membrane voltage (Vmem) using both electrodes and fluorescent membrane voltage reporters. We also scored tadpoles for known effects of varying Vmem, including left-right asymmetry disruption, hyperpigmentation, and craniofacial phenotypes. The majority of reagents we tested caused a significant increase in the percentage of light-exposed tadpoles showing relevant phenotypes; however, the majority of reagents also induced phenotypes in controls kept in the dark. Experiments on this "dark phenotype" yielded evidence that the direction of ion flux via common optogenetic reagents may be reversed, or unpredictable in non-neural cells. When used in combination with rigorous controls, optogenetics can be a powerful tool for investigating ion-flux based signaling in non-excitable systems. Nonetheless, it is crucial that new reagents be designed with these non-neural cell types in mind.

  7. Morphology-dependent water budgets and nutrient fluxes in arctic thaw ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Joshua C.; Gurney, Kirsty; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Thaw ponds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are productive ecosystems, providing habitat and food resources for many fish and bird species. Permafrost in this region creates unique pond morphologies: deep troughs, shallow low-centred polygons (LCPs) and larger coalescent ponds. By monitoring seasonal trends in pond volume and chemistry, we evaluated whether pond morphology and size affect water temperature and desiccation, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes. Evaporation was the largest early-summer water flux in all pond types. LCPs dried quickly and displayed high early-summer nutrient concentrations and losses. Troughs consistently received solute-rich subsurface inflows, which accounted for 12 to 42 per cent of their volume and may explain higher P in the troughs. N to P ratios increased and ammonium concentrations decreased with pond volume, suggesting that P and inorganic N availability may limit ecosystem productivity in older, larger ponds. Arctic summer temperatures will likely increase in the future, which may accelerate mid-summer desiccation. Given their morphology, troughs may remain wet, become warmer and derive greater nutrient loads from their thawing banks. Overall, seasonal- to decadal-scale warming may increase ecosystem productivity in troughs relative to other Arctic Coastal Plain ponds. 

  8. Role of native defects in nitrogen flux dependent carrier concentration of InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    We address the carrier concentration, strain, and bandgap issue of InN films grown on c-sapphire at different N-flux by molecular beam epitaxy using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the strain in InN films arises due to point defects like nitrogen interstitials and nitrogen antisites. We report minimal biaxial strain due to relaxed growth morphology and a minimal hydrostatic strain arising due to interstitial nitrogen atoms being partially compensated by nitrogen antisites. We find that the variation in absorption edge can be attributed to defect induced carrier concentration and that nitrogen interstitials and nitrogen antisites act as donors that yield the respective absorption edge and Moss-Burstein shift. Our studies are a step towards the ability to form low carrier concentration strain-relaxed films and to determine the intrinsic band gap value for this technologically important material.

  9. Fluxes of Ca2+ and K+ are required for the listeriolysin O-dependent internalization pathway of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Vadia, Stephen; Seveau, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the life-threatening food-borne disease listeriosis. This disease mainly affects elderly and immunocompromised individuals, causing bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. In pregnant women, L. monocytogenes infection leads to abortion and severe infection of the fetus or newborn. The L. monocytogenes intracellular life cycle is critical for pathogenesis. Previous studies have established that the major virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO), is sufficient to induce L. monocytogenes internalization into human epithelial cell lines. This internalization pathway strictly requires the formation of LLO pores in the plasma membrane and can be stimulated by the heterologous pore-forming toxin pneumolysin, suggesting that LLO acts nonspecifically by forming transmembrane pores. The present work tested the hypothesis that Ca2+ and K+ fluxes subsequent to perforation by LLO control L. monocytogenes internalization. We report that L. monocytogenes perforates the host cell plasma membrane in an LLO-dependent fashion at the early stage of invasion. In response to perforation, host cells undergo Ca2+ -dependent but K+ -independent resealing of their plasma membrane. In contrast to the plasma membrane resealing process, LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires both Ca2+ and K+ fluxes. Further linking ion fluxes to bacterial internalization, treating cells with a combination of Ca2+ and K+ ionophores but not with individual ionophores is sufficient to induce efficient internalization of large cargoes, such as 1-μm polystyrene beads and bacteria. We propose that LLO-induced L. monocytogenes internalization requires a Ca2+ - and K+ -dependent internalization pathway that is mechanistically distinct from the process of plasma membrane resealing.

  10. Revisiting Sea State Dependent Surface Fluxes Parameterisations in a Fully Coupled Forecast System with Emphasis on Tropical Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidlot, J. R.; Mogensen, K.; Magnusson, L.; Janssen, P. A. E. M.

    2016-02-01

    The global analyses and medium range forecasts from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts rely on a state of the art atmospheric model. In order to best represent the momentum exchange at the surface of the oceans, it is tightly coupled to an ocean wave model. Recently, progress has been made to include an ocean model as part of its medium range forecasting system. In this context, sea state (waves) effects on Upper Ocean mixing and dynamics were successfully added to the system. The first operational implementation of this system was with the ensemble prediction system and work in under way to implement the same system into the operational high resolution suite. Tropical cyclone prediction with increased resolution has generally become quite reliable. Nevertheless, systematic biases still exist. The benefit of adding the active coupling with the ocean has been successfully demonstrated.Because the feedback from the ocean can be significant, it is only in the fully coupled system that the formulations for heat, moisture and momentum fluxes can be revisited. Experimental evidences point to a sea state/wind dependency of the heat and moisture fluxes. Following an extension of the wind wave generation theory, we have tested a sea state dependent parametrisation for the roughness length scales for heat and humidity. Furthermore, under very strong wind forcing, there are evidences that the current parametrisation of the sea state dependent momentum flux should be modified to respect physical constrains on the wave spectral steepness. We propose a simple adaptation of the current scheme.

  11. Long-term modelling of fly ash and radionuclide emissions as well as deposition fluxes due to the operation of large oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kaasik, Marko; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan H

    2017-09-11

    Two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants (PPs) in Estonia have been operational over 40 years, emitting various pollutants, such as fly ash, SOx, NOx, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds as well as radionuclides to the environment. The emissions from these PPs have varied significantly during this period, with the maximum during the 1970s and 1980s. The oil shale burned in the PPs contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the (238)U and (232)Th decay series as well as (40)K. These radionuclides become enriched in fly ash fractions (up to 10 times), especially in the fine fly ash escaping the purification system. Using a validated Gaussian-plume model, atmospheric dispersion modelling was carried out to determine the quantity and a real magnitude of fly ash and radionuclide deposition fluxes during different decades. The maximum deposition fluxes of volatile radionuclides ((210)Pb and (210)Po) were around 70 mBq m(-2) d(-1) nearby the PPs during 1970s and 1980s. Due to the reduction of burned oil shale and significant renovations done on the PPs, the deposition fluxes were reduced to 10 mBq m(-2) d(-1) in the 2000s and down to 1.5 mBq m(-2) d(-1) in 2015. The maximum deposition occurs within couple of kilometers of the PPs, but the impacted area extends to over 50 km from the sources. For many radionuclides, including (210)Po, the PPs have been larger contributors of radionuclides to the environment via atmospheric pathway than natural sources. This is the first time that the emissions and deposition fluxes of radionuclides from the PPs have been quantified, providing the information about their radionuclide deposition load on the surrounding environment during various time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. a Unified Description of Time Dependence of Information Entropy Production and Flux in Thermal Broadband Noise-Driven Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, Pradip; Goswami, Gurupada; Barik, Debashis; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    In this paper we have studied the dynamics of thermal broadband noise-driven dynamical system in terms of information entropy at both the nonstationary and stationary states. Here, a unified description of fluctuating force is considered in a thermodynamically closed system. Based on the Fokker-Planck description of stochastic processes and the entropy balance equation, we have calculated the time-dependence of the information entropy production and entropy flux in the presence and absence of nonequilibrium constraint. Our calculation considers how the time evolution of these quantities is affected if the characteristic of noise changes from white to red or green and red to green in a unified scheme.

  13. Simulating effects of land use changes on carbon fluxes: past contributions to atmospheric CO2 increases and future commitments due to losses of terrestrial sink capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmann, K. M.; Joos, F.; Fischer, G.

    2008-09-01

    The impact of land use on the global carbon cycle and climate is assessed. The Bern carbon cycle-climate model was used with land use maps from HYDE3.0 for 1700 to 2000 A.D. and from post-SRES scenarios for this century. Cropland and pasture expansion each cause about half of the simulated net carbon emissions of 188 GtC over the industrial period and 1.1 GtC yr-1 in the 1990s, implying a residual terrestrial sink of 113 GtC and of 1.8 GtC yr-1, respectively. Direct CO2 emissions due to land conversion as simulated in book-keeping models dominate carbon fluxes due to land use in the past. They are, however, mitigated by 25% through the feedback of increased atmospheric CO2 stimulating uptake. CO2 stimulated sinks are largely lost when natural lands are converted. Past land use change has eliminated potential future carbon sinks equivalent to emissions of 80-150 GtC over this century. They represent a commitment of past land use change, which accounts for 70% of the future land use flux in the scenarios considered. Pre-industrial land use emissions are estimated to 45 GtC at most, implying a maximum change in Holocene atmospheric CO2 of 3 ppm. This is not compatible with the hypothesis that early anthropogenic CO2 emissions prevented a new glacial period.

  14. Decreases in Ca2+-dependent K+-currents due to cyclic guanosine monophosphate are not dependent on phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, Yu V

    2002-01-01

    Two-microelectrode voltage clamping experiments were performed on isolated snail neurons to measure the Ca2+-dependent. potential-dependent K+ current (I(C)), with assessment of the effects of penetrating cGMP analogs on this current - dibutyryl cGMP (dcGMP) and 8-Br-cGMP. Both of these penetrating cGMP analogs rapidly and reversibly decreased the amplitude of I(C). cGMP analogs produced no shifts in the volt-ampere characteristics of the efflux current along the voltage axis. dcGMP and 8-Br-cGMP had no effect on the influx Ca2+ current. The non-specific protein kinase inhibitor H-8 decreased or had no effect on I(C) in different cells. The effects of both dcGMP and 8-Br-cGMP persisted in the presence of H-8. Decreases in I(C) in the presence of cGMP analogs also persisted in the presence of the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. These results lead to the conclusion that decreased conductivity of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels occurring in response to cGMP is not associated with phosphorylation.

  15. The Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) Datasets and the Uncertainties/Impact due to the SSM/I Brightness Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C.; Hilburn, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate ocean surface turbulent flux measurements are crucial to understanding the global water and energy cycle changes. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for global monitoring of these flux measurements. The GSSTF algorithm was thus developed and applied to remote sensing research and applications. The early version GSSTF2 (a global 1°x1° daily dataset of July 1987-December 2000) was widely used by the scientific community for global energy and water cycle research, and regional and short period data analysis since its official release in 2001. In a recently funded project by the NASA/Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program, a new version GSSTF2b (a global 1°x1° daily dataset of July 1987-December 2008) using the improved and upgraded input datasets that included the updated Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/I) V6 product (e.g., brightness temperature [TB]) and the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis II product (e.g., sea surface/skin temperature) was therefore produced and distributed in October 2010. GSSTF2b was found to generally agree better with the sounding observations than GSSTF2 did in all three components of fluxes, i.e., latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF), and wind stress (WST). In a recent intercomparison study led by one of the GSSTF2b/GSSTF2 users, GSSTF2b was also found performed well, especially in LHF and SHF, among the eleven accessed global oceanic surface turbulent fluxes datasets that include six reanalysis, four satellite-derived, and one combined. Certain foremost climate and weather scenarios such as the ENSO and the Monsoon activities can also be genuinely demonstrated by the GSSTF2b fluxes. However, we recently realized that the gradually increasing temporal trend shown in the globally averaged LHF of GSSTF2b, especially post 2000~2001, was somewhat related to a trend found in the SSM/I TB that was used to retrieve the bottom layer precipitable water (WB), then the specific humidity (Qa

  16. Propagating of uncertainties due to human-induced surface-heterogeneities in regional estimation of energy and mass exchange from flux aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture and forestry practices have added a multitude of vegetation heterogeneity scales to the landscape. The effects of the human induced heterogeneity, such as multi-crop agriculture and selective logging, on regional estimates of gas exchange from remote sensing platforms can now be added to the list of major problems that must be confronted by the ecohydrology communities. The last decade provided perhaps the most rapid advances given developments in satellite remote sensing products and computational methods. Recent studies on sub-pixel heterogeneity effects on pixel-averaged fluxes using a two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance model over semi-arid landscapes have concluded that sub-pixel variability could lead to significantly biased results when compared to true turbulent energy fluxes. Moreover, these studies have shown that errors in outputs from flux models driven by remotely sensed surface properties would be dependent on the distribution and the magnitude of the sub-pixel spatial variability. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the discrepancy is not only associated with the spatial variability level but also a function of the wind speed (i.e. the turbulent state of the atmosphere), suggesting that a formal analysis of turbulence on scalar transport is the logical step to increase confidence in subpixel flux estimates under these circumstances. Computational-fluid-mechanic studies point towards the importance of sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity on regional flux estimates, suggesting that they are sensitive to the scale of the land surface heterogeneity. These studies primarily considered the effects of small-scale (sub-grid) heterogeneity on pixel-scale energy budgets. However, the emergent theme remains the same - large uncertainties are associated with fluxes derived from spatially averaged surface properties. To advance in this topic, the heterogeneity should be confronted with two dynamic-length-scale, namely, the convective scale

  17. Effect of Erbium substitution on temperature and field dependence of thermally activated flux flow resistance in Bi-2212 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladhi, D.; Mandal, P.; Sahoo, R. C.; Giri, S. K.; Nath, T. K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) regime of Er doped Bi2Sr2Ca1-xErxCu2O8+δ (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3) polycrystalline systems have been investigated using magneto-transport measurements up to 70 kOe magnetic field. High quality single phase samples have been prepared by standard solid state reaction method. The activation energy or pinning strength (U0) have been calculated using thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model by linear fitting from the semi-logarithmic curve of ln ρ vs 1/T. It has been observed that activation energy (U0) decreases with Er substitution and U0 follows power law dependence with magnetic field for all three samples. Irreversibility lines (IL) have been drawn from the magneto-transport data for all three samples and it is observed that IL shifts to lower temperature with higher Er concentration. It is confirmed from the above results that pinning strength becomes weaker with Er doping. Finally, the variation of U0 have been shown with temperature by re-plotting -T(ln (ρ/ρ100)) vs T for three samples showing non-linear dependence with temperature.

  18. Optimal design of metabolic flux analysis experiments for anchorage-dependent mammalian cells using a cellular automaton model.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Adam L; Roy, Siddhartha; Clark, Douglas S; Blanch, Harvey W

    2007-09-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is widely used to quantify metabolic pathway activity. Typical applications involve isotopically labeled substrates, which require both metabolic and isotopic steady states for simplified data analysis. For bacterial systems, these steady states are readily achieved in chemostat cultures. However, mammalian cells are often anchorage dependent and experiments are typically conducted in batch or fed-batch systems, such as tissue culture dishes or microcarrier-containing bioreactors. Surface adherence may cause deviations from exponential growth, resulting in metabolically heterogeneous populations and a varying number of cellular "nearest neighbors" that may affect the observed metabolism. Here, we discuss different growth models suitable for deconvoluting these effects and their application to the design and optimization of MFA experiments employing surface-adherent mammalian cells. We describe a stochastic two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton model, with empirical descriptions of cell number and non-growing cell fraction, suitable for easy application to most anchorage-dependent mammalian cell cultures. Model utility was verified by studying the impact of contact inhibition on the growth rate, specific extracellular flux rates, and isotopic labeling in lactate for MCF7 cells, a commonly studied breast cancer cell line. The model successfully defined the time over which exponential growth and a metabolically homogeneous growing cell population could be assumed. The cellular automaton model developed is shown to be a useful tool in designing optimal MFA experiments.

  19. On consistency and rate of convergence of Flux Reconstruction for time-dependent problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asthana, Kartikey; Watkins, Jerry; Jameson, Antony

    2017-04-01

    This study is directed at a rigorous characterization of the consistency and convergence of discontinuous finite element schemes formulated using Flux Reconstruction (FR). We show that the FR formulation is consistent for linear advection and converges to the exact solution for any scheme that is stable in the von Neumann sense. The numerical solution for a scheme of polynomial order P is composed of P + 1 eigenmodes, of which, one and exactly one is 'physical' such that it exhibits the analytical dispersion behavior in the limit of asymptotic grid resolution. The remaining P modes are 'spurious' such that the fraction of energy received by them from the initial condition vanishes in the asymptotic limit. On grid refinement, the rate of convergence of the numerical solution is a function of time, starting from a short-time rate at t =0+, associated with interpolation, and asymptotically approaching a long-time rate as t → ∞, associated with numerical differentiation. Both these rates can be inferred directly from the eigensystem of the numerical derivative operator. We verify these analytical expectations using simple experiments in 1-D and 2-D.

  20. Frequency dependence and intensity fluctuations due to shallow water internal waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F; Pereselkov, Serguey

    2007-08-01

    A theory and experimental results for sound propagation through an anisotropic shallow water environment are presented to examine the frequency dependence of the scintillation index in the presence of internal waves. The theory of horizontal rays and vertical modes is used to establish the azimutal and frequency behavior of the sound intensity fluctuations, specifically for shallow water broadband acoustic signals propagating through internal waves. This theory is then used to examine the frequency dependent, anisotropic acoustic field measured during the SWARM'95 experiment. The frequency dependent modal scintillation index is described for the frequency range of 30-200 Hz on the New Jersey continental shelf.

  1. Depletion of forestry resource biomass due to industrialization pressure: a ratio-dependent mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manju; Fatima, Tazeen; Freedman, H I

    2010-07-01

    A model for interactions between forestry biomass, wildlife population and industrialization pressure is proposed and analysed. Here, the functional responses are assumed to be ratio-dependent type. The effect of forestry biomass depletion in a forested habitat caused by industrialization pressure on the survival of the forestry biomass dependent wildlife species is studied. The behaviours of the system near all ecological feasible equilibria are analysed.

  2. The directional dependence of apertures, limits and sensitivity of the lunar Cherenkov technique to a UHE neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J.

    2009-06-01

    We use computer simulations to obtain the directional-dependence of the lunar Cherenkov technique for ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrino detection. We calculate the instantaneous effective area of past lunar Cherenkov experiments at Parkes, Goldstone (Goldstone Lunar Ultra-high energy neutrino Experiment, GLUE), and Kalyazin, as a function of neutrino arrival direction, finding that the potential sensitivity to a point source of UHE neutrinos for these experiments was as much as thirty times that to an isotropic flux, depending on the beam-pointing position and incident neutrino energy. Convolving our results with the known lunar positions during the Parkes and Goldstone experiments allows us to calculate an exposure map, and hence the directional-dependence of the combined limit imposed by these experiments. In the 10 21-10 23 eV range, we find parts of the sky where the GLUE limit likely still dominates, and areas where none of the limits from either Parkes, GLUE, or experiments such as the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) balloon experiment or FORTE (Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events) satellite experiment are likely to be significant. Hence a large anisotropic flux of UHE neutrinos from these regions is not yet excluded. We also determine the directional dependence of the aperture of future planned experiments with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) to a UHE neutrino flux, and calculate the potential annual exposure to astronomical objects as a function of angular distance from the lunar trajectory through celestial coordinates. We find that the potential exposure of all experiments at 10 20 eV and below, integrated over a calendar year, is flat out to ˜25° from the lunar trajectory and then drops off rapidly. The region of greater sensitivity includes much of the Supergalactic Plane, including M87 and Cen A, as well as the Galactic Centre. At higher energies

  3. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5–2.0 μmol m−2 s−1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m−2 s−1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m−2 s−1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m−2 s−1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic. PMID:28033336

  4. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  5. Effect of the thermal pressure on upward plasma fluxes due to ponderomotive force of Alfvén ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, Anatoly; Feygin, Felix

    2010-05-01

    In a number of papers devoted to the effect of the ponderomotive force of Alfvén ion cyclotron waves on plasma fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere, it was shown that the plasma density increases in the vicinity of the equator (e.g. Guglielmi et al. 1993). The increase of density takes place as a result of plasma fluxes flowing upward along the magnetic field lines under the action of the ponderomotive force. This force emerges due to inhomogeneity of the background number density and magnetic field (Guglielmi et al. 1993, Nekrasov and Feygin 2005). However, the experimental data by Olsen (1992) show that the plasma density accumulation at the equator is not observed. On the contrary, the density at the equator is lower than outside of it. In the present paper, we show that the quasi-stationary density evolution always tends to decrease under the action of the ponderomotive force. This decrease is proportional to the local wave amplitude, i.e. it is deeper in regions, where the wave amplitude is larger. As a result, the thermal pressure prevents the flux from flowing upward and the stationary state is settled. A typical time of this process is the ratio of the wave amplitude inhomogeneity length to the sound speed. In the stationary state, the flux is equal to zero. As it is known, a part of the ponderomotive force is proportional to the nonlinear magnetic moment of the medium and gradient of the background magnetic field. We show that the well-known Pitayevsky's formula for the magnetic moment in the cold plasma (Pitayevsky 1960) is not complete. This formula does not take into account the part of the magnetic moment induced by the nonlinear current connected with the quasi-stationary velocities of charged species. References Guglielmi, A. V., O. A. Pokhotelov, L. Stenflo, and P. K. Shukla, Astrophys. Space Sci. 200, 91 (1993). Nekrasov, A. K. and F. Z. Feygin, Physica Scripta 71, 310 (2005). Olsen, R. C., J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1135 (1992). Pitayevsky, L. P

  6. Estimating economic gains for landowners due to time-dependent changes in biotechnology

    Treesearch

    John E. Wagner; Thomas P. Holmes

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model for examining the economic value of biotechnological research given time-dependent changes in biotechnology. Previous papers examined this issue assuming a time-neutral change in biotechnology. However, when analyzing the genetic improvements of increasing a tree's resistance to a pathogen, this assumption is untenable. The authors...

  7. Self-healing slip pulses in dynamic rupture models due to velocity-dependent strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Seismological observations of short slip duration on faults (short rise time on seismograms) during earthquakes are not consistent with conventional crack models of dynamic rupture and fault slip. In these models, the leading edge of rupture stops only when a strong region is encountered, and slip at an interior point ceases only when waves from the stopped edge of slip propagate back to that point. In contrast, some seismological evidence suggests that the duration of slip is too short for waves to propagate from the nearest edge of the ruptured surface, perhaps even if the distance used is an asperity size instead of the entire rupture dimension. What controls slip duration, if not dimensions of the fault or of asperities? In this study, dynamic earthquake rupture and slip are represented by a propagating shear crack. For all propagating shear cracks, slip velocity is highest near the rupture front, and at a small distance behind the rupture front, the slip velocity decreases. As pointed out by Heaton (1990), if the crack obeys a negative slip-rate-dependent strength relation, the lower slip velocity behind the rupture front will lead to strengthening that further reduces the velocity, and under certain circumstances, healing of slip can occur. The boundary element method of Hamano (1974) is used in a program adapted from Andrews (1985) for numerical simulations of mode II rupture with two different velocity-dependent strength functions. For the first function, after a slip-weakening displacement, the crack follows an exponential velocity-weakening relation. The characteristic velocity V0 of the exponential determines the magnitude of the velocity-dependence at dynamic velocities. The velocity-dependence at high velocity is essentially zero when V0 is small and the resulting slip velocity distribution is similar to slip weakening. If V0 is larger, rupture propagation initially resembles slip-weakening, but spontaneous healing occurs behind the rupture front. The

  8. Simulating Damage Due to a Lightning Strike Event: Effects of Temperature Dependent Properties on Interlaminar Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghezeljeh, Paria Naghipour; Pineda, Evan Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A multidirectional, carbon fiber-epoxy, composite panel is subjected to a simulated lightning strike, within a finite element method framework, and the effect of material properties on the failure (delamination) response is investigated through a detailed numerical study. The numerical model of the composite panel consists of individual homogenized plies with user-defined, cohesive interface elements between them. Lightning strikes are simulated as an assumed combination of excessive heat and high pressure loadings. It is observed that the initiation and propagation of lightning-induced delamination is a significant function of the temperature dependency of interfacial fracture toughness. This dependency must be defined properly in order to achieve reliable predictions of the present lightning-induced delamination in the composite panel.

  9. Corrections to charge exchange spectroscopic measurements in TFTR due to energy-dependent excitation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.B.; Fonck, R.J.; Knize, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    The use of charge exchange spectrocopy to determine plasma rotation speeds and ion temperature is complicated by the energy dependence of the excitation cross sections. The Doppler-broadened spectral line shape is distorted by the relative velocity between the neutral hydrogen atoms of the injected beam and impurity ions. The asymmetric nature of the energy dependence of this cross section causes a non-motional shift of the line center and a non-thermal change in the line width. These effects vary with the angles between the beam direction, rotation velocity direction, and direction of the viewing sightline. When viewing two neutral beams at different angles on TFTR, the two measurements of v/sub phi/(r) show discrepancies about 20 to 30% with each other. The calculation of the spectral intensity profiles, using the excitation rates available, overcorrects these discrepancies and indicates the need for better excitation coefficients. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo. PMID:24926191

  11. Temperature dependence of a high-Tc single-flux-quantum logic gate up to 50 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Kazuo; Utagawa, Tadashi; Enomoto, Youichi

    1998-05-01

    Basic characteristics of a simple single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic gate using high-Tc material and Josephson junction (NdBa2Cu3O7-δ and focused ion beam junction) have been investigated. The logic gate consists of an rf-superconducting quantum interference device (rf-SQUID) and a dc-SQUID. In the logic gate, elementary SFQ logic operations, such as generating SFQ (dc/SFQ) and providing simultaneous readout (SFQ/dc), have been confirmed up to 50 K. The temperature dependencies of the output voltage level and the critical current-normal resistance (IcRn) product were compared, and the decreasing tendency of the output voltage level for increasing temperature was found to be more rapid than that of the IcRn product.

  12. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-05-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo.

  13. Ion beam induced surface patterns due to mass redistribution and curvature-dependent sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobes, Omar; Zhang, Kun; Hofsäss, Hans

    2012-12-01

    Recently it was reported that ion-induced mass redistribution would solely determine nano pattern formation on ion-irradiated surfaces. We investigate the pattern formation on amorphous carbon thin films irradiated with Xe ions of energies between 200 eV and 10 keV. Sputter yield as well as number of displacements within the collision cascade vary strongly as function of ion energy and allow us to investigate the contributions of curvature-dependent erosion according to the Bradley-Harper model as well as mass redistribution according to the Carter-Vishnyakov model. We find parallel ripple orientations for an ion incidence angle of 60° and for all energies. A transition to perpendicular pattern orientation or a rather flat surface occurs around 80° for energies between 1 keV and 10 keV. Our results are compared with calculations based on both models. For the calculations we extract the shape and size of Sigmund's energy ellipsoid (parameters a, σ, μ), the angle-dependent sputter yield, and the mean mass redistribution distance from the Monte Carlo simulations with program SDTrimSP. The calculated curvature coefficients Sx and Sy describing the height evolution of the surface show that mass redistribution is dominant for parallel pattern formation in the whole energy regime. Furthermore, the angle where the parallel pattern orientation starts to disappear is related to curvature-dependent sputtering. In addition, we investigate the case of Pt erosion with 200 eV Ne ions, where mass redistribution vanishes. In this case, we observe perpendicular ripple orientation in accordance with curvature-dependent sputtering and the predictions of the Bradley-Harper model.

  14. TIME DEPENDENCE OF THE e{sup −} FLUX MEASURED BY PAMELA DURING THE 2006 JULY–2009 DECEMBER SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Formato, V.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bottai, S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Santis, C. De; Castellini, G.; Donato, C. De; Simone, N. De; Felice, V. Di; and others

    2015-09-10

    Precision measurements of the electron component of cosmic radiation provide important information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy not accessible from the study of cosmic-ray nuclear components due to their differing diffusion and energy-loss processes. However, when measured near Earth, the effects of propagation and modulation of Galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere, particularly significant for energies up to at least 30 GeV, must be properly taken into account. In this paper the electron (e{sup −}) spectra measured by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics down to 70 MeV from 2006 July to 2009 December over six-month time intervals are presented. Fluxes are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation that reproduces the observations remarkably well.

  15. Time Dependence of the e- Flux Measured by PAMELA during the July 2006-December 2009 Solar Minimum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergè, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Potgieter, M. S.; Vos, E. E.

    2015-09-01

    Precision measurements of the electron component of cosmic radiation provide important information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy not accessible from the study of cosmic-ray nuclear components due to their differing diffusion and energy-loss processes. However, when measured near Earth, the effects of propagation and modulation of Galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere, particularly significant for energies up to at least 30 GeV, must be properly taken into account. In this paper the electron (e-) spectra measured by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics down to 70 MeV from 2006 July to 2009 December over six-month time intervals are presented. Fluxes are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation that reproduces the observations remarkably well.

  16. The dependence of stress in IBAD films on the ion-irradiation energy and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitz, K. O.; Arndt, J.; Bøttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    1997-05-01

    Systematic experimental studies of the stress build-up during e-gun deposition of Ni with simultaneous bombardment by energetic Ar + ions (IBAD) have been carried out. The ion energy E was varied from 60 to 800 eV, and the ratio of the arrival rates of Ni atoms and Ar + ions, {R}/{J}, was varied from 0.5 to 6.4. The Ni-deposition rate was in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 Å/s, with all the depositions carried out near room temperature in a chamber with the base pressure of 5 × 10 -6 Pa. The film stress was measured by use of profilometry and the application of Stoney's equation. The experimental results were compared with predictions of a simple model proposed by Davis. This model assumes that the compressive stress build-up, due to knock-on implantation of film atoms being proportional to E {1}/{2}, is balanced by relaxation by collision-cascade-excited atom migration proportional to E {5}/{3}. To obtain agreement between model and experiment in the investigated ranges of E and {R}/{J}, an additional model parameter had to be added which takes into account that without irradiation, tensile stresses arise.

  17. Direct evidence for projectile charge-state dependent crater formation due to fast ions.

    PubMed

    Papaléo, R M; Silva, M R; Leal, R; Grande, P L; Roth, M; Schattat, B; Schiwietz, G

    2008-10-17

    We report on craters formed by individual 3 MeV/u Au (q(ini)+) ions of selected incident charge states q_(ini) penetrating thin layers of poly(methyl methacrylate). Holes and raised regions are formed around the region of the impact, with sizes that depend strongly and differently on q_(ini). Variation of q_(ini) of the film thickness and of the angle of incidence allows us to extract information about the depth of origin contributing to different crater features.

  18. Direct Evidence for Projectile Charge-State Dependent Crater Formation Due to Fast Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Papaleo, R. M.; Silva, M. R.; Leal, R.; Grande, P. L.; Roth, M.; Schattat, B.; Schiwietz, G.

    2008-10-17

    We report on craters formed by individual 3 MeV/u Au{sup q{sub i}{sub n}{sub i}{sup +}} ions of selected incident charge states q{sub ini} penetrating thin layers of poly(methyl methacrylate). Holes and raised regions are formed around the region of the impact, with sizes that depend strongly and differently on q{sub ini}. Variation of q{sub ini}, of the film thickness and of the angle of incidence allows us to extract information about the depth of origin contributing to different crater features.

  19. Atypical pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy due to a pseudoexon in ALDH7A1.

    PubMed

    Milh, Mathieu; Pop, Ana; Kanhai, Warsha; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Cano, Aline; Struys, Eduard A; Salomons, Gajja S; Chabrol, Brigitte; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2012-04-01

    We report two siblings with atypical pyridoxine-dependant epilepsy, modest elevation of biomarkers, in which the open reading frame and the splice sites of ALDH7A1 did not show any mutations. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed a deep homozygous intronic mutation in ALDH7A1 resulting in two types of transcripts: the major transcript containing a pseudoexon, and the minor transcript representing the authentic spliced transcript. In future, this mutation may be targeted with antisense-therapy aiming at exclusion of the pseudoexon.

  20. Analytical, time-dependent mass function and fragmentation rate due to gravitational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Fazio, A.

    1986-04-01

    An analytical, theoretical, time-dependent initial mass function is derived for the objects created in the fragmentation of a gravitationally unstable gas protocloud. The mass spectrum depends on the chemical-dynamical-radiative evolution of the protocloud, and it peaks at a mass slightly greater than the minimum Jeans mass attained throughout the evolution. A fragmentation rate mass spectrum is also analytically derived. By using an evolutionary model presented here, it is shown that the fragmentation process implies the existence of several generations of fragments, with different ranges of mass. A protogalactic evolution model, using the new theory, predicts that the first stars are created in the third generation of fragments. These can represent the 'zero-metal' population. Mass functions for various objects are elaborated from observational data. Their shapes are compared among themselves quantitatively. A striking similarity suggests the hypothesis that all the different kinds of astrophysical objects examined were formed by essentially the same process. The theoretical mass functions predicted by the evolutionary models and the fragmentation rate are quantitatively compared with the observations, yielding a remarkably good agreement.

  1. Size-dependent electromechanical coupling behaviors of circular micro-plate due to flexoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anqing; Zhou, Shenjie; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the flexoelectric theory is re-expressed by a set of orthogonal components of strain gradient tensor. The general formulations of flexoelectric theory in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are derived and, then, are specified for the case of cylindrical coordinates. A flexoelectric circular micro-plate model is established based on the current formulations in cylindrical coordinates to evaluate its size-dependent static and dynamic responses. The governing equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions are obtained according to the Hamilton's principle. A static bending problem of simply supported axisymmetric circular micro-plate is solved in two cases, of which one is subjected to a distributed load and the other is subjected to a voltage across the plate thickness. And the free vibration problem of a simply supported circular micro-plate is also analyzed. The bending numerical results show that both the deflection and the electric potential exhibit obvious size dependency in the two cases. Both the induced electric potential in direct flexoelectric effect and the induced deflection in inverse flexoelectric effect decrease as the decrease in flexoelectric coefficient and even disappear when the flexoelectric coefficient equals zero. Moreover, the numerical results of free vibration demonstrate the dimensionless natural frequency shows obvious size effect, while the influence of flexoelectric coefficient on dimensionless natural frequency is negligible.

  2. Passive trapping of rigid rods due to conformation-dependent electrophoretic mobility.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Harsh; Szafran, Sylvia A; Underhill, Patrick T

    2016-03-28

    We present computer simulations of a rigid rod in a combination of an extensional fluid flow and extensional electric field. The electrophoretic mobility of the rod is different parallel or perpendicular to the rod. The dependence of the mobility on the conformation (orientation) leads to a new phenomenon where the rods can be passively trapped in all directions at the stagnation point. This contrasts with the behavior in either fluid flow or electric field alone, in which an object can be pushed towards the stagnation point along some directions but is pushed away in others. We have determined the state space where trapping occurs and have developed a model that describes the strength of trapping when it does occur. This new phenomenon could be used in the future to separate objects based on a coupling between their mobility and ability to be oriented.

  3. Cortical sensory suppression during arousal is due to the activity-dependent depression of thalamocortical synapses

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Oldford, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The thalamus serves as a gate that regulates the flow of sensory inputs to the neocortex, and this gate is controlled by neuromodulators from the brainstem reticular formation that are released during arousal. Here we show in rats that sensory-evoked responses were suppressed in the neocortex by activating the brainstem reticular formation and during natural arousal. Sensory suppression occurred at the thalamocortical connection and was a consequence of the activity-dependent depression of thalamocortical synapses caused by increased thalamocortical tonic firing during arousal. Thalamocortical suppression may serve as a mechanism to focus sensory inputs to their appropriate representations in neocortex, which is helpful for the spatial processing of sensory information. PMID:12015438

  4. Time trends in health inequalities due to care in the context of the Spanish Dependency Law.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Piedrafita, Maria; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    In Spain, responsibility for care of old people and those in situations of dependency is assumed by families, and has an unequal social distribution according to gender and socioeconomic level. This responsibility has negative health effects on the carer. In 2006, the Dependency Law recognised the obligation of the State to provide support. This study analyses time trends in health inequalities attributable to caregiving under this new law. Study of trends using two cross-sectional samples from the 2006 and 2012 editions of the Spanish National Health Survey (27,922 and 19,995 people, respectively). We compared fair/poor self-rated health, poor mental health (GHQ-12 >2), back pain, and the use of psychotropic drugs between non-carers, carers sharing care with other persons, and those providing care alone. We obtain prevalence ratios by fitting robust Poisson regression models. We observed no change in the social profile of carers according to gender or social class. Among women, the difference in all health indicators between carers and non-carers tended to decrease among those sharing care but not among lone carers. Inequalities tend to decrease slightly in both groups of men carers. Between 2006 and 2012, trends in health inequalities attributable to informal care show different trends according to gender and share of responsibility. It is necessary to redesign and implement policies to reduce inequalities that take into account the most affected groups, such as women lone carers. Policies that strengthen the fair social distribution of care should also be adopted. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Freedom SOLO-Associated Thrombocytopaenia is Valve-Dependent and Not Due to In Vitro Pseudothrombocytopaenia.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Olaf; Gahl, Brigitta; Grabherr, Michael; Krausler, Richard; Longnus, Sarah; Meinitzer, Andreas; Cadamuro, Janne

    2017-03-01

    Use of the Freedom SOLO (FS) stentless aortic bioprosthesis is limited by a unique and as yet unexplained severe decrease in postoperative platelet count in the absence of FS-related excess bleeding or thromboembolism. We investigated whether anticoagulant-associated pseudothrombocytopaenia could explain this complication. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age 75.4±7.7 years, 11 [36.7%] female) underwent elective aortic valve replacement (AVR) with either the stented bovine Mitroflow (MF, n=18) or the stentless bovine FS (n=12) aortic valve bioprostheses. Serial platelet counts were performed simultaneously with sampling tubes containing tripotassium (K3-)-EDTA, trisodium (Na3)-citrate, or novel alternative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, ThromboExact™)-based anticoagulant, respectively. Postoperative platelet counts decreased compared with preoperative values in all patients (p<0.001), but were significantly lower in patients receiving FS compared to MF at all measurement time points until the end of observation (day 9). Lowest platelet counts were seen on the first postoperative day for MF (mean reduction: -41.5%) and on the second postoperative day for FS (mean reduction: -59.9%). Postoperative platelet counts did not correlate with any of the anticoagulants, thereby indicating no pseudothrombocytopaenia in the study population. There was no interaction between anticoagulant and type of valve. Only 1% of variance in platelet counts was caused by the anticoagulant, 46% by the day of measurement relative to baseline, and 20% was caused by the type of valve. The platelet-lowering effect in patients receiving the FS is valve-dependent and is not caused by systemic preanalytical (laboratory) measurement error such as anticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytaemia, particularly with EDTA and citrate. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by

  6. Model predictions of latitude-dependent ozone depletion due to aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Whitten, R. C.; Watson, V. R.; Riegel, C. A.; Maples, A. L.; Capone, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from a two-dimensional model of the stratosphere that simulates the seasonal movement of ozone by both wind and eddy transport, and contains all the chemistry known to be important. The calculated reductions in ozone due to NO2 injection from a fleet of supersonic transports are compared with the zonally averaged results of a three-dimensional model for a similar episode of injection. The agreement is good in the northern hemisphere, but is not as good in the southern hemisphere. Both sets of calculations show a strong corridor effect in that the predicted ozone depletions are largest to the north of the flight corridor for aircraft operating in the northern hemisphere.

  7. Mitigation of Angle Tracking Errors Due to Color Dependent Centroid Shifts in SIM-Lite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Goullioud, Renaud; Shao, Michael; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Wehmeier, Udo J.; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Werne, Thomas A.; Wu, Janet P.; Zhai, Chengxing

    2010-01-01

    The SIM-Lite astrometric interferometer will search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. In this search the interferometer will monitor the astrometric position of candidate stars relative to nearby reference stars over the course of a 5 year mission. The elemental measurement is the angle between a target star and a reference star. This is a two-step process, in which the interferometer will each time need to use its controllable optics to align the starlight in the two arms with each other and with the metrology beams. The sensor for this alignment is an angle tracking CCD camera. Various constraints in the design of the camera subject it to systematic alignment errors when observing a star of one spectrum compared with a start of a different spectrum. This effect is called a Color Dependent Centroid Shift (CDCS) and has been studied extensively with SIM-Lite's SCDU testbed. Here we describe results from the simulation and testing of this error in the SCDU testbed, as well as effective ways that it can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  8. Assessment of age-dependent uranium intake due to drinking water in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Balbudhe, A Y; Srivastava, S K; Vishwaprasad, K; Srivastava, G K; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2012-03-01

    A study has been done to assess the uranium intake through drinking water. The area of study is twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. Uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent uranium intake was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values. The concentration of uranium varies from below detectable level (minimum detectable level = 0.20 ± 0.02 μg l(-1)) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg l(-1), with the geometric mean (GM) of 0.67 μg l(-1) in tap water, whereas in ground water, the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 µg l(-1) with GM of 10.07 µg l(-1). The daily intake of uranium by drinking water pathway through tap water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 9.50 µg d(-1) with mean of 1.55 µg d(-1).

  9. Underestimating extreme events in power-law behavior due to machine-dependent cutoffs.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Power-law distributions are typical macroscopic features occurring in almost all complex systems observable in nature. As a result, researchers in quantitative analyses must often generate random synthetic variates obeying power-law distributions. The task is usually performed through standard methods that map uniform random variates into the desired probability space. Whereas all these algorithms are theoretically solid, in this paper we show that they are subject to severe machine-dependent limitations. As a result, two dramatic consequences arise: (i) the sampling in the tail of the distribution is not random but deterministic; (ii) the moments of the sample distribution, which are theoretically expected to diverge as functions of the sample sizes, converge instead to finite values. We provide quantitative indications for the range of distribution parameters that can be safely handled by standard libraries used in computational analyses. Whereas our findings indicate possible reinterpretations of numerical results obtained through flawed sampling methodologies, they also pave the way for the search for a concrete solution to this central issue shared by all quantitative sciences dealing with complexity.

  10. Scale-factor variations due to wavelength-dependent optical losses in fiber optic gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James A.

    1996-11-01

    Most sources of optical loss in a fiber optic gyro (FOG) depend on wavelength. Because of the broadband sources used in interferometric FOGs, these losses result in an effective shift of mean wavelength of the light producing the interference signal. For some signal processing methods, these wavelength variations produce proportional changes in the IFOG scale factor. Using well documented approximations, losses are calculated and plotted versus wavelength. A discussion of the qualitative effects on scale factor is presented and expected mean wavelength variations are computed using a representative approximation of the spectrum of a FOG source. The types of losses considered include: fiber-fiber or fiber-wave guide misalignments; microbend losses, bending losses and mode diameter mismatches. Preliminary results indicate that scale factor variations caused by such losses will contribute significantly to the total scale factor thermal sensitivity for some FOG designs. While closed loop operation results in a scale factor with fundamentally low sensitivity to variations in optical losses, most implementations are sensitive to changes in mean wavelength, thus the effects discussed here should be considered when designing high performance IFOGs and their electronics.

  11. Underestimating extreme events in power-law behavior due to machine-dependent cutoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Power-law distributions are typical macroscopic features occurring in almost all complex systems observable in nature. As a result, researchers in quantitative analyses must often generate random synthetic variates obeying power-law distributions. The task is usually performed through standard methods that map uniform random variates into the desired probability space. Whereas all these algorithms are theoretically solid, in this paper we show that they are subject to severe machine-dependent limitations. As a result, two dramatic consequences arise: (i) the sampling in the tail of the distribution is not random but deterministic; (ii) the moments of the sample distribution, which are theoretically expected to diverge as functions of the sample sizes, converge instead to finite values. We provide quantitative indications for the range of distribution parameters that can be safely handled by standard libraries used in computational analyses. Whereas our findings indicate possible reinterpretations of numerical results obtained through flawed sampling methodologies, they also pave the way for the search for a concrete solution to this central issue shared by all quantitative sciences dealing with complexity.

  12. The velocity dependence of X-ray emission due to Charge Exchange in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata; Lyons, David; Mullen, Patrick Dean; Shelton, Robin L.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere [1], planetary exospheres [2], and supernova remnants [3,4]. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly-excited, high charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays.To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross-sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant will be shown as an example with ion velocity dependence.[1] Henley, D. B. & Shelton, R. L. 2010, ApJSS, 187, 388[2] Dennerl, K. et al. 2002, A&A 386, 319[3] Katsuda, S. et al. 2011, ApJ 730 24[4] Cumbee, R. S. et al. 2014, ApJ 787 L31This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  13. Mitigation of Angle Tracking Errors Due to Color Dependent Centroid Shifts in SIM-Lite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Goullioud, Renaud; Shao, Michael; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Wehmeier, Udo J.; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Werne, Thomas A.; Wu, Janet P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The SIM-Lite astrometric interferometer will search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. In this search the interferometer will monitor the astrometric position of candidate stars relative to nearby reference stars over the course of a 5 year mission. The elemental measurement is the angle between a target star and a reference star. This is a two-step process, in which the interferometer will each time need to use its controllable optics to align the starlight in the two arms with each other and with the metrology beams. The sensor for this alignment is an angle tracking CCD camera. Various constraints in the design of the camera subject it to systematic alignment errors when observing a star of one spectrum compared with a start of a different spectrum. This effect is called a Color Dependent Centroid Shift (CDCS) and has been studied extensively with SIM-Lite's SCDU testbed. Here we describe results from the simulation and testing of this error in the SCDU testbed, as well as effective ways that it can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  14. A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    2004-07-21

    As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow.

  15. Centre of mass decoherence due to time dilation: paradoxical frame-dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2017-08-01

    The recently proposed centre-of-mass decoherence of composite objects due to gravitational time-dilation [Pikovski et al, Nat.Phys. 11, 668 (2015)] is confronted with the principle of equivalence between gravity and observer’s acceleration. In the laboratory frame, a positional superposition |x 1〉 + |x 2〉 can quickly decohere whereas in the free-falling frame, as I argue, the superposition can survive for almost arbitrary long times. The paradoxical result is explained by the so far unappreciated feature of the proposed model: the centre-of-mass canonical subsystem is ambiguous, it is di˙erent in the laboratory and the free-falling frames, respectively. As long as the centre-of-mass motion of the composite object is non-relativistic, a simple Galilean-covariant Hamiltonian represents the Pikovski et al theory with exactly the same physical predictions. We emphasize the power of this Hamiltonian to understand essential features of the Pikovski et al theory and to moderate a few divergent statements in recent works.

  16. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  17. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  18. Frequency dependence in seismoacoustic imaging of shallow free gas due to gas bubble resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Spiess, Volkhard; Keil, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Shallow free gas is investigated in seismoacoustic data in 10 frequency bands covering a frequency range between 0.2 and 43 kHz. At the edge of a gassy patch in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea), compressional wave attenuation caused by free gas is estimated from reflection amplitudes beneath the gassy sediment layer. Imaging of shallow free gas is considerably influenced by gas bubble resonance, because in the resonance frequency range attenuation is significantly increased. At the resonance frequency of the largest bubbles between 3 and 5 kHz, high scattering causes complete acoustic blanking beneath the top of the gassy sediment layer. In the wider resonance frequency range between 3 and 15 kHz, the effect of smaller bubbles becomes dominant and the attenuation slightly decreases. This allows acoustic waves to be transmitted and reflections can be observed beneath the gassy sediment layer for higher frequencies. Above resonance beginning at ˜19 kHz, attenuation is low and the presence of free gas can be inferred from the decreased reflection amplitudes beneath the gassy layer. Below the resonance frequency range (<1 kHz), attenuation is generally very low and not dependent on frequency. Using the geoacoustic model of Anderson and Hampton, the observed frequency boundaries suggest gas bubble sizes between 1 and 4-6 mm, and gas volume fractions up to 0.02% in a ˜2 m thick sediment layer, whose upper boundary is the gas front. With the multifrequency acoustic approach and the Anderson and Hampton model, quantification of free gas in shallow marine environments is possible if the measurement frequency range allows the identification of the resonance frequency peak. The method presented is limited to places with only moderate attenuation, where the amplitudes of a reflection can be analyzed beneath the gassy sediment layer.

  19. Dietary vitamin D dependence of cat and dog due to inadequate cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    How, K L; Hazewinkel, H A; Mol, J A

    1994-10-01

    As in herbivores and omnivores, the biosynthesis of vitamin D3 in the skin exposed to ultraviolet (uv) light is generally expected to also occur in the dog and the cat. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the concentrations of vitamin D3 and its precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) in dog and cat skin before and after a quantitatively and qualitatively standardized exposure to uv light. The results are compared to those obtained by the same method in the skin of the rat. The efficiency of extracting 7DHC and vitamin D3 from skin was 72 +/- 8% and 67 +/- 3%, respectively. In dog and cat skin the concentrations of nonesterified 7DHC were below the detection limit of the HPLC system. Therefore, skin extracts were saponified and total 7DHC and vitamin D3 concentrations were measured by normal-phase HPLC. Before irradiation with uv-B light the total concentrations of 7DHC were 1858 +/- 183, 1958 +/- 204, and 17,620 +/- 2345 ng/cm2 skin (mean +/- SEM; n = 5) for the dog, the cat, and the rat, respectively. The corresponding concentrations of vitamin D3 were 211 +/- 44, 193 +/- 18, and 161 +/- 32 ng/cm2 skin for the dog, the cat, and the rat, respectively. Irradiation of standard solutions of 7DHC with 0.15 J uv-B light/min resulted in a time-dependent decrease in 7DHC and a concomitant increase in previtamin D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from numerical weather prediction and regional climate model simulations.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Stefan F; Suomi, Irene; Bröde, Peter; Formayer, Herbert; Rieder, Harald E; Nadeem, Imram; Jendritzky, Gerd; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Weihs, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examine the determination accuracy of both the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) within the scope of numerical weather prediction (NWP), and global (GCM) and regional (RCM) climate model simulations. First, Tmrt is determined and the so-called UTCI-Fiala model is then used for the calculation of UTCI. Taking into account the uncertainties of NWP model (among others the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model HIRLAM) output (temperature, downwelling short-wave and long-wave radiation) stated in the literature, we simulate and discuss the uncertainties of Tmrt and UTCI at three stations in different climatic regions of Europe. The results show that highest negative (positive) differences to reference cases (under assumed clear-sky conditions) of up to -21°C (9°C) for Tmrt and up to -6°C (3.5°C) for UTCI occur in summer (winter) due to cloudiness. In a second step, the uncertainties of RCM simulations are analyzed: three RCMs, namely ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational), RegCM (REGional Climate Model) and REMO (REgional MOdel) are nested into GCMs and used for the prediction of temperature and radiation fluxes in order to estimate Tmrt and UTCI. The inter-comparison of RCM output for the three selected locations shows that biases between 0.0 and ±17.7°C (between 0.0 and ±13.3°C) for Tmrt (UTCI), and RMSE between ±0.5 and ±17.8°C (between ±0.8 and ±13.4°C) for Tmrt (UTCI) may be expected. In general the study shows that uncertainties of UTCI, due to uncertainties arising from calculations of radiation fluxes (based on NWP models) required for the prediction of Tmrt, are well below ±2°C for clear-sky cases. However, significant higher uncertainties in UTCI of up to ±6°C are found, especially when prediction of cloudiness is wrong.

  1. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Ledoux, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Smette, A.; De Cia, A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Fox, A. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Jakobsson, P.

    2013-01-01

    We model the time-variable absorption of Fe II, Fe III, Si II, C II and Cr II detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array, which is presented in this paper, and Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column density evolution in the case of GRB 080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column density decrease of all observed Fe II levels (including the ground state 6D9/2) and increase of the Fe III 7S3 level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all Fe III) can only be explained through ionization of Fe II, as a large fraction of the ionized Fe II ions (we calculate 31% using the Flexible Atomic and Cowan codes) initially populate the 7S3 level of Fe III rather than the ground state. This channel for producing a significant Fe III 7S3 level population may be relevant for other objects in which absorption lines from this level, the UV34 triplet, are observed, such as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and η Carinae. This provides conclusive evidence for time-variable ionization in the circumburst medium, which to date has not been convincingly detected. However, the best-fit distance of the neutral absorbing cloud to the GRB is 200-400 pc, i.e. similar to GRB-absorber distance estimates for GRBs without any evidence for ionization. We find that the presence of time-varying ionization in GRB 080310 is likely due to a combination of the super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = +0.2) and the low H I column density (log N(H i) = 18.7) in the host of GRB 080310. Finally

  2. The non-linear dependence of flux on black hole mass and accretion rate in core-dominated jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2003-08-01

    We derive the non-linear relation between the core flux Fν of accretion-powered jets at a given frequency and the mass M of the central compact object. For scale-invariant jet models, the mathematical structure of the equations describing the synchrotron emission from jets enables us to cancel out the model-dependent complications of jet dynamics, retaining only a simple, model-independent algebraic relation between Fν and M. This approach allows us to derive the Fν-M relation for any accretion disc scenario that provides a set of input boundary conditions for the magnetic field and the relativistic particle pressure in the jet, such as standard and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) disc solutions. Surprisingly, the mass dependence of Fν is very similar in different accretion scenarios. For typical flat-spectrum core-dominated radio jets and standard accretion scenarios, we find Fν~M17/12. The 7-9 orders of magnitude difference in black hole mass between microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets imply that AGN jets must be about 3-4 orders of magnitude more radio-loud than microquasars, i.e. the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity is much smaller in microquasars than in AGN jets. Because of the generality of these results, measurements of this Fν-M dependence are a powerful probe of jet and accretion physics. We show how our analysis can be extended to derive a similar scaling relation between the accretion rate and Fν for different accretion disc models. For radiatively inefficient accretion modes, we find that the flat-spectrum emission follows .

  3. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shichun; Kubo, Takayuki; Geng, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80 K /m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20 μ T . We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity rfl of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of d T /d s dependence of Rfl/Ba are also discussed.

  4. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through Tc

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Shichun; Kubo, Takayuki; Geng, R. L.

    2016-08-26

    Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80K/m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5E-6 T to 2E-5 T. We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results supports and enforces the previousmore » studies. We then analyze all RF measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped- flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped- flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. Furthermore, the sensitivity rfl of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of dT/ds dependence of Rfl/Ba are also discussed.« less

  5. Time-dependent changes in copper indium gallium (di)selenide and cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules due to outdoor exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Sato, Ritsuko; Ishii, Tetsuyuki; Chiba, Yasuo; Masuda, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules deteriorates with time due to outdoor exposure. We investigated the time-dependent changes in PV modules and evaluated the amount of power generated during their lifetime. Once a year, the exposed modules were removed and measured under standard test conditions using a solar simulator. Their outputs were measured indoors and normalized to nominal values. In addition, the relationship between the indoor measurement and the energy yield for thin-film PV modules will be reported. In CIGS PV modules, the normalized maximum power (P MAX) and performance ratio (PR) differ with the type of module. The P MAX and PR of CdTe PV modules significantly decrease after outdoor exposure for three years. These results help to determine the characteristics of the time-dependent changes in the P MAX of PV modules due to outdoor exposure.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of the Impact on Reactor Vessel dpa Rates Due to Installation of a Proposed Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Core in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    An assessment of the impact on the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactor vessel (RV) displacements-per-atom (dpa) rates due to operations with the proposed low enriched uranium (LEU) core described by Ilas and Primm has been performed and is presented herein. The analyses documented herein support the conclusion that conversion of HFIR to low-enriched uranium (LEU) core operations using the LEU core design of Ilas and Primm will have no negative impact on HFIR RV dpa rates. Since its inception, HFIR has been operated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) cores. As part of an effort sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conversion to LEU cores is being considered for future HFIR operations. The HFIR LEU configurations analyzed are consistent with the LEU core models used by Ilas and Primm and the HEU balance-of-plant models used by Risner and Blakeman in the latest analyses performed to support the HFIR materials surveillance program. The Risner and Blakeman analyses, as well as the studies documented herein, are the first to apply the hybrid transport methods available in the Automated Variance reduction Generator (ADVANTG) code to HFIR RV dpa rate calculations. These calculations have been performed on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Institutional Cluster (OIC) with version 1.60 of the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) computer code.

  7. Zinc Deficiency With Dermatitis in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Patient Due to National Shortage of Trace Minerals.

    PubMed

    Sant, Vivek R; Arnell, Tracey D; Seres, David S

    2016-05-01

    The shortages of intravenous drugs remains critical, with sterile injectables accounting for 80% of the approximately 300 shortages. The impact is being felt in patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), and severe deficiencies are becoming more commonplace. We report here a man who developed severe zinc deficiency, manifesting as a painful desquamative rash, due to an inability to obtain multi-trace element additives for his PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. The hardening hypothesis: is the ability to quit decreasing due to increasing nicotine dependence? A review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2011-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" states tobacco control activities have mostly influenced those smokers who found it easier to quit and, thus, remaining smokers are those who are less likely to stop smoking. This paper first describes a conceptual model for hardening. Then the paper describes important methodological distinctions (quit attempts vs. ability to remain abstinent as indicators, measures of hardening per se vs. measures of causes of hardening, and dependence measures that do vs. do not include cigarettes per day (cigs/day).) After this commentary, the paper reviews data from prior reviews and new searches for studies on one type of hardening: the decreasing ability to quit due to increasing nicotine dependence. Overall, all four studies of the general population of smokers found no evidence of decreased ability to quit; however, both secondary analyses of treatment-seeking smokers found quit rates were decreasing over time. Cigs/day and time-to-first cigarette measures of dependence did not increase over time; however, two studies found that DSM-defined dependence appeared to be increasing over time. Although these data suggest hardening may be occurring in treatment seekers but not in the general population of smokers, this conclusion may be premature given the small number of data sets and indirect measures of quit success and dependence in the data sets. Future studies should include questions about quit attempts, ability to abstain, treatment use, and multi-item dependence measures.

  9. The Hardening Hypothesis: Is the Ability to Quit Decreasing Due to Increasing Nicotine Dependence? A Review and Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The “hardening hypothesis” states tobacco control activities have mostly influenced those smokers who found it easier to quit and, thus, remaining smokers are those who are less likely to stop smoking. This paper first describes a conceptual model for hardening. Then the paper describes important methodological distinctions (quit attempts vs. ability to remain abstinent as indicators, measures of hardening per se vs. measures of causes of hardening, and dependence measures that do vs. do not include cigarettes per day (cigs/day).) After this commentary, the paper reviews data from prior reviews and new searches for studies on one type of hardening: the decreasing ability to quit due to increasing nicotine dependence. Overall, all four studies of the general population of smokers found no evidence of decreased ability to quit; however, both secondary analyses of treatment-seeking smokers found quit rates were decreasing over time. Cigs/day and time-to-first cigarette measures of dependence did not increase over time; however, two studies found that DSM-defined dependence appeared to be increasing over time. Although these data suggest hardening may be occurring in treatment seekers but perhaps not in the general population of smokers, this conclusion may be premature given the small number of data sets and indirect measures of quit success and dependence in the data sets. Future studies should include questions about quit attempts, ability to abstain, treatment use, and multi-item dependence measures. PMID:21411244

  10. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and Chloride-Dependent Ion Fluxes of Ovine Vocal Fold Epithelium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Fisher, Kimberly V.; Lodewyck-Falciglia, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ion-driven transepithelial water fluxes participate in maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, which is necessary for normal voice production. The authors hypothesized that Cl[superscript -] channels are present in vocal fold epithelial cells and that transepithelial Cl[superscript -] fluxes can be manipulated pharmacologically.…

  11. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and Chloride-Dependent Ion Fluxes of Ovine Vocal Fold Epithelium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Fisher, Kimberly V.; Lodewyck-Falciglia, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ion-driven transepithelial water fluxes participate in maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, which is necessary for normal voice production. The authors hypothesized that Cl[superscript -] channels are present in vocal fold epithelial cells and that transepithelial Cl[superscript -] fluxes can be manipulated pharmacologically.…

  12. Isotopically nonstationary 13C flux analysis of changes in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolism due to high light acclimation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Fangfang; Jazmin, Lara J.; Young, Jamey D.; Allen, Doug K.

    2014-11-03

    Improving plant productivity is an important aim for metabolic engineering. There are few comprehensive methods that quantitatively describe leaf metabolism, although such information would be valuable for increasing photosynthetic capacity, enhancing biomass production, and rerouting carbon flux toward desirable end products. Isotopically nonstationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) has been previously applied to map carbon fluxes in photoautotrophic bacteria, which involves model-based regression of transient 13C-labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites. However, experimental and computational difficulties have hindered its application to terrestrial plant systems. Here, we performed in vivo isotopic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes with 13CO2 and estimated fluxes throughout leaf photosynthetic metabolism by INST-MFA. Plants grown at 200 µmol m$-$2s$-$1 light were compared with plants acclimated for 9 d at an irradiance of 500 µmol∙m$-$2∙s$-$1. Approximately 1,400 independent mass isotopomer measurements obtained from analysis of 37 metabolite fragment ions were regressed to estimate 136 total fluxes (54 free fluxes) under each condition. The results provide a comprehensive description of changes in carbon partitioning and overall photosynthetic flux after long-term developmental acclimation of leaves to high light. Despite a doubling in the carboxylation rate, the photorespiratory flux increased from 17 to 28% of net CO2 assimilation with high-light acclimation (Vc/Vo: 3.5:1 vs. 2.3:1, respectively). In conclusion, this study highlights the potential of 13C INST-MFA to describe emergent flux phenotypes that respond to environmental conditions or plant physiology and cannot be obtained by other complementary approaches.

  13. Temperature and field dependence of the flux-line-lattice symmetry in V{sub 3}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Yethiraj, M.; Christen, D.K.; Gapud, A.A.; Paul, D. McK.; Crowe, S.J.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Cubitt, R.; Porcar, L.; Gurevich, A.

    2005-08-01

    In V{sub 3}Si, a first-order structural phase transition from hexagonal to square flux-line lattice occurs at approximately 1 T with H parallel to the a axis. In this paper, we demonstrate the reentrant structural transition in the flux-line lattice, which reverts to hexagonal symmetry as the magnetic field approached H{sub c2}(T). This behavior is described very well by a nonlocal London theory with thermal fluctuations. The phase diagram of the flux lattice topology is mapped out for this geometry.

  14. Critical film thickness dependence on As flux in In{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}As/GaAs(001) films

    SciTech Connect

    Riposan, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J.; Pearson, Chris

    2007-02-26

    The transition between planar and nonplanar growth is examined for compressively strained In{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}As/GaAs(001) films using reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). For a narrow range of temperature and composition, the critical thickness (t{sub SK}) is strongly dependent on As flux. For high values of As flux, t{sub SK} increases by more than a factor of 2. The morphology of three-dimensional islands formed during the initial stages of nonplanar growth is also characterized by high resolution STM.

  15. Prey-predator dynamics in rotifers: density-dependent consequences of spatial heterogeneity due to surface attachment.

    PubMed

    Vadstein, Olav; Olsen, Lasse M; Andersen, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Classical models of prey-predator interactions assume that per capita prey consumption is dependent on prey density alone and that prey consumption (functional response) and consumer proliferation (numerical response) operate on the same timescales and without time lags. Several modifications have been proposed for resolving this timescale discrepancy, including variants where the functional response depends on both prey and predator densities. A microcosm system with the rotifer Brachionus 'Nevada' feeding on the prasinophyte Tetraselmis sp. showed significant (P < 0.0005) increases in steady-state biomasses of both prey and predators with increasing carrying capacity (represented by total phosphorus of the growth medium), which is inconsistent with predictions based on the traditional prey-only-dependent functional response. We provide data indicating that surfaces where the predator can attach provide a high-quality habitat for rotifers, which can result in a predator-dependent functional response. We also show that partitioning between the attached and free-swimming habitats was fast compared to the timescale of the numerical response. When attached to surfaces, rotifers maximized net energy gain by avoiding the high cost of swimming and by increased food capture due to reduced viscous drag. A mathematical model with prey-dependent functional response and wall-attached and free-swimming fractions of the population describes our data adequately. We discuss the implications of this finding for extrapolating microcosm experiments to systems with other surface-to-volume ratios, and to what extent our findings may apply to other popular model organisms for prey-predator interaction.

  16. Rate-dependent impairments in repetitive finger movements in patients with Parkinson's disease are not due to peripheral fatigue.

    PubMed

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Allen, David P; Simuni, Tanya; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2010-09-20

    Performance of repetitive finger movements is an important clinical measure of disease severity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with a dramatic deterioration in performance at movement rates near 2 Hz and above. The mechanisms contributing to this rate-dependent movement impairment are poorly understood. Since clinical and experimental testing of these movements involve prolonged repetition of movement, a loss of force-generating capacity due to peripheral fatigue may contribute to performance deterioration. This study examined the contribution of peripheral fatigue to the performance of unconstrained index finger flexion movements by measuring maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) immediately before and after repetitive finger movements in patients with PD (both off- and on-medication) and matched control subjects. Movement performance was quantified using finger kinematics, maximum force production, and electromyography (EMG). The principal finding was that peak force and EMG activity during the MVC did not significantly change from the pre- to post-movement task in patients with PD despite the marked deterioration in movement performance of repetitive finger movements. These findings show that the rate-dependent deterioration of repetitive finger movements in PD cannot be explained by a loss of force-generating capacity due to peripheral fatigue, and further suggest that mechanisms contributing to impaired isometric force production in PD are different from those that mediate impaired performance of high-rate repetitive movements.

  17. Temperature dependences of line widths and peak positions of optical absorption peaks due to localized vibration of hydrogen Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suezawa, M.; Fukata, N.; Saito, M.; Yamada-Kaneta, H.

    2001-12-01

    We studied the temperature dependences of line widths and peak positions of optical absorptions due to the hydrogen bound to point defects and acceptors in Si. Specimens were prepared from floating-zone-grown Si crystals of high-purity and of p-type, doped with group III acceptors. They were doped with H by heating at 1300°C in H 2 gas followed by quenching. The former specimen was then irradiated with 3 MeV electrons at RT to form complexes of H and point defects and the latter specimens were annealed at 150°C to form H-acceptor pairs. We measured their optical absorption spectra by an FT-IR spectrometer in the temperature range of 6 K and RT. Peaks due to localized vibrational modes of H bound to acceptors and point defects were well fitted with Lorentzian line shapes. The temperature dependences of those line widths and peak positions were analyzed with the dephasing model proposed by Persson and Ryberg.

  18. Model for Polarization-Dependent Gain Due to Pump Depletion in a WDM System With Forward-Pumped Raman Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Magill, Peter; Birk, Martin

    2005-03-01

    We study polarization-dependent gain (PDG) due to signal-induced pump depletion (SIPD) in a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) system with forward-pumped Raman amplification. It is found that SIPD can polarize the pump significantly in fiber with very low polarization-mode dispersion (PMD). To quantify the impact of fiber PMD on SIPD-induced PDG for a practical WDM system with many signal channels and multiple Raman pumps, an approximate vector model has been developed. The developed model allows us to directly calculate PDG from both SIPD and signal-signal Raman interaction (SSRI) with greatly reduced computation time. Based on the developed model, detailed numerical investigations for two typical C-band WDM systems are presented. It is shown that significant PDG can be introduced by SIPD when the fiber PMD coefficient is lower than 0.01 ps/km? even if the pumps are fully depolarized. It is also shown that PDG due to SIPD and PDG due to SSRI are in phase at shorter wavelength channels but out of phase at longer wavelength channels.

  19. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  20. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  1. Age-dependent blood pressure elevation is due to increased vascular smooth muscle tone mediated by G-protein signalling.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Angela; Wang, Shengpeng; Takefuji, Mikito; Tang, Cong; Althoff, Till F; Schweda, Frank; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The kidney and its natriuretic function are in the centre of the prevailing models to explain the pathogenesis of hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying blood pressure elevation remain unclear in most patients. Development of hypertension is strongly correlated with age, and this blood pressure increase typically accelerates in the fourth decade of life. The cause of age-dependent blood pressure elevation is poorly understood. This study aims to understand the role of procontractile G-protein-mediated signalling pathways in vascular smooth muscle in age-dependent hypertension. Similar to humans at mid-life, we observed in 1-year-old mice elevated blood pressure levels without any evidence for increased vessel stiffness, impaired renal function, or endocrine abnormalities. Hypertensive aged mice showed signs of endothelial dysfunction and had an increased vascular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated endothelial ET-1 expression. Age-dependent hypertension could be normalized by ETA receptor blockade, smooth muscle-specific inactivation of the gene encoding the ETA receptor, as well as by acute disruption of downstream signalling via induction of smooth muscle-specific Gα12/Gα13, Gαq/Gα11, or LARG deficiency using tamoxifen-inducible smooth muscle-specific conditional mouse knock-out models. Induction of smooth muscle-specific ETA receptor deficiency normalized the blood pressure in aged mice despite the continuous presence of signs of endothelial dysfunction. Age-dependent blood pressure elevation is due to a highly reversible activation of procontractile signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells indicating that increased vascular tone can be a primary factor in the development of hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Length-dependent changes in contractile dynamics are blunted due to cardiac myosin binding protein-C ablation

    PubMed Central

    Mamidi, Ranganath; Gresham, Kenneth S.; Stelzer, Julian E.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced cardiac contractile function with increased sarcomere length (SL) is, in part, mediated by a decrease in the radial distance between myosin heads and actin. The radial disposition of myosin heads relative to actin is modulated by cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C), suggesting that cMyBP-C contributes to the length-dependent activation (LDA) in the myocardium. However, the precise roles of cMyBP-C in modulating cardiac LDA are unclear. To determine the impact of cMyBP-C on LDA, we measured isometric force, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity (pCa50) and length-dependent changes in kinetic parameters of cross-bridge (XB) relaxation (krel), and recruitment (kdf) due to rapid stretch, as well as the rate of force redevelopment (ktr) in response to a large slack-restretch maneuver in skinned ventricular multicellular preparations isolated from the hearts of wild-type (WT) and cMyBP-C knockout (KO) mice, at SL's 1.9 μm or 2.1 μm. Our results show that maximal force was not significantly different between KO and WT preparations but length-dependent increase in pCa50 was attenuated in the KO preparations. pCa50 was not significantly different between WT and KO preparations at long SL (5.82 ± 0.02 in WT vs. 5.87 ± 0.02 in KO), whereas pCa50 was significantly different between WT and KO preparations at short SL (5.71 ± 0.02 in WT vs. 5.80 ± 0.01 in KO; p < 0.05). The ktr, measured at half-maximal Ca2+-activation, was significantly accelerated at short SL in WT preparations (8.74 ± 0.56 s−1 at 1.9 μm vs. 5.71 ± 0.40 s−1 at 2.1 μm, p < 0.05). Furthermore, krel and kdf were accelerated by 32% and 50%, respectively at short SL in WT preparations. In contrast, ktr was not altered by changes in SL in KO preparations (8.03 ± 0.54 s−1 at 1.9 μm vs. 8.90 ± 0.37 s−1 at 2.1 μm). Similarly, KO preparations did not exhibit length-dependent changes in krel and kdf. Collectively, our data implicate cMyBP-C as an important regulator of LDA via its impact on

  3. Temperture and composition dependence of the high flux plasma sputtering yield of Cu-Li binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Bohdansky, J.

    1986-01-01

    High flux deuterium plasma sputtering and ion beam experiments have been performed on Cu-Li alloys to determine if the reduction in copper erosion previously predicted and observed in low flux ion beam experiments occurs at particle fluxes representative of an RFP first wall or tokamak limiter. Partial sputtering yields of the copper and lithium components have been measured as a function of alloy composition and sample temperature using optical plasma emission spectroscopy, weight loss and catcher foil techniques. It is found that the lithium sputtering yield increases with increasing sample temperature while the copper yield decreases by as much as two orders of magnitude. The temperature required to obtain the reduction in copper erosion is found to be a function of bulk lithium concentration. Consequences of these experimental results for anticipated erosion/redeposition properties are calculated, and the Cu-Li alloy in found to compare favorably with conventional low-Z materials.

  4. Hybrid-Like Discharges With 2/1 Flux-Pumping Due to ELM-NTM Coupling in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Makowski, M. A.; Holcomb, C. T.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Osborne, T. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Volpe, F.; Austin, M. E.; Morse, E. C.

    2011-10-01

    Edge localized mode (ELM)-neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) coupling pumps poloidal flux from the core to the edge in hybrid discharges, contributing to flattening of the safety factor profile and avoidance of sawteeth. Direct motional Stark effect diagnostic analysis of internal magnetic field pitch angles show 2/1 NTMs exhibit stronger magnetic flux-pumping than typical hybrids, albeit at lower beta. This 2/1 flux-pumping is present during partial electron cyclotron current drive NTM suppression. This finding may lead to an alternative discharge with normalized fusion performance exceeding that required for Qfus = 10 operation in ITER. The strength of flux-pumping increases with beta and proximity of the NTM to the ELMing pedestal. Individual ELM-NTM coupling events are successfully modeled using the modified Rutherford equation (MRE). Work supported by US DOE under DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG03-97ER54415, and DE-FG03-89ER51116.

  5. Frequency-dependence of the Love Numbers due to the Earth's Quasi-Rheology, Mantle Anelasticity and Ocean Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Shen, W.; Huang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Love numbers are defined as dimensionless coefficients to characterize the deformations caused by an applied volume potential. For the complex Earth system, Love numbers are not constants but vary with frequency due to the following three factors: 1. the resonance behavior of the wobble motions near its eigen-frequencies, such as the well-known free core nutation resonance in the diurnal tides; 2. the mantle anelasticity of which the role becomes more significant as the frequency gets lower; and 3. the quasi-fluid rheology describing the Earth's fluid-like deformations at geological time scales. In this study, we present a power law for mantle anelasticity constrained by Chandler wobble parameters (the period TC and the quality factor QC) and an empirical quasi-fluid rheology model with a linear dependence on frequency for a period as long as 18.6 years. The models of mantle anelasticity and quasi-fluid rheology can provide good estimates of oceanless Love numbers at arbitrary frequencies with periods ranging from ~1 day to ~18.6 years, when comparing to the observed values for some frequencies. To account for the effects of dynamic oceans on the Love numbers, the diurnal ocean tides from the IERS Conventions (2010), the long-period ocean model of Dickman & Gross (2010) and the equilibrium ocean pole tide model of Desai (2002) are adopted to calculate the oceanic corrections to the Love numbers. We find due to the mantle anelasticity, the equilibrium ocean pole tides will cause imaginary parts to the Love numbers and have notable influence on the geophysical estimate of the QC value, which was disregarded before. In addition, we show that the Chandler wobble parameters derived from our Love number model are consistent with the observations. Thus, we conclude that our model of frequency-dependent Love numbers should be reliable. This study is supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation China (Grant Numbers 41174011, 41128003, 41021061 and 40974015).

  6. Compartmental flux and in situ methods underestimate total feed nitrogen as judged by the omasal sampling method due to ignoring soluble feed nitrogen flow.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, Pekka; Bayat, Alireza; Krizsan, Sophie J; Vanhatalo, Aila

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate ruminal feed N outflow in lactating cows using the omasal sampling, compartmental flux or in situ method. A total of five ruminally fistulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square study with 21 d periods. Experimental silages of grass or red clover harvested at two stages of maturity in addition to a supplement of 9·0 kg concentrate/d were fed to the cows. In vivo omasal N flow was determined using the omasal sampling technique. Ruminal in situ N flow was calculated from N intake and degradability (38 μm nylon bags). The samples of ruminal contents and faeces were divided into seven particle-size fractions by wet sieving; the concentrations of indigestible neutral-detergent fibre and N were used to calculate N flow in the compartmental flux method. In vivo omasal N flow was greater for the red clover silage diets than for the grass silage diets. The N flow calculated using the compartmental flux technique and that calculated using the in situ technique were highly correlated, but both were less than and poorly correlated with the in vivo N flow. In both in situ and compartmental flux techniques, forage maturity increased the particle-associated N flow, with the increase being significantly greater for the red clover diets than for the grass silage diets. In conclusion, the compartmental flux and in situ methods described the N flow associated with the particle fractions rather than the total ruminal outflow of feed N.

  7. Nontrivial spin structure of graphene on Pt(111) at the Fermi level due to spin-dependent hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimovskikh, I. I.; Tsirkin, S. S.; Rybkin, A. G.; Rybkina, A. A.; Filianina, M. V.; Zhizhin, E. V.; Chulkov, E. V.; Shikin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electronic and spin structure of a graphene monolayer synthesized on Pt(111) has been investigated experimentally by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission with different polarizations of incident synchrotron radiation and using density functional theory calculations. It is shown that despite the observed total quasifreestanding character of the dispersion of the graphene π state remarkable local distortions and breaks in the dispersions take place due to hybridization between the graphene π and Pt d states. Corresponding spin-dependent avoided-crossing effects lead to significant modification of the spin structure and cause an enhanced induced spin-orbit splitting of the graphene π states near the Fermi level in the region of the K ¯ point of the graphene Brillouin zone (BZ) with a magnitude of 80-200 meV depending on the direction in the BZ. Using p , s , and elliptical polarizations of the synchrotron radiation, the contributions of the graphene π and Pt d states were separated and their intersection at the Fermi level, which is important for effective spin injection between these states, was shown. Moreover, analysis of the data allows us to conclude that in the region of the Dirac point the spin structure of the system cannot be described by a Rashba splitting, and even a spin-orbit gap between lower and upper Dirac cones is observed.

  8. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment due to molar tooth loss is ameliorated by an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiroko; Kurahashi, Minori; Mori, Daisuke; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Mizutani, Kenmei; Shimpo, Kan; Sonoda, Shigeru; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Teeth are crucial, not only for mastication, but for overall nutrition and general health, including cognitive function. Aged mice with chronic stress due to tooth loss exhibit impaired hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Exposure to an enriched environment restores the reduced hippocampal function. Here, we explored the effects of an enriched environment on learning deficits and hippocampal morphologic changes in aged senescence-accelerated mouse strain P8 (SAMP8) mice with tooth loss. Eight-month-old male aged SAMP8 mice with molar intact or with molars removed were housed in either a standard environment or enriched environment for 3 weeks. The Morris water maze was performed for spatial memory test. The newborn cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in the hippocampus were analyzed using 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemical method. The hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were also measured. Mice with upper molars removed (molarless) exhibited a significant decline in the proliferation and survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) as well as in hippocampal BDNF levels. In addition, neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells was suppressed and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory was impaired. Exposure of molarless mice to an enriched environment attenuated the reductions in the hippocampal BDNF levels and neuronal differentiation, and partially improved the proliferation and survival of newborn cells, as well as the spatial memory ability. These findings indicated that an enriched environment could ameliorate the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment induced by molar tooth loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. O2-dependent hepatotoxicity due to ethylhexanol in the perfused rat liver: mitochondria as a site of action.

    PubMed

    Keller, B J; Yamanaka, H; Liang, D C; Kauffman, F C; Thurman, R G

    1990-03-01

    Toxicity of 2-ethylhexanol, a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate, was assessed in the perfused rat liver. Livers from starved rats were perfused with ethylhexanol (3 mM) dissolved in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) saturated with 95% O2-5% CO2 in both the anterograde and retrograde direction. Following infusion of ethylhexanol, O2 uptake and ketone body formation were diminished by 50 and 80%, respectively, and cell damage, as assessed by the appearance of lactate dehydrogenase in the effluent perfusate, was apparent. Both inhibition of O2 uptake by ethylhexanol and the appearance of lactate dehydrogenase in the perfusate were dose-dependent. Only O2-rich upstream regions of the liver lobule were damaged as reflected by trypan blue uptake. Inhibition of O2 uptake by ethylhexanol was also reflected by a 60% decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio. Local rates of O2 uptake, measured using miniature electrodes placed on the liver surface, indicated that ethylhexanol only diminished O2 uptake in O2-rich upstream regions of the liver lobule regardless of the direction of flow. This phenomenon apparently can be explained by a direct effect of ethylhexanol on mitochondria in upstream regions since active state 3 rates of respiration were inhibited by ethylhexanol in isolated mitochondria. Ethylhexanol also caused a dose-dependent decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate (B/A) ratio. However, infusion of radical scavengers such as allopurinol, cianidanol and uric acid did not alter lactate dehydrogenase release due to ethylhexanol. Thus, the toxicity of ethylhexanol in the liver is dependent on local O2 tension and mitochondrial are primary targets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Strengthening of synthetic quartz-rich sediments during time-dependent compaction due to pressure solution-precipitation compaction creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Okazaki, K.; Katayama, I.

    2013-12-01

    During diagenesis, incohesive sediments are compacted and gain strength against shear deformation for a geologically long time scale. The evolution of shear strength as well as the change in the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics under shear deformation is of significant importance in considering deformation at shallow part of the subduction zones and in accretionary prisms. Sediments after induration due to time-dependent diagenesis process probably deform with increases in porosity and permeability much more significantly than normally compacted incohesive sediments. An active fault in a shallow incohesive medium may favor thermal pressurization of pore fluid when slid rapidly, while the lack of time-dependent healing effect may cause stable (e.g., rate-strengthening) frictional property there. On the other hand, indurated sediments may deform with significant post-failure weakening, and thus exhibit localization of deformation or unstable behavior. In order to investigate how the time-dependent compaction and induration affect the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of sediments under deformation, we have conducted a series of compaction experiments under hydrothermal conditions (at temperatures from R.T. to 500 °C, 200 MPa confining pressure, 100 MPa pore water pressure, and for various time), and following triaxial deformation experiments for the compacted samples, with monitoring permeability and storage capacity with pore pressure oscillation method [Fischer and Paterson, 1992]. Previous work [e.g., Niemeijer et at., 2003] reported that under the adopted conditions, quartz aggregate deforms by pressure solution-precipitation creep. The initial synthetic sediments have been prepared by depositing commercially available crushed quartzite the grain size of which is about 6 μm on average. 4 cm long samples have been extracted from the middle of 10 cm long deposited columns. The experiments have been performed with a gas-medium apparatus in Hiroshima

  11. Mutations in TrkA Causing Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis (CIPA) Induce Misfolding, Aggregation, and Mutation-dependent Neurodegeneration by Dysfunction of the Autophagic Flux.

    PubMed

    Franco, María Luisa; Melero, Cristina; Sarasola, Esther; Acebo, Paloma; Luque, Alfonso; Calatayud-Baselga, Isabel; García-Barcina, María; Vilar, Marçal

    2016-10-07

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insensitivity to noxious stimuli and variable intellectual disability (ID) due to mutations in the NTRK1 gene encoding the NGF receptor TrkA. To get an insight in the effect of NTRK1 mutations in the cognitive phenotype we biochemically characterized three TrkA mutations identified in children diagnosed of CIPA with variable ID. These mutations are located in different domains of the protein; L213P in the extracellular domain, Δ736 in the kinase domain, and C300stop in the extracellular domain, a new mutation causing CIPA diagnosed in a Spanish teenager. We found that TrkA mutations induce misfolding, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and aggregation in a mutation-dependent manner. The distinct mutations are degraded with a different kinetics by different ER quality control mechanisms; although C300stop is rapidly disposed by autophagy, Δ736 degradation is sensitive to the proteasome and to autophagy inhibitors, and L213P is a long-lived protein refractory to degradation. In addition L213P enhances the formation of autophagic vesicles triggering an increase in the autophagic flux with deleterious consequences. Mouse cortical neurons expressing L213P showed the accumulation of LC3-GFP positive puncta and dystrophic neurites. Our data suggest that TrkA misfolding and aggregation induced by some CIPA mutations disrupt the autophagy homeostasis causing neurodegeneration. We propose that distinct disease-causing mutations of TrkA generate different levels of cell toxicity, which may provide an explanation of the variable intellectual disability observed in CIPA patients.

  12. Self-organization of the vascular system in plant leaves: inter-dependent dynamics of auxin flux and carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Feugier, Francois G; Mochizuki, A; Iwasa, Y

    2005-10-21

    The vegetative hormone Auxin is involved in vascular tissues formation throughout the plant. Trans-membrane carrier proteins transporting auxin from cell to cell and distributed asymmetrically around each cell give to auxin a polarized movement in tissues, creating streams of auxin that presume future vascular bundles. According to the canalization hypothesis, auxin transport ability of cells is thought to increase with auxin flux, resulting in the self-enhancement of this flux along auxin paths. In this study we evaluate a series of models based on canalization hypothesis using carrier proteins, under different assumptions concerning auxin flux formation and carrier protein dynamics. Simulations are run on a hexagonal lattice with uniform auxin production. A single cell located in the margin of the lattice indicates the petiole, and acts as an auxin sink. The main results are: (1) We obtain branching auxin distribution patterns. (2) The type of self-enhancement described by the functional form of the carrier proteins regulation responding to the auxin flux intensity in different parts of a cell, has a strong effect on the possibility of generating the branching patterns. For response functions with acceleration in the increase of carrier protein numbers compared to the auxin flux, branching patterns are likely to be generated. For linear or decelerating response functions, no branching patterns are formed. (3) When branching patterns are formed, auxin distribution greatly differs between the case in which the number of carrier proteins in different parts of a cell are regulated independently, and the case in which different parts of a cell compete for a limited number of carrier proteins. In the former case, the auxin level is lower in veins than in the surrounding tissue, while in the latter, the auxin is present in greater abundance in veins. These results suggest that canalization is a good candidate for describing plant vein pattern formation.

  13. Radial Transport Characteristics of Fast Ions Due to Energetic-Particle Modes inside the Last Closed-Flux Surface in the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Toi, Kazuo; Shimizu, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ohshima, Shunsuke; Nakano, Haruhisa; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Chihiro; Nishimura, Shin; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Okamura, Shoichi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko

    2008-02-15

    The internal behavior of fast ions interacting with magnetohydrodynamic bursts excited by energetic ions has been experimentally investigated in the compact helical system. The resonant convective oscillation of fast ions was identified inside the last closed-flux surface during an energetic-particle mode (EPM) burst. The phase difference between the fast-ion oscillation and the EPM, indicating the coupling strength between them, remains a certain value during the EPM burst and drives an anomalous transport of fast ions.

  14. Spatial Dependence of Heat Flux Transients and Wetting Behavior During Immersion Quenching of Inconel 600 Probe in Brine and Polymer Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, G.; Narayan Prabhu, K.

    2014-08-01

    Cooling curve analysis of Inconel 600 probe during immersion quenching in brine and polymer quench media was carried out. Thermal histories at various axial and radial locations were recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system and were input to an inverse heat-conduction model for estimating the metal/quenchant heat flux transients. A high performance smart camera was used for online video imaging of the immersion quenching process. Solution to two-dimensional inverse heat-conduction problem clearly brings out the spatial dependence of boundary heat flux transients for a Inconel 600 probe with a simple cylindrical geometry. The estimated heat flux transients show large variation on axial as well as radial directions of quench probe surface for brine quenching. Polymer quenching showed less variation in metal/quenchant heat flux transients. Shorter durations of vapor film, higher rewetting temperatures, and faster movement of wetting front on quench probe surface were observed with brine quenching. Measurement of dynamic contact angle showed better spreading and good wettability for polymer medium as compared to brine quenchant. The solid-liquid interfacial tension between polymer medium and Inconel substrate was lower compared with that of solution. Rewetting and boiling processes were nonuniform and faster on quench probe surface during immersion quenching in brine solution. For the polymer quench medium, slow rewetting, uniform boiling and repeated wetting were observed.

  15. Spreading of electron scale magnetic reconnection with a wave number dependent speed due to the propagation of dispersive waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we study electron scale spreading of localized magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide magnetic field, however, without the influence of ions and cross-scale coupling. These fundamental physics studies will help to understand the coupling of the electron scale spreading with the ion scales in real systems. An electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model is employed to model the physics at electron scales. Three dimensional EMHD simulations and linear eigen mode analysis are performed for different guide field strengths. The simulations show a wave-like bi-directional spreading of magnetic reconnection at electron scales. The electron scale spreading, however, unlike the ion scale spreading by Alfvén waves, is caused by the uni- and bi-directional propagation of the dispersive flow induced and whistler wave modes, respectively. The dispersive nature of the two wave modes makes the spreading-speed dependent on the wave numbers of the unstable tearing mode, which depend on the thickness of the electron current sheet and the strength of the guide field. A model of the speed of spreading is developed, in which the spreading-speeds parallel and anti-parallel to the guide field are given by linear combinations of the group speeds of the two wave modes. The model prediction of the spreading speeds agrees well with the speeds obtained from the simulation results. For small guide fields, the spreading is asymmetric being faster in the direction of the electron flow. On increasing the guide field, the spreading becomes increasingly symmetric, with the speeds of the order of electron Alfvén speed in the guide magnetic field, due to the dominance of the whistler group speed in determining the speed of the spreading. As a consequence of the asymmetric spreading, the chain of alternate X- and O-points, formed due the growth of oblique tearing modes, extends farther in the direction of electron flow as compared to that in the direction of the guide magnetic

  16. Temperature and Magnetic Field Dependence of Critical Current Density of YBCO with Varying Flux Pinning Additions (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    compared to YBCO. Index Terms—Critical current density, engineering current den- sity, flux pinning, high temperature superconductor , nanoparticle...I. INTRODUCTION T HE development of high temperature superconductor (YBCO or 123) thin films on polycrys- talline substrates (coated...conductors) with a critical current density offers great promise for incorpo- ration into power applications such as generators or motors , operating at 40–77

  17. pH-dependent motion of self-propelled droplets due to Marangoni effect at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Ban, Takahiko; Yamagami, Tomoko; Nakata, Hiroki; Okano, Yasunori

    2013-02-26

    Oil droplets loaded with surfactant propel themselves with a velocity up to 6 mm s(-1) when they are placed in an aqueous phase of NaOH solution or buffer solution. The required driving force for such motion is generated on the interface of the droplets by the change in interfacial tension, due to deprotonation of the surfactant. This force induces Marangoni convection, which gives rise to a circulating flow inside the droplets. The droplets begin to move when the axis of this circulation deviates from the vertical line. This motion depends on the pH condition of the aqueous phase. When the initial value of pH is adjusted such that the pH exceeds the threshold at the equilibrium state, the droplets move spontaneously. It was seen that the droplets were independent of the material of the solid substrates because the droplets were not directly in contact with the surface of the substrate. The condition for the onset of this spontaneous motion was verified by comparing the prediction from the linear stability analysis with experiments. The stability analysis overestimates the value of the driving force, causing instability.

  18. Mode- and Direction-Dependent Mechanical Energy Dissipation in Single-Crystal Resonators due to Anharmonic Phonon-Phonon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Srikanth S.; Candler, Robert N.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we determine the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer (Ω τ ≪1 ) regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction- and polarization-dependent mode-Grüneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. This expression reveals the fundamental differences among the internal friction limits for different types of bulk-mode elastic waves. For cubic crystals, 2D-extensional modes have increased dissipation compared to width-extensional modes because the biaxial deformation opposes the natural Poisson contraction of the solid. Additionally, we show that shear-mode vibrations, which preserve volume, have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to pure-shear phonon branches, indicating that Lamé- or wineglass-mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, we employ key simplifications to evaluate the quality factor limits for common mode shapes in single-crystal silicon devices, explicitly including the correct effective elastic storage moduli for different vibration modes and crystal orientations. Our expression satisfies the pressing need for a reliable analytical model that can predict the phonon-phonon dissipation limits for modern resonant microelectromechanical systems, where precise manufacturing techniques and accurate finite-element methods can be used to select particular vibrational mode shapes and crystal orientations.

  19. Large increase in dissolved inorganic carbon flux from the Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico due to climatic and anthropogenic changes over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Lohrenz, Steven E; He, Ruoying; Hopkinson, Charles S

    2015-04-01

    It is recognized that anthropogenic factors have had a major impact on carbon fluxes from land to the ocean during the past two centuries. However, little is known about how future changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use may affect riverine carbon fluxes over the 21st century. Using a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, this study examines potential changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico during 2010-2099 attributable to climate-related conditions (temperature and precipitation), atmospheric CO2, and land use change. Rates of annual DIC export are projected to increase by 65% under the high emission scenario (A2) and 35% under the low emission scenario (B1) between the 2000s and the 2090s. Climate-related changes along with rising atmospheric CO2 together would account for over 90% of the total increase in DIC export throughout the 21st century. The predicted increase in DIC export from the Mississippi River basin would alter chemistry of the coastal ocean unless appropriate climate mitigation actions are taken in the near future.

  20. Flow and Heat Transfer of Powell-Eyring Fluid due to an Exponential Stretching Sheet with Heat Flux and Variable Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megahed, Ahmed M.

    2015-03-01

    An analysis was carried out to describe the problem of flow and heat transfer of Powell-Eyring fluid in boundary layers on an exponentially stretching continuous permeable surface with an exponential temperature distribution in the presence of heat flux and variable thermal conductivity. The governing partial differential equations describing the problem were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and then solved with a numerical technique using appropriate boundary conditions for various physical parameters. The numerical solution for the governing non-linear boundary value problem is based on applying the shooting method over the entire range of physical parameters. The effects of various parameters like the thermal conductivity parameter, suction parameter, dimensionless Powell-Eyring parameters and the Prandtl number on the flow and temperature profiles as well as on the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed. In this work, special attention was given to investigate the effect of the thermal conductivity parameter on the velocity and temperature fields above the sheet in the presence of heat flux. The numerical results were also validated with results from a previously published work on various special cases of the problem, and good agreements were seen.

  1. Phase-space dependent critical gradient behavior of fast-ion transport due to Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Podestà, M.; White, R. B.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Stagner, L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Zhu, Y. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-08-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that many overlapping small-amplitude Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) cause fast-ion transport to sharply increase above a critical threshold in beam power, leading to fast-ion density profile resilience and reduced fusion performance. The threshold is above the AE linear stability limit and varies between diagnostics that are sensitive to different parts of fast-ion phase-space. Comparison with theoretical analysis using the nova and orbit codes shows that, for the neutral particle diagnostic, the threshold corresponds to the onset of stochastic particle orbits due to wave-particle resonances with AEs in the measured region of phase space. The bulk fast-ion distribution and instability behavior was manipulated through variations in beam deposition geometry, and no significant differences in the onset threshold outside of measurement uncertainties were found, in agreement with the theoretical stochastic threshold analysis. Simulations using the ‘kick model’ produce beam ion density gradients consistent with the empirically measured radial critical gradient and highlight the importance of including the energy and pitch dependence of the fast-ion distribution function in critical gradient models. The addition of electron cyclotron heating changes the types of AEs present in the experiment, comparatively increasing the measured fast-ion density and radial gradient. These studies provide the basis for understanding how to avoid AE transport that can undesirably redistribute current and cause fast-ion losses, and the measurements are being used to validate AE-induced transport models that use the critical gradient paradigm, giving greater confidence when applied to ITER.

  2. Phase-space dependent critical gradient behavior of fast-ion transport due to Alfvén eigenmodes

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, C. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Podestà, M.; ...

    2017-06-09

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that many overlapping small-amplitude Alfv en eigenmodes (AEs) cause fast-ion transport to sharply increase above a critical threshold, leading to fast-ion density profile resilience and reduced fusion performance. The threshold is above the AE linear stability limit and varies between diagnostics that are sensitive to different parts of fast-ion phase-space. A comparison with theoretical analysis using the nova and orbit codes shows that, for the neutral particle diagnostic, the threshold corresponds to the onset of stochastic particle orbits due to wave-particle resonances with AEs in the measured region of phase space. We manipulated themore » bulk fast-ion distribution and instability behavior through variations in beam deposition geometry, and no significant differences in the onset threshold outside of measurement uncertainties were found, in agreement with the theoretical stochastic threshold analysis. Simulations using the `kick model' produce beam ion density gradients consistent with the empirically measured radial critical gradient and highlight the importance of including the energy and pitch dependence of the fast-ion distribution function in critical gradient models. The addition of electron cyclotron heating changes the types of AEs present in the experiment, comparatively increasing the measured fast-ion density and radial gradient. Our studies provide the basis for understanding how to avoid AE transport that can undesirably redistribute current and cause fast-ion losses, and the measurements are being used to validate AE-induced transport models that use the critical gradient paradigm, giving greater confidence when applied to ITER.« less

  3. On the fission interference correction and its dependence on the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio in thermal NAA of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Martinho, E; Freitas, M C

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims at the following: (1) analyzing the experimental fission interference factor for molybdenum, FMo, obtained by the authors, who have described the irradiation conditions used as concerns the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio, phi epi/phi 0; (2) establishing a simple calculation model that describes the dependence of FMo on phi epi/phi 0 in an adequate way, to provide a satisfactory basis to explain the scatter found in the existing experimental data; and (3) clearly indicating the basic recommendations to take into account in order to obtain with high accuracy the concentration of molybdenum in samples containing uranium.

  4. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2016-11-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  5. The Degree of Impairment of Foraging in Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) due to Insecticide Exposure is Dependent upon Turbulence Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Ludington, Timothy S; Moore, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    As toxicants move into aquatic systems, the concentration at any point in space or time is heavily influenced by the flow dynamics. The dispersion of these chemicals creates a toxicant concentration that fluctuates widely in time and is highly dependent on the spatial heterogeneity of turbulence. Despite this knowledge on the movement of toxicants in natural systems, most ecotoxicological studies use static exposure paradigms that ignore the spatio-temporal dynamics of toxicants in aquatic systems. Although recent studies have begun to use pulsed paradigms in an attempt to mimic natural conditions, the heterogeneity of real concentrations in natural systems rarely is considered for use in these tests. Thus, understanding how organisms are impaired by naturally distributed toxicants is relatively unknown. The purpose of this experiment was to determine how turbulent dispersion of a toxicant negatively impacts a behavioral task and if altering the nature of turbulence will change the negative impact of the toxicant. Crayfish were exposed to a turbulent plume of carbaryl, an insecticide, under two different turbulent conditions and two different spatial conditions. Turbulence was altered by placing an obstruction within the flow which mimics a natural obstruction in lentic systems. Crayfish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl for 48 h under these different dynamic conditions. After toxicant exposure, crayfish foraging ability was measured in a flow-through Y maze. We hypothesized that crayfish exposed to the toxicant under more turbulent conditions would exhibit more detrimental responses due to the increased variation in chemical fluctuations. The fine-scale chemical distribution of the toxicant and the three-dimensional velocity profile were characterized for each of the turbulent conditions and each of the spatial locations. Analyses of these data showed that changes in turbulence or spatial location created a unique exposure condition

  6. Temperature and field dependence of the flux pinning mechanisms in Fe1.06Te0.6Se0.4 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, S. J.; Ghorbani, S. R.; Arabi, H.; Wang, X. L.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and critical current density of Fe1.06 Te0.6 Se0.4 single crystal have been investigated, and the flux pinning mechanism has been analyzed. The critical current density results indicate that there are different pinning mechanisms in this crystal. The pinning mechanisms are studied in terms of the pinning model where the normalized volume pinning force, fp, versus h = H /Hirr , where Hirr is the irreversibility, were studied systematically. It was found that a variety of pinning mechanisms including normal point pinning, normal surface pinning, and pinning based on spatial variation in the Ginzburg-Landau parameter (Δk pinning) pinning mechanisms coexist. The effects each of the different pinning mechanisms were obtained. The results show that the contributions of the real pinning mechanisms are dependent on the temperature and magnetic field in this the single crystal.

  7. Comparative study of implantation-induced damage in GaAs and Ge: Temperature and flux dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, T. E.; Holland, O. W.

    1991-07-01

    Damage accumulation during ion implantation of 100 keV Si+ into GaAs and Ge has been investigated. A comparison is made of the amount of damage created in GaAs and Ge and its dependence on dose, temperature, and dose rate. General similarities are observed in the dependence of damage in the two materials on dose and temperature. Both materials exhibit a well-defined transition temperature above which the damage decreases dramatically. This transition occurs near room temperature in GaAs and approximately 112 °C higher in Ge. Furthermore, a strong dose-rate effect on damage growth is demonstrated in both Ge and GaAs near their respective transition temperatures. The temperature dependence of the damage yield in both materials is compared to that given by the model of Morehead and Crowder [Rad. Eff. 6, 27 (1970)] for a range of ion doses.

  8. Comparative study of implantation-induced damage in GaAs and Ge: Temperature and flux dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, T.E.; Holland, O.W. )

    1991-07-22

    Damage accumulation during ion implantation of 100 keV Si{sup +} into GaAs and Ge has been investigated. A comparison is made of the amount of damage created in GaAs and Ge and its dependence on dose, temperature, and dose rate. General similarities are observed in the dependence of damage in the two materials on dose and temperature. Both materials exhibit a well-defined transition temperature above which the damage decreases dramatically. This transition occurs near room temperature in GaAs and approximately 112 {degree}C higher in Ge. Furthermore, a strong dose-rate effect on damage growth is demonstrated in both Ge and GaAs near their respective transition temperatures. The temperature dependence of the damage yield in both materials is compared to that given by the model of Morehead and Crowder (Rad. Eff. {bold 6}, 27 (1970)) for a range of ion doses.

  9. Impairment of Atg5-dependent autophagic flux promotes paraquat- and MPP⁺-induced apoptosis but not rotenone or 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Anandhan, Annandurai; Burns, Michaela; Chen, Han; Zhou, You; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Controversial reports on the role of autophagy as a survival or cell death mechanism in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins exist. We investigated the alterations in autophagic flux and the role of autophagy protein 5 (Atg5)-dependent autophagy in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Dopaminergic cell death induced by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitors 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP⁺) and rotenone, the pesticide paraquat, and the dopamine analog 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was paralleled by increased autophagosome accumulation. However, when compared with basal autophagy levels using chloroquine, autophagosome accumulation was a result of impaired autophagic flux. Only 6-OHDA induced an increase in autophagosome formation. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Atg5 increased paraquat- and MPP⁺-induced cell death. Stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent signaling protected against cell death induced by paraquat, whereas MPP⁺-induced toxicity was enhanced by wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase class III inhibitor, rapamycin, and trehalose, an mTOR-independent autophagy activator. Modulation of autophagy by either pharmacological or genetic approaches had no effect on rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity. Cell death induced by parkinsonian neurotoxins was inhibited by the pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), but only caspase-3 inhibition was able to decrease MPP⁺-induced cell death. Finally, inhibition of the lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsins, increased the toxicity by paraquat and MPP⁺, supporting a protective role of Atg5-dependent autophagy and lysosomes degradation pathways on dopaminegic cell death. These results demonstrate that in dopaminergic cells, Atg5-dependent autophagy acts as a protective mechanism during apoptotic cell death induced by paraquat and MPP⁺ but not during rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity.

  10. Impairment of Atg5-Dependent Autophagic Flux Promotes Paraquat- and MPP+-Induced Apoptosis But Not Rotenone or 6-Hydroxydopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Controversial reports on the role of autophagy as a survival or cell death mechanism in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins exist. We investigated the alterations in autophagic flux and the role of autophagy protein 5 (Atg5)-dependent autophagy in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Dopaminergic cell death induced by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitors 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and rotenone, the pesticide paraquat, and the dopamine analog 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was paralleled by increased autophagosome accumulation. However, when compared with basal autophagy levels using chloroquine, autophagosome accumulation was a result of impaired autophagic flux. Only 6-OHDA induced an increase in autophagosome formation. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Atg5 increased paraquat- and MPP+-induced cell death. Stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent signaling protected against cell death induced by paraquat, whereas MPP+-induced toxicity was enhanced by wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase class III inhibitor, rapamycin, and trehalose, an mTOR-independent autophagy activator. Modulation of autophagy by either pharmacological or genetic approaches had no effect on rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity. Cell death induced by parkinsonian neurotoxins was inhibited by the pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD), but only caspase-3 inhibition was able to decrease MPP+-induced cell death. Finally, inhibition of the lysosomal hydrolases, cathepsins, increased the toxicity by paraquat and MPP+, supporting a protective role of Atg5-dependent autophagy and lysosomes degradation pathways on dopaminegic cell death. These results demonstrate that in dopaminergic cells, Atg5-dependent autophagy acts as a protective mechanism during apoptotic cell death induced by paraquat and MPP+ but not during rotenone or 6-OHDA toxicity. PMID:23997112

  11. Import and export fluxes of macrozooplankton are taxa- and season-dependent at Jiuduansha marsh, Yangtze River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Haiming; Sheng, Qiang; Chu, Tianjiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Macrozooplankton may play important roles in influencing nutrient exchange between salt marsh and nearby estuarine ecosystems through predator-prey interactions and their transport by tidal flows. In this study, macrozooplankton transport through year-round monthly sampling was investigated in a salt marsh creek of the Yangtze River estuary. Twenty-one orders of macrozooplankton were captured. Calanoida and Decapoda were dominant and numerically comprised 59.59% and 37.59% respectively of the total captured macrozooplankton throughout the year. Decapoda mainly occurred in April, May and June. In other months, the Calanoida contributed over 90% of the total individuals. The annual Ferrari index (I) for total individual number of macrozooplankton was 0.27, which generally supports the viewpoint that salt marshes are sources of zooplankton. The salt marsh was mainly a source for decapods and mysids, possibly because of larval release in their breeding seasons. The marsh was also a source for amphipods, probably because some benthic forms became transient planktonic forms during tidal water flushing. Copepods and fish larvae exhibited net import into the salt marsh, which may result from predation from salt marsh settlers or retention in the salt marsh. Monthly Ferrari index (I) estimations revealed that the role of the salt marsh as a sink or source of macrozooplankton was time-dependent, which is related to the life history of animals. This study showed that whether the salt marsh zooplankton act as energy importers or exporters is group/taxa-dependent and time-dependent.

  12. Photobleaching in STED nanoscopy and its dependence on the photon flux applied for reversible silencing of the fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Joanna; Westphal, Volker; Radzewicz, Czesław; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W

    2017-09-12

    In STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy, the resolution and signal are limited by the fluorophore de-excitation efficiency and photobleaching. Here, we investigated their dependence on the pulse duration and power of the applied STED light for the popular 750 nm wavelength. In experiments with red- and orange-emitting dyes, the pulse duration was varied from the sub-picosecond range up to continuous-wave conditions, with average powers up to 200 mW at 80 MHz repetition rate, i.e. peak powers up to 1 kW and pulse energies up to 2.5 nJ. We demonstrate the dependence of bleaching on pulse duration, which dictates the optimal parameters of how to deliver the photons required for transient fluorophore silencing. Measurements with the dye ATTO647N reveal that the bleaching of excited molecules scales with peak power with a single effective order ~1.4. This motivates peak power reduction while maintaining the number of STED-light photons, in line with the superior resolution commonly achieved for nanosecond STED pulses. Other dyes (ATTO590, STAR580, STAR635P) exhibit two distinctive bleaching regimes for constant pulse energy, one with strong dependence on peak power, one nearly independent. We interpret the results within a photobleaching model that guides quantitative predictions of resolution and bleaching.

  13. Cholesterol homeostasis in human brain: evidence for an age-dependent flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain into the circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lütjohann, D; Breuer, O; Ahlborg, G; Nennesmo, I; Sidén, A; Diczfalusy, U; Björkhem, I

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated whether side chain-hydroxylated cholesterol species are important for elimination of cholesterol from the brain. Plasma concentrations of 24-hydroxycholesterol (24-OH-Chol) in the internal jugular vein and the brachial artery in healthy volunteers were consistent with a net flux of this steroid from the brain into the circulation, corresponding to elimination of approximately 4 mg cholesterol during a 24-h period in adults. Results of experiments with rats exposed to 18O2 were also consistent with a flux of 24-OH-Chol from the brain into the circulation. No other oxysterol measured showed a similar behavior as 24-OH-Chol. These results and the finding that the concentration of 24-OH-Chol was 30- to 1500-fold higher in the brain than in any other organ except the adrenals indicate that the major part of 24-OH-Chol present in the circulation originates from the brain. Both the 24-OH-Chol present in the brain and in the circulation were the 24S-stereoisomer. In contrast to other oxysterols, levels of plasma 24-OH-Chol were found to be markedly dependent upon age. The ratio between 24-OH-Chol and cholesterol in plasma was approximately 5 times higher during the first decade of life than during the sixth decade. There was a high correlation between levels of 24-OH-Chol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. It is suggested that the flux of 24-OH-Chol from the brain is important for cholesterol homeostasis in this organ. PMID:8790411

  14. Altitudinal, diurnal and latitudinal dependences for ionic concentrations formed by corpuscular fluxes in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragin, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of over 15 rocket measurements of ionic concentrations below 80 km, the height, daily and latitudinal dependences between positive ionic concentrations and cosmic ray intensity below 60 km as well as between ionic concentrations and corpuscular streams within the 60-80 km altitude range are compared. It is shown that ionic concentration and cosmic ray intensity below 60 km at night are likely to be interrelated, in conformity with Chapman's theory of the simple layer. In daytime, all phenomena are aggravated by photodetachment and ion exchange reactions with the participation of ozone. Between 60-80 km, besides ordinary cosmic rays, there must exist an additional corpuscular stream.

  15. Reconnecting Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; van Compernolle, Bart

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure is detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual JxB forces causing them to twist about each other and merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA (L=17m,dia=60cm,0.3<=B0z<=2.5kG,n˜2x10^12cm-3)on three dimensional flux ropes. Two, three or more magnetic flux ropes are generated from initially adjacent pulsed current channels in a background magnetized plasma. The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand 3D reconnection without null points. In our experiment the QSL is a narrow ribbon-like region(s) that twists between field lines. Within the QSL(s) field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. When the field lines are tracked they are observed to slip along the QSL when reconnection occurs. The Heating and other co-existing waves will be presented.

  16. Stratification-dependent Mixing May Increase Sensitivity of a Wind-driven Atlantic Overturning to Surface Freshwater Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, B.; Levermann, A.

    2009-04-01

    Stratification-dependent mixing is employed in a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity with a 3-dimensional ocean component. The vertical diffusivity in the ocean is calculated as κ ~ N-α, where N is the local buoyancy frequency. The sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to freshwater forcing is tested for exponents of 0 ≤ α ≤ 2 by first slowly increasing, then decreasing the freshwater forcing over the North Atlantic, keeping the model close to equilibrium. The fresh anomaly imposed at the surface between 20∘N and 50∘N in the Atlantic reaches the deep ocean by vertical diffusion, and by AMOC advection via the northern convection sites. Higher values of α lead to enhanced stratification and thereby reduced vertical mixing in the subtropical forcing region. Consequently, the freshwater anomaly reaches the northern deep water formation regions less diluted, and reduces the AMOC more strongly compared to lower values of α.

  17. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  18. Fermentation of xylose causes inefficient metabolic state due to carbon/energy starvation and reduced glycolytic flux in recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  19. Fermentation of Xylose Causes Inefficient Metabolic State Due to Carbon/Energy Starvation and Reduced Glycolytic Flux in Recombinant Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  20. Estimates of net infiltration in arid basins and potential impacts on recharge and solute flux due to land use and vegetation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Wendy Marie; Sharp, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Human impacts on land use and vegetation in arid basins have, in some regions, altered infiltration, recharge, and groundwater chemistry. However, some modeling approaches currently used do not account for these effects. In the Trans-Pecos region of Texas the presence of modern water, increasing groundwater NO3- concentrations, and vadose zone cores flushed of naturally accumulated solutes belie the notion that basin groundwater is unaffected by overlying land use and vegetation change. Recharge to the Trans-Pecos basins is spatially and temporally variable, and due to human impacts it has likely changed since pre-western settlement time (circa 1850s). By using the INFIL 3.0.1 model, a spatially distributed model of net infiltration, the volume and spatial distribution of net infiltration was examined for two basins, Wild Horse/Michigan Flats and Lobo/Ryan Flats, with model simulations designed to examine the effects of irrigated agriculture and human impacts on vegetation. Model results indicate that recharge to the basins is not limited to mountain-front zones and discrete features (i.e., alluvial channels), rather, irrigation return flow contributes an estimated 6.3 × 107 m3 (408 mm) of net infiltration over 40 yrs and net infiltration on the basin floors could contribute between 7% and 11.5% of annual basin recharge. Model results also indicate that net infiltration may be higher under current vegetation regimes than in pre-western settlement conditions; the removal of thick dense grasslands in INFIL model simulations enhanced net infiltration by 48% or more. Results from distributed models (like INFIL) improve upon scientific understanding of the links between vegetation regime and hydrological processes; this is important for the sustainable management of arid basin aquifers in Texas and elsewhere.

  1. Alterations of 86Rb+ fluxes in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells and their dependence on virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, A.; Geck, P.; Zibirre, R.; Kuehne, J.; Koch, G.

    1984-07-30

    Components of the 86Rb+ influx were investigated subsequent to poliovirus infection in the presence and absence of guanidine-HCl, both under normal steady-state conditions and after Na+ preloading of the cells. Measurements of the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake indicated a biphasic change in the activity of the Na+, K+ pump in the course of virus infection: a transient increase in the second hour postinfection, that was detectable only after Na+ preloading and inhibition after 3 hr. The enhanced activity of the Na+, K+ pump was not affected, while the decrease later was fully prevented by the antiviral agent guanidine-HCl. The piretanide-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake due to the Na+, K+, 2 Cl- cotransport system also became strongly inhibited beginning in the second hour postinfection. The inhibition of this transport system was partially antagonized by guanidine-HCl. The remaining 86Rb+ influx in the presence of ouabain and piretanide increased in the third hour postinfection. The latter change in 86Rb+ influx, indicating an increased permeability to monovalent cations was completely abolished by guanidine-HCl.

  2. Electrically detected magnetic resonance of phosphorous due to spin dependent recombination with triplet centers in γ-irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, W.; Morishita, H.; Vlasenko, L. S.; Poloskin, D. S.; Itoh, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) of phosphorus in silicon was detected in weak magnetic fields at low resonance frequencies of 200-400 MHz before and after irradiation of samples by γ-rays. EDMR spectra were detected by measuring dc-photoconductivity of samples under band-gap illumination. Phosphorus (P0) EDMR lines are accompanied always with the single line (S-line) with g-factor ≈2.01 originated most likely from the surface recombination centers. Strong, about 10 times, increase of the P0 and S signals was found in the same samples after irradiation with the doses of (3-6)×1015 γ/cm-2. For these doses of irradiation we were also able to see the ESR transition between entangled states of phosphorous formed at low magnetic field. This shows the higher efficiency of spin dependent recombination (SDR) process in irradiated samples. In addition, several new EDMR lines emerged after irradiation. Some of them arose from the spin dependent recombination through the photoexcited triplet states of A-centers (oxygen+vacancy complex).

  3. The forces applied by cilia depend linearly on their frequency due to constant geometry of the effective stroke.

    PubMed

    Teff, Zvi; Priel, Zvi; Gheber, Levi A

    2008-01-01

    Mucus propelling cilia are excitable by many stimulants, and have been shown to increase their beating frequency up to threefold, by physiological extracellular stimulants, such as adenosine-triphosphate, acetylcholine, and others. This is thought to represent the evolutionary adaptation of mucociliary systems to the need of rapid and efficient cleansing the airways of foreign particles. However, the mucus transport velocity depends not only on the beat frequency of the cilia, but on their beat pattern as well, especially in the case of mucus bearing cilia that beat in a complex, three-dimensional fashion. In this study, we directly measured the force applied by live ciliary tissues with an atomic force microscope, and found that it increases linearly with the beating frequency. This implies that the arc swept by the cilia during their effective stroke remains unchanged during frequency increase, thus leading to a linear dependence of transport velocity on the beat frequency. Combining the atomic force microscope measurements with optical measurements, we have indications that the recovery stroke is performed on a less inclined plane, leading to an effective shortening of the overall path traveled by the cilia tip during this nontransporting phase of their beat pattern. This effect is observed to be independent of the type of stimulant (temperature or chemical), chemical (adenosine-triphosphate or acetylcholine), or concentration (1 microM-100 microM), indicating that this behavior may result from internal details of the cilium mechanical structure.

  4. Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles as Carriers for Nucleus-Based Gene Therapy Due to Size-Dependent Nuclear Entry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes. PMID:24824865

  5. Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles as carriers for nucleus-based gene therapy due to size-dependent nuclear entry.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Yang, Keni; Kumar, Anil; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Hu, Zhongbo; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-06-24

    The aim of this study was to determine the size-dependent penetration ability of gold nanoparticles and the potential application of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for intranucleus delivery and therapy. We synthesized gold nanoparticles with diameters of 2, 6, 10, and 16 nm and compared their intracellular distribution in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm (2 and 6 nm) could enter the nucleus, whereas larger ones (10 and 16 nm) were found only in the cytoplasm. We then investigated the possibility of using ultrasmall 2 nm nanoparticles as carriers for nuclear delivery of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) that binds to the c-myc promoter. Compared to free TFO, the nanoparticle-conjugated TFO was more effective at reducing c-myc RNA and c-myc protein, which resulted in reduced cell viability. Our result demonstrated that the entry of gold nanoparticles into the cell nucleus is critically dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. We developed a strategy for regulating gene expression, by directly delivering TFOs into the nucleus using ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. More importantly, guidelines were provided to choose appropriate nanocarriers for different biomedical purposes.

  6. ENERGY-DEPENDENT GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSE WIDTH DUE TO THE CURVATURE EFFECT AND INTRINSIC BAND SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Zhao, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Bao, Y. Y.

    2012-06-20

    Previous studies have found that the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulse is energy dependent and that it decreases as a power-law function with increasing photon energy. In this work we have investigated the relation between the energy dependence of the pulse and the so-called Band spectrum by using a sample including 51 well-separated fast rise and exponential decay long-duration GRB pulses observed by BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory). We first decompose these pulses into rise and decay phases and find that the rise widths and the decay widths also behave as a power-law function with photon energy. Then we investigate statistically the relations between the three power-law indices of the rise, decay, and total width of the pulse (denoted as {delta}{sub r}, {delta}{sub d}, and {delta}{sub w}, respectively) and the three Band spectral parameters, high-energy index ({alpha}), low-energy index ({beta}), and peak energy (E{sub p} ). It is found that (1) {alpha} is strongly correlated with {delta}{sub w} and {delta}{sub d} but seems uncorrelated with {delta}{sub r}; (2) {beta} is weakly correlated with the three power-law indices, and (3) E{sub p} does not show evident correlations with the three power-law indices. We further investigate the origin of {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha}. We show that the curvature effect and the intrinsic Band spectrum could naturally lead to the energy dependence of the GRB pulse width and also the {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha} correlations. Our results hold so long as the shell emitting gamma rays has a curved surface and the intrinsic spectrum is a Band spectrum or broken power law. The strong {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} correlation and inapparent correlations between {delta}{sub r} and the three Band spectral parameters also suggest that the rise and decay phases of the GRB pulses have different origins.

  7. External magnetic field dependent shift of superparamagnetic blocking temperature due to core/surface disordered spin interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwan; Jang, Jung-tak; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Paek, Sun Ha; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-02-01

    Although the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) is crucial for various spintronics and biomedical applications, the precise determination of the blocking temperature is still not clear. Here, we present ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ characteristics of the blocking temperature in SPNP systems. In zero-field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC-FC) curves, there was no shift of ‘intrinsic blocking temperature’ at different applied external (excitation) magnetic fields. However, ‘extrinsic blocking temperature’ shift is clearly dependent on the external (excitation) magnetic field. According to our newly proposed physical model, the ‘intermediate spin layer’ located between the core and surface disordered spin layers is primarily responsible for the physical nature of the shift of extrinsic blocking temperature. Our new findings offer possibilities for characterizing the thermally induced physical properties of SPNPs. Furthermore, these findings provide a new empirical approach to indirectly estimate the qualitative degree of the disordered surface spin status in SPNPs.

  8. External magnetic field dependent shift of superparamagnetic blocking temperature due to core/surface disordered spin interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan; Jang, Jung-Tak; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Paek, Sun Ha; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-02-17

    Although the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) is crucial for various spintronics and biomedical applications, the precise determination of the blocking temperature is still not clear. Here, we present 'intrinsic' and 'extrinsic' characteristics of the blocking temperature in SPNP systems. In zero-field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC-FC) curves, there was no shift of 'intrinsic blocking temperature' at different applied external (excitation) magnetic fields. However, 'extrinsic blocking temperature' shift is clearly dependent on the external (excitation) magnetic field. According to our newly proposed physical model, the 'intermediate spin layer' located between the core and surface disordered spin layers is primarily responsible for the physical nature of the shift of extrinsic blocking temperature. Our new findings offer possibilities for characterizing the thermally induced physical properties of SPNPs. Furthermore, these findings provide a new empirical approach to indirectly estimate the qualitative degree of the disordered surface spin status in SPNPs.

  9. Size dependent transition enthalpy in PbTiO3 nanoparticles due to a cubic surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui

    2013-05-01

    Size dependence of transition enthalpy observed in ferroelectric PbTiO3 nanoparticles has been shown to result from volume averaging or the surface dilution effect rather than size induced reduction of spontaneous polarization at the first-order phase transition temperature. The PbTiO3 nanoparticles are suggested to be composed of a cubic surface layer with size independent thickness and a ferroelectric core having nonzero and size independent spontaneous polarization at the transition point. Based on a surface layer model, thickness of the cubic surface layer at the Curie temperature is estimated to be around 5-8 nm for PbTiO3 nanoparticles from the literature-reported transition enthalpy data. The present analyses indicate that the size effect in ferroelectrics is possibly a surface related extrinsic effect.

  10. Annexin V-mediated calcium flux across membranes is dependent on the lipid composition: implications for cartilage mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, T; Nah, H D; Demuth, D R; Harrison, G; Golub, E E; Adams, S L; Pacifici, M

    1997-03-18

    Annexin V is a major component of matrix vesicles and has a role in mediating the influx of Ca2+ into these vesicles, thus promoting the initiation of hypertrophic cartilage matrix mineralization. However, the mechanisms and factors regulating annexin V-mediated Ca2+ influx into these vesicles are not well understood. Since the lipid composition of matrix vesicles differs from that of the plasma membrane of chondrocytes and is rich in phosphatidylserine, we asked whether the lipid composition may regulate annexin V function. We prepared liposomes containing different concentrations of phosphatidylserine and determined how the lipid composition affected (a) the interactions between annexin V and liposomes and (b) annexin V-mediated Ca2+ influx into the liposomes. We found that annexin V was able to bind to every liposome tested. However, we observed the most prominent increases in tryptophan 187 emission intensity, a measure of the degree of interactions between annexin V and lipid bilayers, only with liposomes containing a high concentration of phosphatidylserine. In addition, a significant fraction of annexin V associated with phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes was not extractable by EDTA treatment but required a detergent, indicating that annexin V inserts into bilayers of these liposomes. Chemical cross-linking analysis revealed that matrix vesicles and phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes induced the formation of the annexin V hexamer. Interestingly, a significant Ca2+ influx in the presence of annexin V occurred only in liposomes containing a high phosphatidylserine content. Moreover, annexin V-mediated Ca2+ influx into these liposomes was inhibited (i) by anti-annexin V antibodies and (ii) by treatment with zinc and cadmium, indicating the essential role of the protein in Ca2+ influx. The results of this study indicate that phosphatidylserine-rich bilayers induce the formation of a hexameric annexin V, possibly leading to a Ca2+-dependent insertion of annexin V

  11. Compaction creep of sands due to time-dependent grain failure: Effects of chemical environment, applied stress, and grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzesowsky, R. H.; Hangx, S. J. T.; Brantut, N.; Spiers, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    Time-dependent brittle creep plays a role in controlling compaction of sands and sandstones under upper crustal conditions, influencing phenomena such as production-induced reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and induced seismicity. Brittle creep also plays a role in determining the mechanical behavior of gouge-rich faults. We performed uniaxial creep experiments on sand to investigate the effects of chemical environment (dry versus solution flooded), grain size (d = 196-378 µm), and applied effective stress (σa up to 30 MPa), at room temperature conditions favoring grain-scale brittle processes. Creep measurements were complemented with acoustic emission (AE) detection and microstructural analysis to characterize the main creep mechanism. Wet samples showed much higher creep strains than dry-tested samples. AE event counts showed a direct relation between grain failure and creep strain, with higher AE rates occurring in the wet samples. Therefore, we inferred that time-dependent deformation was dominated by subcritical crack growth, resulting in grain failure accompanied by intergranular sliding rearrangements, and that crack growth in the presence of chemically active fluids was controlled by stress corrosion. The sensitivity of the compaction rate of the sands to d and σa can be expressed as ɛ˙∝diσaj where i ≈ 6 and j ≈ 21 under dry conditions and i ≈ 9 and j ≈ 15 under wet conditions. Our results were compared to a simple model based on Hertzian contact theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical crack growth. This model showed agreement between the observed stress and grain size sensitivities of creep, within a factor of 2.

  12. Diagnostic differentiation of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease using a hippocampus-dependent test of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Kuven; Minati, Ludovico; Contarino, Valeria; Prioni, Sara; Wood, Ruth; Cooper, Rebecca; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Chan, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    The hippocampus is one of the earliest brain regions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tests of hippocampal function have the potential to detect AD in its earliest stages. Given that the hippocampus is critically involved in allocentric spatial memory, this study applied a short test of spatial memory, the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), to determine whether test performance can differentiate mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with and without CSF biomarker evidence of underlying AD and whether the test can distinguish patients with MCI and mild AD dementia when applied in different cultural settings. Healthy controls (HC), patients with MCI, and mild AD dementia were recruited from study sites in UK and Italy. Study numbers were: HC (UK 20, Italy 10), MCI (UK 21, Italy 14), and AD (UK 11, Italy 9). Nineteen UK MCI patients were grouped into CSF biomarker-positive (MCI+, n = 10) and biomarker-negative (MCI-, n = 9) subgroups. Behavioral data were correlated with hippocampal volume and cortical thickness of the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Spatial memory was impaired in both UK and Italy MCI and AD patients. Test performance additionally differentiated between MCI+ and MCI- subgroups (P = 0.001). A 4MT score of ≤8/15 was associated with 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for detection of early AD (MCI+ and mild AD dementia) in the UK population, and with 100% sensitivity and 50% specificity for detection of MCI and AD in the Italy sample. 4MT performance correlated with hippocampal volume in the UK population and cortical thickness of the precuneus in both study populations. In conclusion, performance on a hippocampus-sensitive test of spatial memory differentiates MCI due to AD with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The observation that similar diagnostic sensitivity was obtained in two separate study populations, allied to the scalability and usability of the test in community memory clinics, supports future application of the 4MT

  13. Aberrant intestinal microbiota due to IL-1 receptor antagonist deficiency promotes IL-17- and TLR4-dependent arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogier, Rebecca; Ederveen, Thomas H A; Boekhorst, Jos; Wopereis, Harm; Scher, Jose U; Manasson, Julia; Frambach, Sanne J C M; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van der Kraan, Peter M; Koenders, Marije I; van den Berg, Wim B; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla

    2017-06-23

    Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we show that IL-1Ra critically maintains the diversity and regulates the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice. IL-1Ra deficiency reduced the intestinal microbial diversity and richness, and caused specific taxonomic alterations characterized by overrepresented Helicobacter and underrepresented Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Notably, the aberrant intestinal microbiota in IL1rn (-/-) mice specifically potentiated IL-17 production by intestinal lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes and skewed the LP T cell balance in favor of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an effect transferable to WT mice by fecal microbiota. Importantly, LP Th17 cell expansion and the development of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in IL1rn (-/-) mice were attenuated under germ-free condition. Selective antibiotic treatment revealed that tobramycin-induced alterations of commensal intestinal microbiota, i.e., reduced Helicobacter, Flexispira, Clostridium, and Dehalobacterium, suppressed arthritis in IL1rn (-/-) mice. The arthritis phenotype in IL1rn (-/-) mice was previously shown to depend on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Using the ablation of both IL-1Ra and TLR4, we here show that the aberrations in the IL1rn (-/-) microbiota are partly TLR4

  14. Shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing glycine action in rat auditory neurones is due to age-dependent Cl− regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Ingrid; Löhrke, Stefan; Friauf, Eckhard

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine can elicit depolarizing responses in immature neurones. We investigated the changes in glycine responses and their ionic mechanism in developing neurones of the rat lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus involved in sound localization. Whole-cell and gramicidin perforated-patch recordings were performed from visually identified LSO neurones in brain slices and glycine was pressure applied for 3–100 ms to the soma. Glycine-evoked currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine. They were mostly monophasic, but biphasic responses occurred in ∼30% of P8-11 neurones in perforated-patch recordings. In whole-cell recordings from P2-11 neurones, the reversal potential of glycine-evoked currents (EGly) was determined by the transmembranous Cl− gradient and corresponded closely to the Nernst potential for Cl−, regardless of age. This indicates that Cl− is the principle ion permeating glycine receptors, but is also consistent with a low relative (10–20%) permeability for HCO3−. The Cl− gradient also determined the polarity and amplitude of glycine-evoked membrane potential changes. Leaving the native intracellular [Cl−] undisturbed with gramicidin perforated-patch recordings, we found a highly significant, age-dependent change of EGly from −46.8 ± 1.8 mV (P1-4, n = 28) to −67.6 ± 3.3 mV (P5-8, n = 10) to −82.2 ± 4.1 mV (P9–11, n = 18). The majority of P1–4 neurones were depolarized by glycine (∼80%) and spikes were evoked in ∼30%. In contrast, P9–11 neurones were hyperpolarized. In perforated-patch recordings, EGly was influenced by the voltage protocol and the glycine application interval; it could be shifted in the positive and negative direction. For a given application interval, these shifts were always larger in P1–4 than in P8–11 neurones, pointing to less effective Cl− regulation mechanisms in younger neurones. Furosemide (frusemide), a blocker of cation

  15. Ultrasonic Measurement of Change in Elasticity due to Endothelium Dependent Relaxation Response by Accurate Detection of Artery-Wall Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Ross hypothesized that an endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step in atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells, which release nitric oxide (NO) in response to shear stress from blood flow, have a function of relaxing smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall. For the assessment of the endothelial function, there is a conventional method in which the change in the diameter of the brachial artery caused by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is measured with ultrasound. However, despite the fact that the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not respond to NO, the conventional method measures the change in diameter depending on the mechanical property of the entire wall including the adventitia. Therefore, we developed a method of measuring the change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial artery during a cardiac cycle using the phased tracking method for the evaluation of the mechanical property of only the intima-media region. In this study, the initial positions of echoes from the lumen-intima and media-adventitia boundaries are determined using complex template matching to accurately estimate the minute change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial and radial arteries. The ambiguity in the determination of such boundaries was eliminated using complex template matching, and the change in elasticity measured by the proposed method was larger than the change in inner diameter obtained by the conventional method.

  16. The velocity dependence of X-ray emission due to Charge Exchange: Applications in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata; Lyons, David; Mullen, Patrick; Shelton, Robin L.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere [1], planetary exospheres [2], and supernova remnants [3,4]. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly-excited, high charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays.To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate high-energy astrophysical environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross-sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities. Collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2 are considered. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant will be shown as an example with ion velocity dependence.[1] Henley, D. B. & Shelton, R. L. 2010, ApJSS, 187, 388[2] Dennerl, K. et al. 2002, A&A 386, 319[3] Katsuda, S. et al. 2011, ApJ 730 24[4] Cumbee, R. S. et al. 2014, ApJ 787 L31

  17. Age-dependent dose and health risk due to intake of uranium in drinking water from Jaduguda, India.

    PubMed

    Patra, A C; Mohapatra, S; Sahoo, S K; Lenka, P; Dubey, J S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-07-01

    Uranium is a heavy metal that is not only radiologically harmful but also a well-known nephrotoxic element. In this study, occurrence of uranium in drinking water samples from locations near the uranium mining site at Jaduguda, India, was studied by Laser-induced fluorimetry. Uranium concentrations range from 0.03 ± 0.01 to 11.6 ± 1.3 µg l(-l), being well within the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water limit of 30 μg l(-1). The ingestion dose due to the presence of uranium in drinking water for various age groups varies from 0.03 to 28.3 μSv y(-1). The excess lifetime cancer risk varies from 4.3×10(-8) to 1.7×10(-5) with an average value of 4.8×10(-6), much less than the acceptable excess lifetime cancer risk of 10(-3) for radiological risk. The chemical risk (hazard quotient) has an average value of 0.15 indicating that the water is safe for drinking.

  18. Dependence of implantation sequence on surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. H.; Hsieh, H. Y.; Wu, C. W.; Lin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon at room temperature. The H and He ion energies were 40 and 50 keV, respectively, so that their depth profiles were similar. The total implantation fluence for the H and He ions was 5 × 1016 cm-2 under various fluence fractions in the H ions. The implantation sequences under investigation were He + H and H + He. Dynamic optical microscopy (DOM) was employed in order to dynamically analyze surface blistering characteristics. This study used DOM data to construct so-called time-temperature-transformation (T-T-T) curves to easily predict blistering and crater transformation at specific annealing times and temperatures. The results revealed that the curves of blister initialization, crater initialization, and crater completion in the He + H implant occurred at a lower annealing temperature but with a longer annealing time compared to those in the H + He implant. Furthermore, the threshold annealing temperatures for blister and crater formation in the He + H implant were lower than they were in the H + He implant. The size distributions of the blisters and craters in the He + H implant extended wider than those in the H + He implant. In addition, the He + H implant exhibited larger blisters and craters compared to the ones in the H + He implant. Since the former has a higher percentage of exfoliation area than the latter, it is regarded as the more optimal implantation sequence.

  19. Bisphenol A affects germination and tube growth in Picea meyeri pollen through modulating Ca2+ flux and disturbing actin-dependent vesicular trafficking during cell wall construction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tongjie; Fan, Chengyu; Man, Yi; Zhou, Junhui; Jing, Yanping

    2015-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread pollutant, is reportedly harmful to humans, animals and plants. However, the effect of BPA on plant pollen tube growth, as well as the mechanism involved, remains unclear. Here, we report that BPA significantly inhibited Picea meyeri pollen germination and tube elongation in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microscopy showed that BPA was detrimental to organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Non-invasive detection revealed that BPA inhibited extracellular Ca(2+) influx and promoted intracellular Ca(2+) efflux at the pollen tube tip, thereby inducing a dissipated Ca(2+) gradient. Fluorescence labeling showed that BPA disorganized actin filaments (AFs), which subsequently led to abnormal vesicle trafficking. Furthermore, BPA reduced the activity of acid phosphatase, a typical exocytosis enzyme. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and subsequent fluorescence labeling revealed that BPA induced an abnormal deposition of cell wall components, including pectins and callose. Taken together, our results indicate that BPA, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, disturbs Ca(2+) flux in P. meyeri pollen tubes, thus disrupting AF organization, resulting in abnormal actin-dependent vesicle trafficking and further affecting the deposition of cell wall components. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of BPA toxicity in pollen tube tip growth.

  20. Two-Body Orbit Expansion Due to Time-Dependent Relative Acceleration Rate of the Cosmological Scale Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    By phenomenologically assuming a slow temporal variation of the percent acceleration rate S̈S -1 of the cosmic scale factor S(t), it is shown that the orbit of a local binary undergoes a secular expansion. To first order in the power expansion of S̈S -1 around the present epoch t0, a non-vanishing shift per orbit (Δr) of the two-body relative distance r occurs for eccentric trajectories. A general relativistic expression, which turns out to be cubic in the Hubble parameter H0 at the present epoch, is explicitly calculated for it in the case of matter-dominated epochs with Dark Energy. For a highly eccentric Oort comet orbit with period Pb ≈ 31 Myr, the general relativistic distance shift per orbit turns out to be of the order of (Δr) ≈ 70 km. For the Large Magellanic Cloud, assumed on a bound elliptic orbit around the Milky Way, the shift per orbit is of the order of (Δr) ≈ 2-4 pc. Our result has a general validity since it holds in any cosmological model admitting the Hubble law and a slowly varying S̈S-1(t). More generally, it is valid for an arbitrary Hooke-like extra-acceleration whose "elastic" parameter κ is slowly time-dependent, irrespectively of the physical mechanism which may lead to it. The coefficient κ1 of the first-order term of the power expansion of κ(t) can be preliminarily constrained in a model-independent way down to a κ1 ≤ 2 x 10-13 year-3 level from latest Solar System's planetary observations. The radial velocities of the double lined spectroscopic binary ALPHA Cen AB yield κ1 ≤ 10-8 year-3.

  1. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of

  2. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of

  3. Sea Level Change due to Time-Dependent Long-Wavelength Dynamic Topography Inferred from Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Clinton P.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2017-04-01

    Earth's surface is deflected vertically by stresses associated with convective mantle flow. Although dynamic topography is important for both sea level change and continental uplift and subsidence, the time history of dynamic topography is difficult to constrain because the time-dependence of mantle flow is not known. However, the motions of the tectonic plates contain information about the mantle flow patterns that drive them. In particular, we show that the longest wavelengths of mantle flow are tightly linked to the dipole and quadrupole moments (harmonic degrees 1 and 2) of plate motions. This coupling allows us to infer patterns of long-wavelength mantle flow, and the associated dynamic topography, from tectonic plate motions. After calibrating this linkage using models of present-day mantle flow, we can use reconstructions of global plate motions to infer the basic patterns of long-wavelength dynamic topography back to 250 Ma. We find relatively stable dynamic uplift persists above large-scale mantle upwelling beneath Africa and the Central Pacific. Regions of major downwelling encircled the periphery of these stable upwellings, alternating between primarily east-west and north-south orientations. The amplitude of long-wavelength dynamic topography was likely largest in the Cretaceous, when global plate motions were fastest. Continental motions over this time-evolving dynamic topography predict patterns of continental uplift and subsidence that are confirmed by geological observations of continental surfaces relative to sea level. Net uplift or subsidence of the global seafloor can also induce eustatic sea level changes. We infer that dispersal of the Pangean supercontinent away from stable upwelling beneath Africa may have exposed the seafloor to an increasingly larger area of growing positive dynamic topography during the Mesozoic. This net uplift of the seafloor caused 60 m of sea level rise during the Triassic and Jurassic, ceasing in the Cenozoic once

  4. Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals?

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E; Damjanovich, Kristy; Gardner, Kyle; Groesbeck, Zack J; Ma, Maggie S; Nibley, Megan; Richardson, Kelly S; Wilkinson, Maureen; Morrison, Linda C; Bernhardt, Paul; Potts, Wayne K

    2004-01-01

    Background Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. These mice have great importance in evaluating the function of genes. However, their utility depends on the maintenance of this true congenic nature. Although, accumulating evidence suggests that congenic strains suffer genetic divergence that could compromise interpretation of experimental results, this problem is usually ignored. During coinfection studies with Salmonella typhimurium and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC-genotype-matched P0 and F1 animals in weight gain and pathogen load. To systematically evaluate the apparent non-MHC differences in these mice, we infected all three generations (P0, F1 and F2) for 5 MHC genotypes (b/b, b/q and q/q as well as d/d, d/q, and q/q) with Salmonella and TMEV. Results Infected P0 MHC q/q congenic homozygotes lost significantly more weight (p = 0.02) and had significantly higher Salmonella (p < 0.01) and TMEV (p = 0.02) titers than the infected F2 q/q homozygotes. Neither weight nor pathogen load differences were present in sham-infected controls. Conclusions These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely explanation is that deleterious recessive mutations affecting response to infection have accumulated in the more than 40 years that this B10.Q-H-2q MHC-congenic strain has been separated from its B10-H-2b parental strain. During typical experiments with congenic strains, the phenotypes of these accumulated mutations will be falsely ascribed to the congenic gene(s). This problem likely affects any strains separated for appreciable time and while usually ignored, can be avoided with the use of F2 segregants. PMID:15245582

  5. Magnetic flux noise in strongly anisotropic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, V. D.; Jung, G.; Shapiro, B. Ya.

    1995-04-01

    Magnetic noise due to thermally activated movements of flux vortices has been calculated taking into account fluctuations modes of nonrigid vortices. It has been shown that at low frequencies, below the crossover frequency, the noise spectrum of a layered superconductor is identical to that of a continuous material. Three regimes of spectral behavior, lnω, ω-1/2, and ω-3/2, have been predicted to be present in this frequency range. Characteristic frequencies separating different regimes depend on the geometry of the flux pickup loop. At high frequencies, above the crossover frequency, bending of vortices leads to a Lorentzian shape of noise spectra. The value of the crossover frquency is not influenced by the particularities of the flux-measuring arrangement and depends only on the material properties and applied magnetic field.

  6. The effect of anisotropic flux pinning microstructure on the sample length dependence of the magnetization critical current density in niobium-titanium superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, C. Bormio; Heussner, R. W.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    1996-08-01

    Magnetization measurements of the critical current density Jc in Nb 47 wt % Ti with Nb artificial pinning centers revealed that the shape and magnitude of the field dependent magnetization hysteresis ΔM(H) was a strong function of the sample length and that ΔM(H) for short wire samples was up to six times smaller than for long wires. This is caused by the strong anisotropy of the critical current density Jc. The magnitude of Jc flowing perpendicular to the wire axis J⊥ was deduced to be 50-175 times smaller than the longitudinal current density J∥. The source of the anisotropy lies in the anisotropic flux pinning microstructure of the wires. When the magnetization current crosses perpendicular to the filament axis at each end of the wire, the Lorentz force is parallel to the pinning center axis. The pinning force is weak in this direction and J⊥ is correspondingly small. The technologically important critical current density is the longitudinal current density J∥. It can be extracted from magnetization measurements only in the case of large length to diameter filaments, as is quantitatively analyzed here.

  7. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge3: combined antibody-dependent hemolysis and erythroid precursor cell growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Blackall, Douglas P; Pesek, Gina D; Montgomery, Matthew M; Oza, Krishna K; Arndt, Patricia A; Garratty, George; Shahcheraghi, Ali; Denomme, Gregory A

    2008-10-01

    The Gerbich (Ge) antigens are a collection of high-incidence antigens carried on the red blood cell membrane glycoproteins, glycophorins C and D. Antibodies against these antigens are uncommon, and there have been only rare case reports of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge. In this case report, we present a neonate with severe anemia and hyperbilirubinemia due to anti-Ge3. Routine and special laboratory studies undertaken in this case suggested two mechanisms for the patient's hemolysis and persistent anemia. Antibody-dependent hemolysis was associated with early-onset hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and a mild reticulocytosis, and inhibition of erythroid progenitor cell growth was associated with late anemia and normal bilirubin and reticulocyte values. Though rare, anti-Ge3 can be a dangerous antibody in pregnancy. Affected neonates may require intensive initial therapy and close follow-up for at least several weeks after delivery.

  8. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid, suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting NFκB-dependent prostaglandin E synthesis in osteoblasts and prevents bone loss due to estrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Harada, Suguru; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Hirata, Michiko; Takita, Morichika; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2011-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid, prevents cancer and inflammation, but the roles of nobiletin in bone are unclear. We examined the effects of nobiletin on bone resorption in vitro and on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice in vivo. In vitro, nobiletin suppressed osteoclast formation and bone resorption induced by interleukin (IL)-1. Nobiletin suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, NFκB-dependent transcription, and prostaglandin E (PGE) production induced by IL-1 in osteoblasts. OVX mice showed severe bone loss in the femur by increased bone resorption due to estrogen deficiency, and nobiletin significantly restored the bone mass. Nobiletin could be beneficial to bone health in postmenopausal women.

  9. RETRACTION: Unsteady flow and heat transfer of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, H. A.

    2007-04-01

    It has come to the attention of the Institute of Physics that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its plagiarism of an earlier paper (Hossain A, Hossain M A and Wilson M 2001 Unsteady flow of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat transfer Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40 11-20). Therefore this article has been retracted by the Institute of Physics and by the author, Hazem Ali Attia.

  10. Video Meteor Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    estimate the flux (Love & Brownlee, 1993); here the physical area of the detector is well known, but the masses depend strongly on the unknown velocity distribution. In the same size range, Thomas & Netherway (1989) used the narrow-beam radar at Jindalee to calculate the flux of sporadics. In between these very large and very small sizes, a number of video and photographic observations were reduced by Ceplecha (2001). These fluxes were calculated (details are given in Ceplecha, 1988) taking the Halliday et al. (1984) MORP fireball fluxes, slightly corrected in mass, as a calibration, and adjusting the flux of small cameras to overlap with the number/mass relation from that work.

  11. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction of bromide with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols and its importance for chemistry in surface snow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Trachsel, Jürg; Avak, Sven; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) via halogen activation are observed in both cold and warm climates [1-3]. Very recently, it was suggested that this multiphase halogen activation chemistry dominates in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere [4]. These occurrences beg the question of temperature dependence of halogen activation in sea-salt aerosol, which are often mixtures of sea-salt and organic molecules [3, 5]. With the application of flow-tubes, the aim of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation via ozone interaction in a bromide containing film as a proxy for mixed organic - sea-salt aersol. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix and a proxy for oxidized organics, which is of relevance to atmospheric chemistry. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. With available knowledge, we have reproduced the measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake while accounting for temperature dependence of the substrate's properties as diffusivity, viscosity, and gas solubility. This work is part of a cross-disciplinary project with the aim to investigate the impact of metamorphism on impurity location in aging snow and its consequences for chemical reactivity. Metamorphism drastically shapes the structure and physical properties of snow, which has impacts on heat transfer, albedo, and avalanche formation. Such changes can be driven by water vapour fluxes in dry metamorphism with a mass turnover of as much as 60% per day - much greater than previously thought [6]. The consequences for atmospheric science are a current question of research [7]. Here, we show first results of a joint experiment to probe the re-distribution of impurities during snow metamorphism in artificial snow combined with an investigation of the samples structural changes. Future work is planned with the goal to investigate to which extend the observed re

  12. Turbulent transport across invariant canonical flux surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, J.B.; Callen, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    Net transport due to a combination of Coulomb collisions and turbulence effects in a plasma is investigated using a fluid moment description that allows for kinetic and nonlinear effects via closure relations. The model considered allows for ``ideal`` turbulent fluctuations that distort but preserve the topology of species-dependent canonical flux surfaces {psi}{sub {number_sign},s} {triple_bond} {integral} dF {center_dot} B{sub {number_sign},s} {triple_bond} {gradient} {times} [A + (m{sub s}/q{sub s})u{sub s}] in which u{sub s} is the flow velocity of the fluid species. Equations for the net transport relative to these surfaces due to ``nonideal`` dissipative processes are found for the total number of particles and total entropy enclosed by a moving canonical flux surface. The corresponding particle transport flux is calculated using a toroidal axisymmetry approximation of the ideal surfaces. The resulting Lagrangian transport flux includes classical, neoclassical-like, and anomalous contributions and shows for the first time how these various contributions should be summed to obtain the total particle transport flux.

  13. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with the age-dependent thyroid doses and risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to {sup 131}I

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Apostoaei, A.I.; Nair, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Effects on the thyroid gland due to exposure to {sup 131}I are currently of interest for ongoing retrospective studies of historical releases in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. Most of the work to date has been limited to dose estimation. This work focuses on estimating both dose and risk of thyroid cancer to an exposed individual. The age-dependent thyroid dose is calculated using a standard metabolic model for iodine. Updated information on thyroid mass from measurements using modem ultrasound techniques was used. The age-dependent risk is calculated using a linear excess relative risk model. An analysis of uncertainties in dose and risk estimates was performed for an individual in a population characterized by the mass of thyroid, by the iodine metabolic parameters, by the background incidence of thyroid cancer and by the excess relative risk per Gy of absorbed dose. The uncertainty analysis was performed using Monte-Carlo simulation, by considering the age-dependent parameters as random functions. The correlation between the metabolic age-dependent parameters was considered explicitly. Special attention is given to a modifying factor that accounts for the effectiveness of {sup 131}I in inducing thyroid cancer as compared to gamma irradiation, for which most of the excess risk factors are derived. This factor is based on review of recent literature and on informal interviews with outside experts, and thus, the expressed uncertainty is subjective in nature. The paper summarizes the age-dependent dose conversion factors (Sv Bq{sup -1}) and slope factors (risk Bq{sup -1}) as well as the uncertainty associated with them. An analysis that identifies the parameters of dominant importance by their contributions to the overall uncertainty is also included.

  14. Rate-Dependent Impairments in Repetitive Finger Movements in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease are not Due to Peripheral Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L.; Allen, David P.; Simuni, Tanya; MacKinnon, Colum D.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of repetitive finger movements is an important clinical measure of disease severity in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with a dramatic deterioration in performance at movement rates near 2 Hz and above. The mechanisms contributing to this rate-dependent movement impairment are poorly understood. Since clinical and experimental testing of these movements involve prolonged repetition of movement, a loss of force generating capacity due to peripheral fatigue may contribute to performance deterioration. This study examined the contribution of peripheral fatigue to the performance of unconstrained index finger flexion movements by measuring maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) immediately before and after repetitive finger movements in patients with PD (both off- and on-medication) and matched control subjects. Movement performance was quantified using finger kinematics, maximum force production, and electromyography (EMG). The principal finding was that peak force and EMG activity during the MVC did not significantly change from the pre- to post- movement task in patients with PD despite the marked deterioration in movement performance of repetitive finger movements. These findings show that the rate-dependent deterioration of repetitive finger movements in PD cannot be explained by a loss of force-generating capacity due to peripheral fatigue, and further suggest that mechanisms contributing to impaired isometric force production in PD are different from those that mediate impaired performance of high-rate repetitive movements. PMID:20599591

  15. Prediction of satellite orbits contraction due to diurnally varying oblate atmosphere and altitude-dependent scale height using KS canonical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Xavier James; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2009-09-01

    A new non-singular analytical theory for the motion of near-Earth satellite orbits with the air drag effect is developed in terms of uniformly regular KS canonical elements. Diurnally varying oblate atmosphere is considered with variation in density scale height dependent on altitude. The series expansion method is utilized to generate the analytical solutions and terms up to fourth-order terms in eccentricity and c (a small parameter dependent on the flattening of the atmosphere) are retained. Only two of the nine equations are solved analytically to compute the state vector and change in energy at the end of each revolution, due to symmetry in the equations of motion. The important drag perturbed orbital parameters: semi-major axis and eccentricity are obtained up to 500 revolutions, with the present analytical theory and by numerical integration over a wide range of perigee height, eccentricity and inclination. The differences between the two are found to be very less. A comparison between the theories generated with terms up to third- and fourth-order terms in c and e shows an improvement in the computation of the orbital parameters semi-major axis and eccentricity, up to 9%. The theory can be effectively used for the re-entry of the near-Earth objects, which mainly decay due to atmospheric drag.

  16. Polarization dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency due to fiber inhomogeneity in single mode fiber and its impact on distributed fiber Brillouin sensing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shangran; Pang, Meng; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2012-03-12

    The dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency on lightwave state of polarization (SOP) due to fiber inhomogeneity in single mode fiber (SMF) is investigated by using Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) system. Theoretical analysis shows fiber inhomogeneity leads to fiber birefringence and sound velocity variation, both of which can cause the broadening and asymmetry of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) and thus contribute to the variation of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency with lightwave SOP. Due to fiber inhomogeneity both in lateral profile and longitudinal direction, the measured BGS is the superposition of several spectrum components with different peak frequencies within the interaction length. When pump or probe SOP changes, both the peak Brillouin gain and the overlapping area of the optical and acoustic mode profile that determine the peak efficiency of each spectrum component vary within the interaction length, which further changes the linewidth and peak frequency of the superimposed BGS. The SOP dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency was experimentally demonstrated and quantified by measuring the spectrum asymmetric factor and fitting obtained effective peak frequency respectively via BOTDA system on standard step-index SMF-28 fiber. Experimental results show that on this fiber the Brillouin spectrum asymmetric factor and effective peak frequency vary in the range of 2% and 0.06MHz respectively over distance with orthogonal probe input SOPs. Experimental results also show that in distributed fiber Brillouin sensing, polarization scrambler (PS) can be used to reduce the SOP dependence of Brillouin linewidth and peak frequency caused by fiber inhomogeneity in lateral profile, however it maintains the effects caused by fiber inhomogeneity in longitudinal direction. In the case of non-ideal polarization scrambling using practical PS, the fluctuation of effective Brillouin peak frequency caused by fiber inhomogeneity

  17. Heavier ions with a different linear energy transfer spectrum kill more cells due to similar interference with the Ku-dependent DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Ya

    2014-10-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells mainly due to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). High-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation induces more cell death and generates a higher relative biological effect (RBE) than low-LET ionizing radiation (such as X or γ ray). Although it is known that interference with the Ku-dependent nonhomologous ending-joining (NHEJ) pathway appears to be the major cause of iron-ion- and carbon-ion-induced cell death, it remains unclear whether other ions with a similar or different LET and higher RBE in terms of cell killing are controlled in the same way. In this study, we compared the clonogenic survival frequency of Ku80+/+ (NHEJ-proficient) and Ku80-/- (NHEJ-deficient) cells after exposure to iron (175 keV/μm), silicon (75 keV/μm), oxygen (25 keV/μm) and X ray (low-LET). The results showed that Ku80-/- cells had the same RBE value of 1 for cell killing for all types of ionizing radiation, whereas Ku80+/+ cells had different RBE values for cell killing that depended on the specific type of ionizing radiation. The results indicate that the Ku-dependent NHEJ is the major repair pathway that heavier ions interfere with, resulting in higher RBE for cell killing. These results provide useful information for followup studies that will focus on improving high-LET protection or heavier ion radiotherapy in the near future.

  18. Rarity of human T helper 17 cells is due to retinoic acid orphan receptor-dependent mechanisms that limit their expansion.

    PubMed

    Santarlasci, Veronica; Maggi, Laura; Capone, Manuela; Querci, Valentina; Beltrame, Luca; Cavalieri, Duccio; D'Aiuto, Elena; Cimaz, Rolando; Nebbioso, Angela; Liotta, Francesco; De Palma, Raffaele; Maggi, Enrico; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Romagnani, Sergio; Annunziato, Francesco

    2012-02-24

    The reason why CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells, despite their well-known pathogenic role in chronic inflammatory disorders, are very rare in the inflammatory sites remains unclear. We demonstrate that human Th17 cells exhibit low ability to proliferate and to produce the T cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2), in response to combined CD3 and CD28 stimulation. This was due to the upregulated expression of IL-4-induced gene 1 (IL4I1) mRNA, a secreted L-phenylalanine oxidase, which associated with a decrease in CD3ζ chain expression and consequent abnormalities in the molecular pathway that allows IL-2 production and cell proliferation. High IL4I1 mRNA expression was detectable in Th17 cell precursors and was strictly dependent on Th17 cell master gene, the retinoid acid related orphan receptor (RORC). Th17 cells also exhibited RORC-dependent CD28 hyperexpression and the ability to produce IL-17A after CD28 stimulation without CD3 triggering. Our findings suggest that the rarity of human Th17 cells in inflamed tissues results from RORC-dependent mechanisms limiting their expansion.

  19. Application of Cathodoluminescence in Analyzing Mold Flux Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Elizabeth; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Frazee, Michael; Sutcliffe, Neil; O'Malley, Ronald J.

    Mold fluxes are used in continuous casting of steel to control heat transfer from the steel shell to the copper mold based on their structure and properties. Structures observed in mold flux film samples extracted from conventional and thin slab continuous casters at the end of a cast were examined using cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging in conjunction with XRD and SEM/EDS analysis. Glassy and crystalline structures in the flux films varied greatly depending on sampling location in the mold, distance from the mold wall and the mold flux being examined. Temperature data collected from thermocouple arrays in a thin slab funnel mold indicated sawtooth temperature fluctuations in the lower area of the funnel region, presumably due to cyclic fracture and regrowth of the mold flux crystalline layer in that region of the mold. The temperature observations correlate well with the structures observed in the flux film samples from the region. CL microscopy clearly distinguishes glassy regions from regions with devitrified and dendritic crystal growth, as well as continuous and fractured crystallite layers and cuspidine and nepheline phases that are present. The technique also highlights small variations in Mn oxide content in the glassy region of the flux that results from exchange reactions with the steel, making flow lines in the previously liquid portion of the flux film clearly visible. The benefits of applying cathodoluminescence imaging to the analysis of mold flux films in continuous casting are discussed.

  20. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  1. Lenalidomide: a review of its use in patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome associated with 5q chromosome deletion.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yahiya Y; Scott, Lesley J

    2013-07-01

    Lenalidomide (Revlimid(®)), a thalidomide analogue, is an orally administered second generation immunomodulator with anti-angiogenic, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and pro-erythropoietic properties. It is approved for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to International Prognostic Scoring System low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with either chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)] with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities (US, Japan and Switzerland etc.), or with an isolated del(5q) cytogenetic abnormality when other therapeutic options are insufficient or inadequate (EU) [featured indication]. In a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, registrational trial (MDS-004; n = 205) in this patient population, a significantly higher proportion of lenalidomide recipients than placebo recipients achieved red blood cell transfusion independence for ≥26 consecutive weeks (primary endpoint for efficacy) and cytogenetic responses. The erythroid response to lenalidomide was accompanied by an increase in the haemoglobin levels. These efficacy outcomes are generally consistent with those seen in an earlier noncomparative registrational trial (MDS-003; n = 148). In MDS-004, lenalidomide also significantly improved health-related quality of life compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Retrospective analyses that compared outcomes between lenalidomide-treated patients with low- or intermediate-1-risk del(5q) MDS and multicentre registry cohorts showed that lenalidomide treatment did not appear to increase the risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. Lenalidomide had a manageable safety profile in the registrational trials, with ≤20 % of patients discontinuing treatment because of adverse events. The most common adverse events (incidence ≥20 %) occurring in lenalidomide recipients were thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which were generally managed by dosage reductions and/or interruptions, and

  2. Possible involvement of CD10 in the development of endometriosis due to its inhibitory effects on CD44-dependent cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Akira; Kotani, Tomomi; Goto, Maki; Kobayashi, Hiroharu; Takikawa, Sachiko; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tomoko; Kondo, Mika; Bayasula; Nagatomo, Yoshinari; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    A reduced response to progesterone in the eutopic endometrium with endometriosis and in endometriotic tissues is considered to be the underlying factor for endometriosis. CD10 is known to be expressed by endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells and may be induced by progestins, although the function of CD10 is not fully revealed in endometrial or endometriotic tissues. In the current study, the expression of CD10 was significantly increased by treatment of the cells with progesterone, 17β-estradiol, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the endometrial stromal cells. On the other hand, the expression of CD10 following treatment with progesterone, 17β-estradiol, and dibutyryl cAMP was not significantly increased in endometriotic stromal cells. The adhesion assay for endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells to hyaluronan using 5- or 6-(N-succinimidyloxycarbonyl)-fluorescein 3', 6'-diacetate-labeled cells demonstrated that the CD44-dependent adhesion of stromal cells was inhibited by CD10. As far as the induction of CD10 is concerned, the effect of progesterone was different between endometrial stromal cells and endometriotic stromal cells. CD10 might be involved in the development of endometriosis due to its influence on CD44-dependent cell adhesion.

  3. PIP2-dependent coupling is prominent in Kv7.1 due to weakened interactions between S4-S5 and S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimova, Marina A.; Zaydman, Mark A.; Cui, Jianmin; Tarek, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Among critical aspects of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels' functioning is the effective communication between their two composing domains, the voltage sensor (VSD) and the pore. This communication, called coupling, might be transmitted directly through interactions between these domains and, as recently proposed, indirectly through interactions with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a minor lipid of the inner plasma membrane leaflet. Here, we show how the two components of coupling, mediated by protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, both contribute in the Kv7.1 functioning. On the one hand, using molecular dynamics simulations, we identified a Kv7.1 PIP2 binding site that involves residues playing a key role in PIP2-dependent coupling. On the other hand, combined theoretical and experimental approaches have shown that the direct interaction between the segments of the VSD (S4-S5) and the pore (S6) is weakened by electrostatic repulsion. Finally, we conclude that due to weakened protein-protein interactions, the PIP2-dependent coupling is especially prominent in Kv7.1.

  4. O(2)-dependent K(+) fluxes in trout red blood cells: the nature of O(2) sensing revealed by the O(2) affinity, cooperativity and pH dependence of transport.

    PubMed

    Berenbrink, M; Völkel, S; Heisler, N; Nikinmaa, M

    2000-07-01

    The effects of pH and O(2) tension on the isotonic ouabain-resistant K(+) (Rb+) flux pathway and on haemoglobin O2 binding were studied in trout red blood cells (RBCs) in order to test for a direct effect of haemoglobin O(2) saturation on K(+) transport across the RBC membrane. At pH values corresponding to in vivo control arterial plasma pH and higher, elevation of the O(2) partial pressure (PO(2)) from 7.8 to 157 mmHg increased unidirectional K(+) influx across the RBC membrane several-fold. At lower extracellular pH values, stimulation of K(+) influx by O(2) was depressed, exhibiting an apparent pK(a) (pK'(a)) for the process of 8.0. Under similar conditions the pK'(a) for acid-induced deoxygenation of haemoglobin (Hb) was 7.3. When trout RBCs were exposed to PO(2) values between 0 and 747 mmHg, O(2) equilibrium curves typical of Hb O(2) saturation were also obtained for K(+) influx and efflux. However, at pH 7.9, the PO(2) for half-maximal K(+) efflux and K(+) influx (P50) was about 8- to 12-fold higher than the P(50) for Hb-O(2) binding. While K(+) influx and efflux stimulation by O(2) was essentially non-cooperative, Hb-O(2) equilibrium curves were distinctly sigmoidal (Hill parameters close to 1 and 3, respectively). O(2)-stimulated K(+) influx and efflux were strongly pH dependent. When the definition of the Bohr factor for respiratory pigments (Phi = delta logP50 x delta pH(-1)) was extended to the effect of pH on O(2)-dependent K(+) influx and efflux, extracellular Bohr factors (Phi(o) of -2.00 and -2.06 were obtained, values much higher than that for Hb (Phi(o) = -0.49). The results of this study are consistent with an O(2) sensing mechanism differing markedly in affinity and cooperativity of O(2) binding, as well as in pH sensitivity, from bulk Hb.

  5. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  6. Topological A-type models with flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojevic, Vid

    2008-05-01

    We study deformations of the A-model in the presence of fluxes, by which we mean rank-three tensors with antisymmetrized upper/lower indices, using the AKSZ construction. There are two natural deformations of the A-model in the AKSZ language: 1) the Zucchini model, which can be defined on a generalized complex manifold and reduces to the A-model when the generalized complex structure comes from a symplectic structure, and 2) a topological membrane model, which naturally accommodates fluxes, and reduces to the Zucchini model on the boundary of the membrane when the fluxes are turned off. We show that the fluxes are related to deformations of the Courant bracket which generalize the twist by a closed 3-from H, in the sense that satisfying the AKSZ master equation implies precisely the integrability conditions for an almost generalized complex structure with respect to the deformed Courant bracket. In addition, the master equation imposes conditions on the fluxes that generalize dH = 0. The membrane model can be defined on a large class of U(m)- and U(m) × U(m)-structure manifolds relevant for string theory, including geometries inspired by (1, 1) supersymmetric σ-models with additional supersymmetries due to almost complex (but not necessarily complex) structures in the target space. In addition we show that the model can be defined on three particular half-flat manifolds related to the Iwasawa manifold. When only the closed 3-form flux is turned on it is possible to obtain a topological string model, which we do for the case of a Calabi-Yau. We argue that deformations from the standard A-model are due to the choice of gauge fixing fermion, rather than a flux deformation of the AKSZ action. The particularly interesting cases arise when the fermion depends on auxiliary fields, the simplest possibility being due to the (2, 0)+(0, 2) component of a non-trivial b-field. The model is generically no longer evaluated on holomorphic maps and defines new topological

  7. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  8. Turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows

    PubMed

    Sancho

    2000-02-01

    We show in the framework of the stochastic calculus the existence of turbulent crossed fluxes in incompressible flows. Physically, these fluxes are related to the dependence of the phenomenological coefficients on the temperature and concentration variables.

  9. Mexiletine-responsive erythromelalgia due to a new Na(v)1.7 mutation showing use-dependent current fall-off.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Sung; Zhang, Lili; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Han, Chongyang; Tyrrell, Lynda; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Yang, Yong; Waxman, Stephen G

    2009-04-01

    Inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), characterized by episodic burning pain and erythema of the extremities, is produced by gain-of-function mutations in sodium channel Na(v)1.7, which is preferentially expressed in nociceptive and sympathetic neurons. Most patients do not respond to pharmacotherapy, although occasional reports document patients as showing partial relief with lidocaine or mexiletine. A 7-year-old girl, with a two-year history of symmetric burning pain and erythema in her hands and feet, was diagnosed with erythromelalgia. Treatment with mexiletine reduced the number and severity of pain episodes. We report here a new IEM Na(v)1.7 mutation in this patient, and its response to mexiletine. SCN9A exons from the proband were amplified and sequenced. We identified a single nucleotide substitution (T2616G) in exon 15, not present in 200 ethnically-matched control alleles, which substitutes valine 872 by glycine (V872G) within DII/S5. Whole-cell patch-clamp analysis of wild-type and mutant Na(v)1.7 channels in mammalian cells show that V872G shifts activation by -10 mV, slows deactivation, and generates larger ramp currents. We observed a stronger use-dependent fall-off in current following exposure to mexiletine for V872G compared to wild-type channels. These observations suggest that some patients with IEM may show a favorable response to mexiletine due to a use-dependent effect on mutant Na(v)1.7 channels. Continued relief from pain, even after mexiletine was discontinued in this patient, might suggest that early treatment may slow the progression of the disease.

  10. Scale - dependent effects on the surface energy fluxes modelling in Iberian oak-savanna (dehesa) using the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Ana; Nieto, Hector; Gómez-Giráldez, Pedro; González-Dugo, Maria P.

    2017-04-01

    Iberian semi-arid oak-savannas (dehesas) are complex ecosystems where bare soil and different layers of vegetation (grass/scrubs/trees) are distributed following heterogeneous patterns. An assumption of the two source energy balance models is that the effective source/sink for turbulent flux exchange at the surface(canopy/soil) is described by a bulk radiometric surface temperature (TRAD) and resistance. Therefore, the agreement of the TRAD used as an input to these models, with the "bulk" concept (determined by the spatial resolution), will influence the final energy fluxes estimations. The representativeness of the field-ground measurements, the spatial resolution of sensors, the averaging and the up-scaling of TRAD and the ecosystem vegetation parameters, will be crucial for the precision of the results, more than in homogeneous landscapes. The aim of this study is to analyze the scale-effects derived from TSEB application, comparing the observed energy fluxes and the estimated ones obtained from multiple TRAD data sources of different nature: tree/grass/soil ground-based observations, tower footprint, hyperspectral reflectance imagery acquired with an airborne platform, medium (Landsat) and low spatial resolution satellite data (Sentinel 3, MODIS), and how the up-scaling of the vegetation structural characteristics contribute to the discrepancies. The study area selected for this purpose is a dehesa site (Santa Clotilde, Cordoba), which present canopy mosaics (oak, annual grasses and bushes) differing in phenology, physiology and functioning, and bare soil, all of them influencing the turbulent and radiative exchanges.

  11. Particle-gas temperature differentials resulting from time-dependent radiative-conductive heat flux divergences in the tenuous dust-laden atmosphere of mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaire, Paul J., Jr.

    For an aerosol atmosphere, disparities in gas temperature,g, and particle temperature,g, may arise over the diurnal cycle. A radiative-conductive- convective heat transfer simulation of the dusty atmosphere of Mars was developed to quantify the temporal and spatial character of the temperature difference (p -g). This program computed thermal energy fluxes in the temporal and vertical domains in a 51-layer, vertically inhomogeneous , plane-parallel model atmosphere, with a 30 layer simulated ground structure. Observations from Mariner and Viking spacecraft were used in conjunction with other research findings to provide model input and set the boundary and initial conditions for the simulation. Temperature fields within the atmosphere were inferred from radiative-conductive-convective flux fields by means of enthalpy rate principles, while the radiation laws of Kirchoff and Planck were applied to the flux fields to determine aerosol temperatures. Several independent methods of validation were sucessfully applied to the model output, including comparisons with distinct spacecraft observations and the separate computation of dust heating effects outside the model.

  12. Neutron fluxes in radiotherapy rooms.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, S; Foglio Para, A; Maggioni, B

    1993-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the neutron flux, originated in an electron accelerator therapy room when energies above the threshold of (y,n) and (e,e'n) reactions are employed, is physically due to a direct flux, coming from the accelerator head, and to a flux diffused from the walls. In this work, the flux is described to a high degree of approximation by a set of functions whose spatial behavior is univocally determined by the angular distributions of the neutrons emitted from the shield of the accelerator head and diffused from the walls. The analytical results are verified with an extended series of Monte Carlo simulations obtained with the MCNP code.

  13. Ocean Winds and Turbulent Air-Sea Fluxes Inferred From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.; Gille, Sarah T.; Jackson, Daren L.; Roberts, J. Brent; Wick, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Air-sea turbulent fluxes determine the exchange of momentum, heat, freshwater, and gas between the atmosphere and ocean. These exchange processes are critical to a broad range of research questions spanning length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from hours to decades. Examples are discussed (section 2). The estimation of surface turbulent fluxes from satellite is challenging and fraught with considerable errors (section 3); however, recent developments in retrievals (section 3) will greatly reduce these errors. Goals for the future observing system are summarized in section 4. Surface fluxes are defined as the rate per unit area at which something (e.g., momentum, energy, moisture, or CO Z ) is transferred across the air/sea interface. Wind- and buoyancy-driven surface fluxes are called surface turbulent fluxes because the mixing and transport are due to turbulence. Examples of nonturbulent processes are radiative fluxes (e.g., solar radiation) and precipitation (Schmitt et al., 2010). Turbulent fluxes are strongly dependent on wind speed; therefore, observations of wind speed are critical for the calculation of all turbulent surface fluxes. Wind stress, the vertical transport of horizontal momentum, also depends on wind direction. Stress is very important for many ocean processes, including upper ocean currents (Dohan and Maximenko, 2010) and deep ocean currents (Lee et al., 2010). On short time scales, this horizontal transport is usually small compared to surface fluxes. For long-term processes, transport can be very important but again is usually small compared to surface fluxes.

  14. A MODEL OF CORONAL STREAMERS WITH UNDERLYING FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Cottaar, M.; Fan, Y.

    2009-10-10

    We present global two-dimensional axisymmetric isothermal MHD simulations of the dynamic evolution of a coronal helmet streamer, driven at the lower boundary by the emergence of a twisted flux rope. By varying both the detached toroidal and poloidal fluxes emerged into the corona, but fixing the normal flux distribution at the surface at the end of the emergence, we obtain solutions that either settle to a new steady state of a stable helmet streamer containing a flux rope, or result in a disruption of the helmet with the underlying flux rope being expelled in a coronal mass ejection (CME)-like eruption. In all of the cases studied, we find that the transition from a stable to an eruptive state takes place at a magnetic energy that is very close to the Aly open field energy. Furthermore, we find that the transition from a stable to an eruptive end state does not occur at a single critical value of the total relative magnetic helicity, but depends on the profile of the underlying flux rope. Cases where the detached flux rope contains a higher amount of self-helicity, i.e., higher internal twist or detached poloidal flux, are found to become eruptive at a significantly lower total helicity. For the eruptive cases, the detached flux rope after emergence first rises quasi-statically due to a gradual opening of the field lines at the edge of the streamer and a slow reconnection below the flux rope, which continues to slowly increase the amount of the detached flux. This decreases the downward magnetic tension on the flux rope. The dynamic eruption is initiated when the magnetic pressure gradient no longer decreases fast enough to balance the decrease in the magnetic tension. Later rapid reconnections below the flux rope are important for accelerating the flux rope. For the stable helmets, we find that no cavities are formed due to the simplifying assumption of isothermal energetics and the uniform density lower boundary condition. However during the eruption we see the

  15. Time-dependent inhibition of peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerases by FK506 is probably due to cis-trans isomerization of the inhibitor's imide bond.

    PubMed Central

    Zarnt, T; Lang, K; Burtscher, H; Fischer, G

    1995-01-01

    Free in solution, the immunosuppressive compounds cyclosporin A (CsA), FK506, ascomycin and rapamycin are present in many solvents in various slowly interconverting conformations. Together with their cellular receptor proteins, cyclophilin (CyP) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP), however, these inhibitors have been shown to have a homogeneous conformation. The existence of a slow cis-trans interconversion of an imidic bond in the inhibitor molecule during the course of the formation of the CsA-CyP18cy complex (where CyP18cy is human 18 kDa cytosolic CyP) prompted us to investigate the reaction of the peptidomacrolides FK506, ascomycin and rapamycin with two specific binding-proteins in more detail. Since formation of the FK506-FKBP complex results in the inhibition of the peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity of the binding protein, we used the enzyme's decrease in enzymic activity to monitor binding of the inhibitors to their enzyme targets. For FK506, the kinetics of inhibition of human 12 kDa cytosolic FKBP (FKBP12cy) were clearly dependent on time. Subsequent to a rapid inactivation reaction, not resolved in its kinetics due to manual mixing, a slow dominant first-order inactivation process with a relaxation time of 1163 s at 10 degrees C was observed. Concomitantly the Ki value of the slow phase dropped 2.6-fold within the first 60 min of incubation. Using the FKBP12cy homologue 25 kDa membrane FKBP (FKBP25mem), a bacterial peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase, the rate and amplitudes of the inhibition reactions were very similar to FKBP12cy. On the other hand, the kinetics and amplitudes of the inhibition of FKBP12cy varied significantly if rapamycin was used as an inhibitor instead of FK 506. Owing to reduced conformation transition in rapamycin upon binding to FKBP12cy, the slow phase during inhibition was significantly decreased in amplitude. A likely reason for this became apparent when the activation-enthalpy and the pH-dependence of the rate

  16. Time-dependent inhibition of peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerases by FK506 is probably due to cis-trans isomerization of the inhibitor's imide bond.

    PubMed

    Zarnt, T; Lang, K; Burtscher, H; Fischer, G

    1995-01-01

    Free in solution, the immunosuppressive compounds cyclosporin A (CsA), FK506, ascomycin and rapamycin are present in many solvents in various slowly interconverting conformations. Together with their cellular receptor proteins, cyclophilin (CyP) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP), however, these inhibitors have been shown to have a homogeneous conformation. The existence of a slow cis-trans interconversion of an imidic bond in the inhibitor molecule during the course of the formation of the CsA-CyP18cy complex (where CyP18cy is human 18 kDa cytosolic CyP) prompted us to investigate the reaction of the peptidomacrolides FK506, ascomycin and rapamycin with two specific binding-proteins in more detail. Since formation of the FK506-FKBP complex results in the inhibition of the peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity of the binding protein, we used the enzyme's decrease in enzymic activity to monitor binding of the inhibitors to their enzyme targets. For FK506, the kinetics of inhibition of human 12 kDa cytosolic FKBP (FKBP12cy) were clearly dependent on time. Subsequent to a rapid inactivation reaction, not resolved in its kinetics due to manual mixing, a slow dominant first-order inactivation process with a relaxation time of 1163 s at 10 degrees C was observed. Concomitantly the Ki value of the slow phase dropped 2.6-fold within the first 60 min of incubation. Using the FKBP12cy homologue 25 kDa membrane FKBP (FKBP25mem), a bacterial peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerase, the rate and amplitudes of the inhibition reactions were very similar to FKBP12cy. On the other hand, the kinetics and amplitudes of the inhibition of FKBP12cy varied significantly if rapamycin was used as an inhibitor instead of FK 506. Owing to reduced conformation transition in rapamycin upon binding to FKBP12cy, the slow phase during inhibition was significantly decreased in amplitude. A likely reason for this became apparent when the activation-enthalpy and the pH-dependence of the rate

  17. Novel therapy for pyridoxine dependent epilepsy due to ALDH7A1 genetic defect: L-arginine supplementation alternative to lysine-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Cordeiro, Dawn; Cruz, Vivian; Hyland, Keith; Struys, Eduard A; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Mamak, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene (PDE-ALDH7A1) is caused by α-aminoadipic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency in the lysine pathway resulting in the accumulation of α-aminoadipic acid semialdehyde (α-AASA). Classical presentation is neonatal intractable seizures with a dramatic response to pyridoxine. Pyridoxine therapy does not prevent developmental delays in the majority of the patients. We hypothesized that L-arginine supplementation will decrease accumulation of α-AASA by competitive inhibition of lysine transport into the central nervous system and improve neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive functions in PDE-ALDH7A1. A 12-year-old male with PDE-ALDH7A1 was treated with l-arginine supplementation as an innovative therapy. Treatment outcome was monitored by cerebral-spinal-fluid (CSF) α-AASA measurements at baseline, 6th and 12th months of therapy. Neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline and 12th months of therapy. L-arginine therapy was well tolerated without side effects. CSF α-AASA was decreased 57% at 12th months of therapy. Neuropsychological assessments revealed improvements in general abilities index from 108 to 116 and improvements in verbal and motor functioning at 12th months of therapy. The short-term treatment outcome of this novel L-arginine supplementation therapy for PDE-ALDH7A1 was successful for biochemical and neurocognitive improvements. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-8 induction due to diffusely adherent Escherichia coli possessing Afa/Dr genes depends on flagella and epithelial Toll-like receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    DAEC is considered potentially diarrheagenic. For diffuse adhesion, the role of the Afa, which was originally identified as a uropathogenic factor, is now understood. However, the role of DAEC in diarrheal disease remains controversial because DAEC is often isolated not only from patients but also from healthy individuals. Previously, we suggested that Afa/Dr DAEC, which can induce high levels of IL-8 secretion in cultures of human carcinoma epithelial cells (HEp-2, Caco-2), is enterovirulent. In the present study, we examined whether IL-8 secretion induced by certain Afa/Dr DAEC strains was primarily due to flagella via TLR5. All IL-8 high-inducing strains were highly motile in swarming tests. Partially purified flagella induced IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-8 induction was inhibited by small-interfering RNA against TLR5 or by treating flagella with disialoganglioside-GD1a, a TLR5 blocker. TLR5 is reportedly located on the basolateral side of intestinal epithelia; flagella should not have reached TLR5 from the apical side beyond tight junctions. Reduction in the number of intracellular organisms by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, did not reduce IL-8 secretion. Afa/Dr DAEC seemed to loosen the tight junctions because it quickly reduced transepithelial electrical resistance after infection. Decreased resistance led to increased IL-8 production. In conclusion, diffuse adhesion itself is insufficient to induce high levels of IL-8, and simultaneous stimulation by flagella via TLR5 is likely required for additional induction. Clinically, high motility may be a candidate criterion for predicting the ability of Afa/Dr DAEC strains to induce higher levels of IL-8 secretion.

  19. Rate of erosion of dayside magnetic flux based on a quantitative study of the dependence of polar cusp latitude on the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    In a consideration of only those periods when the delay time from the interplanetary observing position to the magnetosphere is less than 5 minutes, it is found that, irrespective of substorm activity: (1) The 45 minute average value of interplanetary B(z) predicts the latitudes of the poleward and equatorward boundaries of polar cusp electron precipitation with rms errors of 1.34 deg and 1.16 deg respectively; (2) Both boundaries more equatorward by about 5 deg as B(z) varies from 1 to -6 gammas, the cusp remaining about 40 deg wide; (3) The amount of flux added to the polar cap is about 9.2 percent of the total southward flux impingent on the magnetosphere in the previous 45 minutes; (4) As B(z) becomes more positive, the equatorward boundary moves only slightly more poleward (1/2 deg between B(z) = 2 gammas and B(z) = 6 gammas, while the poleward boundary moves significantly toward higher latitudes, resulting in a cusp approximately 7 deg wide for B(z) = 6 gammas.

  20. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  1. Scale - dependent effects on the surface energy fluxes modelling in heterogeneous/complex ecosystems using the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Andreu, A.; Verfaillie, J. G.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Hülsmann, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    A key assumption of two source energy balance models is that the effective source/sink for turbulent flux exchange at the surface and the entire canopy/soil is described by a bulk surface/canopy/soil temperature and resistance. Therefore, the spatial resolution of radiometric surface/canopy/soil temperature (TRAD) used as an input to these models and how well they agreed with this "bulk" concept influence the final estimations. In complex ecosystems, with more than two layers of vegetation, bare soil and heterogeneous distribution patterns, the representativeness of the sensor average temperature and the up-scaling of the ecosystem structural vegetation characteristics will be more crucial for the precision of the results than in more homogeneous landscapes. The aim of this study is to analyze the scale-effects derived from TSEB application, comparing the observed energy fluxes and the estimated ones obtained from multiple TRAD data sources of different nature (tree/grass/soil ground-based observations, tower footprint and low and medium satellite TRAD) and how the up-scaling of the vegetation characteristics contribute to the discrepancies. The area selected for this purpose is a savanna type FLUXNET site (Tonzi ranch, CA, US). These ecosystems present canopy mosaics that differ in phenology, physiology and functioning, and bare soil, all of them influencing the turbulent and radiative exchanges.

  2. A highly salt-dependent enthalpy change for Escherichia coli SSB protein-nucleic acid binding due to ion-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Lohman, T M; Overman, L B; Ferrari, M E; Kozlov, A G

    1996-04-23

    We have examined the linkage between salt concentration and temperature for the equilibrium binding of the tetrameric Escherichia coli single-stranded binding (SSB) protein to three single-stranded nucleic acids, poly(U), dA(pA)69, and dT(pT)69, by van't Hoff analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). For SSB binding to poly(U) in its (SSB)65 mode, the equilibrium association constant, Kobs, decreases with increasing salt concentration at all temperatures examined, and binding is enthalpy-drive; however, the value of [symbol see text] log Kobs/ [symbol see text] log [NaCl] is highly temperature- dependent, varying from -9.3 +/- 0.3 at 10 degrees C to -5.1 +/- 0.4 at 37 degrees C. This indicates that delta Hobs for SSB-poly(U) binding is strongly dependent on [NaCl]; based on van't Hoff analyses, delta Hobs varies from -57 +/- 3 kcal/mol at 0.18 M NaCl to -34 +/- 3 kcal/mol at 042 M NaCl ([symbol see text] delta Hobs/[symbol see text] log [NaCl] = 60 +/- 5 kcal/mol). However, [symbol see text] delta Hobs/[symbol see text] log [NaF] is independent of temperature (25-37 degrees C), indicating that the effect of [NaCl] on delta Hobs is due primarily to Cl-. Similar effects were also observed for SSB binding to dA(pA)69. We also measured delta Hobs and its dependence on [NaCl] for SSB binding dT(pT)69 by ITC and find delta Hobs = -144 +/- 4 kcal/mol (0.175 M NaCl, pH 8.1, 25 degrees C) and [symbol see text] delta Hobs/ [symbol see text] log [NaCl] = 46 +/- 2 kcal/ mol (0.175-2.0 M NaCl). These large effects of [NaCl] on delta Hobs appear to result, at least partly, from the release of preferentially bound Cl- from SSB protein upon binding nucleic acid, with the release of Cl- being linked to a process with delta H > > 0. Effects of salt concentration on delta Hobs are not observed for processes in which only monovalent cations are released from the nucleic acid, presumably since Na+ of K+ are bound to linear nucleic acids as delocalized, fully hydrated cations

  3. Angular dependence of the flux pinning for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, H.E.; Wu, J.M.; Yang, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetic relaxation for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (YBCO/PBCO) superlattice was measured under magnetic field to investigate the flux pinning. The applied magnetic field was 0.1 Tesla. The direction of the applied magnetic field makes an angle of 10{degrees}, 20{degrees}, 30{degrees}, 45{degrees}... with the c-axis of YBCO/PBCO superlattice. Based on the Anderson-Kim model the authors derive the pinning energy of this film. The pinning energy is angular independent. The results are discussed.

  4. Surface Turbulent Fluxes Over Pack Ice Inferred from TOVS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, R. W.; Francis, J. A.; Persson, P. O. G.; Rothrock, D. A.; Schweiger, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A one-dimensional, atmospheric boundary layer model is coupled to a thermodynamic ice model to estimate the surface turbulent fluxes over thick sea ice. The principal forcing parameters in this time-dependent model are the air temperature, humidity, and wind speed at a specified level (either at 2 m or at 850 mb) and the downwelling surface radiative fluxes. The free parameters. are the air temperature, humidity, and wind speed profiles below the specified level, the surface skin temperature, the ice temperature profile, and the surface turbulent fluxes. The goal is to determine how well we can estimate the turbulent surface heat and momentum fluxes using forcing parameters from atmospheric temperatures and radiative fluxes retrieved from the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data. Meteorological observations from the Lead Experiment (LeadEx, April 1992) ice camp are used to validate turbulent fluxes computed with the surface observations and the results are used to compare with estimates based on radio-sonde observations or with estimates based on TOVS data. We find that the TOVS-based estimates of the stress are significantly more accurate than those found with a constant geostrophic drag coefficient, with a root-mean-square error about half as large. This improvement is due to stratification effects included in the boundary layer model. The errors in the sensible heat flux estimates, however, are large compared to the small mean values observed during the field experiment.

  5. Towards Understanding the Polymerization Process in Bitumen Bio-Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Niczke, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Bitumen is a commonly used material for road construction. According to environmental regulations, vegetable-based materials are applied for binder modification. Fluxed road bitumen containing a bio-flux oxidation product increases the consistency over time. The efficiency of crosslinking depends on the number of double bonds and their position in the aliphatic chain of fatty acid. The main goal of this paper was to examine the structural changes taking place during hardening bitumen with bio-flux additives. Two types of road bitumens fluxed with two different oxidized methyl esters of rapeseed oil were used in this study. Various chemical and rheological tests were applied for the fluxed-bitumen at different stages of oxygen exposure. The oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl ester reduced the iodine amount by about 10%–30%. Hardening of the fluxed bitumen generally results in an increase of the resins content and a reduction of the aromatics and asphaltenes. In the temperature range of 0 °C to 40 °C, bio-flux results with a much higher increase in the phase angle than in temperatures above 40 °C in the bitumen binder. The increase in the proportion of the viscous component in the low and medium binder temperature is favorable due to the potential improvement of the fatigue resistance of the asphalt mixture with such binders. PMID:28891929

  6. Catastrophe of Coronal Magnetic Flux Ropes Caused by Photospheric Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. Q.; Jiang, Y. W.

    2001-11-01

    Using a 2.5-D, time-dependent ideal MHD model in Cartesian coordinates, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate the equilibrium and evolution properties of a magnetic configuration that consists of a coronal magnetic flux rope and a partly open photospheric background field, which is equivalent to that produced by a two-patch magnetic source on the photospheric surface. The axial and annular magnetic fluxes of the flux rope are given and fixed. The global magnetic configuration evolves in response to three types of changes of the background field: decreasing of the distance between the two sources, shrinking of the size of each source, and increasing of the shear in the closed component of the background field. As a result, the geometrical parameters of the flux rope, i.e. the height of the rope axis, the half-width of the rope and the length of the vertical current sheet below the rope, change due to the variation of the background field. It is shown that for a given coronal magnetic flux rope in a partly open background field, the variation of the geometrical parameters of the flux rope displays a catastrophic behavior, namely, there exists a critical point for each case, at which an infinitesimal change of the background field leads to a loss of equilibrium, and thus a jump of the flux rope. The implication of such a catastrophe in solar active phenomena is briefly discussed.

  7. Towards Understanding the Polymerization Process in Bitumen Bio-Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Król, Jan B; Niczke, Łukasz; Kowalski, Karol J

    2017-09-09

    Bitumen is a commonly used material for road construction. According to environmental regulations, vegetable-based materials are applied for binder modification. Fluxed road bitumen containing a bio-flux oxidation product increases the consistency over time. The efficiency of crosslinking depends on the number of double bonds and their position in the aliphatic chain of fatty acid. The main goal of this paper was to examine the structural changes taking place during hardening bitumen with bio-flux additives. Two types of road bitumens fluxed with two different oxidized methyl esters of rapeseed oil were used in this study. Various chemical and rheological tests were applied for the fluxed-bitumen at different stages of oxygen exposure. The oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl ester reduced the iodine amount by about 10%-30%. Hardening of the fluxed bitumen generally results in an increase of the resins content and a reduction of the aromatics and asphaltenes. In the temperature range of 0 °C to 40 °C, bio-flux results with a much higher increase in the phase angle than in temperatures above 40 °C in the bitumen binder. The increase in the proportion of the viscous component in the low and medium binder temperature is favorable due to the potential improvement of the fatigue resistance of the asphalt mixture with such binders.

  8. Study of the rotational-level and temperature dependence of the quenching rate of OH fluorescence due to collisions with water molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of the OH radical as an intermediate in many combustion reactions and in atmospheric photochemistry has led many researchers to use it as a diagnostic tool in these processes. The amount of data that has been acquired over the years for this radical is quite considerable. However, the quenching rate of OH with water molecules as a function of temperature and the rotational level of the excited state is not very well understood. The motivation of the studies undertaken is to bridge the gap between the low temperature measurements and the high temperature ones reported in the literature. The technique generally employed in these diagnostics is laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), through which rotational state selective excitation of the radical is possible. Furthermore, in a combustion medium, water is produced in abundance so that knowledge of the quenching rate of OH due to water molecules plays a crucial role in interpreting the data. In general, the precursor to an understanding of the collisional quenching rates of OH involves a characterization of the mode in which the radical is produced; the resulting rotational and translational distribution, followed by a measurement of the OH temperature; and ultimately obtaining the rate constants from the pressure dependence of the fluorescence signal. The experimental implementation of these measurements therefore involved, as a first step, the production of the OH radicals in a microwave discharge cell using water vapor as the source, wherein a hydrogen atom is abstracted from H2O. The second step involved the absorption of photons from the frequency-doubled output of a pulsed amplified, single-frequency cw ring dye laser. By tuning the laser to the peak of the transition and observing the fluorescence decay after the laser pulse, the lifetime of the OH in a particular rotational electronic state was determined (tau = 1.4 microseconds for Q(sub 1)(3)). Knowledge of this parameter led to a determination of

  9. Neutrino flux from observable Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Guetta, D.; Waxman, E.

    2000-12-01

    We derive the flux and spectrum of neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), and the corresponding detection rate in a cubic-km neutrino detector, within the frame work of the Internal Shock Model. In this model, GRBs are produced by internal shocks in a highly relativistic wind, and high energy neutrinos result from photo-meson interactions of wind protons with gamma-ray photons. We show that the predicted neutrino flux is only weakly dependent on unknown wind parameters, due to the fact that observed GRB characteristics require these parameters to be strongly correlated. Thus, the predicted neutrino luminosity does not vary strongly from burst to burst. Several tens of events per year, correlated with GRBs, are expected to be detected in a cubic-km detector.

  10. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  11. Effects of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance on Soybean : V. The Dependence of Plant Sensitivity on the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density during and after Leaf Expansion.

    PubMed

    Mirecki, R M; Teramura, A H

    1984-03-01

    Soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Essex) were grown in a green-house, and the first trifoliate leaf was either allowed to expand under a high photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) (1.4 millimoles per square meter per second) or a low PPFD (0.8 millimoles per square meter per second). After full leaf expansion, plants from each treatment were placed into a factorial design experiment with two levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (0 and 80 milliwatts per square meter biologically effective UV-B) and two levels of concomitant PPFD (0.8 and 1.4 millimoles per square meter per second) resulting in a total of eight treatments. Measurements of net photosynthesis and the associated diffusion conductances, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, chlorophyll and flavonoid concentrations, and leaf anatomy were examined for all treatments. Leaves expanded in the high PPFD were unaffected by UV-B radiation while those expanded in the low PPFD were sensitive to UV-B-induced damage. Likewise, plants which were UV-B irradiated concomitantly with the high PPFD were resistant to UV-B damage, while plants irradiated under the low PPFD were sensitive. The results of this study indicate that both anatomical/morphological and physiological/biochemical factors contribute toward plant sensitivity to UV-B radiation.

  12. The epithelial polarity regulator LGALS9/galectin-9 induces fatal frustrated autophagy in KRAS mutant colon carcinoma that depends on elevated basal autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Wei, Yunwei; van Ginkel, Robert J; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Niki, Toshiro; Nishi, Nozomu; Zhou, Jin; Pouwels, Simon D; Samplonius, Douwe F; Nijman, Hans W; Eggleton, Paul; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) in colorectal cancer (CRC) confers resistance to both chemotherapy and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-targeted therapy. We uncovered that KRAS mutant (KRASmut) CRC is uniquely sensitive to treatment with recombinant LGALS9/Galectin-9 (rLGALS9), a recently established regulator of epithelial polarity. Upon treatment of CRC cells, rLGALS9 rapidly internalizes via early- and late-endosomes and accumulates in the lysosomal compartment. Treatment with rLGALS9 is accompanied by induction of frustrated autophagy in KRASmut CRC, but not in CRC with BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) mutations (BRAFmut). In KRASmut CRC, rLGALS9 acts as a lysosomal inhibitor that inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion, leading to autophagosome accumulation, excessive lysosomal swelling and cell death. This antitumor activity of rLGALS9 directly correlates with elevated basal autophagic flux in KRASmut cancer cells. Thus, rLGALS9 has potent antitumor activity toward refractory KRASmut CRC cells that may be exploitable for therapeutic use. PMID:26086204

  13. Wind stress and heat fluxes over a Brazilian Coastal Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dourado, Marcelo; Candella, Rogério

    2017-04-01

    Coastal upwelling zones have been intensively studied in the last decades especially due to their importance to the biological cycle. The coastal upwelling system of the Cabo Frio region (east coast of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil) keeps the surface water cold during most part of the year, what induces a stable atmospheric boundary layer associated to northeast winds. The main goal of this study is to investigate the wind stress and heat fluxes exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere in that area. For this purpose, a set of hourly data meteorological and oceanographic data collected by a Wavescan metocean buoy anchored at 23o59S; 42oW, were used, as well as solar radiation and relative humidity from a terrestrial meteorological station from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (InMet). COARE 3.0 algorithm was used to calculate the latent and sensible heat fluxes. In this discussion, positive values represent fluxes towards the ocean. The average net heat flux over our study period is 88 W m-2. The reduction of the net heat flux is due to the increase of the ocean latent heat loss, although a reduction in incoming shortwave radiation and an increase in ocean long wave cooling also contributes. The latent heat is 20 times larger than the sensible heat flux, but the mean value of the latent heat flux, 62 W m-2, is half the typical value found in open ocean. The temporal variability of both sensible and latent heat fluxes reflects their dependence on wind speed and air-sea temperature differences. When upwelling events, here periods when diurnal SST is lower than 18oC, are compared with undisturbed (without upwelling) events, it can be noted the sensible heat fluxes are positives and 10 times greater in magnitude. This is related to an increment, during these upwelling events, of the air-sea temperature difference and an increasing of the wind speed. The cold waters of the upwelling increase the air-sea temperature gradient and, also, the horizontal land

  14. Computational Flux Balance Analysis Predicts that Stimulation of Energy Metabolism in Astrocytes and their Metabolic Interactions with Neurons Depend on Uptake of K(+) Rather than Glutamate.

    PubMed

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Giove, Federico; Maraviglia, Bruno; Mangia, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity involves essential functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. The importance of astrocytic functions to neuronal signaling is supported by many experiments reporting high rates of energy consumption and oxidative metabolism in these glial cells. In the brain, almost all energy is consumed by the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which hydrolyzes 1 ATP to move 3 Na(+) outside and 2 K(+) inside the cells. Astrocytes are commonly thought to be primarily involved in transmitter glutamate cycling, a mechanism that however only accounts for few % of brain energy utilization. In order to examine the participation of astrocytic energy metabolism in brain ion homeostasis, here we attempted to devise a simple stoichiometric relation linking glutamatergic neurotransmission to Na(+) and K(+) ionic currents. To this end, we took into account ion pumps and voltage/ligand-gated channels using the stoichiometry derived from available energy budget for neocortical signaling and incorporated this stoichiometric relation into a computational metabolic model of neuron-astrocyte interactions. We aimed at reproducing the experimental observations about rates of metabolic pathways obtained by (13)C-NMR spectroscopy in rodent brain. When simulated data matched experiments as well as biophysical calculations, the stoichiometry for voltage/ligand-gated Na(+) and K(+) fluxes generated by neuronal activity was close to a 1:1 relationship, and specifically 63/58 Na(+)/K(+) ions per glutamate released. We found that astrocytes are stimulated by the extracellular K(+) exiting neurons in excess of the 3/2 Na(+)/K(+) ratio underlying Na(+)/K(+) ATPase-catalyzed reaction. Analysis of correlations between neuronal and astrocytic processes indicated that astrocytic K(+) uptake, but not astrocytic Na(+)-coupled glutamate uptake, is instrumental for the establishment of neuron-astrocytic metabolic partnership. Our results emphasize the importance of K(+) in stimulating the

  15. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants.

  16. Temperature and CO2 dependency of the photosynthetic photon flux density responses of leaves of Vitis vinifera cvs. Chardonnay and Merlot grown in a hot climate.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons of the photosynthetic responses to light and temperature between related cultivars are important to understand how well matched they are to the climate where they are grown. Photosynthetic light responses at a range of leaf temperatures and two CO2 concentrations were measured on leaves of two grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) Chardonnay and Merlot vines growing in field conditions. The objective was to assess the interaction between photon flux density (PFD), leaf temperature and CO2 on photosynthesis and to compare the two cultivars. Merlot leaves maintained higher light-saturated rates of photosynthesis at all leaf temperatures compared with the Chardonnay leaves. At low temperatures, a reduced photon yield offset with a high stomatal conductance accounted for the low rates of the Chardonnay leaves. At moderate to high temperatures, photon yields, PFDs at light saturation and stomatal conductances did not account for differences between Merlot and Chardonnay leaves. At elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol(-1)) concentrations, the differences in photosynthetic performance between the cultivars were enhanced, with 30% higher light saturated rates for Merlot compared with Chardonnay leaves. Merlot berries accumulated more sugar, consistent with published data. These results demonstrate Chardonnay, unlike Merlot, appeared to be poorly matched to the hot climate. However, considering the current market and political trends, low alcoholic wines (and, thus, low sugar grapes) should be preferred. Especially in hot climates, it is always hard to obtain such kind of wines and, thus, the most interesting agronomical challenge, especially for Chardonnay vines could be interpreted in an opposite way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative characterization of spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta/BTO heterostructures due to the magnetization azimuthal angle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Christian; Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Luo, Feilong; Lew, Wen Siang

    2017-08-01

    Substantial understanding of spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal (HM)/ferromagnet (FM) heterostructures is crucial in developing spin-orbit torque (SOT) spintronics devices utilizing spin Hall and Rashba effects. Though the study of SOT effective field dependence on the out-of-plane magnetization angle has been relatively extensive, the understanding of in-plane magnetization angle dependence remains unknown. Here, we analytically propose a method to compute the SOT effective fields as a function of the in-plane magnetization angle using the harmonic Hall technique in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) structures. Two different samples with PMA, a Pt /Co /Pt /Co /Ta /BaTi O3 (BTO) test sample and a Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta reference sample, are studied using the derived formula. Our measurements reveal that only the dampinglike field of the test sample with a BTO capping layer exhibits an in-plane magnetization angle dependence, while no angular dependence is found in the reference sample. The presence of the BTO layer in the test sample, which gives rise to a Rashba effect at the interface, is ascribed as the source of the angular dependence of the dampinglike field.

  18. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  19. UVIS G280 Flux Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Flux calibration, image displacement, and spectral trace of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the HST flux standard start GD71. Accompanying direct exposures will provide the image displacement measurements and wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be derived.

  20. On Potential Vorticity Flux Vectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.; Schmidli, Jürg; Schär, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    Dynamical, rather than kinematical, considerations indicate that a generalized potential vorticity in terms of the gradient of an arbitrary scalar function requires that the potential vorticity flux vector contain a contribution due to gravity and the pressure gradient force. It is shown that such a potential vorticity flux vector has a simpler definition in terms of the gradient of the kinetic energy rather than that of a Bernoulli function. This result is valid for multicomponent fluids. Flux vectors for a salty ocean and a moist atmosphere with hydrometeors are presented.

  1. Asymptotic domination of cold relativistic MHD winds by kinetic energy flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1994-01-01

    We study the conditions which lead to the conversion of most Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux in cold, relativistic hydromagnetic winds. It is shown that plasma acceleration along a precisely radial flow is extremely inefficient due to the near cancellation of the toroidal magnetic pressure and tension forces. However, if the flux tubes in a flow diverge even slightly faster than radially, the fast magnetosonic point moves inward from infinity to a few times the light cylinder radius. Once the flow becomes supermagnetosonic, further divergence of the flux tubes beyond the fast point can accelerate the flow via the 'magnetic nozzle' effect, thereby further converting Poynting flux to kinetic energy flux. We show that the Grad-Shafranov equation admits a generic family of kinetic energy-dominated asymptotic wind solutions with finite total magnetic flux. The Poynting flux in these solutions vanishes logarithmically with distance. The way in which the flux surfaces are nested within the flow depends only on the ratio of angular velocity to poliodal 4-velocity as a function of magnetic flux. Radial variations in flow structure can be expressed in terms of a pressure boundary condition on the outermost flux surface, provided that no external toriodal field surrounds the flow. For a special case, we show explicitly how the flux surfaces merge gradually to their asymptotes. For flows confined by an external medium of pressure decreasing to zero at infinity we show that, depending on how fast the ambient pressure declines, the final flow state could be either a collimated jet or a wind that fills the entire space. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for jets from active galactic nuclei and for free pulsar winds such as that believed to power the Crab Nebula.

  2. Asymptotic domination of cold relativistic MHD winds by kinetic energy flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1994-01-01

    We study the conditions which lead to the conversion of most Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux in cold, relativistic hydromagnetic winds. It is shown that plasma acceleration along a precisely radial flow is extremely inefficient due to the near cancellation of the toroidal magnetic pressure and tension forces. However, if the flux tubes in a flow diverge even slightly faster than radially, the fast magnetosonic point moves inward from infinity to a few times the light cylinder radius. Once the flow becomes supermagnetosonic, further divergence of the flux tubes beyond the fast point can accelerate the flow via the 'magnetic nozzle' effect, thereby further converting Poynting flux to kinetic energy flux. We show that the Grad-Shafranov equation admits a generic family of kinetic energy-dominated asymptotic wind solutions with finite total magnetic flux. The Poynting flux in these solutions vanishes logarithmically with distance. The way in which the flux surfaces are nested within the flow depends only on the ratio of angular velocity to poliodal 4-velocity as a function of magnetic flux. Radial variations in flow structure can be expressed in terms of a pressure boundary condition on the outermost flux surface, provided that no external toriodal field surrounds the flow. For a special case, we show explicitly how the flux surfaces merge gradually to their asymptotes. For flows confined by an external medium of pressure decreasing to zero at infinity we show that, depending on how fast the ambient pressure declines, the final flow state could be either a collimated jet or a wind that fills the entire space. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for jets from active galactic nuclei and for free pulsar winds such as that believed to power the Crab Nebula.

  3. Restoring diabetes-induced autophagic flux arrest in ischemic/reperfused heart by ADIPOR (adiponectin receptor) activation involves both AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Liang, Bin; Lau, Wayne Bond; Du, Yunhui; Guo, Rui; Yan, Zheyi; Gan, Lu; Yan, Wenjun; Zhao, Jianli; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter; Ma, Xin-Liang

    2017-08-21

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury. However, whether and how diabetes may alter autophagy in response to MI-R remains unknown. Deficiency of ADIPOQ, a cardioprotective molecule, markedly increases MI-R injury. However, the role of diabetic hypoadiponectinemia in cardiac autophagy alteration after MI-R is unclear. Utilizing normal control (NC), high-fat-diet-induced diabetes, and Adipoq knockout (adipoq(-/-)) mice, we demonstrated that autophagosome formation was modestly inhibited and autophagosome clearance was markedly impaired in the diabetic heart subjected to MI-R. adipoq(-/-) largely reproduced the phenotypic alterations observed in the ischemic-reperfused diabetic heart. Treatment of diabetic and adipoq(-/-) mice with AdipoRon, a novel ADIPOR (adiponectin receptor) agonist, stimulated autophagosome formation, markedly increased autophagosome clearance, reduced infarct size, and improved cardiac function (P < 0.01 vs vehicle). Mechanistically, AdipoRon caused significant phosphorylation of AMPK-BECN1 (Ser93/Thr119)-class III PtdIns3K (Ser164) and enhanced lysosome protein LAMP2 expression both in vivo and in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological AMPK inhibition or genetic Prkaa2 mutation abolished AdipoRon-induced BECN1 (Ser93/Thr119)-PtdIns3K (Ser164) phosphorylation and AdipoRon-stimulated autophagosome formation. However, AdipoRon-induced LAMP2 expression, AdipoRon-stimulated autophagosome clearance, and AdipoRon-suppressed superoxide generation were not affected by AMPK inhibition. Treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) increased LAMP2 expression and stimulated autophagosome clearance in simulated ischemic-reperfused cardiomyocytes. However, no additive effect between AdipoRon and MnTMPyP was observed. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hypoadiponectinemia impairs autophagic flux, contributing to enhanced MI-R injury in the diabetic

  4. Time-dependent analysis of length of stay and mortality due to urinary tract infections in ten developing countries: INICC findings.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Dwivedy, Arpita; Calderón, María Eugenia Rodríguez; Esen, Saban; Hernández, Héctor Torres; Abouqal, Rédouane; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Espinoza, Teodora Atencio; Kanj, S S; Gikas, Achilleas; Barnett, Adrian G; Graves, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the excess length of stay (LOS) and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU) due to a Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), using a statistical model that accounts for the timing of infection in 29 ICUs from 10 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, and Turkey. To estimate the extra LOS due to infection in a cohort of 69,248 admissions followed for 371,452 days in 29 ICUs, we used a multi-state model, including specific censoring to ensure that we estimate the independent effect of urinary tract infection, and not the combined effects of multiple infections. We estimated the extra length of stay and increased risk of death independently in each country, and then combined the results using a random effects meta-analysis. A CAUTI prolonged length of ICU stay by an average of 1.59 days (95% CI: 0.58, 2.59 days), and increased the risk of death by 15% (95% CI: 3, 28%). A CAUTI leads to a small increased LOS in ICU. The increased risk of death due to CAUTI may be due to confounding with patient morbidity. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The risk of revision due to dislocation after total hip arthroplasty depends on surgical approach, femoral head size, sex, and primary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The effects of patient-related and technical factors on the risk of revision due to dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) are only partly understood. We hypothesized that increasing the femoral head size can reduce this risk, that the lateral surgical approach is associated with a lower risk than the posterior and minimally invasive approaches, and that gender and diagnosis influence the risk of revision due to dislocation. Patients and methods Data on 78,098 THAs in 61,743 patients performed between 2005 and 2010 were extracted from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Inclusion criteria were a head size of 22, 28, 32, or 36 mm, or the use of a dual-mobility cup. The covariates age, sex, primary diagnosis, type of surgical approach, and head size were entered into Cox proportional hazards models in order to calculate the adjusted relative risk (RR) of revision due to dislocation, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results After a mean follow-up of 2.7 (0–6) years, 399 hips (0.5%) had been revised due to dislocation. The use of 22-mm femoral heads resulted in a higher risk of revision than the use of 28-mm heads (RR = 2.0, CI: 1.2–3.3). Only 1 of 287 dual-mobility cups had been revised due to dislocation. Compared with the direct lateral approach, minimally invasive approaches were associated with a higher risk of revision due to dislocation (RR = 4.2, CI: 2.3–7.7), as were posterior approaches (RR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7). An increased risk of revision due to dislocation was found for the diagnoses femoral neck fracture (RR = 3.9, CI: 3.1–5.0) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (RR = 3.7, CI: 2.5–5.5), whereas women were at lower risk than men (RR = 0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0). Restriction of the analysis to the first 6 months after the index procedure gave similar risk estimates. Interpretation Patients with femoral neck fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head are at higher risk of dislocation. Use of the

  6. Characterization of the co-agonist effects of strontium and calcium on myo-inositol trisphosphate-dependent ion fluxes in cerebellar microsomes.

    PubMed

    Hannaert-Merah, Z; Combettes, L; Coquil, J F; Swillens, S; Mauger, J P; Claret, M; Champeil, P

    1995-11-01

    Using sheep cerebellum microsomes previously loaded with 45Ca2+ or 90Sr2+, we measured the dependence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced efflux of these ions on Ca2+ or Sr2+ on the cytosolic side. At a low InsP3 concentration, Ca2+ in the submicromolar range only poorly activated 45Ca2+ or 90Sr2+ efflux, and higher Ca2+ concentrations were inhibitory. In contrast, Sr2+ in the micromolar range activated release efficiently, while only very high Sr2+ concentrations were inhibitory. Experiments were repeated in the presence of a high InsP3 concentration, which allowed increasing free Ca2+ to micromolar concentrations without inducing complete inhibition of the InsP3-dependent efflux. Under these conditions, micromolar Ca2+ was found to activate efflux to a large extent, similar to that previously found with Sr2+. Optimal activation by Ca2+ of the InsP3-dependent channel occurs at micromolar rather than submicromolar free Ca2+ concentrations, but at too low an InsP3 concentration, Ca(2+)-induced activation is counteracted by Ca(2+)-induced inactivation. Separate measurements of [3H]-InsP3 binding at a low concentration showed that Sr2+ and Ca2+ did not enhance the amount of bound [3H]-InsP3, implying that the activating effect of Sr2+ and Ca2+ in cerebellar microsomes is mediated by an increase in the channel opening probability and not by an increase in the receptor's affinity for InsP3. A similar relationship also holds in the case of the activating effect of nucleotides.

  7. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  8. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  9. Serum stimulation of CCR7 chemotaxis due to coagulation factor XIIa-dependent production of high-molecular-weight kininogen domain 5

    PubMed Central

    Ponda, Manish P.; Breslow, Jan L.

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in immune function by directing cell-specific movement. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) facilitates entry of T cells into lymph nodes. CCR7-dependent chemotaxis requires either of the cognate ligands C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) or CCL21. Although CCR7-dependent chemotaxis can be augmented through receptor up-regulation or by increased chemokine concentrations, we found that chemotaxis is also markedly enhanced by serum in vitro. Upon purification, the serum cofactor activity was ascribed to domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen. This peptide was necessary and sufficient for accelerated chemotaxis. The cofactor activity in serum was dependent on coagulation factor XIIa, a serine protease known to induce cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) at sites of inflammation. Within domain 5, we synthesized a 24-amino acid peptide that could recapitulate the activity of intact serum through a mechanism distinct from up-regulating CCR7 expression or promoting chemokine binding to CCR7. This peptide interacts with the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 4 (TSP4), and antibodies to TSP4 neutralize its activity. In vivo, an HK domain 5 peptide stimulated homing of both T and B cells to lymph nodes. A circulating cofactor that is activated at inflammatory foci to enhance lymphocyte chemotaxis represents a powerful mechanism coupling inflammation to adaptive immunity. PMID:27791187

  10. Serum stimulation of CCR7 chemotaxis due to coagulation factor XIIa-dependent production of high-molecular-weight kininogen domain 5.

    PubMed

    Ponda, Manish P; Breslow, Jan L

    2016-10-24

    Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in immune function by directing cell-specific movement. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) facilitates entry of T cells into lymph nodes. CCR7-dependent chemotaxis requires either of the cognate ligands C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) or CCL21. Although CCR7-dependent chemotaxis can be augmented through receptor up-regulation or by increased chemokine concentrations, we found that chemotaxis is also markedly enhanced by serum in vitro. Upon purification, the serum cofactor activity was ascribed to domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen. This peptide was necessary and sufficient for accelerated chemotaxis. The cofactor activity in serum was dependent on coagulation factor XIIa, a serine protease known to induce cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) at sites of inflammation. Within domain 5, we synthesized a 24-amino acid peptide that could recapitulate the activity of intact serum through a mechanism distinct from up-regulating CCR7 expression or promoting chemokine binding to CCR7. This peptide interacts with the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 4 (TSP4), and antibodies to TSP4 neutralize its activity. In vivo, an HK domain 5 peptide stimulated homing of both T and B cells to lymph nodes. A circulating cofactor that is activated at inflammatory foci to enhance lymphocyte chemotaxis represents a powerful mechanism coupling inflammation to adaptive immunity.

  11. From COS ecosystem fluxes to GPP: integrating soil, branch and ecosystem fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijmans, L.; Maseyk, K. S.; Vesala, T.; Mammarella, I.; Baker, I. T.; Seibt, U.; Sun, W.; Aalto, J.; Franchin, A.; Kolari, P.; Keskinen, H.; Levula, J.; Chen, H.

    2016-12-01

    The close coupling of Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) and CO2 due to a similar uptake pathway into plant stomata makes COS a promising new tracer that can potentially be used to partition the Net Ecosystem Exchange into gross primary production (GPP) and respiration. Although ecosystem-scale measurements have been made at several sites, the contribution of different ecosystem components to the total COS budget is often unknown. Besides that, the average Leaf Relative Uptake (LRU) ratio needs to be better determined to accurately translate COS ecosystem fluxes into GPP estimates when the simple linear correlation between GPP estimates and COS plant uptake is used. We performed two campaigns in the summer of 2015 and 2016 at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland to provide better constrained COS flux data for boreal forests. A combination of COS measurements were made during both years, i.e. atmospheric profile concentrations up to 125 m, eddy-covariance fluxes and soil chamber fluxes. In addition to these, branch chamber measurements were done in 2016 in an attempt to observe the LRU throughout the whole season. The LRU ratio shows an exponential correlation with photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) but is constant for PAR levels above 500 µmol m-2 s-1. Mid-day LRU values are 1.0 (aspen) and 1.5 (pine). The correlation between LRU and PAR can be explained by the fact that COS is hydrolyzed with the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and is not light dependent, whereas the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 is. We observed nighttime fluxes on the order of 25-30 % of the daily maximum COS uptake. Soils are a small sink of COS and contribute to 3 % of the total ecosystem COS flux during daytime. In a comparison between observed and simulated fluxes from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the modelled COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes are on average 40 % smaller than the observed fluxes, however, the Ecosystem Relative Uptake (ERU) ratios are identical at a value of 1.9 ± 0

  12. Flux attenuation at NREL`s High-Flux Solar Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C E; Scholl, K L; Lewandowski, A A

    1994-10-01

    The High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a faceted primary concentrator and a long focal-length-to-diameter ratio (due to its off-axis design). Each primary facet can be aimed individually to produce different flux distributions at the target plane. Two different types of attenuators are used depending on the flux distribution. A sliding-plate attenuator is used primarily when the facets are aimed at the same target point. The alternate attenuator resembles a venetian blind. Both attenuators are located between the concentrator and the focal point. The venetian-blind attenuator is primarily used to control the levels of sunlight failing on a target when the primary concentrators are not focused to a single point. This paper will demonstrate the problem of using the sliding-plate attenuator with a faceted concentrator when the facets are not aimed at the same target point. We will show that although the alternate attenuator necessarily blocks a certain amount of incoming sunlight, even when fully open, it provides a more even attenuation of the flux for alternate aiming strategies.

  13. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  14. Locomotion of electrocatalytic nanomotors due to reaction induced charge autoelectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J. L.; Wheat, P. M.; Posner, J. D.

    2010-06-01

    Bimetallic rod-shaped nanomotors swim autonomously in hydrogen peroxide solutions. Here, we present a scaling analysis, computational simulations, and experimental data that show that the nanomotor locomotion is driven by fluid slip around the nanomotor surface due to electrical body forces. The body forces are generated by a coupling of charge density and electric fields induced by electrochemical reactions occurring on the nanomotor surface. We describe the dependence of nanomotor motion on the nanomotor surface potential and reaction-driven flux.

  15. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  16. Fusion deficiency induced by mutations at the dimer interface in the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase is due to a temperature-dependent defect in receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Corey, Elizabeth A; Mirza, Anne M; Levandowsky, Elizabeth; Iorio, Ronald M

    2003-06-01

    The tetrameric paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein mediates attachment to sialic acid-containing receptors as well as cleavage of the same moiety via its neuraminidase (NA) activity. The X-ray crystallographic structure of an HN dimer from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) suggests that a single site in two different conformations mediates both of these activities. This conformational change is predicted to involve an alteration in the association between monomers in each HN dimer and to be part of a series of changes in the structure of HN that link its recognition of receptors to the activation of the other viral surface glycoprotein, the fusion protein. To explore the importance of the dimer interface to HN function, we performed a site-directed mutational analysis of residues in a domain defined by residues 218 to 226 at the most membrane-proximal part of the dimer interface in the globular head. Proteins carrying substitutions for residues F220, S222, and L224 in this domain were fusion deficient. However, this fusion deficiency was not due to a direct effect of the mutations on fusion. Rather, the fusion defect was due to a severely impaired ability to mediate receptor recognition at 37 degrees C, a phenotype that is not attributable to a change in NA activity. Since each of these mutated proteins efficiently mediated attachment in the cold, it was also not due to an inherent inability of the mutated proteins to recognize receptors. Instead, the interface mutations acted by weakening the interaction between HN and its receptor(s). The phenotype of these mutants correlates with the disruption of intermonomer subunit interactions.

  17. Bismuth flux dependence of GaAsBi/GaAs MQWs grown by molecular beam epitaxy using two-substrate-temperature technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Pallavi Kisan; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Shimomura, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Multi-quantum wells (MQWs) of GaAsBi/GaAs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and dependence of its surface morphology, Bi content and optical properties on Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) were studied. For the MQWs growth, two-substrate-temperatures (TST) technique was used, where GaAsBi layers were grown at TGaAsBi = 350 °C and GaAs layers at TGaAs = 550 °C. The segregated bismuth atoms were desorbed by increasing the substrate temperature from TGaAsBi to TGaAs after finishing the growth of each GaAsBi layer of MQWs including the topmost GaAsBi layer. The surface of the topmost GaAsBi layer shows no sign of Bi droplet formation even for the MQWs grown at highest Bi supply. The Bi content increases up to 3.8% in proportional to the Bi BEP and decreases in a higher Bi BEP region.

  18. Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms. PMID:21685167

  19. Increased furfural tolerance due to overexpression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli strains engineered for the production of ethanol and lactate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Miller, E N; Yomano, L P; Zhang, X; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low K(m) for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms.

  20. [The flux of historiography].

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, R G

    2001-01-01

    The author places Grmek's editorial within the flux of the historiographical debate which, since the middle of the 1970s, has concentrated on two major crises due to the end of social science-oriented 'scientific history' and to the 'linguistic turn'. He also argues that Grmek's historiographical work of the 1980s and 1990s was to some extent an alternative to certain observed changes in historical fashion and has achieved greater intelligibility because of its commitment to a rational vision of science and historiography.

  1. The potential and flux landscape theory of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Li; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2012-08-01

    We established the potential and flux landscape theory for evolution. We found explicitly the conventional Wright's gradient adaptive landscape based on the mean fitness is inadequate to describe the general evolutionary dynamics. We show the intrinsic potential as being Lyapunov function(monotonically decreasing in time) does exist and can define the adaptive landscape for general evolution dynamics for studying global stability. The driving force determining the dynamics can be decomposed into gradient of potential landscape and curl probability flux. Non-zero flux causes detailed balance breaking and measures how far the evolution from equilibrium state. The gradient of intrinsic potential and curl flux are perpendicular to each other in zero fluctuation limit resembling electric and magnetic forces on electrons. We quantified intrinsic energy, entropy and free energy of evolution and constructed non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The intrinsic non-equilibrium free energy is a Lyapunov function. Both intrinsic potential and free energy can be used to quantify the global stability and robustness of evolution. We investigated an example of three allele evolutionary dynamics with frequency dependent selection (detailed balance broken). We uncovered the underlying single, triple, and limit cycle attractor landscapes. We found quantitative criterions for stability through landscape topography. We also quantified evolution pathways and found paths do not follow potential gradient and are irreversible due to non-zero flux. We generalized the original Fisher's fundamental theorem to the general (i.e., frequency dependent selection) regime of evolution by linking the adaptive rate with not only genetic variance related to the potential but also the flux. We show there is an optimum potential where curl flux resulting from biotic interactions of individuals within a species or between species can sustain an endless evolution even if the physical environment is unchanged. We

  2. The potential and flux landscape theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Li; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2012-08-14

    We established the potential and flux landscape theory for evolution. We found explicitly the conventional Wright's gradient adaptive landscape based on the mean fitness is inadequate to describe the general evolutionary dynamics. We show the intrinsic potential as being Lyapunov function(monotonically decreasing in time) does exist and can define the adaptive landscape for general evolution dynamics for studying global stability. The driving force determining the dynamics can be decomposed into gradient of potential landscape and curl probability flux. Non-zero flux causes detailed balance breaking and measures how far the evolution from equilibrium state. The gradient of intrinsic potential and curl flux are perpendicular to each other in zero fluctuation limit resembling electric and magnetic forces on electrons. We quantified intrinsic energy, entropy and free energy of evolution and constructed non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The intrinsic non-equilibrium free energy is a Lyapunov function. Both intrinsic potential and free energy can be used to quantify the global stability and robustness of evolution. We investigated an example of three allele evolutionary dynamics with frequency dependent selection (detailed balance broken). We uncovered the underlying single, triple, and limit cycle attractor landscapes. We found quantitative criterions for stability through landscape topography. We also quantified evolution pathways and found paths do not follow potential gradient and are irreversible due to non-zero flux. We generalized the original Fisher's fundamental theorem to the general (i.e., frequency dependent selection) regime of evolution by linking the adaptive rate with not only genetic variance related to the potential but also the flux. We show there is an optimum potential where curl flux resulting from biotic interactions of individuals within a species or between species can sustain an endless evolution even if the physical environment is unchanged. We

  3. Anti-Osteoclastic Activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Extract Depends upon Attenuation of Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption-Associated Acidification Due to Chlorogenic Acid, Hyperoside, and Scoparone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to elucidate the anti-osteoporotic activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. in the form of anti-osteoclastic effect and responsible bioactive compounds. The contents of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid A, and scoparone in Artemisia capillaris hydroethanolic extract (ACHE) were 38.53, 0.52, 4.07, 3.03, 13.90, and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. ACHE diminished osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption due to chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone. In addition, ACHE attenuated acidification as well as reducing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression and its association with vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase). Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone from A. capillaris abrogated the association of V-ATPase with TRAF6, suggesting that the blockage of bone resorption by A. capillaris was partially mediated by reducing acidification through down-regulating interaction of V-ATPase with TRAF6 due to scoparone as well as chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. These results imply that the anti-osteoclastic effect of A. capillaris through down-regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may contribute to its anti-osteoporotic effect. PMID:28165389

  4. Anti-Osteoclastic Activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Extract Depends upon Attenuation of Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption-Associated Acidification Due to Chlorogenic Acid, Hyperoside, and Scoparone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2017-02-04

    The present study attempts to elucidate the anti-osteoporotic activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. in the form of anti-osteoclastic effect and responsible bioactive compounds. The contents of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid A, and scoparone in Artemisia capillaris hydroethanolic extract (ACHE) were 38.53, 0.52, 4.07, 3.03, 13.90, and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. ACHE diminished osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption due to chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone. In addition, ACHE attenuated acidification as well as reducing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression and its association with vacuolar H⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase). Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone from A. capillaris abrogated the association of V-ATPase with TRAF6, suggesting that the blockage of bone resorption by A. capillaris was partially mediated by reducing acidification through down-regulating interaction of V-ATPase with TRAF6 due to scoparone as well as chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. These results imply that the anti-osteoclastic effect of A. capillaris through down-regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may contribute to its anti-osteoporotic effect.

  5. Inhibition of delayed rectifier K(+)-current by levcromakalim in single intestinal smooth muscle cells: effects of cations and dependence on K(+)-flux.

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, D; Beech, D J

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from single smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal layer of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Levcromakalim ((-)Ckm) inhibited delayed rectifier K-current (IK(DR)) and induced a voltage-independent K-current (IK(-Ckm)). Both effects were inhibited similarly by glibenclamide. In some cells, however, IK(-Ckm) could be induced without any effect on IK(DR). 3. Ba2+ caused a voltage-dependent block of IK(-Ckm). The IC50 was 0.2 mM at -40 mV (6 cells), but at 0 mV 2 mM Ba2+ caused only a 26 +/- 7% inhibition (n = 5). Ba2+ had much less effect on IK(DR), 2 mM Ba2+ having no inhibitory effect on current elicited by depolarization to -30 mV (n = 6) or 0 mV (n = 5). 4. Low concentrations of Zn2+ blocked IK(-Ckm) while having little effect on IK(DR). Zn2+ (40 microM) caused a 77 +/- 1% reduction of IK(-Ckm) at -30 mV (n = 4) but IK(DR) was inhibited by only 10 +/- 3% at the same voltage (n = 4). 5. Inward current amplitudes were compared in 135 mM Rb+ and 135 mM K+ bath solutions. (-)Ckm-activated Rb(+)-current was only 4% of the K(+)-current, whereas delayed rectifier Rb(+)-current was larger than K(+)-current. 6. (-)Ckm did not inhibit IK(DR) if IK(-Ckm) was blocked. In the presence of 2 mM Ba2+ or 135 mM Rb+, (-)Ckm did not induce current nor did it inhibit the delayed rectifier.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7881739

  6. ERO1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial calcium flux contributes to ER stress and mitochondrial permeabilization by procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1).

    PubMed

    Seervi, M; Sobhan, P K; Joseph, J; Ann Mathew, K; Santhoshkumar, T R

    2013-12-19

    Procaspase-activating compound-1 (PAC-1) is the first direct caspase-activating compound discovered; using an in vitro cell-free system of caspase activation. Subsequently, this compound was shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells with promising in vivo antitumor activity in canine lymphoma model. Recently, we have reported its ability to kill drug-resistant, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpressing and Bax/Bak-deficient cells despite the essential requirement of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt. c) release for caspase activation, indicating that the key molecular targets of PAC-1 in cancer cells are yet to be identified. Here, we have identified Ero1α-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium leakage to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM) and ER luminal hyper-oxidation as the critical events of PAC-1-mediated cell death. PAC-1 treatment upregulated Ero1α in multiple cell lines, whereas silencing of Ero1α significantly inhibited calcium release from ER and cell death. Loss of ER calcium and hyper-oxidation of ER lumen by Ero1α collectively triggered ER stress. Upregulation of GRP78 and splicing of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA in multiple cancer cells suggested ER stress as the general event triggered by PAC-1. XBP1 mRNA splicing and GRP78 upregulation confirmed ER stress even in Bax/Bak double knockout and PAC-1-resistant Apaf-1-knockout cells, indicating an induction of ER stress-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis by PAC-1. Furthermore, we identified BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) as the key molecular link that orchestrates overwhelmed ER stress to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, involving mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, in a p53-independent manner. Silencing of PUMA in cancer cells effectively reduced cyt. c release and cell death by PAC-1.

  7. Solar flux and its variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. V. P.; Gottlieb, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the solar irradiance as derived from a number of sources. An attempt was made to bring these data onto a uniform scale. Summation of fluxes at all wavelengths yields a figure of 1357.826 for the solar constant. Estimates are made of the solar flux variations due to flares, active regions (slowly varying component), 27-day period, and the 11-yr cycle. Solar activity does not produce a significant variation in the value of the solar constant. Variations in the X-ray and EUV portions of the solar flux may be several orders of magnitude during solar activity, especially at times of major flares. It is established that these short wavelength flux enhancements cause significant changes in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  8. Dosage-Dependent Severity of the Phenotype in Patients with Mental Retardation Due to a Recurrent Copy-Number Gain at Xq28 Mediated by an Unusual Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Joke; Van Esch, Hilde; Govaerts, Karen; Verbeeck, Jelle; Zweier, Christiane; Madrigal, Irene; Mila, Montserrat; Pijkels, Elly; Fernandez, Isabel; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Spaich, Christiane; Rauch, Anita; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2009-01-01

    We report on the identification of a 0.3 Mb inherited recurrent but variable copy-number gain at Xq28 in affected males of four unrelated families with X-linked mental retardation (MR). All aberrations segregate with the disease in the families, and the carrier mothers show nonrandom X chromosome inactivation. Tiling Xq28-region-specific oligo array revealed that all aberrations start at the beginning of the low copy repeat LCR-K1, at position 153.20 Mb, and end just distal to LCR-L2, at 153.54 Mb. The copy-number gain always includes 18 annotated genes, of which RPL10, ATP6AP1 and GDI1 are highly expressed in brain. From these, GDI1 is the most likely candidate gene. Its copy number correlates with the severity of clinical features, because it is duplicated in one family with nonsyndromic moderate MR, is triplicated in males from two families with mild MR and additional features, and is present in five copies in a fourth family with a severe syndromic form of MR. Moreover, expression analysis revealed copy-number-dependent increased mRNA levels in affected patients compared to control individuals. Interestingly, analysis of the breakpoint regions suggests a recombination mechanism that involves two adjacent but different sets of low copy repeats. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that an increased expression of GDI1 results in impaired cognition in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, these data also imply that a copy-number gain of an individual gene present in the larger genomic aberration that leads to the severe MECP2 duplication syndrome can of itself result in a clinical phenotype as well. PMID:20004760

  9. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  10. Cement fracture surface alteration in reactive-transport experiments; Implications for time-dependent flux of CO2 along leaky wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, N. J.; Wenning, Q. C.; Lopano, C. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Strazisar, B. R.; Bryant, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Long term fate of sequestered CO2 is a function of the storage system's ability to contain the CO2 until long-term trapping mechanisms immobilize it (e.g. dissolution trapping, residual trapping, and mineralization). One significant risk to CO2 containment is a fast-path created by leaky wellbores. Inadequate design, implementation, and well abandonment create leakage pathways along the cement-earth interface or within wellbore material itself. The goal of our work is to characterize pathways in leaking wells using experiments that model key components of the coupled system. Flow and reaction in a cement fracture of variable aperture size are strongly coupled as dissolution/precipitation can alter the flow path by creating or sealing pathways. Understanding under what conditions a flow path might become self-enhancing or self-sealing is paramount to quantifying time-dependent leakage risk in wells. In our experiments we use standard core flow equipment to inject hydrochloric acid (HCl) at constant rate into a fractured cement core created using the Brazilian method. HCl allows us to easily control pH over a range of values and limits calcite precipitation, thus giving us a look at a worst case scenario for acid attack. For a given experiment we fix injected acid concentration and flow rate and measure pressure drop, effluent pH, and concentration of major cations over time. After the experiment, chemical alteration of the fracture surface is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show several types of behavior; nearly all results indicate self-sealing or self-limiting behavior. Experiments show three reaction patterns: (1) formation of distinct reacted channels, (2) broad reaction pathways, and (3) little evidence for reaction on fracture surface. Despite pervasive alteration of the fracture surface in case (1) and (2), no sustained decrease in the pressure drop for a given flow rate is observed and in case (3) pressure always rises until equipment

  11. On the optimization, and the intensity dependence, of the excitation rate for the absorption of two-photons due to the direct permanent dipole moment excitation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meath, William J.

    2016-07-15

    A model two-level dipolar molecule, and the rotating wave approximation and perturbation theory, are used to investigate the optimization and the laser intensity dependence of the two-photon excitation rate via the direct permanent dipole mechanism. The rate is proportional to the square of the laser intensity I only for small intensities and times when perturbation theory is applicable. An improvement on perturbation theory is provided by a small time RWA result for the rate which is not proportional to I{sup 2}; rather it is proportional to the square of an effective intensity I{sub eff}. For each laser intensity the optimum RWA excitation rate as a function of time, for low intensities, is proportional to I, not I{sup 2}, and for high intensities it is proportional to I{sub eff}. For a given two-photon transition the laser-molecule coupling optimizes for an intensity I{sub max} which, for example, leads to a maximum possible excitation rate as a function of time. The validity of the RWA results of this paper, and the importance of including the effects of virtual excited states, are also discussed briefly.

  12. Emergence of network structure due to spike-timing-dependent plasticity in recurrent neuronal networks IV: structuring synaptic pathways among recurrent connections.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B; Thomas, Doreen A; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2009-12-01

    In neuronal networks, the changes of synaptic strength (or weight) performed by spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) are hypothesized to give rise to functional network structure. This article investigates how this phenomenon occurs for the excitatory recurrent connections of a network with fixed input weights that is stimulated by external spike trains. We develop a theoretical framework based on the Poisson neuron model to analyze the interplay between the neuronal activity (firing rates and the spike-time correlations) and the learning dynamics, when the network is stimulated by correlated pools of homogeneous Poisson spike trains. STDP can lead to both a stabilization of all the neuron firing rates (homeostatic equilibrium) and a robust weight specialization. The pattern of specialization for the recurrent weights is determined by a relationship between the input firing-rate and correlation structures, the network topology, the STDP parameters and the synaptic response properties. We find conditions for feed-forward pathways or areas with strengthened self-feedback to emerge in an initially homogeneous recurrent network.

  13. Microhomology-mediated end joining is activated in irradiated human cells due to phosphorylation-dependent formation of the XRCC1 repair complex.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arijit; Eckelmann, Bradley; Adhikari, Sanjay; Ahmed, Kazi Mokim; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Pandey, Arvind; Hegde, Pavana M; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Tainer, John A; Weinfeld, Michael; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Mitra, Sankar

    2017-03-17

    Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), an error-prone pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is implicated in genomic rearrangement and oncogenic transformation; however, its contribution to repair of radiation-induced DSBs has not been characterized. We used recircularization of a linearized plasmid with 3΄-P-blocked termini, mimicking those at X-ray-induced strand breaks, to recapitulate DSB repair via MMEJ or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Sequence analysis of the circularized plasmids allowed measurement of relative activity of MMEJ versus NHEJ. While we predictably observed NHEJ to be the predominant pathway for DSB repair in our assay, MMEJ was significantly enhanced in preirradiated cells, independent of their radiation-induced arrest in the G2/M phase. MMEJ activation was dependent on XRCC1 phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2), enhancing XRCC1's interaction with the end resection enzymes MRE11 and CtIP. Both endonuclease and exonuclease activities of MRE11 were required for MMEJ, as has been observed for homology-directed DSB repair (HDR). Furthermore, the XRCC1 co-immunoprecipitate complex (IP) displayed MMEJ activity in vitro, which was significantly elevated after irradiation. Our studies thus suggest that radiation-mediated enhancement of MMEJ in cells surviving radiation therapy may contribute to their radioresistance and could be therapeutically targeted. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of shark cartilage are due to a peptide molecule and are nitric oxide (NO) system dependent.

    PubMed

    Fontenele, J B; Araújo, G B; de Alencar, J W; Viana, G S

    1997-11-01

    The present work shows an antinociceptive and dose-dependent effect of shark cartilage hydrosoluble fraction (HF) on writhing and formalin tests in mice. The effect was not altered by thalidomide, a known inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alfa) synthesis. Similarly, the antinociceptive effect did not change in the presence of naloxone, indicating that the opioid system is not involved. However, the effect observed was blocked by L-arginine, a NO synthesis substrate, and it was potentiated by L-NAME, suggesting a role of the NO system in the shark cartilage antinociceptive effect. Effects similar to those seen with the HF were detected with peak II from gel filtration chromatography. The increase in vascular permeability induced by serotonin in rats was significantly abolished by the HF at the dose of 2 mg/kg, p.o., and again it was not potentiated by thalidomide. The observed blockade in the vascular permeability increase induced by histamine was detected only with a higher dose (10 mg/kg, p.o.).

  15. Skin necrosis due to photodynamic action of benzoporphyrin depends on circulating rather than tissue drug levels: implications for control of photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, G C; Tsoukas, M L; Lee, M S; González, S; Vibhagool, C; Anderson, R R; Kollias, N

    1998-10-01

    In an ideal world, photodynamic therapy (PDT) of abnormal tissue would reliably spare the surrounding normal tissue. Normal tissue responses set the limits for light and drug dosimetry. The threshold fluence for necrosis (TFN) was measured in normal skin following intravenous infusion with a photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) Verteporin as a function of drug dose (0.25-2.0 mg/kg), wavelength of irradiation (458 and 690 nm) and time interval (0-5 h) between drug administration and irradiation. The BPD-MA levels were measured in plasma and skin tissue to elucidate the relationship between TFN, drug kinetics and biodistribution. The PDT response of normal skin was highly reproducible. The TFN for 458 and 690 nm wavelengths was nearly identical and the estimated quantum efficiency for skin response was equal at these two wavelengths. Skin phototoxicity, quantified in terms of 1/TFN, closely correlated with the plasma pharmacokinetics rather than the tissue pharmacokinetics and was quadratically dependent on the plasma drug concentration regardless of the administered drug dose or time interval between drug and light exposure. This study strongly suggests that noninvasive measurements of the circulating drug level at the time of light treatment will be important for setting optimal light dosimetry for PDT with liposomal BPD-MA, a vascular photosensitizer.

  16. Dose-dependent acute liver injury with hypersensitivity features in humans due to a novel microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Regev, Arie; Kam, Jeanelle; Phipps, Krista; Smith, Claire; Henck, Judith; Campanale, Kristina; Hu, Leijun; Hall, D Greg; Yang, Xiao Yan; Nakano, Masako; McNearney, Terry Ann; Uetrecht, Jack; Landschulz, William

    2017-09-02

    LY3031207, a novel microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitor, was evaluated in a multiple ascending dose study after nonclinical toxicology studies and a single ascending dose study demonstrated an acceptable toxicity, safety, and tolerability profile. Healthy subjects were randomised to receive LY3031207 (25, 75, and 275 mg), placebo, or celecoxib (400 mg) once daily for 28 days. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of LY3031207 were evaluated. The study was terminated when two subjects experienced drug-induced liver injury (DILI) after they had received 225 mg LY3031207 for 19 days. Liver biopsy from these subjects revealed acute liver injury with eosinophilic infiltration. Four additional DILI cases were identified after LY3031207 dosing had been stopped. All six DILI cases shared unique presentations of hepatocellular injury with hypersensitivity features and demonstrated a steep dose-dependent trend. Prompt discontinuation of the study drug and supportive medical care resulted in full recovery. Metabolites from metabolic activation of the imidazole ring were observed in plasma and urine samples from all subjects randomized to LY3031207 dosing. This study emphasised the importance of careful safety monitoring and serious adverse events management in phase I trials. Metabolic activation of the imidazole ring may be involved in the development of hepatotoxicity of LY3031207. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

  18. Effects of temperature dependent conductivity and absorptive/generative heat transfer on MHD three dimensional flow of Williamson fluid due to bidirectional non-linear stretching surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, S.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Khan, Mair

    Present work is communicated to identify characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional boundary layer flow of Williamson fluid confined by a bidirectional stretched surface. Conductivity of working fluid is assumed to be temperature dependent. Generative/absorptive heat transfer is also taken into account. Mathematical model is formulated in the form of partial expressions and then transmuted into ordinary differential equations with the help of newfangled set of similarity transformations. The resulting non-linear differential system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Runge-Kutta algorithm supported by shooting method. Flow features are exemplified quantitatively through graphs. Scintillating results for friction factor and convective heat transfer are computed and scrutinized tabularly. Furthermore, the accuracy of present results is tested with existing literature and we found an excellent agreement. It is inferred that velocity along x-direction mounts whereas along y-direction depreciates for incrementing values of stretching ratio parameter. Moreover, it is also elucidated that non-linearity index tends to decrement the velocity and thermal distributions of fluid flow.

  19. Kerion celsi due to Arthroderma incurvatum infection in a Sri Lankan child: species identification and analysis of area-dependent genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Mari T; Togawa, Yaei; Akita, Fumi; Kambe, Naotomo; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Yaguchi, Takashi; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2012-10-01

    A three-year-old Sri Lankan boy residing in Japan developed a nodule on his scalp after visiting Sri Lanka. Two months later, the lesion increased in size to 22 × 19 mm(2), and was identified as an erythematous nodule with alopecia. Direct examination of the infected hair shafts indicated fungal hyphae outside the shafts. The fungus was identified as Microsporum gypseum following mycological examination. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of ribosomal RNA gene (ITS1 rDNA) exhibited 95.7-100.0% homology with that of Arthroderma incurvatum. The patient was successfully treated with a 6-week itraconazole course. We also examined DNA samples from eight clinical isolates of A. incurvatum. Alignments of ITS1 sequences of these strains and our isolate, showed gaps in the 64-bp positions 140-142 and 141-143 of the 205-207-bp ITS1 alignment. We performed phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-jointing (NJ) method based on the ITS1 sequences of the present isolate and twenty related strains. Fifteen A. incurvatum strains were divided into East Asia and non-East Asia clusters. The present isolate belonged to the non-East Asia cluster, suggesting that the patient was infected outside Japan. Moreover, the trees suggested area-dependent genetic polymorphism of A. incurvatum.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF AGE-DEPENDENT RADIATION DOSE DUE TO INTAKE OF URANIUM AND THORIUM IN DRINKING WATER FROM SIKAR DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Vikas; Rani, Asha; Balaram, V

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th have been determined in drinking water samples collected from the Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The samples have been analysed by using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (238)U content in water samples ranged from 8.20 to 202.63 µg l(-1) and (232)Th content ranged from 0.57 to 1.46 µg l(-1) The measured (238)U content in 25 % of the analysed samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency drinking water guidelines of 30 µg l(-1) and 12.5 % of the samples exceeded the 60 µg l(-1) Indian maximum acceptable concentration recommended by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India. The annual effective doses (µSv y(-1)) due to ingestion of (238)U and (232)Th for different age groups were also calculated. The results compared with the recommended value reported by the WHO. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Seasonal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a roof-top site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1 and mixing ratios were 7.27 ppb for methanol (m / z 33) and <1 ppb for the remaining compounds. Strong relationships were observed between most VOC fluxes and concentrations with traffic density, but also with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature for the oxygenated compounds and isoprene. An estimated 50-90 % of aromatic fluxes were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. PAR and temperature-dependent processes accounted for the majority of isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September, when fluxes and concentrations were largest. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes using the G95 algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September, due to urban vegetation. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from the London and National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localized and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  2. Nonlogarithmic magnetization relaxation at the initial time intervals and magnetic field dependence of the flux creep rate in Bi2Sr2Ca(sub I)Cu2Ox single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshchalcov, V. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Kuznetzov, V. D.; Metlushko, V. V.; Leonyuk, L. I.

    1990-01-01

    At the initial time intervals, preceding the thermally activated flux creep regime, fast nonlogarithmic relaxation is found. The fully magnetic moment Pm(t) relaxation curve is shown. The magnetic measurements were made using SQUID-magnetometer. Two different relaxation regimes exist. The nonlogarithmic relaxation for the initial time intervals may be related to the viscous Abrikosov vortices flow with j is greater than j(sub c) for high enough temperature T and magnetic field induction B. This assumption correlates with Pm(t) measurements. The characteristic time t(sub O) separating two different relaxation regimes decreases as temperature and magnetic field are lowered. The logarithmic magnetization relaxation curves Pm(t) for fixed temperature and different external magnetic field inductions B are given. The relaxation rate dependence on magnetic field, R(B) = dPm(B, T sub O)/d(1nt) has a sharp maximum which is similar to that found for R(T) temperature dependences. The maximum shifts to lower fields as temperature goes up. The observed sharp maximum is related to a topological transition in shielding critical current distribution and, consequently, in Abrikosov vortices density. The nonlogarithmic magnetization relaxation for the initial time intervals is found. This fast relaxation has almost an exponentional character. The sharp relaxation rate R(B) maximum is observed. This maximum corresponds to a topological transition in Abrikosov vortices distribution.

  3. Failure to reproduce period-dependent song cycles in Drosophila is due to poor automated pulse-detection and low-intensity courtship

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Green, Edward W.; Piffer, Arianna; Dowse, Harold B.

    2017-01-01

    Stern has criticized a body of work from several groups that have independently studied the so-called “Kyriacou and Hall” courtship song rhythms of male Drosophila melanogaster, claiming that these ultradian ∼60-s cycles in the interpulse interval (IPI) are statistical artifacts that are not modulated by mutations at the period (per) locus [Stern DL (2014) BMC Biol 12:38]. We have scrutinized Stern’s raw data and observe that his automated song pulse-detection method identifies only ∼50% of the IPIs found by manual (visual and acoustic) monitoring. This critical error is further compounded by Stern’s use of recordings with very little song, the large majority of which do not meet the minimal song intensity criteria which Kyriacou and Hall used in their studies. Consequently most of Stern’s recordings only contribute noise to the analyses. Of the data presented by Stern, only perL and a small fraction of wild-type males sing vigorously, so we limited our reanalyses to these genotypes. We manually reexamined Stern’s raw song recordings and analyzed IPI rhythms using several independent time-series analyses. We observe that perL songs show significantly longer song periods than wild-type songs, with values for both genotypes close to those found in previous studies. These per-dependent differences disappear when the song data are randomized. We conclude that Stern’s negative findings are artifacts of his inadequate pulse-detection methodology coupled to his use of low-intensity courtship song records. PMID:28174268

  4. Dose-Dependent Decrease in Mortality with No Cognitive or Muscle Function Improvements Due to Dietary EGCG Supplementation in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Pence, Brandt D; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Park, Pul; Rytych, Jennifer L; Allen, Jacob M; Sun, Yi; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Johnson, Rodney W; Rhodes, Justin S; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-05

    We have previously shown that a diet containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and beta-alanine is not effective in improving either cognitive or muscle function in aged (18 month) mice (Gibbons et al. Behav Brain Res 2014, Pence et al. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016). However, this diet reduced oxidative stress in the brain, and previous studies using longer-term interventions and other doses have documented beneficial effects in cognitive and muscle function, especially with EGCG. Here we hypothesized that a different dose of EGCG or longer feeding period would be more efficacious in improving cognition. Aged (21-25 mo) Balb/cByJ male mice underwent 63 days of feeding with EGCG at 0, 0.09, or 3.67 mg/g AIN-93M diet and were then subjected to a battery of cognitive and muscle function tests. EGCG feeding at either of the two doses did not alter preference for novel versus familiar arm in the Y-maze test (p=0.29) and did not affect learning in the active avoidance test (p=0.76). Similarly, EGCG did not affect preference for novel versus familiar mice in a social exploration test (p=0.17). Likewise, there was no effect of EGCG on muscle function by grip strength (p=0.16), rotarod (p=0.18) or treadmill test to exhaustion (p=0.25). EGCG reduced mortality in a dose-dependent fashion (p=0.05, log rank test for trend), with 91% of high EGCG, 72% of low EGCG, and 55% of control mice surviving to the end of the study. In conclusion, EGCG improves survival in aged mice but does not affect cognitive or muscle function.

  5. Parallel temperature dependence of contracture-associated enzyme release due to anoxia, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), or caffeine and the calcium paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, C. E.; Sims, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Hypothermia during calcium-free perfusion of hearts protects them from injury caused by subsequent calcium repletion at 37 C (calcium paradox). Injury to calcium-free hearts is also associated with contracture caused by anoxia, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), or caffeine. This study was done for the purpose of determining whether hypothermia during calcium-free perfusions protects hearts from contracture-associated injury. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were studied in four experimental groups: I) Anoxia: Thirty minutes of anoxic perfusion at 37 C was followed by thirty minutes of anoxic calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C. II) Calcium paradox: Five minutes of calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C was followed by calcium repletion at 37 C. III, IVa) Caffeine or DNP: Five minutes of calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C was followed by addition of 10 mM caffeine or 1 mM DNP in calcium-free medium at 37 C or, IVb) 1 mM DNP in calcium-free medium at 22 C. Injury was assessed by measurement of serial releases of creatine kinase (CK) in effluents and by cellular morphology. The results show that progressive hypothermia to 22 C during calcium-free perfusion periods produced a progressive reduction of CK release and morphologic evidence of injury due to anoxia, caffeine, or DNP, which closely paralleled protection of hearts from the calcium paradox. Protection from injury in all experimental groups was associated with preservation of sarcolemmal membrane integrity and prevention of cell separations at intercalated disk junctions. It is proposed that weakening of intercalated disks occurs during calcium-free perfusions and may be a cause of mechanical fragility of the sarcolemma. Hypothermia may protect hearts from contracture-associated injury by preserving the integrity of intercalated disk junctions during periods of extracellular calcium depletion. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6742111

  6. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  7. Increase of mycorrhizal C flux in Siberian temperate forests during the extreme drought of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menyailo, Oleg; Matvienko, Anastasia; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events have strong effect on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The soil C flux is the major uncertainty in the global C budget. Autotrophic (roots and mycorrhizae) component and heterotrophic microorganisms respond differently to altered precipitation and temperature, however their responses might vary in different ecosystems. We studied mycorrhizal, heterotrohic and total soil CO2 fluxes using in-growth mesh collars in forest soils under different tree species. The fluxes were measured between May and October of 2010-2012. The summer of 2012 was extremely hot and dry in Siberia, breaking records for the past 70 years of meteorological monitoring. The drought reduced soil surface CO2 flux for 20-30 % depending on the tree species. It is very surprising that the mycorrhizal flux in 2012 was under most species similar to the flux in a wetter years (2010-2011), under birch the mycorrhizal flux was even 1.5 times higher during the drought. Thus, decline in overall soil surface CO2 flux was mainly due to reduction of heterotrophic activities. Since the proportion of heterotrophic and autrophic activities is related to soil C sequestration, we conclude that under the most tree species in Siberia soil C will be accumulated during the drought. The most positive effect of the drought for soil carbon accrual is to be expected under birch.

  8. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  9. Diocotron Mode Damping from a Flux through the Critical Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. Fred

    2014-10-01

    Experiments and theory characterize a novel type of spatial Landau damping of diocotron modes which is algebraic rather than exponential in time; this damping is caused by a flux of particles through the wave/rotation critical layer. These kz = 0 diocotron (drift) modes with azimuthal mode numbers mθ = 1 , 2 . . . are dominant features in the dynamics of non-neutral plasmas in cylindrical and toroidal traps; and they are directly analogous to Kelvin waves on 2D fluid vortices. Spatial Landau damping is the resonant interaction between a mode at frequency fm and the plasma rotation fE (r) , at the critical radius Rc where fm =mθfE (Rc) . This is mathematically analogous to velocity-space Landau damping with fk = kv / 2 π . Experimentally, diocotron modes on pure electron plasmas exhibit exponential Landau damping when the initial plasma density is non-zero at Rc. Here, we demonstrate that a steady outward flux of particles through Rc causes diocotron modes to damp algebraically to zero amplitude, as D (t) =D0 -γm t . The outward flux is controlled and measured experimentally, and the damping rates γm are proportional to the flux. In general, any weak non-ideal process which causes outward flux may cause this damping. Analytics and simulations have developed a simple model of this damping, treating the transfer of canonical angular momentum from the mode to particles transiting the nonlinear trapping region at Rc. The model qualitatively agrees with experiments for mθ = 1 , but nominally predicts a discrepant algebraic exponent for mθ = 2 , perhaps due to the amplitude dependence of the trapping structure. Overall, this novel flux-driven damping is determined by the present magnitudes of the wave and outward flux, in contrast to the Landau analysis of phase mixing of the initial density. Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership Grants PHY-0903877 and DE-SC0002451.

  10. Joint seismic-geodynamic-mineral physical constraints on heat flux across the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics and thermal evolution of the Earth's interior is strongly dependent on the relative contributions from internal heating in the mantle (due to radioactivity and secular cooling) and from bottom heating across the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The dynamical style of the thermal convective flow, in particular the relative importance of active, thermally buoyant upwellings and mantle cooling due to descending lithospheric plates is also strongly dependent on the amplitude of heat flux across the CMB. We are able to provide new constraints on the convectively maintained heat flux across the CMB thanks to recent progress in mapping the lateral variations in mantle temperature by jointly inverting global seismic and geodynamic data sets, in which mineral physical constraints on mantle thermal heterogeneity are also imposed (Simmons et al. 2009). We present here new models of the present-day global mantle convective flow predicted on the basis of the thermal and non-thermal (compositional) density perturbations derived from the new tomography model and using the inferences of depth-dependent, horizontally averaged mantle viscosity derived from joint inversions of glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle convection data (Forte and Mitrovica 2004). We employ this tomography- geodynamics based mantle convection model to explore the convective transport of mass (buoyancy flux) and heat (advected heat flux) across the lower and upper mantle. We show that the predictions of advected heat flux at the top of the seismic D" layer provide direct constraints on the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Our current best estimates of the present-day CMB heat flux are in excess of 10 TW. We present a sensitivity analysis showing the degree of robustness of this inference, depending on the inferred variation of mantle viscosity in the lower mantle. We also present new predictions of the present-day distribution of secular heating and cooling at different depths in

  11. Soil respiration flux in northern coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Nay, S. M.; Edwards, R.; Valentine, D. W.; Hood, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Forest carbon budgets are of increasing concern because of their linkages with changing climate. The potential source strength of northern forested ecosystems is of great interest due to the large carbon stock of these systems, especially the extensive peatlands. Where very few long-term measurements of soil carbon cycles have been made, such as the North Pacific coastal temperate margin, peatlands have potentially large but largely unknown source strengths, particularly through soil respiration. The easily and widely measured factors that influence the metabolism of plants and microorganisms in soils, such as temperature, moisture and substrate quality, must be coupled with a network of plot-scale measurements of soil respiration fluxes in this region in order to produce reasonable models of soil respiration flux across gradients of climate, vegetation and soil types. We designed a study to address this issue and measured soil respiration across a hydrologic gradient to quantify the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in the coastal temperate rainforest biome. Replicated study sites were established in three common ecosystem types (peatlands, forested wetlands, and upland forest) within three coastal watersheds. In total, nine sites of the three ecosystem types were measured at monthly intervals during the snow-free period between May and November for two years. Soil respiration fluxes during the six-month measurement period were used to construct a respiration flux model for each landscape type. Soil respiration fluxes followed the seasonal temperature pattern in all ecosystem types and also varied with soil saturation as well in uplands. Temperature dependent models of soil respiration flux were best fit to intermediate drainage conditions in forested wetlands and explained up to 85% of the variation in this ecosystem type. Modeled soil respiration estimates were better at low temperatures with high water

  12. Soil respiration flux in northern coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, David; Nay, S. Mark; Edwards, Richard; Valentine, David; Hood, Eran

    2010-05-01

    Forest carbon budgets are of increasing concern because of their linkages with changing climate. The potential source strength of northern forested ecosystems is of great interest due to the large carbon stock of these systems, especially the extensive peatlands. Where very few long-term measurements of soil carbon cycles have been made, such as the North Pacific coastal temperate margin, peatlands have potentially large but largely unknown source strengths, particularly through soil respiration. The easily and widely measured factors that influence the metabolism of plants and microorganisms in soils, such as temperature, moisture and substrate quality, must be coupled with a network of plot-scale measurements of soil respiration fluxes in this region in order to produce reasonable models of soil respiration flux across gradients of climate, vegetation and soil types. We designed a study to address this issue and measured soil respiration across a hydrologic gradient to quantify the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in the coastal temperate rainforest biome. Replicated study sites were established in three common ecosystem types (peatlands, forested wetlands, and upland forest) within three coastal watersheds. In total, nine sites of the three ecosystem types were measured at monthly intervals during the snow-free period between May and November for two years. Soil respiration fluxes during the six-month measurement period were used to construct a respiration flux model for each landscape type. Soil respiration fluxes followed the seasonal temperature pattern in all ecosystem types and also varied with soil saturation as well in uplands. Temperature dependent models of soil respiration flux were best fit to intermediate drainage conditions in forested wetlands and explained up to 85% of the variation in this ecosystem type. Modeled soil respiration estimates were better at low temperatures with high water

  13. Strong polaritonic interaction between flux-flow and phonon resonances in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x intrinsic Josephson junctions: Angular dependence and the alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motzkau, H.; Katterwe, S. O.; Rydh, A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2013-08-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals represent natural stacks of atomic scale intrinsic Josephson junctions, formed between metallic CuO2-Ca-CuO2 and ionic insulating SrO-2BiO-SrO layers. Electrostriction effect in the insulating layers leads to excitation of c-axis phonons by the ac-Josephson effect. Here we study experimentally the interplay between and velocity matching (Eck) electromagnetic resonances in the flux-flow state of small mesa structures with c-axis optical phonons. A very strong interaction is reported, which leads to formation of phonon-polaritons with infrared and Raman-active transverse optical phonons. A special focus in this work is made on analysis of the angular dependence of the resonances. We describe an accurate sample alignment procedure that prevents intrusion of Abrikosov vortices in fields up to 17 T, which is essential for achieving high-quality resonances at record high frequencies up to 13 THz.

  14. MARIE Dose and Flux Measurements in Mars Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. MARIE operated successfully from March 2002 through October 2003. At the time of this writing, the instrument is off due to a loss of communications during an extremely intense Solar Particle Event. Efforts to revive MARIE are planned for Spring 2004, when Odyssey's role as a communications relay for the MER rovers is completed. During the period of successful operation, MARIE returned the first detailed energetic charged particle data from Mars. Due to limitations of the instrument, normalizing MARIE data to flux or dose is not straightforward - several large corrections are needed. Thus normalized results (like dose or flux) have large uncertainties and/or significant model-dependence. The problems in normalization are mainly due to inefficiency in detecting high-energy protons (signal-to-noise problems force the trigger threshold to be higher than optimal), to the excessively high gains employed in the signal processing electronics (many ions deposit energy sufficient to saturate the electronics, and dE/dx information is lost), and to artifacts associated with the two trigger detectors (incomplete registration of dE/dx). Despite these problems, MARIE is efficient for detecting helium ions with kinetic energies above about 30 MeV/nucleon, and for detecting high-energy ions (energies above about 400 MeV/nucleon) with charges from 5 to 10. Fluxes of these heavier ions can be compared to fluxes obtained from the ACE/CRIS instrument, providing at least one area of direct comparison between data obtained at Earth and at Mars; this analysis will be presented as a work in progress. We will also present dose-rate data, with a detailed explanation of the many sources of uncertainty in normalization. The results for both flux and dose will be compared to predictions of the HZETRN model of the GCR.

  15. MARIE Dose and Flux Measurements in Mars Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K.; Pinsky, L.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    We present results from the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. MARIE operated successfully from March 2002 through October 2003. At the time of this writing, the instrument is off due to a loss of communications during an extremely intense Solar Particle Event. Efforts to revive MARIE are planned for Spring 2004, when Odyssey's role as a communications relay for the MER rovers is completed. During the period of successful operation, MARIE returned the first detailed energetic charged particle data from Mars. Due to limitations of the instrument, normalizing MARIE data to flux or dose is not straightforward - several large corrections are needed. Thus normalized results (like dose or flux) have large uncertainties and/or significant model-dependence. The problems in normalization are mainly due to inefficiency in detecting high-energy protons (signal-to-noise problems force the trigger threshold to be higher than optimal), to the excessively high gains employed in the signal processing electronics (many ions deposit energy sufficient to saturate the electronics, and dE/dx information is lost), and to artifacts associated with the two trigger detectors (incomplete registration of dE/dx). Despite these problems, MARIE is efficient for detecting helium ions with kinetic energies above about 30 MeV/nucleon, and for detecting high-energy ions (energies above about 400 MeV/nucleon) with charges from 5 to 10. Fluxes of these heavier ions can be compared to fluxes obtained from the ACE/CRIS instrument, providing at least one area of direct comparison between data obtained at Earth and at Mars; this analysis will be presented as a work in progress. We will also present dose-rate data, with a detailed explanation of the many sources of uncertainty in normalization. The results for both flux and dose will be compared to predictions of the HZETRN model of the GCR environment.

  16. Magnetic flux, Wilson line, and orbifold

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Choi, Kang-Sin; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi

    2009-12-15

    We study torus/orbifold models with magnetic flux and Wilson line backgrounds. The number of zero modes and their profiles depend on those backgrounds. That has interesting implications from the viewpoint of particle phenomenology.

  17. The diffusion of radiation in moving media. IV. Flux vector, effective opacity, and expansion opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrse, R.; Baschek, B.; von Waldenfels, W.

    2003-04-01

    For a given velocity and temperature field in a differentially moving 3D medium, the vector of the radiative flux is derived in the diffusion approximation. Due to the dependence of the velocity gradient on the direction, the associated effective opacity in general is a tensor. In the limit of small velocity gradients analytical expression are obtained which allow us to discuss the cases when the direction of the flux vector deviates from that of the temperature gradient. Furthermore the radiative flux is calculated for infinitely sharp, Poisson distributed spectral lines resulting in simple expressions that provide basic insight into the effect of the motions. In particular, it is shown how incomplete line lists affect the radiative flux as a function of the velocity gradient. Finally, the connection between our formalism and the concept of the expansion opacity introduced by Karp et al. (\\cite{karp}) is discussed.

  18. Robust nonlinear position-flux zero-bias control for uncertain AMB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mystkowski, Arkadiusz; Pawluszewicz, Ewa; Dragašius, Egidijus

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a robust nonlinear control law that combines a parametric uncertainty of the single one-degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearing (AMB) system with disturbance. The robust nonlinear feedback tool such as control Lyapunov function (CLF) and robust stability techniques are developed. The control objective is to globally stabilise the mass position of an AMB with flux feedback. The flux-based control model for an AMB system is derived due to voltage switching strategy with voltage saturation. This strategy enables the flux control under a zero-bias or low-bias flux operation. In the zero-bias control, only one electromagnet in each axis of the AMB is active at any given time, depending on the rotor displacement. The proposed robust nonlinear CLF with a zero-bias for an uncertain AMB system can achieve a dynamic performance superior to that of a linear controller with the zero-bias or with the classical bias operations.

  19. The Thermodynamic Meaning of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wiechert, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) deals with the experimental determination of steady-state fluxes in metabolic networks. An important feature of the 13C MFA method is its capability to generate information on both directions of bidirectional reaction steps given by exchange fluxes. The biological interpretation of these exchange fluxes and their relation to thermodynamic properties of the respective reaction steps has never been systematically investigated. As a central result, it is shown here that for a general class of enzyme reaction mechanisms the quotients of net and exchange fluxes measured by 13C MFA are coupled to Gibbs energies of the reaction steps. To establish this relation the concept of apparent flux ratios of enzymatic isotope-labeling networks is introduced and some computing rules for these flux ratios are given. Application of these rules reveals a conceptional pitfall of 13C MFA, which is the inherent dependency of measured exchange fluxes on the chosen tracer atom. However, it is shown that this effect can be neglected for typical biochemical reaction steps under physiological conditions. In this situation, the central result can be formulated as a two-sided inequality relating fluxes, pool sizes, and standard Gibbs energies. This relation has far-reaching consequences for metabolic flux analysis, quantitative metabolomics, and network thermodynamics. PMID:17526563

  20. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  1. Long-term CH3Br and CH3Cl flux measurements in temperate salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blei, E.; Heal, M. R.; Heal, K. V.

    2010-08-01

    Fluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl and their relationship with potential drivers such as sunlight, temperature and soil moisture, were monitored at fortnightly to monthly intervals for more than two years at two contrasting temperate salt marsh sites in Scotland. Manipulation experiments were conducted to further investigate possible links between drivers and fluxes. Mean (± 1 sd) annually and diurnally-weighted net emissions from the two sites were found to be 300 ± 44 ng m-2 h-1 for CH3Br and 662 ± 266 ng m-2 h-1 for CH3Cl. A tentative scale-up indicates that salt marshes account for 0.5-3.2% and 0.05-0.33%, respectively, of currently-estimated total global production of these two gases, in line with previous findings from this and other research groups, but consistently lower than past global scale-up estimates from Southern Californian salt marshes. Fluxes followed both seasonal and diurnal trends with highest fluxes during summer days and lowest (negative) fluxes during winter nights. Statistical analysis generally did not demonstrate a strong link between temperature or sunlight levels and methyl halide fluxes, although it is likely that temperatures have a weak direct influence on emissions, and both certainly have indirect influence via the annual and daily cycles of the vegetation. CH3Cl flux magnitudes from different measurement locations depended on the plant species enclosed whereas such dependency was not discernible for CH3Br fluxes. In 14 out of 19 collars CH3Br and CH3Cl net fluxes were significantly correlated. The CH3Cl/CH3Br net-emission mass ratio was 2.2, a magnitude lower than mass ratios of global methyl halide budgets (~22) or emissions from tropical rainforests (~60). This is likely due to preference for CH3Br production by the relatively high bromine content in the salt marsh plant material.

  2. STUDY OF THE POYNTING FLUX IN ACTIVE REGION 10930 USING DATA-DRIVEN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y. L.; Wang, H. N.; He, H.; Zhu, X. S.

    2011-08-10

    Powerful solar flares are closely related to the evolution of magnetic field configuration on the photosphere. We choose the Poynting flux as a parameter in the study of magnetic field changes. We use time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations around a flare occurrence to generate the results, with the temporal variation of the bottom boundary conditions being deduced from the projected normal characteristic method. By this method, the photospheric magnetogram could be incorporated self-consistently as the bottom condition of data-driven simulations. The model is first applied to a simulation datum produced by an emerging magnetic flux rope as a test case. Then, the model is used to study NOAA AR 10930, which has an X3.4 flare, the data of which has been obtained by the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope on 2006 December 13. We compute the magnitude of Poynting flux (S{sub total}), radial Poynting flux (S{sub z} ), a proxy for ideal radial Poynting flux (S{sub proxy}), Poynting flux due to plasma surface motion (S{sub sur}), and Poynting flux due to plasma emergence (S{sub emg}) and analyze their extensive properties in four selected areas: the whole sunspot, the positive sunspot, the negative sunspot, and the strong-field polarity inversion line (SPIL) area. It is found that (1) the S{sub total}, S{sub z} , and S{sub proxy} parameters show similar behaviors in the whole sunspot area and in the negative sunspot area. The evolutions of these three parameters in the positive area and the SPIL area are more volatile because of the effect of sunspot rotation and flux emergence. (2) The evolution of S{sub sur} is largely influenced by the process of sunspot rotation, especially in the positive sunspot. The evolution of S{sub emg} is greatly affected by flux emergence, especially in the SPIL area.

  3. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Fisher, G. H.

    1996-06-01

    We study the effect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior and on the eruption of magnetic flux loops to the surface. Magnetic flux tubes experience radiative heating because (1) the mean temperature gradient in the lower convection zone and the overshoot region deviates substantially from that of radiative equilibrium, and hence there is a non-zero divergence of radiative heat flux; and (2) the magnetic pressure of the flux tube causes a small change of the thermodynamic properties within the tube relative to the surrounding field-free fluid, resulting in an additional divergence of radiative heat flux. Our calculations show that the former constitutes the dominant source of radiative heating experienced by the flux tube. In the overshoot region, the radiative heating is found to cause a quasi-static rising of the toroidal flux tubes with an upward drift velocity ˜ 10-3|δ| cm s-1, where δ ≡ ∇e - ∇ad < 0 describes the subadiabaticity in the overshoot layer. The upward drift velocity does not depend sensitively on the field strength of the flux tubes. Thus in order to store toroidal flux tubes in the overshoot region for a period comparable to the length of the solar cycle, the magnitude of the subadiabaticity δ(< 0) in the overshoot region must be as large as ˜ 3 × 10-4. We discuss the possibilities for increasing the magnitude of δ and for reducing the rate of radiative heating of the flux tubes in the overshoot region. Using numerical simulations we study the formation of ‘Ω’-shaped emerging loops from toroidal flux tubes in the overshoot region as a result of radiative heating. The initial toroidal tube is assumed to be non-uniform in its thermodynamic properties along the tube and lies at varying depths beneath the base of the convection zone. The tube is initially in a state of neutral buoyancy with the internal density of the tube plasma equal to the local external density. We find from our

  4. Enhanced Climatic Warming in the Tibetan Plateau Due to Double CO2: A Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston C.; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) regional climate model (RegCM2) with time-dependent lateral meteorological fields provided by a 130-year transient increasing CO2 simulation of the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM) has been used to investigate the mechanism of enhanced ground temperature warming over the TP (Tibetan Plateau). From our model results, a remarkable tendency of warming increasing with elevation is found for the winter season, and elevation dependency of warming is not clearly recognized in the summer season. This simulated feature of elevation dependency of ground temperature is consistent with observations. Based on an analysis of surface energy budget, the short wave solar radiation absorbed at the surface plus downward long wave flux reaching the surface shows a strong elevation dependency, and is mostly responsible for enhanced surface warming over the TP. At lower elevations, the precipitation forced by topography is enhanced due to an increase in water vapor supply resulted from a warming in the atmosphere induced by doubling CO2. This precipitation enhancement must be associated with an increase in clouds, which results in a decline in solar flux reaching surface. At higher elevations, large snow depletion is detected in the 2xCO2run. It leads to a decrease in albedo, therefore more solar flux is absorbed at the surface. On the other hand, much more uniform increase in downward long wave flux reaching the surface is found. The combination of these effects (i.e. decrease in solar flux at lower elevations, increase in solar flux at higher elevation and more uniform increase in downward long wave flux) results in elevation dependency of enhanced ground temperature warming over the TP.

  5. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  6. Carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems in China

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Ge Sun; Jiquan Chen; Hui Chen; Shiping Chen; Gang Dong

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude, spatial patterns, and controlling factors of the carbon and water fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems in China are not well understood due to the lack of ecosystem-level flux observations. We synthesized flux and micrometeorological observations from 22 eddy covariance flux sites across China,and examined the carbon fluxes, evapotranspiration (ET), and...

  7. Flux flow and flux dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, L. H.; Turchinskaya, M.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Roitburd, A.; Lundy, D.; Ritter, J.; Kaiser, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Because high temperature superconductors, including BYCO and BSSCO, are type 2 superconductors with relatively low H(sub c 1) values and high H(sub c 2) values, they will be in a critical state for many of their applications. In the critical state, with the applied field between H(sub c 1) and H(sub c 2), flux lines have penetrated the material and can form a flux lattice and can be pinned by structural defects, chemical inhomogeneities, and impurities. A detailed knowledge of how flux penetrates the material and its behavior under the influence of applied fields and current flow, and the effect of material processing on these properties, is required in order to apply, and to improve the properties of these superconductors. When the applied field is changed rapidly, the time dependence of flux change can be divided into three regions, an initial region which occurs very rapidly, a second region in which the magnetization has a 1n(t) behavior, and a saturation region at very long times. A critical field is defined for depinning, H(sub c,p) as that field at which the hysteresis loop changes from irreversible to reversible. As a function of temperature, it is found that H(sub c,p) is well described by a power law with an exponent between 1.5 and 2.5. The behavior of H(sub c,p) for various materials and its relationship to flux flow and flux dynamics are discussed.

  8. Horizontal aeolian sediment flux in the Minqin area, a major source of Chinese dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Man, Duoqing; Luo, Wanyin; Qian, Guangqiang; Wang, Jihe; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Shizeng; Zhu, Guoqinq; Zhu, Shujuan

    2010-03-01

    Minqin has become one of the key dust source areas in China due to its severely degraded eco-environment. However, little is known about how much dust is emitted and transported in this area. Aeolian dust samplers were mounted at 15 heights on a 50 m monitoring tower in Minqin in May 2007 to monitor the horizontal aeolian sediment flux. The monitoring data suggests that the total annual horizontal aeolian sediment flux over Minqin is about 8700 kg m - 1 . Of that annual total, the flux in the PM63, PM20, and PM10 size classes amounted to 1730, 780, and 580 kg m - 1 respectively. The flux in May and June accounted for 64% of the annual total, with a minimum in October. The horizontal aeolian sediment flux, including dust flux, decayed rapidly with increasing height following a modified power function, in agreement with the results of several previous studies. The sediment flux in Minqin depends primarily on the wind's characteristics, especially the maximum wind speeds (which create strong aeolian transport). Precipitation in this arid region had limited significance for reducing aeolian sediment transport. The mean diameter, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis of the aeolian sediments varied with height, but varied most significantly within 9 m above the surface. The mean diameter of the aeolian sediment ranged from 20 µm (5.6 ø) to 95 µm (3.4 ø), and thus primarily represents suspended dust, even though coarse particles of organic and salt aggregates are also present.

  9. Magnetic reconnection during eruptive magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Z. X.; Keppens, R.; Roussev, I. I.; Lin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We perform a three-dimensional (3D) high resolution numerical simulation in isothermal magnetohydrodynamics to study the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed during an eruption of a twisted magnetic flux rope (MFR). Because the twist distribution violates the Kruskal-Shafranov condition, the kink instability occurs, and the MFR is distorted. The centre part of the MFR loses its equilibrium and erupts upward, which leads to the formation of a 3D CS underneath it. Methods: In order to study the magnetic reconnection inside the CS in detail, mesh refinement has been used to reduce the numerical diffusion and we estimate a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of the CS. Results: The refined mesh allows us to resolve fine structures inside the 3D CS: a bifurcating sheet structure signaling the 3D generalization of Petschek slow shocks, some distorted-cylindrical substructures due to the tearing mode instabilities, and two turbulence regions near the upper and the lower tips of the CS. The topological characteristics of the MFR depend sensitively on the observer's viewing angle: it presents as a sigmoid structure, an outwardly expanding MFR with helical distortion, or a flare-CS-coronal mass ejection symbiosis as in 2D flux-rope models when observed from the top, the front, or the side. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesmeister, Lukas; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent - the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  11. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2011-03-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be correlated with traffic but also exhibited an inverse dependency on atmospheric stability in the near-neutral range, with higher fluxes coinciding with unstable stratification during most seasons and perhaps reflecting how changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing and caused the tower to become decoupled from street level. CO2 fluxes observed at night were not always correlated with traffic counts, probably reflecting this decoupling, but also the fact that at night heating was always a larger source than traffic. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due

  12. FLUXES FOR MECHANIZED ELECTRIC WELDING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WELDING FLUXES, WELDING ), (* WELDING , WELDING FLUXES), ARC WELDING , WELDS, STABILITY, POROSITY, WELDING RODS, STEEL, CERAMIC MATERIALS, FLUXES(FUSION), TITANIUM ALLOYS, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COPPER ALLOYS, ELECTRODEPOSITION

  13. Variability of CO2 concentrations and fluxes in and above an urban street canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietzke, Björn; Vogt, Roland

    2013-08-01

    The variability of CO2 concentrations and fluxes in dense urban environments is high due to the inherent heterogeneity of these complex areas and their spatio-temporally variable anthropogenic sources. With a focus on micro- to local-scale CO2-exchange processes, measurements were conducted in a street canyon in the city of Basel, Switzerland in 2010. CO2 fluxes were sampled at the top of the canyon (19 m) and at 39 m while vertical CO2 concentration profiles were measured in the center and at a wall of the canyon. CO2 concentration distributions in the street canyon and exchange processes with the layers above show, apart from expected general diurnal patterns due mixing layer heights, a strong dependence on wind direction relative to the canyon. As a consequence of the resulting corkscrew-like canyon vortex, accumulation of CO2 inside the canyon is modulated with distinct distribution patterns. The evaluation of diurnal traffic data provides good explanations for the vertical and horizontal differences in CO2-distribution inside the canyon. Diurnal flux characteristics at the top of the canyon can almost solely be explained with traffic density expressed by the strong linear dependence. Even the diurnal course of the flux at 39 m shows a remarkable relationship to traffic density for east wind conditions while, for west wind situations, a change toward source areas with lower emissions leads to a reduced flux.

  14. Relating the South Atlantic Anomaly and geomagnetic flux patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Pinheiro, Katia J.

    2017-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region of weak geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface, which is commonly attributed to reversed flux patches (RFPs) on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). While the SAA is clearly affected by the reversed flux region below the South Atlantic, we show that the relation between the intensity minimum at Earth's surface and RFPs is not straightforward. We map a field-dependent intensity kernel (Constable, 2007a) to study the relation between the radial geomagnetic field at the CMB and the field intensity at Earth's surface. Synthetic tests highlight the role of specific patches (reversed and normal) in determining the location of the surface intensity minimum and demonstrate that the SAA can indeed be explained by a few intense patches. We show that the level of axial dipolarity of the field determines the stability of the relation between the SAA minimum and RFPs. The present position of the SAA minimum is determined by the interplay among several robust geomagnetic flux patches at the CMB. The longitude of the SAA minimum appears near the longitude of the Patagonia RFP due to the low-latitude normal flux patches (NFPs) near Africa and mid-Atlantic which diminish the effect of the Africa RFPs. The latitude of the SAA minimum is lower than the Patagonia RFP latitude due to the South Pacific high-latitude NFP and the axial dipole effect. The motion of the SAA minimum is explained by the motions and changes in intensity of these robust geomagnetic flux patches. Simple secular variation (SV) scenarios suggest that while the SAA path can be explained by advection, its intensity decrease requires magnetic diffusion. In addition these SV scenarios provide some speculative predictions for the SAA.

  15. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-11-21

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling.

  16. Mechanisms governing radial heat fluxes in tokamak plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Razumova, K. A. Timchenko, N. N.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E.

    2016-09-15

    A method for analyzing the characteristics of turbulence responsible for radial heat transport is proposed. The method is based on the previously proposed hypotheses (to a great extent, confirmed experimentally) concerning the consistency of normalized pressure profiles in tokamak plasmas and the mechanism of internal transport barrier formation. Using the proposed approach, it is shown that, under an external action on the plasma, when the plasma heat flux onto the wall grows, the spectrum of turbulent modes broadens due to the excitation of modes with lower poloidal numbers m. Thus, in contrast to the conventional diffusion approach, the transport coefficient depends on the flux intensity. A mechanism of formation of internal transport barriers is proposed.

  17. Observations of Near-Surface Heat-Flux and Temperature Profiles Through the Early Evening Transition over Contrasting Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek D.; Nadeau, Daniel F.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    Near-surface turbulence data from the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program are used to study countergradient heat fluxes through the early evening transition. Two sites, subjected to similar large-scale forcing, but with vastly different surface and sub-surface characteristics, are considered. The Playa site is situated at the interior of a large dry lakebed desert with high sub-surface soil moisture, shallow water table, and devoid of vegetation. The Sagebrush site is located in a desert steppe region with sparse vegetation and little soil moisture. Countergradient sensible heat fluxes are observed during the transition at both sites. The transition process is both site and height dependent. At the Sagebrush site, the countergradient flux at 5 m and below occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux precedes the local temperature gradient sign change. For 10 m and above, the countergradient flux occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. At the Playa site, the countergradient flux at all tower levels occurs when the sign change of the sensible heat flux follows the local temperature gradient sign change. The phenomenon is explained in terms of the mean temperature and heat-flux evolution. The temperature gradient sign reversal is a top-down process while the flux reversal occurs nearly simultaneously at all heights. The differing countergradient behaviour is primarily due to the different subsurface thermal characteristics at the two sites. The combined high volumetric heat capacity and high thermal conductivity at the Playa site lead to small vertical temperature gradients that affect the relative magnitude of terms in the heat-flux tendency equation. A critical ratio of the gradient production to buoyant production of sensible heat flux is suggested so as to predict the countergradient behaviour.

  18. Phase versus flux coupling between resonator and superconducting flux qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenbaum, J. S.; O'Kelley, S. R.; Anton, S. M.; Nugroho, C. D.; Orlyanchik, V.; Dove, A. H.; Yoscovits, Z. R.; Olson, G. A.; van Harlingen, D. J.; Eckstein, J.; Braje, D. A.; Johnson, R. C.; Oliver, W. D.; Clarke, John

    2013-03-01

    The dispersive coupling of qubits to microwave resonators has become widely used for qubit readout. Recent advances in coupling qubits to 3D resonators have demonstrated the importance of the nature of the qubit-resonator coupling in determining the qubit relaxation and decoherence times, T1 and T2*. We study the effect of phase versus flux coupling on flux qubits coupled to planar resonators. Using an aluminum shadow evaporation technique we fabricate a low-loss planar resonator, consisting of a meandering inductor and interdigitated capacitor, and a flux qubit, all in a single processing step. Whereas the qubit and resonator are always flux coupled via a geometric mutual inductance, a phase coupling can be added by including a shared trace between the qubit and resonator. This technique allows us to control both the magnitude and nature of the qubit-resonator coupling without significantly affecting either the qubit or resonator design. We characterize the dependence of the qubit parameters T1, T2*, and spin echo time Techo on the resonator coupling parameters to gain insight into possible sources of decoherence and loss. This work was supported by ARO, IARPA, and the US Government

  19. Electronic delocalization and persistent currents in nonsymmetric-dimer mesoscopic rings threaded by magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. F.; Peng, Z. H.; Peng, R. W.; Liu, Y. M.; Qiu, F.; Huang, X. Q.; Hu, A.; Jiang, S. S.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate electronic delocalization and magnetic-flux-induced persistent current in the mesoscopic ring, which is constructed according to the nonsymmetric-dimer (NSD) model. The flux-dependent energy spectra, electronic wavefunctions, and persistent currents are theoretically obtained. It is demonstrated that due to the localization-delocalization transition of electrons, the electronic state in the NSD ring can be localized, extended, and the intermediate case between extended states and localized ones. The persistent current (PC) approaches the behavior of free electrons if the Fermi level is around the near-resonant energy. Otherwise, the PC is depressed dramatically. This conclusion could be generalized to other correlated-disordered systems.

  20. On the Magnetic Flux Conservation in the Partially Ionzied Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Yu.; Kopylova, Yu.

    2014-12-01

    The Ohm, Hall, and ambipolar diffusions in the partially ionized plasma are considered. It has been shown that the statement of Pandey and Wardle that only the Ohm diffusion is capable to decrease the magnetic flux is not sufficiently correct due to the formal dependence of the magnetic diffusion on a selected frame of reference. Thes ignificance of understanding of the physical nature for the dissipation and diffusion of the magnetic field in the partially ionized plasma as well as consequences of obtained results are discussed.

  1. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  2. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  3. Spacecraft-produced neutron fluxes on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quist, T. C.; Furst, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Baum, J. H.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Perry, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges are reported for the Skylab spacecraft. Detectors composed of uranium, thorium, and bismuth foils with mica as a fission track recorder, as well as boron foils with cellulose acetate as an alpha-particle recorder, were deployed at different positions in the Orbital Workshop. It was found that the Skylab neutron flux was dominated by high energy (greater than 1 MeV) contributions and that there was no significant time variation in the fluxes. Firm upper limits of 7-15 neutrons/sq cm-sec, depending on the detector location in the spacecraft, were established for fluxes above 1 MeV. Below 1 MeV, the neutron fluxes were about an order of magnitude lower. The neutrons are interpreted as originating from the interactions of leakage protons from the radiation belt with the spacecraft.

  4. Aquatic Eddy Correlation: Quantifying the Artificial Flux Caused by Stirring-Sensitive O2 Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Holtappels, Moritz; Noss, Christian; Hancke, Kasper; Cathalot, Cecile; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Lorke, Andreas; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the aquatic eddy correlation (EC) technique has proven to be a powerful approach for non-invasive measurements of oxygen fluxes across the sediment water interface. Fundamental to the EC approach is the correlation of turbulent velocity and oxygen concentration fluctuations measured with high frequencies in the same sampling volume. Oxygen concentrations are commonly measured with fast responding electrochemical microsensors. However, due to their own oxygen consumption, electrochemical microsensors are sensitive to changes of the diffusive boundary layer surrounding the probe and thus to changes in the ambient flow velocity. The so-called stirring sensitivity of microsensors constitutes an inherent correlation of flow velocity and oxygen sensing and thus an artificial flux which can confound the benthic flux determination. To assess the artificial flux we measured the correlation between the turbulent flow velocity and the signal of oxygen microsensors in a sealed annular flume without any oxygen sinks and sources. Experiments revealed significant correlations, even for sensors designed to have low stirring sensitivities of ~0.7%. The artificial fluxes depended on ambient flow conditions and, counter intuitively, increased at higher velocities because of the nonlinear contribution of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The measured artificial fluxes ranged from 2 - 70 mmol m-2 d-1 for weak and very strong turbulent flow, respectively. Further, the stirring sensitivity depended on the sensor orientation towards the flow. For a sensor orientation typically used in field studies, the artificial flux could be predicted using a simplified mathematical model. Optical microsensors (optodes) that should not exhibit a stirring sensitivity were tested in parallel and did not show any significant correlation between O2 signals and turbulent flow. In conclusion, EC data obtained with electrochemical sensors can be affected by artificial flux and we recommend

  5. Motion-Correlated Flow Distortion and Wave-Induced Biases in Air-Sea Flux Measurements From Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Yelland, M. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Tupman, D. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Moat, B. I.; Norris, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Direct measurements of the turbulent air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and gases are often made using sensors mounted on ships. Ship-based turbulent wind measurements are corrected for platform motion using well established techniques, but biases at scales associated with wave and platform motion are often still apparent in the flux measurements. It has been uncertain whether this signal is due to time-varying distortion of the air flow over the platform, or to wind-wave interactions impacting the turbulence. Methods for removing such motion-scale biases from scalar measurements have previously been published but their application to momentum flux measurements remains controversial. Here we use eddy covariance momentum flux measurements obtained onboard RRS James Clark Ross as part of the Waves, Aerosol and Gas Exchange Study (WAGES), a programme of near-continuous measurements using the autonomous AutoFlux system (Yelland et al., 2009). Measurements were made in 2013 in locations throughout the North and South Atlantic, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean, at latitudes ranging from 62°S to 75°N. We show that the measured motion-scale bias has a dependence on the horizontal ship velocity, and that a correction for it reduces the dependence of the measured momentum flux on the orientation of the ship to the wind. We conclude that the bias is due to experimental error, and that time-varying motion-dependent flow distortion is the likely source. Yelland, M., Pascal, R., Taylor, P. and Moat, B.: AutoFlux: an autonomous system for the direct measurement of the air-sea fluxes of CO2, heat and momentum. J. Operation. Oceanogr., 15-23, doi:10.1080/1755876X.2009.11020105, 2009.

  6. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  7. Production Flux of Sea-Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Lewis, E. R.; O'Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea-spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea-spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux with emphasis on particles with r80 (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 µm and as small as 0.01 µm. Production of sea-spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics, and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r80 < 0.25 µm and in locations with high biological activity can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities, such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface, that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  8. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Andreas, Edgar L.; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Fairall, C. W.; Lewis, Ernie R.; O'Dowd, Colin; Schulz, Michael; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r80 (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 μm and as small as 0.01 μm. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r80 < 0.25 μm and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  9. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  10. How does sampling frequency control accuracy of fluvial suspended particulate matter flux estimates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, A.; Hurtrez, J. E.; Schäfer, J.; Etcheber, H.; Blanc, G.

    2003-04-01

    Climatic change and anthropogenic actions greatly affect the environment: impacts of these factors on erosion and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) transport have been studied in different watersheds of southwest France with heterogeneous flood characteristics, vegetal cover and land use. The influence of sampling frequency on annual SPM flux estimates was analysed in two contrasted watersheds: the Garonne basin, a large plain river system (55 000 km^2), and the Nivelle basin, a small Pyrenean mountainous river system (238 km^2). Data banks derived from long-term high resolution sampling in both basins allowed to determine seasonal variations of the relation between water discharge and SPM concentrations during individual floods. High resolution diagrams of SPM concentrations versus discharge show clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops that were attributed to different sediment sources. Annual SPM fluxes were calculated for the Garonne River (La Réole) in 1994-1998, and for the Nivelle River (Saint Pée-sur-Nivelle) in 1996 by addition of daily fluxes and 30-minute fluxes, respectively. The annual SPM fluxes derived from the most complete dataset derived are considered as reference fluxes. Then, different fixed period strategies (e.g. monthly, semi-monthly, weekly, daily) corresponding to lower sampling frequencies were simulated by randomly extracting individual SPM. and water discharge data from the data base. For each simulation, the reduced dataset was used to estimate maximum and minimum annual SPM fluxes in order to determine the confidence level generated for a given sampling strategy. To obtain a reliable estimate of the SPM flux with less than 20 % error, the minimum sampling frequency is every three days for the Garonne River, whereas for the Nivelle River the minimum sampling frequency for reliable SPM flux estimation is every six hours. This difference in minimum sampling frequency between the two watersheds appears to depend rather on flow

  11. Flux Compression Magnetic Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In pulsed fusion propulsion schemes in which the fusion energy creates a radially expanding plasma, a magnetic nozzle is required to redirect the radially diverging flow of the expanding fusion plasma into a rearward axial flow, thereby producing a forward axial impulse to the vehicle. In a highly electrically conducting plasma, the presence of a magnetic field B in the plasma creates a pressure B(exp 2)/2(mu) in the plasma, the magnetic pressure. A gradient in the magnetic pressure can be used to decelerate the plasma traveling in the direction of increasing magnetic field, or to accelerate a plasma from rest in the direction of decreasing magnetic pressure. In principle, ignoring dissipative processes, it is possible to design magnetic configurations to produce an 'elastic' deflection of a plasma beam. In particular, it is conceivable that, by an appropriate arrangement of a set of coils, a good approximation to a parabolic 'magnetic mirror' may be formed, such that a beam of charged particles emanating from the focal point of the parabolic mirror would be reflected by the mirror to travel axially away from the mirror. The degree to which this may be accomplished depends on the degree of control one has over the flux surface of the magnetic field, which changes as a result of its interaction with a moving plasma.

  12. Warped Kähler potentials and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The four-dimensional effective theory for type IIB warped flux compactifications proposed in [1] is completed by taking into account the backreaction of the Kähler moduli on the three-form fluxes. The only required modification consists in a flux-dependent contribution to the chiral fields parametrising the Kähler moduli. The resulting supersymmetric effective theory satisfies the no-scale condition and consistently combines previous partial results present in the literature. Similar results hold for M-theory warped compactifications on Calabi-Yau fourfolds, whose effective field theory and Kähler potential are also discussed.

  13. Flux Noise in a Superconducting Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, F. T.

    2017-08-01

    We study a superconducting transmission line (TL) formed by distributed L C oscillators and excited by external magnetic fluxes which are aroused from random magnetization (A ) placed in substrate or (B ) distributed at interfaces of a two-wire TL. The low-frequency dynamics of a random magnetic field is described based on the diffusion Langevin equation with a short-range source caused by (a ) a random amplitude or (b ) the gradient of magnetization. For a TL modeled as a two-port network with open and shorted ends, the effective magnetic flux at the open end has nonlocal dependency on noise distribution along the TL. The flux-flux correlation function is evaluated and analyzed for the regimes (A a ), (A b ), (B a ), and (B b ). Essential frequency dispersion takes place around the inverse diffusion time of random flux along the TL. Typically, noise effect increases with size faster than the area of the TL. The flux-flux correlator can be verified both via the population relaxation rate of the qubit, which is formed by the Josephson junction shunted by the TL with flux noises, and via random voltage at the open end of the TL.

  14. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-12-15

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  15. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M V; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  16. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks.

  17. Electron heat flux instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  18. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  19. In situ Study of Bromide Tracer and Oxygen Flux in Coastal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, S.; Glud, R. N.; Gundersen, J. K.; Huettel, M.

    1999-12-01

    Laboratory and in situ experiments were performed to assess the use of bromide as a tracer forin situ studies of benthic solute exchange. Bromide was used in the benthic chamber lander ' Elinor ' for flux measurements in coastal sediments of the German Bight, Kiel Bight and Skagerrak (28-700 m water depth). Tracer and total oxygen uptake were monitored simultaneously in the same chamber incubation. Concurrently, in situ oxygen micro-profiles were recorded at the same locations by the profiling lander ' Profilur '. Deployment in an anoxic silt (Kiel Bight) confirmed that in the absence of bioturbation and advection, tracer transport into the sediment was driven solely by molecular diffusion. This flux could be well described by a simple box model accounting for molecular diffusion only. In oxic sediments (German Bight and Skagerrak) enhanced exchange of bromide tracer due to bioirrigation parallelled enhanced oxygen uptake equivalent to a 4-fold molecular diffusive flux. Our experiments showed that incubations can be short. Depending on irrigation activity of the fauna, however, incubation length should exceed 3 h in order to provide a useful data base for flux calculations. The method demonstrating caveats is discussed and indicate possible improvements. The results show how the bromide tracer addition can be used as a tool for determining solute fluxes exceeding diffusive flux in benthic chamber incubations.

  20. Energetic electron spectra and flux isotropization during different phases of solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    We will report here on the measurements of electron spectra and flux isotropization during electron energization events. We will present the results of investigating the dependence of electron spectra and flux isotropization upon solar cycle phase. It is well known that high speed solar wind streams dominate during the descending phase of the solar cycle whereas coronal mass ejections are the dominant driver of the magnetosphere during the ascending phase. Temporal evolution of electron spectra and flux isotropization may be important discriminators of models of electron energization in the Earth's outer zone. For example, radial diffusion preferentially energizes electrons of large equatorial pitch angles whereas some in-situ wave-particle energization mechanisms include concomittant pitch angle scattering leading to rapid flux isotropization. The systematics of electron energization due to different drivers may shed light upon the underlying physical processes. We will use data collected by detectors onboard SAMPEX in low earth orbit and Polar which measures electron fluxes at higher altitude to characterize flux isotropization. Electron spectra are obtained by the use of pulse height analyzed data from the PET detector onboard SAMPEX. We will use global field models such as the Tsyaganenko-04 model, to calculate thegeneralized L parameter during geomagnetically disturbed times. SAMPEX measurements cover the entire outer zone for more than a decade from mid 1992 to mid 2004 and Polar covers the time period from mid 1996 to the present.

  1. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  2. Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-06-01

    This cross-disciplinary special issue on 'Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes' follows in the footsteps of another collection of manuscripts dedicated to the subject of magnetic flux ropes, a volume on 'Physics of magnetic flux ropes' published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Monograph Series in 1990 [1]. Twenty-four years later, this special issue, composed of invited original contributions highlighting ongoing research on the physics of magnetic flux ropes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas, can be considered an update on our state of understanding of this fundamental constituent of any magnetized plasma. Furthermore, by inviting contributions from research groups focused on the study of the origins and properties of magnetic flux ropes in a variety of different environments, we have attempted to underline both the diversity of and the commonalities among magnetic flux ropes throughout the solar system and, indeed, the universe. So, what is a magnetic flux rope? The answer will undoubtedly depend on whom you ask. A flux rope can be as narrow as a few Larmor radii and as wide as the Sun (see, e.g., the contributions by Heli Hietala et al and by Angelous Vourlidas). As described below by Ward Manchester IV et al , they can stretch from the Sun to the Earth in the form of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Or, as in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment described by David Schaffner et al , they can fit into a meter-long laboratory device tended by college students. They can be helical and line-tied (see, e.g., Walter Gekelman et al or J Sears et al ), or toroidal and periodic (see, e.g., John O'Bryan et al or Philippa Browning et al ). They can form in the low plasma beta environment of the solar corona (Tibor Török et al ), the order unity beta plasmas of the solar wind (Stefan Eriksson et al ) and the plasma pressure dominated stellar convection zones (Nicholas Nelson and Mark Miesch). In this special issue, Setthivoine You

  3. The Effects of Flux Spectrum Perturbation on Transmutation of Actinides: Optimizing the Production of Transcurium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, Susan L; Maldonado, G Ivan; Alexander, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    This research presented herein involves the optimization of transcurium production in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Due to the dependence of isotope cross sections on incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the flux spectrum. There are certain energy bands in which the rate of fission of transcurium production feedstock materials is minimized, relative to the rate of non-fission absorptions. It is proposed that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to increase the amount of key isotopes, such as 249Bk and 252Cf, that are produced during a transmutation cycle, relative to the consumption of feedstock material. This optimization process is carried out by developing an iterative objective framework involving problem definition, flux spectrum and cross section analysis, simulated transmutation, and analysis of final yields and transmutation parameters. It is shown that it is possible to perturb the local flux spectrum in the transcurium target by perturbing the composition of the target. It is further shown that these perturbations are able to alter the target yields in a non-negligible way. Future work is necessary to develop the optimization framework, and identify the necessary algorithms to update the problem definition based upon progress towards the optimization goals.