Calculated viscosity-distance dependence for some actively flowing lavas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieri, David
1987-05-01
The importance of viscosity as a gauge of the various energy and momentum dissipation regimes of lava flows has been realized for a long time. Nevertheless, despite its central role in lava dynamics and kinematics, it remains among the most difficult of flow physical properties to measure in situ during an eruption. Attempts at reconstructing the actual emplacement viscosities of lava flows from their solidified topographic form are difficult. Where data are available on the position of an advancing flow front as a function of time, it is possible to calculate the effective viscosity of the front as a function of distance from the vent, under the assumptions of a steady state regime. As an application and test of an equation given, relevant parameters from five recent flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea were utilized to infer the dynamic structure of their aggregate flow front viscosity as they advanced, up to cessation. The observed form of the viscosity-distance relation for the five active Hawaiian flows examined appears to be exponential, with a rapid increase just before the flows stopped as one would expect.
Calculated viscosity-distance dependence for some actively flowing lavas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pieri, David
1987-01-01
The importance of viscosity as a gauge of the various energy and momentum dissipation regimes of lava flows has been realized for a long time. Nevertheless, despite its central role in lava dynamics and kinematics, it remains among the most difficult of flow physical properties to measure in situ during an eruption. Attempts at reconstructing the actual emplacement viscosities of lava flows from their solidified topographic form are difficult. Where data are available on the position of an advancing flow front as a function of time, it is possible to calculate the effective viscosity of the front as a function of distance from the vent, under the assumptions of a steady state regime. As an application and test of an equation given, relevant parameters from five recent flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea were utilized to infer the dynamic structure of their aggregate flow front viscosity as they advanced, up to cessation. The observed form of the viscosity-distance relation for the five active Hawaiian flows examined appears to be exponential, with a rapid increase just before the flows stopped as one would expect.
Lava flow dynamics driven by temperature-dependent viscosity variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diniega, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, S. W.; Stofan, E. R.
2011-12-01
As lava viscosity can change 1-2 orders of magnitude due to small changes in temperature, several studies have predicted the formation of low-viscosity/high-temperature "fingers" (similar to a Saffman-Taylor type instability) within an initially near-uniform flow. We examine the onset and evolution of such fingers within a uniform lava sheet flow due to an influx of lava with slightly-variable temperature. We assume Hele-shaw-type geometry (depth << other dimensions), Newtonian and laminar fluid flow, a simple Nahme's exponential law relating temperature and viscosity, and radiative heat-loss through the flow's upper surface. Through the use of numerical simulation and steady-state analysis of model equations, we identify solutions that provide pahoehoe lava flows with a natural mechanism for the formation of lava channels/tubes within a sheet flow. Preliminary results indicate that flow-focusing occurs rapidly due to the thermo-viscosity relation, but zones of hotter flow commonly settle into a new steady-state and it is difficult to create perpetually-lengthening hot-fingers of lava (which seem more physically similar to developing lava tubes). This suggests that additional and/or discontinuous physical processes (such as decreasing radiative rates due to thickening of the surface crust or crystallization abruptly retarding flow within lower-temperature regions) may play important roles in the continued growth of preferred flow zones. We also derive qualitative and quantitative estimates of environmental controls on finger size, spacing, and location. This work has application to Earth and planetary volcanology studies as pahoehoe flows dominate terrestrial basaltic lavas and the eruption/emplacement mechanics that yield long lava flows on the Earth and Mars are not yet well understood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.
2017-02-01
The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram, Paras; Joshi, Vimal Kumar; Sharma, Kushal; Walia, Mittu; Yadav, Nisha
2016-01-01
An attempt has been made to describe the effects of geothermal viscosity with viscous dissipation on the three dimensional time dependent boundary layer flow of magnetic nanofluids due to a stretchable rotating plate in the presence of a porous medium. The modelled governing time dependent equations are transformed a from boundary value problem to an initial value problem, and thereafter solved by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method in MATLAB with a shooting technique for the initial guess. The influences of mixed temperature, depth dependent viscosity, and the rotation strength parameter on the flow field and temperature field generated on the plate surface are investigated. The derived results show direct impact in the problems of heat transfer in high speed computer disks (Herrero et al. [1]) and turbine rotor systems (Owen and Rogers [2]).
Influence of the temperature-dependent viscosity on convective flow in the radial force field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Travnikov, Vadim; Zaussinger, Florian; Beltrame, Philippe; Egbers, Christoph
2017-08-01
The numerical investigation of convective flows in the radial force field caused by an oscillating electric field between spherical surfaces has been performed. A temperature difference (T1>T2 ) as well as a radial force field triggers a fluid flow similar to the Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The onset of convective flow has been studied by means of the linear stability analysis as a function of the radius ratio η =R1/R2 . The influence of the temperature-dependent viscosity has been investigated in detail. We found that a varying viscosity contrast β =ν (T2) /ν (T1) between β =1 (constant viscosity) and β =50 decreases the critical Rayleigh number by a factor of 6. Additionally, we perform a bifurcation analysis based on numerical simulations which have been calculated using a modified pseudospectral code. Numerical results have been compared with the GeoFlow experiment which is located on the International Space Station (ISS). Nonturbulent three-dimensional structures are found in the numerically predicted parameter regime. Furthermore, we observed multiple stable solutions in both experiments and numerical simulations, respectively.
Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd
2016-11-01
The surface shear viscosity of a surfactant monolayer almost always depends strongly on surface pressure, and this oft-ignored rheological feature significantly alters fluid flow and dynamics of particles on the interface. In order to illustrate the qualitatively new phenomena that arise out of pressure-dependent rheology, we focus here on a series of analytically tractable yet paradigmatic examples of lubrication geometries. Thin-gap flows naturally amplify pressure changes, and thus exemplify the effects of pressure-dependent viscosity. We show that much of the mathematical machinery from Newtonian lubrication analyses can be modified in a relatively straightforward manner in such systems. Our analysis reveals novel features such as a self-limiting flux when a surfactant is pumped through a narrow channel, a maximum approach velocity in squeeze flows due to divergent inter-particle forces, and forces perpendicular to the direction of motion that breaks symmetries associated with Newtonian analogs. We discuss the broader implications of these phenomena, especially with regard to interfacial suspension mechanics for which these lubrication geometries provide a convenient limit.
Thin film flow in MHD third grade fluid on a vertical belt with temperature dependent viscosity.
Gul, Taza; Islam, Saed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2014-01-01
In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest.
Thin Film Flow in MHD Third Grade Fluid on a Vertical Belt with Temperature Dependent Viscosity
Gul, Taza; Islam, Saed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2014-01-01
In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest. PMID:24949988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Rubel; Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmmed, S. F.
2017-06-01
Temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conducting heat and mass transfer flow with chemical reaction and periodic magnetic field past an isothermal oscillating cylinder have been considered. The partial dimensionless equations governing the flow have been solved numerically by applying explicit finite difference method with the help Compaq visual 6.6a. The obtained outcome of this inquisition has been discussed for different values of well-known flow parameters with different time steps and oscillation angle. The effect of chemical reaction and periodic MHD parameters on the velocity field, temperature field and concentration field, skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number have been studied and results are presented by graphically. The novelty of the present problem is to study the streamlines by taking into account periodic magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayachandra Babu, M.; Sandeep, N.; Ali, M. E.; Nuhait, Abdullah O.
The boundary layer flow across a slendering stretching sheet has gotten awesome consideration due to its inexhaustible pragmatic applications in nuclear reactor technology, acoustical components, chemical and manufacturing procedures, for example, polymer extrusion, and machine design. By keeping this in view, we analyzed the two-dimensional MHD flow across a slendering stretching sheet within the sight of variable viscosity and viscous dissipation. The sheet is thought to be convectively warmed. Convective boundary conditions through heat and mass are employed. Similarity transformations used to change over the administering nonlinear partial differential equations as a group of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Runge-Kutta based shooting technique is utilized to solve the converted equations. Numerical estimations of the physical parameters involved in the problem are calculated for the friction factor, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Viscosity variation parameter and chemical reaction parameter shows the opposite impact to each other on the concentration profile. Heat and mass transfer Biot numbers are helpful to enhance the temperature and concentration respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Ling; Wang, Tao
2017-06-01
We consider the Navier-Stokes equations for compressible heat-conducting ideal polytropic gases in a bounded annular domain when the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients are general smooth functions of temperature. A global-in-time, spherically or cylindrically symmetric, classical solution to the initial boundary value problem is shown to exist uniquely and converge exponentially to the constant state as the time tends to infinity under certain assumptions on the initial data and the adiabatic exponent γ. The initial data can be large if γ is sufficiently close to 1. These results are of Nishida-Smoller type and extend the work (Liu et al. (2014) [16]) restricted to the one-dimensional flows.
Viscosity-dependent protein dynamics.
Finkelstein, Ilya J; Massari, Aaron M; Fayer, M D
2007-05-15
Spectrally resolved stimulated vibrational echo spectroscopy is used to investigate the dependence of fast protein dynamics on bulk solution viscosity at room temperature in four heme proteins: hemoglobin, myoglobin, a myoglobin mutant with the distal histidine replaced by a valine (H64V), and a cytochrome c552 mutant with the distal methionine replaced by an alanine (M61A). Fructose is added to increase the viscosity of the aqueous protein solutions over many orders of magnitude. The fast dynamics of the four globular proteins were found to be sensitive to solution viscosity and asymptotically approached the dynamical behavior that was previously observed in room temperature sugar glasses. The viscosity-dependent protein dynamics are analyzed in the context of a viscoelastic relaxation model that treats the protein as a deformable breathing sphere. The viscoelastic model is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data but does not capture sufficient system detail to offer a quantitative description of the underlying fluctuation amplitudes and relaxation rates. A calibration method based on the near-infrared spectrum of water overtones was constructed to accurately determine the viscosity of small volumes of protein solutions.
The Viscosity-Temperature-Dependence of Liquids,
The viscosity-temperature- dependence of liquids of different types can be represented by the formula lg kinematic viscosity = A/T to the x power + B...if A has a constant value, only one viscosity measurement at one temperature is necessary for the characterization of the viscosity-temperature- dependence . Examples for each different case are given. (Author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedda, M.; Benlahsen, M.; Sriti, M.; Achemlal, D.
2017-09-01
In this paper, we revisit a mathematical model representing a two-dimensional forced convection boundary-layer flow over a horizontal impermeable plate with a variable heat flux and viscosity. It is assumed that the fluid viscosity varies as an inverse linear function of temperature, the free stream velocity varies as an inverse linear of x and the wall heat flux varies with x as x^{λ}; where λ > -1 and x measures the distance along the surface. Analytical local similarity solutions are presented which reveal that there are two competing effects: λ and θe; where θe is the variable viscosity parameter. It has been shown that for θe > 0 dual solutions exist and boundary separation occurs, while a unique local similarity solution exists for any θe < 0.
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.; Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.
2009-05-01
We present initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [2]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. As a test case, we apply the code to modeling flows in the HSX stellarator. Due to variations in the neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attia, H. A.
2007-04-01
It has come to the attention of the Institute of Physics that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its plagiarism of an earlier paper (Hossain A, Hossain M A and Wilson M 2001 Unsteady flow of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat transfer Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40 11-20). Therefore this article has been retracted by the Institute of Physics and by the author, Hazem Ali Attia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bluhm, Marcus; Hou, Jiaxun; Schäfer, Thomas
2017-08-01
We determine the shear viscosity of the ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity in the normal phase using hydrodynamic expansion data. The analysis is based on a generalized fluid dynamic framework which ensures a smooth transition between the fluid dynamic core of the cloud and the ballistic corona. We use expansion data taken by Joseph, Elliott, and Thomas [Shear Viscosity of a Universal Fermi Gas Near the Superfluid Phase Transition, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 020401 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.020401] and measurements of the equation of state by Ku et al. [Revealing the superfluid lambda transition in the universal thermodynamics of a unitary Fermi gas, Science 335, 563 (2012)., 10.1126/science.1214987]. We find that the shear viscosity to particle density ratio just above the critical temperature is η /n |Tc=0.41 ±0.11 . We also obtain evidence that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio has a minimum slightly above Tc with η /s| min=0.50 ±0.10 .
Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.
2008-11-01
We discuss initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1,2] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [3]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006). [3] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).
Shear instability in fluids with a density-dependent viscosity.
Steinberg, V; Ivlev, A V; Kompaneets, R; Morfill, G E
2008-06-27
We present a shear instability, which can be triggered in compressible fluids with density-dependent viscosity at shear rates above critical. The instability mechanism is generic: It is based on density-dependent viscosity, compressibility, as well as flow two-(three-)dimensionality that provides coupling between streamwise and transversal velocity components and density variations. The only factor stabilizing the instability is fluid elasticity. The corresponding eigenvalue problem for a plane Couette flow is solved analytically in the limiting cases of large and small wave numbers.
Surface folding and viscosity of rhyolite flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, Jonathan
1980-05-01
Regularly spaced ridges on rhyolite flows are analyzed through the use of a surface-folding model that was first applied to ropy structures on pahoehoe basalt flows. The requirement that there be a strong folding instability to produce regularly spaced ridges places constraints on three dimensionless parameters related to the properties of the lava and the geometry of the channel: R > 35,S < 0.02, and Ldγ > 28. R is the ratio of surface to interior viscosities, S is a ratio between the stress due to the weight of the lava and the compressive stress due to folding, and Ldγ is a dimensionless form of the ridge spacing. Estimates of strain rates and measurements of ridge spacings and thicknesses of thermal boundary layers of flows allow these three parameters to be calculated independently for a given flow lobe. For the Big Glass Mountain rhyolitic obsidian flow in northern California, R ≅ 104, S < 6.5 × 10-3, and Ldγ > 44. This compatibility between theory and observation supports the folding interpretation for ridges. Furthermore, the model allows calculation of the minimum viscosity of many flows for which such data are otherwise unavailable. The viscosities of a dacite flow in Chile and of a. possible lava flow on Mars are calculated as examples. *Present address: Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281
Molecular rotors--fluorescent biosensors for viscosity and flow.
Haidekker, Mark A; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A
2007-06-07
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid against gradients in flow (shear rate). Both flow and viscosity play an important role in all biological systems from the microscopic (e.g., cellular) to the systemic level. Many methods to measure viscosity and flow have drawbacks, such as the tedious and time-consuming measurement process, expensive instrumentation, or the restriction to bulk sample sizes. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes are known to show high sensitivity and high spatial and temporal resolution. Molecular rotors are a group of fluorescent molecules that form twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) states upon photoexcitation and therefore exhibit two competing deexcitation pathways: fluorescence emission and non-radiative deexcitation from the TICT state. Since TICT formation is viscosity-dependent, the emission intensity of molecular rotors depends on the solvent's viscosity. Furthermore, shear-stress dependency of the emission intensity was recently described. Although the photophysical processes are widely explored, the practical application of molecular rotors as sensors for viscosity and the fluid flow introduce additional challenges. Intensity-based measurements are influenced by fluid optical properties and dye concentration, and solvent-dye interaction requires calibration of the measurement system to a specific solvent. Ratiometric dyes and measurement systems help solve these challenges. In addition, the combination of molecular rotors with specific recognition groups allows them to target specific sites, for example the cell membrane or cytoplasm. Molecular rotors are therefore emerging as new biosensors for both bulk and local microviscosity, and for flow and fluid shear stress on a microscopic scale and with real-time response.
Viscosity stratified fluids in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soldati, Alfredo; Ahmadi, Somayeh; Roccon, Alessio; Zonta, Francesco
2016-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study the turbulent Poiseuille flow of two immiscible liquid layers inside a rectangular channel. A thin liquid layer (fluid 1) flows on top of a thick liquid layer (fluid 2), such that their thickness ratio is h1 /h2 = 1 / 9 . The two liquid layers have the same density but different viscosities (viscosity-stratified fluids). In particular, we consider three different values of the viscosity ratio λ =ν1 /ν2 : λ = 1 , λ = 0 . 875 and λ = 0 . 75 . Numerical Simulations are based on a Phase Field method to describe the interaction between the two liquid layers. Compared with the case of a single phase flow, the presence of a liquid-liquid interface produces a remarkable turbulence modulation inside the channel, since a significant proportion of the kinetic energy is subtracted from the mean flow and converted into work to deform the interface. This induces a strong turbulence reduction in the proximity of the interface and causes a substantial increase of the volume-flowrate. These effects become more pronounced with decreasing λ.
Ali, N; Javid, K; Sajid, M; Anwar Bég, O
2016-01-01
Peristaltic motion of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid is analyzed in a curved channel under the long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions, as a simulation of digestive transport. The flow regime is shown to be governed by a dimensionless fourth-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. A well-tested finite difference method based on an iterative scheme is employed for the solution of the boundary value problem. The important phenomena of pumping and trapping associated with the peristaltic motion are investigated for various values of rheological parameters of Carreau fluid and curvature of the channel. An increase in Weissenberg number is found to generate a small eddy in the vicinity of the lower wall of the channel, which is enhanced with further increase in Weissenberg number. For shear-thinning bio-fluids (power-law rheological index, n < 1) greater Weissenberg number displaces the maximum velocity toward the upper wall. For shear-thickening bio-fluids, the velocity amplitude is enhanced markedly with increasing Weissenberg number.
Viscosity-dependent Janus particle chain dynamics.
Ren, Bin; Kretzschmar, Ilona
2013-12-03
Iron oxide (Fe3O4) Janus particles assemble into staggered chains parallel to the field lines in an ac electric field. Subsequent application of an external magnetic field leads to contraction of the staggered chains into double chains. The relation between the viscosity of the surrounding solution and the contraction rate of the iron oxide Janus particle chains is studied. Further, the influence of particle size and chain length (i.e., number of particles in chain) on the contraction rate is investigated. The base material for the Janus structure is silica (SiO2) with particle sizes of 1, 2, and 4 μm, and the cap material is Fe3O4. Addition of increasing amounts of glycerol to the aqueous system reveals that the contraction dynamics strongly correlate with the viscosity of the solution. The average chain contraction rate for each particle size can be fitted in the low viscosity range from 1 to 30 mPa·s with a power function of the form A/μ(0.9) - B/μ, in which the coefficients A and B are particle size, electric field, and magnetic-field-dependent constants. Using this function, the viscosity of an unknown solution can be determined, thereby pointing to the potential application of these Janus particle chain assemblies as in situ microviscometers.
Eddy Viscosity in Dense Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, T.; Rognon, P.; Metzger, B.; Einav, I.
2013-08-01
We present a seminal set of experiments on dense granular flows in the stadium shear geometry. The advantage of this geometry is that it produces steady shear flow over large deformations, in which the shear stress is constant. The striking result is that the velocity profiles exhibit an S shape, and are not linear as local constitutive laws would predict. We propose a model that suggests this is a result of wall perturbations which span through the system due to the nonlocal behavior of the material. The model is analogous to that of eddy viscosity in turbulent boundary layers, in which the distance to the wall is introduced to predict velocity profiles. Our findings appear pivotal in a number of experimental and practical situations involving dense granular flows next to a boundary. They could further be adapted to other similar materials such as dense suspensions, foams, or emulsions.
Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.
Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D.; McNenly, Matthew J.
2004-07-01
For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.
Probing equilibrium glass flow up to exapoise viscosities.
Pogna, Eva Arianna Aurelia; Rodríguez-Tinoco, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Ferrante, Carino; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier; Scopigno, Tullio
2015-02-24
Glasses are out-of-equilibrium systems aging under the crystallization threat. During ordinary glass formation, the atomic diffusion slows down, rendering its experimental investigation impractically long, to the extent that a timescale divergence is taken for granted by many. We circumvent these limitations here, taking advantage of a wide family of glasses rapidly obtained by physical vapor deposition directly into the solid state, endowed with different "ages" rivaling those reached by standard cooling and waiting for millennia. Isothermally probing the mechanical response of each of these glasses, we infer a correspondence with viscosity along the equilibrium line, up to exapoise values. We find a dependence of the elastic modulus on the glass age, which, traced back to the temperature steepness index of the viscosity, tears down one of the cornerstones of several glass transition theories: the dynamical divergence. Critically, our results suggest that the conventional wisdom picture of a glass ceasing to flow at finite temperature could be wrong.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, Walter S.
1993-01-01
For a fixed heat flow, the surface flow velocity of a convecting layer is not strongly sensitive to the variation of viscosity as a function of depth. Thus, the inferred absence of a low viscosity asthenosphere on Venus can not account for the limited surface motions there. The surface velocity is dependent on the convective geometry. Cartesian geometry convection can produce large surface velocities if the high viscosity surface layer is broken in places by weak zones. On the other hand, a high viscosity surface layer may inhibit the development of large surface velocities in axisymmetric convection.
The Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Simple Liquids,
The purpose of the work is investigation of the temperature dependence of the viscosity of simple liquids on the basis of the molecular-kinetic...theory. In literature there is vast experimental material on the investigation of the viscosity of liquids and its temperature dependence both based on the
Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.
Self-similarity criteria in anisotropic flows with viscosity stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danaila, L.; Voivenel, L.; Varea, E.
2017-02-01
Variable-viscosity flows exhibit a faster trend towards a fully developed turbulent state since fluctuations are produced at a larger amount. A legitimate expectation is that self-similarity to be tenable earlier than in classical, single-viscosity flows. The question which begs to be answered is: which are the self-similarity criteria for variable-viscosity, density-matched, flows? The similarity assumption, i.e., all scales evolve in a similar fashion in space/time, is applied to the transport equation for one- and two-point statistics of anisotropic, variable-viscosity flows. It is shown that the similarity assumption is valid for regions of the flow where viscosity (mean values and the fluctuations root-mean-square) is uniform. In regions where viscosity gradients are important, such as the sheared region and jet boundaries, similarity is not tenable. Our claims are applicable to any decaying flow, isotropic or anisotropic. Support is provided by experimental data obtained in the near field region of a jet issuing into a more viscous environment. The viscosity ratio is 3.5.
Poiseuille flow to measure the viscosity of particle model fluids.
Backer, J A; Lowe, C P; Hoefsloot, H C J; Iedema, P D
2005-04-15
The most important property of a fluid is its viscosity, it determines the flow properties. If one simulates a fluid using a particle model, calculating the viscosity accurately is difficult because it is a collective property. In this article we describe a new method that has a better signal to noise ratio than existing methods. It is based on using periodic boundary conditions to simulate counter-flowing Poiseuille flows without the use of explicit boundaries. The viscosity is then related to the mean flow velocity of the two flows. We apply the method to two quite different systems. First, a simple generic fluid model, dissipative particle dynamics, for which accurate values of the viscosity are needed to characterize the model fluid. Second, the more realistic Lennard-Jones fluid. In both cases the values we calculated are consistent with previous work but, for a given simulation time, they are more accurate than those obtained with other methods.
Niemi, H; Denicol, G S; Huovinen, P; Molnár, E; Rischke, D H
2011-05-27
We investigate the influence of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity over entropy density ratio η/s on the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of hadrons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the elliptic flow in √S(NN)=200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC is dominated by the viscosity in the hadronic phase and in the phase transition region, but largely insensitive to the viscosity of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). At the highest LHC energy, the elliptic flow becomes sensitive to the QGP viscosity and insensitive to the hadronic viscosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Ran; Guo, Ai; Zhu, Changjiang
2017-04-01
We obtain existence and uniqueness of global strong solution to one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for ideal polytropic gas flow, with density dependent viscosity and temperature dependent heat conductivity under stress-free and thermally insulated boundary conditions. Here we assume viscosity coefficient μ (ρ) = 1 +ρα and heat conductivity coefficient κ (θ) =θβ for all α ∈ [ 0 , ∞) and β ∈ (0 , + ∞).
Torque Transient of Magnetically Drive Flow for Viscosity Measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lin, Bochuan; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
2004-01-01
Viscosity is a good indicator of structural changes for complex liquids, such as semiconductor melts with chain or ring structures. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental results of the transient torque technique for non-intrusive viscosity measurement. Such a technique is essential for the high temperature viscosity measurement of high pressure and toxic semiconductor melts. In this paper, our previous work on oscillating cup technique was expanded to the transient process of a magnetically driven melt flow in a damped oscillation system. Based on the analytical solution for the fluid flow and cup oscillation, a semi-empirical model was established to extract the fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results indicated that such a technique has the advantage of short measurement time and straight forward data analysis procedures
Effect of the temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity on mantle convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedek Kuslits, Lukács; Pál Farkas, Márton; Galsa, Attila
2013-04-01
Finite element numerical modeling has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of the depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity on the thermal convection occurring in the Earth's mantle. Calculations were made in a 2D spherical shell domain applying Boussinesq approximation. It was established by systematic model calculations that the stronger depth-dependence of the viscosity (higher ?) hinders the convection rather in the deeper zone of the mantle that retards the heat from the core and cools the mantle. The less vigorous convection results in slower flow and increases the mobility of the surface (the ratio of the average surface and mantle velocity). Stronger temperature-dependence of the viscosity (higher δ) has qualitatively the opposite effect. Above the core mantle boundary, which is the hottest part of the mantle, the viscosity decreases that facilitates the heat transport from the core. Whereas the cold, more viscous surface retards the heat. It warms up the mantle, decreases its average viscosity and accelerates the creep flow. Due to the cold and more viscous surface layer the mobility reduces. The observed velocity, temperate, heat flux and viscosity parameters show a power law function of δ. Two additional numerical model calculations were made with more realistic ? and δ parameters scaling the depth- and temperature-dependence of the mantle convection. In model 1 the viscosity increased exponentially 100 times (?=100) and decreased 7 orders of magnitude (δ=107) as the depth and temperature grew from the surface to the core, respectively. Owing to the strong temperature-dependence of the viscosity a rigid lid formed around the mantle that reduced the heat outcome effectively and resulted in a hot mantle. Model 2 had the viscosity scaling factors of ?=10 and δ=106, and a 30 times viscosity jump was built in model at the depth of 660 km to reflect the effect of the olivine ? perovskite + magnesiowustite mineralogical phase transition
Effect of the temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity on mantle convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuslits, L. B.; Farkas, M.
2013-12-01
Finite element numerical modeling has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of the depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity on the thermal convection occurring in the Earth's mantle. Calculations were made in a 2D spherical shell domain applying Boussinesq approximation. It was established by systematic model calculations that the stronger depth-dependence of the viscosity (higher γ) hinders the convection rather in the deeper zone of the mantle that retards the heat from the core and cools the mantle. The less vigorous convection results in slower flow and increases the mobility of the surface (the ratio of the average surface and mantle velocity). Stronger temperature-dependence of the viscosity (higher δ) has qualitatively the opposite effect. Above the core mantle boundary, which is the hottest part of the mantle, the viscosity decreases that facilitates the heat transport from the core. Whereas the cold, more viscous surface retards the heat. It warms up the mantle, decreases its average viscosity and accelerates the creep flow. Due to the cold and more viscous surface layer the mobility reduces. The observed velocity, temperate, heat flux and viscosity parameters show a power law function of δ. Two additional numerical model calculations were made with more realistic γ and δ parameters scaling the depth and temperature-dependence of the mantle convection. In model 1 the viscosity increased exponentially 100 times (γ=100) and decreased 7 orders of magnitude (δ=10^7 ) as the depth and temperature grew from the surface to the core, respectively. Owing to the strong temperature-dependence of the viscosity a rigid lid formed around the mantle that reduced the heat outcome effectively and resulted in a hot mantle. Model 2 had the viscosity scaling factors of γ=10 and δ=10^6 , and a 30 times viscosity jump was built in model at the depth of 660 km to reflect the effect of the olivine ! perovskite + magnesiowustite mineralogical phase
Prediction of Anomalous Blood Viscosity in Confined Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiébaud, Marine; Shen, Zaiyi; Harting, Jens; Misbah, Chaouqi
2014-06-01
Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood model under a confined linear shear flow reveal that confinement markedly modifies the properties of blood flow. A nontrivial spatiotemporal organization of blood elements is shown to trigger hitherto unrevealed flow properties regarding the viscosity η, namely ample oscillations of its normalized value [η]=(η-η0)/(η0ϕ) as a function of hematocrit ϕ (η0=solvent viscosity). A scaling law for the viscosity as a function of hematocrit and confinement is proposed. This finding can contribute to the conception of new strategies to efficiently detect blood disorders, via in vitro diagnosis based on confined blood rheology. It also constitutes a contribution for a fundamental understanding of rheology of confined complex fluids.
Probing equilibrium glass flow up to exapoise viscosities
Pogna, Eva Arianna Aurelia; Rodríguez-Tinoco, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Ferrante, Carino; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier; Scopigno, Tullio
2015-01-01
Glasses are out-of-equilibrium systems aging under the crystallization threat. During ordinary glass formation, the atomic diffusion slows down, rendering its experimental investigation impractically long, to the extent that a timescale divergence is taken for granted by many. We circumvent these limitations here, taking advantage of a wide family of glasses rapidly obtained by physical vapor deposition directly into the solid state, endowed with different “ages” rivaling those reached by standard cooling and waiting for millennia. Isothermally probing the mechanical response of each of these glasses, we infer a correspondence with viscosity along the equilibrium line, up to exapoise values. We find a dependence of the elastic modulus on the glass age, which, traced back to the temperature steepness index of the viscosity, tears down one of the cornerstones of several glass transition theories: the dynamical divergence. Critically, our results suggest that the conventional wisdom picture of a glass ceasing to flow at finite temperature could be wrong. PMID:25675511
Temperature Dependence of Viscosities of Common Carrier Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sommers, Trent S.; Nahir, Tal M.
2005-01-01
Theoretical and experimental evidence for the dependence of viscosities of the real gases on temperature is described, suggesting that this dependence is greater than that predicted by the kinetic theory of gases. The experimental results were obtained using common modern instrumentation and could be reproduced by students in analytical or…
Temperature Dependence of Viscosities of Common Carrier Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sommers, Trent S.; Nahir, Tal M.
2005-01-01
Theoretical and experimental evidence for the dependence of viscosities of the real gases on temperature is described, suggesting that this dependence is greater than that predicted by the kinetic theory of gases. The experimental results were obtained using common modern instrumentation and could be reproduced by students in analytical or…
An eddy viscosity calculation method for a turbulent duct flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antonia, R. A.; Bisset, D. K.; Kim, J.
1991-01-01
The mean velocity profile across a fully developed turbulent duct flow is obtained from an eddy viscosity relation combined with an empirical outer region wake function. Results are in good agreement with experiments and with direct numerical simulations in the same flow at two Reynolds numbers. In particular, the near-wall trend of the Reynolds shear stress and its variation with Reynolds number are similar to those of the simulations. The eddy viscosity method is more accurate than previous mixing length or implicit function methods.
Effect of viscosity ratio on the motion of drops flowing on an inclined surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aberuee, M.; Mortazavi, S.
2017-06-01
The flow of two-dimensional drops on an inclined channel is studied by numerical simulations at finite Reynolds numbers. The effect of viscosity ratio on the behaviour of the two-phase medium is examined. The flow is driven by the acceleration due to gravity, and there is no pressure gradient along the flow direction. An implicit version of the finite difference/front-tracking method was developed and used in the present study. The lateral migration of a drop is studied first. It is found that the equilibrium position of a drop moves away from the channel floor as the viscosity ratio increases. However, the trend reverses beyond a certain viscosity ratio. Simulations with 40 drops in a relatively large channel show that there exists a limiting viscosity ratio where the drops behave like solid particles, and the effect of internal circulation of drops becomes negligible. This limiting condition resembles the granular flow regime except that the effect of interstitial fluid is present. The limiting viscosity ratio depends on the flow conditions (80 for Re=10 , and 200 for Re=20 ). There are two peaks in the areal fraction distribution of drops across the channel which is different from granular flow regime. It is also found that the peak in areal fraction distribution of drops moves away from the channel floor as the inclination angle of the channel increases.
Apparent Viscosity of Active Nematics in Poiseuille Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Zhenlu; Su, Jianbing; Zeng, Xiaoming
2015-09-01
A Leslie-Erickson continuum hydrodynamic for flowing active nematics has been used to characterize active particle systems such as bacterial suspensions. The behavior of such a system under a plane pressure-driven Poiseuille flow is analyzed. When plate anchoring is tangential and normal, we find the apparent viscosity formula indicating a significant difference between tangential anchoring and normal anchoring conditions for both active rodlike and discoid nematics.
The Effect of Variable Viscosities on Micropolar Flow of Two Nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Saleem, S.
2016-12-01
A study of nanofluids is carried out that reveals the effect of rotational inertia and other physical parameters on the heat transfer and fluid flow. Temperature-dependent dynamic viscosity makes the microrotation viscosity parameter and the micro inertia density variant as well. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by introducing suitable similarity transformations. These reduced nonlinear differential equations are then solved numerically by Keller-box method. The obtained numerical and graphical result discloses many interesting behaviour of nanofluids. It is seen that the temperature gradient decreases with the increase in viscosity parameter. Also, it is observed that with the fixed values of micropolar parameter and viscosity parameter, the velocity gradient near the wall increases with increasing values of solid particle volume fraction parameter. A suitable comparison of results is also presented in this study.
NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina
2016-04-01
After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy
Temperature and pressure dependences of kimberlite melts viscosity (experimental-theoretical study)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persikov, Eduard; Bykhtiyarov, Pavel; Cokol, Alexsander
2016-04-01
Experimental data on temperature and pressure dependences of viscosity of model kimberlite melts (silicate 82 + carbonate 18, wt. %, 100NBO/T = 313) have been obtained for the first time at 100 MPa of CO2 pressure and at the lithostatic pressures up to 7.5 GPa in the temperature range 1350 oC - 1950 oC using radiation high gas pressure apparatus and press free split-sphere multi - anvil apparatus (BARS). Experimental data obtained on temperature and pressure dependences of viscosity of model kimberlite melts at moderate and high pressures is compared with predicted data on these dependences of viscosity of basaltic melts (100NBO/T = 58) in the same T, P - range. Dependences of the viscosity of model kimberlite and basaltic melts on temperature are consistent to the exponential Arrenian equation in the T, P - range of experimental study. The correct values of activation energies of viscous flow of kimberlite melts have been obtained for the first time. The activation energies of viscous flow of model kimberlite melts exponentially increase with increasing pressure and are equal: E = 130 ± 1.3 kJ/mole at moderate pressure (P = 100 MPa) and E = 160 ± 1.6 kJ/mole at high pressure (P = 5.5 GPa). It has been established too that the viscosity of model kimberlite melts exponentially increases on about half order of magnitude with increasing pressures from 100 MPa to 7.5 GPa at the isothermal condition (1800 oC). It has been established that viscosity of model kimberlite melts at the moderate pressure (100 MPa) is lover on about one order of magnitude to compare with the viscosity of basaltic melts, but at high pressure range (5.5 - 7.5 GPa), on the contrary, is higher on about half order of magnitude at the same values of the temperatures. Here we use both a new experimental data on viscosity of kimberlite melts and our structural chemical model for calculation and prediction the viscosity of magmatic melts [1] to determine the fundamental features of viscosity of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balachandar, S.; Yuen, D. A.; Reuteler, D. M.
1995-01-01
We have applied spectral-transform methods to study three-dimensional thermal convection with temperature-dependent viscosity. The viscosity varies exponentially with the form exp(-BT), where B controls the viscosity contrast and T is temperature. Solutions for high Rayleigh numbers, up to an effective Ra of 6.25 x 10(exp 6), have been obtained for an aspect-ratio of 5x5x1 and a viscosity contrast of 25. Solutions show the localization of toroidal velocity fields with increasing vigor of convection to a coherent network of shear-zones. Viscous dissipation increases with Rayleigh number and is particularly strong in regions of convergent flows and shear deformation. A time-varying depth-dependent mean-flow is generated because of the correlation between laterally varying viscosity and velocity gradients.
Flow-induced agitations create a granular fluid: effective viscosity and fluctuations.
Nichol, Kiri; van Hecke, Martin
2012-06-01
We fluidize a granular medium with localized stirring in a split-bottom shear cell. We probe the mechanical response of quiescent regions far from the main flow by observing the vertical motion of cylindrical probes rising, sinking, and floating in the grains. First, we find that the probe motion suggests that the granular material behaves in a liquid-like manner: high-density probes sink and low-density probes float at the depth given by Archimedes' law. Second, we observe that the drag force on moving probes scales linearly with their velocity, which allows us to define an effective viscosity for the system. This effective viscosity is inversely proportional to the rotation rate of the disk which drives the split bottom flow. Moreover, the apparent viscosity depends on radius and mass of the probe: despite the linear dependence of the drag forces on sinking speed of the probe, the granular medium is not simply Newtonian, but exhibits a more complex rheology. The decrease of viscosity with filling height of the cell, combined with the poor correlation between local strain rate and viscosity, suggests that the fluid-like character of the material is set by agitations generated in the stirred region: the relation between applied stress and observed strain rate in one location depends on the strain rate in another location. We probe the nature of the granular fluctuations that we believe mediates these nonlocal interactions by characterizing the small and random up and down motion that the probe experiences. These Gaussian fluctuations exhibit a mix of diffusive and subdiffusive behavior at short times and saturate at a value of roughly 1/10th of a grain diameter longer times, consistent with the picture of a random walker in a potential well. The product of crossover time and effective viscosity is constant, evidencing a direct link between fluctuations and viscosity.
Interplay of shear and bulk viscosity in generating flow in heavy-ion collisions
Song, Huichao; Heinz, Ulrich
2010-02-15
We perform viscous hydrodynamic calculations in 2+1 dimensions to investigate the influence of bulk viscosity on the viscous suppression of elliptic flow in noncentral heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies. Bulk and shear viscous effects on the evolution of radial and elliptic flow are studied with different model assumptions for the transport coefficients. We find that the temperature dependence of the relaxation time for the bulk viscous pressure, especially its critical slowing-down near the quark-hadron phase transition at T{sub c}, partially offsets effects from the strong growth of the bulk viscosity itself near T{sub c} and that even small values of the specific shear viscosity eta/s of the fireball matter can be extracted without large uncertainties from poorly controlled bulk viscous effects.
Blood viscosity changes in slow coronary flow patients.
Ergun-Cagli, Kumral; Ileri-Gurel, Esin; Ozeke, Ozcan; Seringec, Nurten; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Kocabeyoglu, Sabit; Basar, Fatma Nurcan; Sen, Nihat; Cagli, Kerim; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan
2011-01-01
Microvascular dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of slow coronary flow (SCF), but less attention has been paid to intrinsic properties of blood that can also impair the microcirculatory flow. In this study we aimed to evaluate the blood viscosity focusing on erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability and plasma viscosity in SCF. Thirty-three patients with SCF (21 male, 54 ± 12.8 years) and 23 subjects with normal coronary arteries (13 male, 59 ± 10.3 years) were included in the study. Coronary flow was quantified by means of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count and aggregation and deformability of erythrocytes were measured by an ektacytometer. Plasma viscosity was measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Aggregation amplitude (23 ± 3.8 au vs. 15.7 ± 6.1 au, respectively, p < 0.001) and area A index (area above syllectogram) (153.2 ± 30.7 au.s vs. 124.9 ± 49.3 au.s, respectively, p < 0.01) were higher in SCF patients. Aggregation half-time, aggregation index, elongation index and plasma viscosity values were similar between two groups. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between the TIMI frame count for left anterior descending artery and aggregation amplitude in SCF patients (r = 0.679, p < 0.0001). The result of this study reveals changes in erythrocyte aggregation which may contribute to the pathophysiology of SCF. Larger studies are needed to make more robust conclusions on this issue.
Coupled Marangoni-Benard/Rayleigh-Benard Instability with Temperature Dependent Viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skarda, J. Raymond Lee; Mccaughan, Frances E.
1994-01-01
The onset of convection induced by coupled surface tension gradient and buoyancy forces is investigated with temperature dependent viscosity. Both surface tension and viscosity are assumed to vary linearly with temperature. The limiting case, Ma=0, is the buoyancy driven convection problem typically referred to as the Rayleigh-Benard stability problem. The other limiting case, Ra=0, is the surface tension (gradient) driven flow problem referred to as the Marangoni-Benard problem. The equations and boundary conditions obtained from the linear analysis are solved numerically as a generalized eigenvalue problem. Neutral stability curves for different viscosity slopes have been generated for the Marangoni-Benard and Rayleigh-Benard problems. It is shown that the curves can be collapsed to a single curve by appropriately scaling the results for each of the limiting cases. The critical Marangoni number is determined as a function of the slope of the viscosity temperature variation, epsilon, for different values of the Rayleigh number. When the viscosity decreases linearly with temperature, the coupled buoyancy-surface tension problem, including the limiting cases of Ra=0 and Ma=0, is found to be more stable than the constant viscosity case.
King, D M; Wang, Z; Kendig, J W; Palmer, H J; Holm, B A; Notter, R H
2001-07-01
The bulk shear viscosities of aqueous dispersions of lavaged calf lung surfactant (LS) and its chloroform:methanol extract (CLSE) were measured as a function of concentration, shear rate and temperature. At 10-mg phospholipid per milliliter, dispersions of LS and vortexed CLSE in 0.15 M NaCl (saline) had low viscosities near 1 cp over a range of shear rates from 225 to 1125 s(-1). Lung surfactant viscosity increased with phospholipid concentration and became strongly non-Newtonian with higher values at low shear rates. At 37 degrees C and 40 mg/ml, LS and vortexed CLSE in saline had viscosities of 38 and 34 cp (77 s(-1)) and 12 and 7 cp (770 s(-1)), respectively. Viscosity values for LS and CLSE were dependent on temperature and, at fixed shear, were lower at 23 degrees C than at 37 or 10 degrees C. Hysteresis was also present in viscosity measurements depending on whether shear rate was successively increased or decreased during study. Addition of 5 mM Ca(2+) at 37 degrees C markedly reduced CLSE viscosity at all shear rates and decreased LS viscosity at low shear rates. Dispersion by sonication rather than vortexing increased the viscosity of CLSE at fixed shear, while synthetic phospholipids dispersed by either method had low, relatively Newtonian viscosities. The complex viscous behavior of dispersions of LS and CLSE in saline results from their heterogeneous aggregated microstructure of phospholipids and apoproteins. Viscosity is influenced not only by the aggregate surface area under shear, but also by phospholipid-apoprotein interactions and aggregate structure/deformability. Similar complexities likely affect the viscosities of biologically-derived exogenous surfactant preparations administered to patients in clinical surfactant therapy.
Convection in colloidal suspensions with particle-concentration-dependent viscosity.
Glässl, M; Hilt, M; Zimmermann, W
2010-07-01
The onset of thermal convection in a horizontal layer of a colloidal suspension is investigated in terms of a continuum model for binary-fluid mixtures where the viscosity depends on the local concentration of colloidal particles. With an increasing difference between the viscosity at the warmer and the colder boundary the threshold of convection is reduced in the range of positive values of the separation ratio psi with the onset of stationary convection as well as in the range of negative values of psi with an oscillatory Hopf bifurcation. Additionally the convection rolls are shifted downwards with respect to the center of the horizontal layer for stationary convection psi>0 and upwards for the Hopf bifurcation (psi<0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dijkstra, Yoeri M.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Burchard, Hans
2017-05-01
We present a systematic analysis of generation mechanisms for exchange flows in partially stratified estuaries using water column (1DV) and width-averaged (2DV) numerical models. We focus on exchange flows generated by eddy viscosity-shear covariance (ESCO). We identify two distinctly different physical mechanisms. The first, tidal ESCO circulation, results from interactions between the barotropic tide and temporal variations of the eddy viscosity. While this flow is mostly generated by direct interactions between the tide and eddy viscosity variations at the main tidal frequency, a similarly important contribution can be attributed to indirect interactions. These are more complex interactions involving eddy viscosity variations at other frequencies than the main tidal frequency (e.g., M4). The second mechanism is called gravitational ESCO circulation. This results from an amplification of the gravitational circulation through indirect interactions between the gravitational circulation and temporal variations of the eddy viscosity at any time scale. Tidal and gravitational ESCO circulations are generated by different mechanisms and have a different dependency on the phase and frequency of eddy viscosity variations and the density gradient. The relative contributions of gravitational circulation and tidal and gravitational ESCO circulation to the exchange flow are typically 1/3 each in tidally energetic well-mixed or partially stratified estuaries. The results are generalized using an idealized width-averaged model of the Scheldt River estuary. This model confirms the results of the water column model and additionally shows that temporal variations of turbulence not captured in the water column model have a significant effect on the exchange flow.
From viscosity and surface tension to marangoni flow in melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shouyi; Zhang, Ling; Jahanshahi, Sharif
2003-10-01
This article covers some of our recent work on slag viscosity, the surface tension of liquid Cu-O alloys, and the relative role of Marangoni and bulk flow on refractory wear in iron-silicate slags. A viscosity model developed for slags containing SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, FeO, PbO, NiO, Cu2O, ZnO, CoO, and TiO2 is capable of representing the effects of temperature, silica, and network-modifier cations within a wide range of temperatures and compositions. It forms a useful part of a computational package for multiphase-equilibrium (MPE) calculations and for predicting slag viscosities. The models are well applicable to a range of industrial slags (blast furnace, new iron making, base-metal and Platinum Group Metals (PGM) smelting, and coal-ash slags). The package has also some capability of predicting the viscosity of slags containing suspended solids. The surface tension of liquid copper-oxygen alloys has also been analyzed. The adsorption behavior of oxygen in liquid copper is well represented by the combined Langmuir-Gibbs isotherm. According to the rate data for silica-rod dissolution in liquid iron-silicate slags at 1573 K, the preferential attack at the slag line diminishes as the linear velocity of flow at the surface of the rotating silica rod reaches 9 to 16 cm/s. A tentative analysis gives the critical condition, that relates the critical Reynolds (Re) and Marangoni (Ma) number by the equation Re*2=0.13 Ma*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ting; Gurnis, Michael
2016-11-01
Lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) in the mantle influence geodynamic processes and their surface expressions. With the observed long-wavelength geoid, free-air anomaly, gravity gradient in three directions and discrete, high-accuracy residual topography, we invert for depth- and temperature-dependent and tectonically regionalized mantle viscosity with a mantle flow model. The inversions suggest that long-wavelength gravitational and topographic signals are mainly controlled by the radial viscosity profile; the pre-Cambrian lithosphere viscosity is slightly (˜ one order of magnitude) higher than that of oceanic and Phanerozoic lithosphere; plate margins are substantially weaker than plate interiors; and viscosity has only a weak apparent, dependence on temperature, suggesting either a balancing between factors or a smoothing of actual higher amplitude, but short wavelength, LVVs. The predicted large-scale lithospheric stress regime (compression or extension) is consistent with the world stress map (thrust or normal faulting). Both recent compiled high-accuracy residual topography and the predicted dynamic topography yield ˜1 km amplitude long-wavelength dynamic topography, inconsistent with recent studies suggesting amplitudes of ˜100 to ˜500 m. Such studies use a constant, positive admittance (transfer function between topography and gravity), in contrast to the evidence which shows that the earth has a spatially and wavelength-dependent admittance, with large, negative admittances between ˜4000 and ˜104 km wavelengths.
Temperature-Dependent Conformations of Model Viscosity Index Improvers
Ramasamy, Uma Shantini; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Martini, Ashlie
2015-05-01
Lubricants are comprised of base oils and additives where additives are chemicals that are deliberately added to the oil to enhance properties and inhibit degradation of the base oils. Viscosity index (VI) improvers are an important class of additives that reduce the decline of fluid viscosity with temperature [1], enabling optimum lubricant performance over a wider range of operating temperatures. These additives are typically high molecular weight polymers, such as, but not limited to, polyisobutylenes, olefin copolymer, and polyalkylmethacrylates, that are added in concentrations of 2-5% (w/w). Appropriate polymers, when dissolved in base oil, expand from a coiled to an uncoiled state with increasing temperature [2]. The ability of VI additives to increase their molar volume and improve the temperature-viscosity dependence of lubricants suggests there is a strong relationship between molecular structure and additive functionality [3]. In this work, we aim to quantify the changes in polymer size with temperature for four polyisobutylene (PIB) based molecular structures at the nano-scale using molecular simulation tools. As expected, the results show that the polymers adopt more conformations at higher temperatures, and there is a clear indication that the expandability of a polymer is strongly influenced by molecular structure.
Lee, Seungho; Kang, Da Young; Park, Miri; Williams, P Stephen
2011-05-01
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) is a useful technique for fast separation of micrometer-sized particles. Different sized particles are carried at different velocities by a flow of fluid along an unobstructed thin channel, resulting in a size-based separation. They are confined to thin focused layers in the channel thickness where force due to gravity is exactly opposed by hydrodynamic lift forces (HLF). It has been reported that the HLF are a function of various parameters including the flow rate (or shear rate), the size of the particles, and the density and viscosity of the liquid. The dependence of HLF on these parameters offers a means of altering the equilibrium transverse positions of the particles in GrFFF, and hence their elution times. In this study, the effect of the viscosity of the carrier fluid on the elution behavior (retention, zone broadening, and resolution) of micrometer-sized particles in GrFFF was investigated using polystyrene (PS) latex beads as model particles. In order to change the carrier liquid viscosity without affecting its density, various amounts of (hydroxypropyl) methyl cellulose (HPMC) were added to the aqueous carrier liquid. It was found that particles migrate at faster rates as the carrier viscosity is increased, which confirms the dependence of HLF on viscosity. At the same time, particle size selectivity decreased but peak shape and symmetry for the more strongly retained particles improved. As a result, separation was improved in terms of both the separation time and resolution with increase of carrier viscosity. A theoretical model for plate height in GrFFF is also presented, and its predictions are compared to experimentally measured values.
A local eddy viscosity model for turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortwerth, P. J.; Rabe, D. C.; Mcerlean, D. P.
1973-01-01
In the model described, the eddy viscosity is assumed to be a fluid property dependent on the state of the fluid locally, namely the local density, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence scale, and Mach number. An empirical law was found which related eddy viscosity to these properties satisfactorily for free jets. This law is used without modification for a set of test cases in free shear layers, free-jet decay, coaxial mixing, and wakes. The scale of turbulence is taken as a constant at any axial location equal to the width of the shear layer. By utilizing the boundary-layer order-of-magnitude analysis, a coupled set of fluid dynamic equations is formulated, which of necessity includes the equation for the production of turbulent kinetic energy.
Effect of viscosity and shear flow on the nonlinear two fluid interfacial structures
Banerjee, Rahul
2012-12-15
A nonlinear formulation is presented to deal with the combined action of Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as well as combined Ricthmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the two fluid interface under the influence of viscosity and consequent shear flow. Using Layzer's model, the development of the interfacial structures like bubbles is investigated analytically and numerically. It is found that the growth and normal velocity of the structures are dependent on the relative velocity shear and the kinematic coefficient of viscosity of both the fluids. Both the bubble growth and growth rate are reduced significantly for fluids of higher viscosity coefficient with small velocity shear difference. It is also observed that, for viscous fluids, the transverse velocity of the perturbed interface becomes slower under certain conditions.
Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard
2011-02-15
In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)
Effects of nonlinear viscosity on plasma flow induced island healing in stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegna, C. C.
2012-10-01
The theory of island healing by plasma flows in stellarators [1] is extended to include the effects of nonlinear neoclassical viscosity. The theory was developed in an effort to explain observations from LHD that showed spontaneous healing of vacuum islands when a critical β is exceeded. The theory uses torque balance and island evolution equations to describe transitions between states with large non-rotating islands to states where rotation shielding suppresses island formation. The balance of neoclassical damping and cross-field viscosity produces a radial boundary layer for the plasma rotation profile outside the separatrix of a locked magnetic island. The boundary layer width is related to the strength of the healing viscous torque. This work is extended by accounting for the nonlinear dependence of the neoclassical flow damping coefficients on the plasma flow. In the small flow limit, the resulting viscous torque is linear with the plasma flow. However, in sufficiently collisionless plasmas, nonlinear viscosity effects are important and the resultant viscous torque is proportional to the square-root of the plasma flow velocity. Implications for magnetic island/transport barrier interactions will be discussed. [4pt] [1] C. C. Hegna, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113017 (2011)
Mechanics of nectar feeding in the orchid bee Euglossa imperialis: pressure, viscosity and flow.
Borrell, Brendan J
2006-12-01
The orchid bee Euglossa imperialis sucks nectars through a slender proboscis. I tested how nectar properties influence this suction pressure and whether ambient air pressure sets the upper limit for suction feeding. Nectar intake rate was measured as a function of sucrose concentration (5-75% w/w), nectar viscosity (2-80 mPa s), and ambient pressure (101-40 kPa). Intake rate declines from about 1.2 mul s(-1) to 0.003 mul s(-1) as sucrose concentration increases from 15% to 65% sucrose. When sucrose concentration is held at 25% while viscosity increases from 2 to 80 mPa s, intake rate declines. When viscosity is held at 10.2 mPa s (the viscosity of 50% sucrose) while sucrose concentration increases from 5% to 50%, intake rate remains constant. Intake rate was limited by a reduction in ambient pressure at all nectar concentrations. Assuming a rigid proboscis, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation suggests that suction pressure increases with viscosity from 10 kPa at 5% sucrose to 45 kPa at 65% sucrose. However, because intake rate declined by the same fraction under hypobaria (40 kPa) at all sucrose concentrations, the euglossine bee proboscis may be better described as a collapsible tube: expanding or collapsing depending on the flow rate, the pressure gradient along the proboscis, and circumferential forces imposed by the proboscis walls.
Solvent viscosity dependence of the folding rate of a small protein: distributed computing study.
Zagrovic, Bojan; Pande, Vijay
2003-09-01
By using distributed computing techniques and a supercluster of more than 20,000 processors we simulated folding of a 20-residue Trp Cage miniprotein in atomistic detail with implicit GB/SA solvent at a variety of solvent viscosities (gamma). This allowed us to analyze the dependence of folding rates on viscosity. In particular, we focused on the low-viscosity regime (values below the viscosity of water). In accordance with Kramers' theory, we observe approximately linear dependence of the folding rate on 1/gamma for values from 1-10(-1)x that of water viscosity. However, for the regime between 10(-4)-10(-1)x that of water viscosity we observe power-law dependence of the form k approximately gamma(-1/5). These results suggest that estimating folding rates from molecular simulations run at low viscosity under the assumption of linear dependence of rate on inverse viscosity may lead to erroneous results.
Frequency-Dependent Viscosity of Xenon Near the Critical Point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.
1999-01-01
We used a novel, overdamped oscillator aboard the Space Shuttle to measure the viscosity eta of xenon near its critical density rho(sub c), and temperature T(sub c). In microgravity, useful data were obtained within 0.1 mK of T(sub c), corresponding to a reduced temperature t = (T -T(sub c))/T(sub c) = 3 x 10(exp -7). The data extend two decades closer to T(sub c) than the best ground measurements, and they directly reveal the expected power-law behavior eta proportional to t(sup -(nu)z(sub eta)). Here nu is the correlation length exponent, and our result for the small viscosity exponent is z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006. (All uncertainties are one standard uncertainty.) Our value for z(sub eta) depends only weakly on the form of the viscosity crossover function, and it agrees with the value 0.067 +/- 0.002 obtained from a recent two-loop perturbation expansion. The measurements spanned the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz and revealed viscoelasticity when t less than or equal to 10(exp -1), further from T(sub c) than predicted. The viscoelasticity scales as Af(tau), where tau is the fluctuation-decay time. The fitted value of the viscoelastic time-scale parameter A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop perturbation calculation. Near T(sub c), the xenon's calculated time constant for thermal diffusion exceeded days. Nevertheless, the viscosity results were independent of the xenon's temperature history, indicating that the density was kept near rho(sub c), by judicious choices of the temperature vs. time program. Deliberately bad choices led to large density inhomogeneities. At t greater than 10(exp -5), the xenon approached equilibrium much faster than expected, suggesting that convection driven by microgravity and by electric fields slowly stirred the sample.
Length-Scale Dependent Viscosity in Semidilute Polyelectrolyte Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poling-Skutvik, Ryan; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Conrad, Jacinta
2015-03-01
Using optical microscopy and particle tracking algorithms, we measured the mean-squared displacements (MSDs) of fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameters ranging from 300 nm to 2 μm suspended in semidilute solutions of high molecular weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The solutions had polymer concentrations ranging from 0.67 to 67c*, where c* is the overlap concentration, and estimated correlation lengths of ~ 100 to 900 nm. At short times, the particles exhibited subdiffusive behavior characterized by MSD ~tα with α < 1 . On long time scales, the particles transitioned to Fickian diffusion (α = 1) and their diffusivity was calculated from the slope of the MSD. Whereas the large particles agreed with predictions using the Stokes-Einstein equation and bulk zero-shear viscosity, the smaller particles diffused much faster than predicted. The relative diffusivities do not collapse onto a single curve, but rather form a continuum that varies with particle size. This indicates that the particles experience a size-dependent effective viscosity mediated by the ratio of particle diameter to characteristic length scales in the polymer solution.
Dependence of red edge on eddy viscosity model parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deupree, R. G.; Cole, P. W.
1980-01-01
The dependence of the red edge location on the two fundamental free parameters in the eddy viscosity treatment was extensively studied. It is found that the convective flux is rather insensitive to any reasonable or allowed value of the two free parameters of the treatment. This must be due in part to the fact that the convective flux is determined more by the properties of the hydrogen ionization region than by differences in convective structure. The changes in the effective temperature of the red edge of the RR Lyrae gap resulting from these parameter variations is quite small (approximately 150 K). This is true both because the parameter variation causes only small changes and because large changes in the convective flux are required to produce any significant change in red edge location. The possible changes found are substantially less than the approximately 600 K required to change the predicted helium abundance mass fraction from 0.3 to 0.2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shit, G. C.; Majee, Sreeparna
2015-08-01
Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank-Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance.
A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field.
Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru
2004-07-21
As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow.
Flow fields in soap films: Relating viscosity and film thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.
2009-08-01
We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles in soap films with varying h/d , where h is the thickness of the film and d is the diameter of the particles. The hydrodynamics of these films are determined by looking at the correlated motion of pairs of particles as a function of separation R . The Trapeznikov approximation [A. A. Trapeznikov, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Surface Activity (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 242] is used to model soap films as an effective two-dimensional (2D) fluid in contact with bulk air phases. The flow fields determined from correlated particle motions show excellent agreement with what is expected for the theory of 2D fluids for all our films where 0.6≤h/d≤14.3 , with the 2D shear viscosity matching that predicted by Trapeznikov. However, the parameters of these flow fields change markedly for thick films (h/d>7±3) . Our results indicate that three-dimensional effects become important for these thicker films, despite the flow fields still having a 2D character.
Effect of plasma exchange on blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow.
Brown, M M; Marshall, J
1982-01-01
The effects of plasma exchange using a low viscosity plasma substitute on blood viscosity and cerebral blood flow were investigated in eight subjects with normal cerebral vasculature. Plasma exchange resulted in significant reductions in plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, globulin and fibrinogen concentration without affecting packed cell volume. The reduction in whole blood viscosity was more pronounced at low shear rates suggesting an additional effect on red cell aggregation. Despite the fall in viscosity there was no significant change in cerebral blood flow. The results support the metabolic theory of autoregulation. Although changes in blood viscosity appear not to alter the level of cerebral blood flow under these circumstances, plasma exchange could still be of benefit in the management of acute cerebrovascular disease. PMID:6805689
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grayson, J. W.; Song, M.; Sellier, M.; Bertram, A. K.
2015-01-01
Viscosity in particles consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) have recently become an area of research focus, since information on viscosity is needed to predict the environmental impacts of SOM particles. Recently Renbaum-Wolff et al. (2013a) developed a poke-flow technique that was combined with simulations of fluid flow to constrain the viscosities of SOM samples of 1-5 mg mass, roughly the maximum that may be collected from environmental chambers or flow tubes on a reasonable time scale. The current manuscript expands on the initial validation experiments carried out by Renbaum-Wolff et al. (2013a). First, the poke-flow technique combined with simulations of fluid flow was used to determine the viscosity of sucrose-water particles over a relatively wide range of relatively humidities (RH). The lower and upper limits of viscosity at 59% RH were 1.0 ×101 Pa s and 1.6 × 104 Pa s, whilst at 45% RH the corresponding values were 9.1 × 102 and 4.1 × 105 Pa s, respectively. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements by Quintas et al. (2006) and Power et al. (2013). Second, the approach was used to determine the viscosity of two polybutene standards. The simulated lower and upper limits of viscosity for standard #1 was 2.0 × 102 and 1.2 × 104 Pa s, whilst for standard #2 the corresponding values were 3.1 × 102 and 2.4 × 104 Pa s. These values are in good agreement with values reported by the manufacturer. The results for both the sucrose-water particles and the polybutene standards show that the poke-flow technique combined with simulations of fluid flow is capable of providing both lower and upper limits of viscosity that are consistent with literature or measured values when the viscosity of the particles are in the range of 103-105 Pa s.
Viscosity and Shear Flows in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Rivera, W. F.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.
2015-11-01
Magnetized dusty plasma experiments are planned at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), to investigate E x B rotation with dust of at least 500 nm in diameter. At this size, individual particles can be tracked and viscosity, shear flow, and temperature can be measured directly using a methodology similar to that used for linear shear flow configurations [Feng et al. PRL 109, 185002 (2012)]. The experiments are planned with a specially designed Bitter-type magnet that can be configured to achieve up to 10 T for at least 10 seconds, to minutes, with much longer operation times at lower fields also possible. At the highest field, the dust will be fully magnetized and thus we aim to achieve direct E x B rotation of the dust (and not just by ion drag). The motivation for these experiments comes from observations of electron and ion temperatures in excess of 100 eV in E x B rotating plasmas [R. Reid et al. Phys. Plasmas 21, 063305 (2014)]. The experimental setup and planned diagnostics for the magnetized dusty plasma are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horiuchi, Shun-suke; Iwamori, Hikaru
2016-05-01
Water plays crucial roles in the subduction zone dynamics affecting the thermal-flow structure through the fluid processes. We aim to understand what controls the dynamics and construct a model to solve consistently fluid generation, fluid transport, its reaction with the solid and resultant viscosity, and thermal-flow structure. We highlight the effect of mechanical weakening of rocks associated with hydration. The viscosity of serpentinite (ηserp) in subduction zones critically controls the flow-thermal structure via extent of mechanical coupling between the subducting slab and overlying mantle wedge. When ηserp is greater than 1021 Pa s, the thermal-flow structure reaches a steady state beneath the volcanic zone, and the melting region expands until Cin (initial water content in the subducting oceanic crust) reaches 3 wt %, and it does not expand from 3 wt %. On the other hand, when ηserp is less than 1019 Pa s, the greater water dependence of viscosity (expressed by a larger fv) confines a hot material to a narrower channel intruding into the wedge corner from a deeper part of the back-arc region. Consequently, the overall heat flux becomes less for a larger fv. When ageba (age of back-arc basin as a rifted lithosphere) = 7.5 Ma, the increase in fv weakens but shifts the melting region toward the trench side because of the narrow channel flow intruding into the wedge corner, where as it shuts down melting when ageba=20 Ma. Several model cases (particularly those with ηserp=1020 to 1021 Pa s and a relatively large fv for Cin=2 to 3 wt %) broadly account for the observations in the Northeast Japan arc (i.e., location and width of volcanic chain, extent of serpentinite, surface heat flow, and seismic tomography), although the large variability of surface heat flow and seismic tomographic images does not allow us to constrain the parameter range tightly.
Prediction of Transonic Vortex Flows Using Linear and Nonlinear Turbulent Eddy Viscosity Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2000-01-01
Three-dimensional transonic flow over a delta wing is investigated with a focus on the effect of transition and influence of turbulence stress anisotropies. The performance of linear eddy viscosity models and an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed at the start of vortex flow, and the results compared with experimental data. To assess the effect of transition location, computations that either fix transition or are fully turbulent are performed. To assess the effect of the turbulent stress anisotropy, comparisons are made between predictions from the algebraic stress model and the linear eddy viscosity models. Both transition location and turbulent stress anisotropy significantly affect the 3D flow field. The most significant effect is found to be the modeling of transition location. At a Mach number of 0.90, the computed solution changes character from steady to unsteady depending on transition onset. Accounting for the anisotropies in the turbulent stresses also considerably impacts the flow, most notably in the outboard region of flow separation.
Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio
2016-08-01
We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.
2017-05-01
We propose an isothermal, one-dimensional, electroosmotic flow model for slit-shaped nanochannels. Nanoscale confinement effects are embedded into the transport model by incorporating the spatially varying solvent and ion concentration profiles that correspond to the electrochemical potential of mean force. The local viscosity is dependent on the solvent local density and is modeled using the local average density method. Excess contributions to the local viscosity are included using the Onsager-Fuoss expression that is dependent on the local ionic strength. A Dirichlet-type boundary condition is provided in the form of the slip velocity that is dependent on the macroscopic interfacial friction. This solvent-surface specific interfacial friction is estimated using a dynamical generalized Langevin equation based framework. The electroosmotic flow of Na+ and Cl- as single counterions and NaCl salt solvated in Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water confined between graphene and silicon slit-shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields a good quantitative agreement with the solvent velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grayson, J. W.; Song, M.; Sellier, M.; Bertram, A. K.
2015-06-01
Viscosity in particles consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) has recently become an area of research focus, since information on viscosity is needed to predict the environmental impacts of SOM particles. Recently Renbaum-Wolff et al. (2013a) developed a poke-flow technique that was combined with simulations of fluid flow to constrain the viscosities of SOM samples of 1-5 mg mass, roughly the maximum that may be collected from environmental chambers or flow tubes on a reasonable timescale. The current manuscript expands on the initial validation experiments carried out by Renbaum-Wolff et al. First, the poke-flow technique combined with simulations of fluid flow was used to determine the viscosity of sucrose-water particles over a relatively wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The lower and upper limits of viscosity at 59% RH were 1.0 × 101 and 1.6 × 104 Pa s, whilst at 37% RH the corresponding values were 7.2 × 104 and 4.7 × 106 Pa s, respectively. The results are in good agreement with recent measurements by Quintas et al. (2006) and Power et al. (2013). Second, the approach was used to determine the viscosity of two polybutene standards. The simulated lower and upper limits of viscosity for standard #1 was 2.0 × 102 and 1.2 × 104 Pa s, whilst for standard #2 the corresponding values were 3.1 × 102 and 2.4 × 104 Pa s. These values are in good agreement with values reported by the manufacturer. The results for both the sucrose-water particles and the polybutene standards show that the poke-flow technique combined with simulations of fluid flow is capable of providing both lower and upper limits of viscosity that are consistent with literature or measured values when the viscosity of the particles are in the range of ≈ 5 × 102 to ≈ 3 × 106 Pa s.
Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke
2016-09-01
Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futterer, Birgit; Zaussinger, Florian; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Krebs, Andreas; Egbers, Christoph; Breuer, Doris
2013-04-01
We introduce our spherical experiments on electro-hydrodynamical driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection that have been performed either with temperature-independent properties of the fluid, called 'GeoFlow I', or with temperature-dependent properties, called 'GeoFlow II'. To set up a self-gravitating force field with radial directed buoyancy, we use a high voltage potential between the inner and outer boundaries and a dielectric insulating liquid and perform the experiment in the microgravity conditions of the ISS [1, 2]. We further run numerical simulations in a 3D spherical geometry to reproduce the results obtained in the GeoFlow experiments. In the experiment the used optical method for flow visualization as delivered by the Optical Diagnostics Module ODM of the Fluid Science Laboratory, is the so called Wollaston-Prism shearing interferometry WSI, which produces fringe pattern images. For the numerical simulations we compute from the temperature field a fringe pattern of convection to compare it then to the experiment data. In this work, we present the flow imaging techniques and their numerical analogues, which were used to compare experimental results with numerical solutions. An important finding is the difference in the flow pattern between our two experiments. We see a sheet-like thermal flow, if the physical properties of the fluid are not varying with temperature - a result from 'GeoFlow I'. In this case the convection patterns have been successfully reproduced by 3D numerical simulations using both the RESPECT [3] and GAIA [4] codes. If we use a liquid with varying (electro-hydrodynamic) volume expansion and temperature-dependent viscosity (GeoFlow II), for which the viscosity contrast measured in the experiment is 2, the structures change significantly and are plume-like. This result is not expected, since the viscosity contrast seems to be too small for this type of solution according to numerical simulations. However, using a viscosity contrast of two
Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.
Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer
2016-08-01
Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.
Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer
2016-08-01
Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.
Flow-induced differential lateral migration of deformable particles by inner/outer viscosity ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yeng-Long; Wang, Shih-Hao; Yeh, Wei-Ting
2016-11-01
We investigate the practicality of flow-driven separation of deformable particles (DP) such as cells, droplets, and capsules in microfluidic flow. We use lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary method to model the hydrodynamic coupling between DP and the fluid. We find that whether a DP migrates towards the wall or to the center at steady state depends strongly on particle Reynolds number Re, capillary numbers Ca, and viscosity ratio λ. The lateral steady state position d* and velocity is determined by the competition between the inertia- and deformation-driven forces. In the deformation-dominated regime (Ca >> Re), DP migrates towards the channel centerline and flow faster for sufficiently small λ. In the inertia-dominated regime (Ca<
Pařez, Stanislav; Předota, Milan
2012-03-14
We generalize a technique for determination of the shear viscosity of mixtures in planar slabs using non-equilibrium computer simulations by applying an external force parallel to the surface generating Poiseuille flow. The distance-dependent viscosity of the mixture, given as a function of the distance from the surface, is determined by analysis of the resulting velocity profiles of all species. We present results for a highly non-ideal water + methanol mixture in the whole concentration range between rutile (TiO(2)) walls. The bulk results are compared to the existing equilibrium molecular dynamics and experimental data while the inhomogeneous viscosity profiles at the interface are interpreted using the structural data and information on hydrogen bonding.
McLoughlin, Neal; Lee, Stephen L; Hähner, Georg
2007-08-01
We demonstrate that the thermal response of uncalibrated atomic force microscope cantilevers can be used to extract the density and the viscosity of viscous liquids with good accuracy. Temperature dependent thermal noise spectra were measured in water/poly(ethylene glycol) mixtures. Empirical parameters characteristic of the resonance behavior of the system were extracted from data recorded for one of the solutions at room temperature. These parameters were then employed to determine both viscosity and density values of the solutions simultaneously at different temperatures. In addition, activation energies for viscous flow were determined from the viscosity values obtained. The method presented is both fast and reliable and has the potential to be applied in connection with microfluidic systems, making macroscopic amounts of liquid and separate measurements with a viscometer and a densimeter redundant.
Stability of optimal streaks in the buffer layer of a turbulent channel flow with variable viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Ashish; Rinaldi, Enrico; Pecnik, Rene; Schlatter, Philipp; Bagheri, Shervin
2016-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent channel flows with variable viscosity (Patel et al., 2015, PoF) show that low speed streaks in the buffer layer strengthen and are stabilized for increasing viscosity away from the wall, as they do not lift and tilt as intensely as in a constant property flow. The opposite holds for cases where viscosity decreases away from the wall. In this work, we investigate the above observation by studying the linear stability of the mean turbulent velocity profile obtained from DNS of variable viscosity flows. Examples of such studies for constant property turbulent flows include work of del Alamo & Jiménez, 2006, JFM and Pujals et al., 2009, PoF. The calculated optimal buffer layer streaks show larger transient energy growth for a case where the viscosity increases away from the wall. We further study the stability of the saturated optimal streaks by imposing a secondary sinuous perturbation and by following the nonlinear evolution of the structures in time. The present investigation will improve the understanding of the near-wall turbulence cycle for wall-bounded turbulent flows with viscosity gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksyonov, A. N.; Shabarov, A. B.
2009-12-01
A local damping of eddy viscosity depending on the ratio of the production of turbulent energy to turbulence dissipation rate is proposed at the computation of flows in transonic axial compressors. The results of the numerical modeling of flows in compressor NASA Rotor 37 are presented, and the computed distributions of the increase in the total temperature and total pressure are compared with experimental data for different rotation frequencies. An increase in the accuracy of modelling was obtained in all considered regimes.
Factors affecting the viscosity of sodium hypochlorite and their effect on irrigant flow.
Bukiet, F; Soler, T; Guivarch, M; Camps, J; Tassery, H; Cuisinier, F; Candoni, N
2013-10-01
To assess the influence of concentration, temperature and surfactant addition to a sodium hypochlorite solution on its dynamic viscosity and to calculate the corresponding Reynolds number to determine the corresponding flow regimen. The dynamic viscosity of the irrigant was assessed using a rotational viscometer. Sodium hypochlorite with concentrations ranging from 0.6% to 9.6% was tested at 37 and 22 °C. A wide range of concentrations of three different surfactants was mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite for viscosity measurements. The Reynolds number was calculated under each condition. Data were analysed using two-way anova. There was a significant influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration (P < 0.001) and temperature (P < 0.001) on dynamic viscosity: the latter significantly increased with sodium hypochlorite concentration and decreased with temperature. A significant influence of surfactant concentration on dynamic viscosity (P < 0.001) occurred, especially for high surfactant concentrations: 6.25% for benzalkonium chloride, 15% for Tween 80 and 6.25% for Triton X-100. Reynolds number values calculated for a given flow rate (0.14 mL s(-1)), and root canal diameter (sizes 45 and 70) clearly qualified the irrigant flow regimen as laminar. Dynamic viscosity increased with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant concentration but decreased with temperature. Under clinical conditions, all viscosities measured led to laminar flow. The transition between laminar and turbulent flow may be reached by modifying different parameters at the same time: increasing flow rate and temperature whilst decreasing irrigant viscosity by adding surfactants with a high value of critical micellar concentration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Phase inversion of slug flow on step surface to form high viscosity droplets in microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Jia; Li, Zhongnan; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng
2017-05-01
Slug flow is a typical two phase flow in which droplets are lubricated by an immiscible continuous phase in a microchannel. The step surface is found to break the lubrication film and induce a phase inversion of the slug flow. The reduction in the film thickness by the step is quantitatively calculated and measured, and the critical droplet length for the breakup of the film is also revealed. This step-induced phase inversion is demonstrated to form high-in-low-viscosity emulsion droplets from a low-in-high-viscosity slug flow.
Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.
2017-03-23
Here, negative compressibility ITG turbulence in a linear plasma device (CSDX) can induce a negative viscosity increment. However, even with this negative increment, we show that the total axial viscosity remains positive definite, i.e. no intrinsic axial flow can be generated by pure ITG turbulence in a straight magnetic field. This differs from the case of electron drift wave (EDW) turbulence, where the total viscosity can turn negative, at least transiently. When the flow gradient is steepened by any drive mechanism, so that the parallel shear flow instability (PSFI) exceeds the ITG drive, the flow profile saturates at a level close to the value above which PSFI becomes dominant. This saturated flow gradient exceeds the PSFI linear threshold, and grows withmore » $$\
Yang, Xiaogang; Wang, Qi
2016-01-28
We study channel flows of active polar liquid crystals (APLCs) focusing on the role played by the active viscosity (β) and the self-propelling speed (ω) on the formation and long time evolution of spontaneous flows using a continuum model. First, we study the onset of spontaneous flows by carrying out a linear stability analysis on two special steady states subject to various physical boundary conditions. We identify a single parameter b1, proportional to a linear combination of the active viscosity and the self-propelling speed, and inversely proportional to a Frank elastic constant, the solvent viscosity, and the liquid crystal relaxation time. We show that the active viscosity and the self-propelling speed influence the onset of spontaneous flows through b1 in that for any fixed value of the bulk activity parameter ζ, large enough |b1| can suppress the spontaneous flow. We then follow spontaneous flows in long time to further investigate the role of β and ω on spatial-temporal structures in the nonlinear regime numerically. The numerical study demonstrates a strong correlation between the most unstable eigenfunction obtained from the linear analysis and the terminal steady state or the persistent, traveling wave structure, revealing the genesis of flow and orientational structures in the active matter system. In the nonlinear regime, a nonzero b1 facilitates the formation of traveling waves in the case of boundary anchoring (the Dirichlet boundary condition) so long as the linear stability analysis predicts an onset of spontaneous flows; in the case of the free boundary condition (the Neumann boundary condition), a stable, spatially homogeneous tilted state always emerges in the presence of two active effects. Finally, we note that various fully out-of-plane spatio-temporal structures can emerge in long time dynamics depending on the boundary condition as well as the initial state of the polarity vector field.
Do Clustering Monoclonal Antibody Solutions Really Have a Concentration Dependence of Viscosity?
Pathak, Jai A.; Sologuren, Rumi R.; Narwal, Rojaramani
2013-01-01
Protein solution rheology data in the biophysics literature have incompletely identified factors that govern hydrodynamics. Whereas spontaneous protein adsorption at the air/water (A/W) interface increases the apparent viscosity of surfactant-free globular protein solutions, it is demonstrated here that irreversible clusters also increase system viscosity in the zero shear limit. Solution rheology measured with double gap geometry in a stress-controlled rheometer on a surfactant-free Immunoglobulin solution demonstrated that both irreversible clusters and the A/W interface increased the apparent low shear rate viscosity. Interfacial shear rheology data showed that the A/W interface yields, i.e., shows solid-like behavior. The A/W interface contribution was smaller, yet nonnegligible, in double gap compared to cone-plate geometry. Apparent nonmonotonic composition dependence of viscosity at low shear rates due to irreversible (nonequilibrium) clusters was resolved by filtration to recover a monotonically increasing viscosity-concentration curve, as expected. Although smaller equilibrium clusters also existed, their size and effective volume fraction were unaffected by filtration, rendering their contribution to viscosity invariant. Surfactant-free antibody systems containing clusters have complex hydrodynamic response, reflecting distinct bulk and interface-adsorbed protein as well as irreversible cluster contributions. Literature models for solution viscosity lack the appropriate physics to describe the bulk shear viscosity of unstable surfactant-free antibody solutions. PMID:23442970
Jun Kang, Yang; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Sang-Joon
2013-01-01
The accurate viscosity measurement of complex fluids is essential for characterizing fluidic behaviors in blood vessels and in microfluidic channels of lab-on-a-chip devices. A microfluidic platform that accurately identifies biophysical properties of blood can be used as a promising tool for the early detections of cardiovascular and microcirculation diseases. In this study, a flow-switching phenomenon depending on hydrodynamic balancing in a microfluidic channel was adopted to conduct viscosity measurement of complex fluids with label-free operation. A microfluidic device for demonstrating this proposed method was designed to have two inlets for supplying the test and reference fluids, two side channels in parallel, and a junction channel connected to the midpoint of the two side channels. According to this proposed method, viscosities of various fluids with different phases (aqueous, oil, and blood) in relation to that of reference fluid were accurately determined by measuring the switching flow-rate ratio between the test and reference fluids, when a reverse flow of the test or reference fluid occurs in the junction channel. An analytical viscosity formula was derived to measure the viscosity of a test fluid in relation to that of the corresponding reference fluid using a discrete circuit model for the microfluidic device. The experimental analysis for evaluating the effects of various parameters on the performance of the proposed method revealed that the fluidic resistance ratio (RJL/RL, fluidic resistance in the junction channel (RJL) to fluidic resistance in the side channel (RL)) strongly affects the measurement accuracy. The microfluidic device with smaller RJL/RL values is helpful to measure accurately the viscosity of the test fluid. The proposed method accurately measured the viscosities of various fluids, including single-phase (Glycerin and plasma) and oil-water phase (oil vs. deionized water) fluids, compared with conventional methods. The proposed
Jun Kang, Yang; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Sang-Joon
2013-01-01
The accurate viscosity measurement of complex fluids is essential for characterizing fluidic behaviors in blood vessels and in microfluidic channels of lab-on-a-chip devices. A microfluidic platform that accurately identifies biophysical properties of blood can be used as a promising tool for the early detections of cardiovascular and microcirculation diseases. In this study, a flow-switching phenomenon depending on hydrodynamic balancing in a microfluidic channel was adopted to conduct viscosity measurement of complex fluids with label-free operation. A microfluidic device for demonstrating this proposed method was designed to have two inlets for supplying the test and reference fluids, two side channels in parallel, and a junction channel connected to the midpoint of the two side channels. According to this proposed method, viscosities of various fluids with different phases (aqueous, oil, and blood) in relation to that of reference fluid were accurately determined by measuring the switching flow-rate ratio between the test and reference fluids, when a reverse flow of the test or reference fluid occurs in the junction channel. An analytical viscosity formula was derived to measure the viscosity of a test fluid in relation to that of the corresponding reference fluid using a discrete circuit model for the microfluidic device. The experimental analysis for evaluating the effects of various parameters on the performance of the proposed method revealed that the fluidic resistance ratio ( R J L / R L , fluidic resistance in the junction channel ( R J L ) to fluidic resistance in the side channel ( R L )) strongly affects the measurement accuracy. The microfluidic device with smaller R J L / R L values is helpful to measure accurately the viscosity of the test fluid. The proposed method accurately measured the viscosities of various fluids, including single-phase (Glycerin and plasma) and oil-water phase (oil vs. deionized water) fluids, compared with conventional
Determination of whole blood and plasma viscosity by means of flow curve analysis.
Ruef, Peter; Gehm, Jutta; Gehm, Lothar; Felbinger, Claudia; Pöschl, Johannes; Kuss, Navina
2014-01-01
The LS300 viscometer permits automated measurements of viscosity at several shear rates of non-Newtonian fluids. We determined whole blood and plasma viscosity, aggregation, red blood cell deformability, and hematocrit of 66 healthy adults. The effects of the anticoagulants EDTA, heparin and citrate, and of centrifugation on blood viscosity (n=12) and red blood cell geometry (n=5) were investigated. With regard to the whole blood viscosity of adults, the best agreement was obtained by Casson's calculation compared to the methods of Ostwald, Bingham and Newton. The approximated flow curve of plasma showed only marginal differences between the method of Newton and Ostwald, whereas the latter gave the best quality of approximation. Centrifugation and the anticoagulants had a significant impact on whole blood viscosity and yield shear stress, whereas erythrocyte geometry remained unaffected. By linear regression of hematocrit with viscosity and yield shear stress, its impact on blood viscosity could be calculated in a hematocrit range of 0.32-0.50. Determination of whole blood viscosity should be performed in a standardized manner at several shear rates and without centrifugation of the blood samples.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2016-02-29
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, T C; Street, R E
1954-01-01
Schamberg was the first to solve the differential equations of slip flow, including the Burnett terms, for concentric circular cylinders assuming constant coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity. The problem is solved for variable coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity in this paper by applying a transformation which leads to an iteration method. Starting with the solution for constant coefficients, this method enables one to approximate the solution for variable coefficients very closely after one or two steps. Satisfactory results are shown to follow from Schamberg's solution by using his values of constant coefficients multiplied by a constant factor, leading to what are denoted as the effective coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, T C; Street, R E
1953-01-01
The differential equations of slip flow, including the Burnett terms, were first solved by Schamberg assuming that the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction of the gas were constants. The problem is solved herein for variable coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity by applying a transformation leading to an iteration method. The method, starting with the solution for constant coefficients, enables one to approximate the solution for variable coefficients very closely after one or two steps. Satisfactory results are shown to follow from Schamberg's solution by using his values of the constant coefficients multiplied by a constant factor 'N', leading to what are denoted as the effective coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity.
Sungailaitė, Sandra; Ruzgys, Paulius; Šatkauskienė, Ingrida; Čepurnienė, Karolina; Šatkauskas, Saulius
2015-01-01
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of drug and gene electrotransfer into cells in vitro depending on medium viscosity. Experiments were performed using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Efficiency of molecular electrotransfer depending of medium viscosity was evaluated using two different electroporation conditions: a high-voltage (HV) pulse and a combination of a high-voltage pulse and a low-voltage pulse (HV + LV). To evaluate the efficiency of molecular electrotransfer, anticancer drug bleomycin and two different plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein and luciferase were used. We found that a slight increase in medium viscosity from 1.3-1.4 mPa·s significantly decreased the transfection efficiency, both in terms of transfected cells and total protein production, which was abolished completely with an increase in medium viscosity to 6.1 mPa·s. Notably, at this medium viscosity, electrotransfer of the small anticancer drug was still efficient. Using HV and HV + LV pulse combinations, we showed that a decrease of DNA electrotransfer, especially at lower medium viscosities, can be compensated for by the LV pulse to some extent. On the other hand, the addition of the LV pulse after the HV pulse did not have any positive effect on the efficiency of bleomycin electrotransfer. These findings demonstrate that transfection is very susceptible to medium viscosity and highlights the importance of the electrophoretic component in experiments when a considerable transfection level is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Langille, B L; Crisp, B
1980-09-01
The temperature dependence of the viscosity of blood from frogs and turtles has been assessed for temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C. Viscosity of turtles' blood was, on average, reduced from 3.50 +/- 0.16 to 2.13 +/- 0.10 cP between 10 and 30 degrees C, a decline of 39%. Even larger changes in viscosity were observed for frogs' blood with viscosity falling from 4.55 +/- 0.32 to 2.55 +/- 0.25 cP over the same temperature range, a change of 44%. Blood viscosity was highly correlated with hematocrit in both species at all temperatures. Viscosity of blood from both frogs and turtles showed a large standard deviation at all temperatures and this was attributed to large individual-to-individual variations in hematocrit. Turtles heat faster than they cool, regardless of whether tests are performed at temperatures above or below the range of thermal preference. The effect of temperature dependence of blood viscosity on heating and cooling rates is demonstrated.
STUDIES ON THE ANOMALOUS VISCOSITY AND FLOW-BIREFRINGENCE OF PROTEIN SOLUTIONS
Lawrence, A. S. C.; Needham, Joseph; Shen, Shih-Chang
1944-01-01
1. A coaxial viscosimeter which permits the simultaneous determination of relative and anomalous viscosity and of flow-birefringence is described. Flow-anomaly and flow-birefringence are regarded as characteristic of elongated micelles and molecules. 2. Such methods have been applied to dilute solutions of proteins. The conditions under which the coaxial (Couette) viscosimeter measures the viscosity of the bulk phase and the surface film phase respectively have been investigated and are described. 3. The general behaviour of protein solutions subjected to shear is summarised. PMID:19873384
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanujan, S.; Pozrikidis, C.
1998-04-01
viscosities. In the case of capsules in shear flow, large elastic tensions develop at large deformations and prevent continued elongation, stressing the importance of the vorticity of the incident flow. The long-time behaviour of deformed capsules depends strongly on the unstressed shape. Oblate capsules exhibit unsteady motions including oscillation about a mean configuration at low viscosity ratios and continuous rotation accompanied by periodic deformation at high viscosity ratios. The viscosity ratio at which the transition from oscillations to tumbling occurs decreases with the sphericity of the unstressed shape. Results on the effective rheological properties of dilute suspensions confirm a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour.
Mafic-crystal distributions, viscosities, and lava structures of some Hawaiian lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowland, Scott K.; Walker, George P. L.
1988-09-01
The distribution patterns of mafic phenocrysts in some Hawaiian basalt flows are consistent with simple in situ gravitational settling. We use the patterns to estimate the crystal settling velocity and hence viscosity of the lava, which in turn can be correlated with surface structures. Numerical modeling generates theoretical crystal concentration profiles through lava flow units of different thicknesses for differing settling velocities. By fitting these curves to field data, crystal-settling rates through the lavas can be estimated, from which the viscosities of the flows can be determined using Stokes' Law. Lavas in which the crystal settling velocity was relatively high (on the order of 5 × 10 -4 cm/sec) show great variations in phenocryst content, both from top to bottom of the same flow unit, and from one flow unit to another. Such lava is invariably pahoehoe, flow units of which are usually less than 1 m thick. Lavas in which the crystal-settling velocity was low show a small but measurable variation in phenocryst content. These lavas are part of a progression from a rough pahoehoe to toothpaste lava to a'a. Toothpaste lava is characterized by spiny texture as well as the ability to retain surface grooves during solidification, and flow units are usually thicker than 1 m. In the thickest of Hawaiian a'a flows, those of the distal type, no systematic crystal variations are observed, and high viscosity coupled with a finite yield strength prevented crystal settling. The amount of crystal settling in pahoehoe indicates that the viscosity ranged from 600 to 6000 Pa s. The limited amount of settling in toothpaste lava indicates a viscosity greater than this value, approaching 12,000 Pa s. We infer that distal-type a'a had a higher viscosity still and also possessed a yield strength.
Temperature dependence of shear viscosity of SU(3)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astrakhantsev, N.; Braguta, V.; Kotov, A.
2017-03-01
This report is devoted to the study of temperature dependence of shear viscosity in SU(3)-gluodynamics. To calculate shear viscosity we measured the correlation function of the energy-momentum tensor T12T12 for a set of temperatures in the region T/Tc ∈ (0.9,1.5). The measurements were carried out using multilevel algorithm which considerably improves the accuracy of the data. For determination of the shear viscosity two methods were used: physically motivated ansatz and non-parametrical Backus-Gilbert method. Both methods give consistent results. The calculation allows to determine temperature dependence of the ratio of shear viscosity to the entropy density η/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed
2017-03-01
The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.
Viscosity-dependent inertial spectra of the Burgers and Korteweg–deVries–Burgers equations
Chorin, Alexandre J.; Hald, Ole H.
2005-01-01
We show that the inertial range spectrum of the Burgers equation has a viscosity-dependent correction at any wave number when the viscosity is small but not zero. We also calculate the spectrum of the Korteweg–deVries–Burgers equation and show that it can be partially mapped onto the inertial spectrum of a Burgers equation with a suitable effective diffusion coefficient. These results are significant for the understanding of turbulence. PMID:15753299
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ting; Fang, Daoyuan
2008-03-01
In this paper, we study the free boundary problem for 1D compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity. We focus on the case where the viscosity coefficient vanishes on vacuum. We prove the global existence and uniqueness for discontinuous solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations when the initial density is a bounded variation function, and give a decay result for the density as t-->+[infinity].
Towards adjoint-based inversion of time-dependent mantle convection with non-linear viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dunzhu; Gurnis, Michael; Stadler, Georg
2017-01-01
We develop and study an adjoint-based inversion method for the simultaneous recovery of initial temperature conditions and viscosity parameters in time-dependent mantle convection from the current mantle temperature and historic plate motion. Based on a realistic rheological model with temperature- and strain rate-dependent viscosity, we formulate the inversion as a PDE-constrained optimization problem. The objective functional includes the misfit of surface velocity (plate motion) history, the misfit of the current mantle temperature, and a regularization for the uncertain initial condition. The gradient of this functional with respect to the initial temperature and the uncertain viscosity parameters is computed by solving the adjoint of the mantle convection equations. This gradient is used in a preconditioned quasi-Newton minimization algorithm. We study the prospects and limitations of the inversion, as well as the computational performance of the method using two synthetic problems, a sinking cylinder and a realistic subduction model. The subduction model is characterized by the migration of a ridge toward a trench whereby both plate motions and subduction evolve. The results demonstrate: (1) for known viscosity parameters, the initial temperature can be well recovered, as in previous initial condition-only inversions where the effective viscosity was given; (2) for known initial temperature, viscosity parameters can be recovered accurately, despite the existence of trade-offs due to ill-conditioning; (3) for the joint inversion of initial condition and viscosity parameters, initial condition and effective viscosity can be reasonably recovered, but the high dimension of the parameter space and the resulting ill-posedness may limit recovery of viscosity parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, T. A.; Conrad, C. P.; Smith, E. I.
2010-12-01
Although volcanism far from tectonic boundaries is likely due to upwelling near the base of the lithosphere, the nature of the convective processes that induces upwelling is unclear. Many workers have provided plausible explanations for intraplate volcanism, such as thermal and chemical mantle plumes, small-scale convection, edge-driven flow, and lithospheric extension. Recent numerical models show that asthenospheric shear interacting with regions of low-viscosity asthenosphere can also drive upwelling. The rate of shear-driven upwelling (SDU) is sensitive to the depth, shape, and relative viscosity of the asthenospheric viscosity heterogeneity. To constrain the rate and duration of intraplate volcanism caused by SDU, we simulated 2D shear flow and peridotite melting in the upper 200 km of the mantle. In these simulations, asthenospheric shear is driven by lithospheric plates of different thicknesses moving at 3-9 cm/yr. The initial low-viscosity pocket is a rectangular region with an imposed viscosity up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surrounding asthenosphere. In this case, two main melting centers form, one above the upstream edge of the pocket, and one further upstream beyond the pocket edge. Melting decreases as the rectangular pocket deforms, and reaches as steady state between 3-12 Myr depending on model parameters. The age progression of surface volcanism is nearly stationary in the reference frame of the surface plate, which distinguishes SDU from hotspot volcanism. We observe similar behavior if the viscosity heterogeneity is induced by variations in the water content of mantle peridotite. However, because water increases the depth at which peridotite melts, damp pockets can generate volcanism beneath plates as thick as 70 km. If the pocket’s low viscosity is caused by excess temperature, buoyant upwelling of the entire pocket dominates volcanism and decreases exponentially with time. Differences in the time dependence of volcanism
Effect of Fluid Viscosity on the Cilia-Generated Flow on a Mouse Tracheal Lumen.
Kikuchi, Kenji; Haga, Tomofumi; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Ueno, Hironori; Ishikawa, Takuji
2017-04-01
Mucous flow in a tracheal lumen is generated by the beat motion of ciliated cells to provide a clearance function by discharging harmful dust particles and viruses. Due to its physiological importance, the cilia-generated flow and the rheological properties of mucus have been investigated intensively. The effects of viscosity on the cilia-generated flow, however, have not been fully clarified. In this study, we measured bulk background velocity of ciliary flow using a micro particle tracking velocimetry method under various viscosity conditions in mice. The results showed that the flow velocity decreased as the increase with viscosity of ambient fluid. Moreover, no previous study has clarified the pump power generated by cilia, which provides important information with regard to understanding the molecular motor properties of cilia. Measurements of both the ciliary flow and the ciliary motion were conducted to determine the cilia pump power. Our results indicated that the cilia pump during the effective stroke did not drive the ciliary flow efficiently under high viscosity conditions; these findings are necessary to resolve the clearance function.
Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F
2004-08-01
In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).
One-, two- and three-phase viscosity treatments for basaltic lava flows
Harris, Andrew J. L.; Allen, John S.
2009-01-01
Lava flows comprise three-phase mixtures of melt, crystals, and bubbles. While existing one-phase treatments allow melt phase viscosity to be assessed on the basis of composition, water content, and/or temperature, two-phase treatments constrain the effects of crystallinity or vesicularity on mixture viscosity. However, three-phase treatments, allowing for the effects of coexisting crystallinity and vesicularity, are not well understood. We investigate existing one- and two-phase treatments using lava flow case studies from Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Mount Etna (Italy) and compare these with a three-phase treatment that has not been applied previously to basaltic mixtures. At Etna, melt viscosities of 425 ± 30 Pa s are expected for well-degassed (0.1 w. % H2O), and 135 ± 10 Pa s for less well-degassed (0.4 wt % H2O), melt at 1080°C. Application of a three-phase model yields mixture viscosities (45% crystals, 25–35% vesicles) in the range 5600–12,500 Pa s. This compares with a measured value for Etnean lava of 9400 ± 1500 Pa s. At Mauna Loa, the three-phase treatment provides a fit with the full range of field measured viscosities, giving three-phase mixture viscosities, upon eruption, of 110–140 Pa s (5% crystals, no bubble effect due to sheared vesicles) to 850–1400 Pa s (25–30% crystals, 40–60% spherical vesicles). The ability of the three-phase treatment to characterize the full range of melt-crystal-bubble mixture viscosities in both settings indicates the potential of this method in characterizing basaltic lava mixture viscosity. PMID:21691456
One-, two- and three-phase viscosity treatments for basaltic lava flows.
Harris, Andrew J L; Allen, John S
2008-01-01
Lava flows comprise three-phase mixtures of melt, crystals, and bubbles. While existing one-phase treatments allow melt phase viscosity to be assessed on the basis of composition, water content, and/or temperature, two-phase treatments constrain the effects of crystallinity or vesicularity on mixture viscosity. However, three-phase treatments, allowing for the effects of coexisting crystallinity and vesicularity, are not well understood. We investigate existing one- and two-phase treatments using lava flow case studies from Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Mount Etna (Italy) and compare these with a three-phase treatment that has not been applied previously to basaltic mixtures. At Etna, melt viscosities of 425 ± 30 Pa s are expected for well-degassed (0.1 w. % H(2)O), and 135 ± 10 Pa s for less well-degassed (0.4 wt % H(2)O), melt at 1080°C. Application of a three-phase model yields mixture viscosities (45% crystals, 25-35% vesicles) in the range 5600-12,500 Pa s. This compares with a measured value for Etnean lava of 9400 ± 1500 Pa s. At Mauna Loa, the three-phase treatment provides a fit with the full range of field measured viscosities, giving three-phase mixture viscosities, upon eruption, of 110-140 Pa s (5% crystals, no bubble effect due to sheared vesicles) to 850-1400 Pa s (25-30% crystals, 40-60% spherical vesicles). The ability of the three-phase treatment to characterize the full range of melt-crystal-bubble mixture viscosities in both settings indicates the potential of this method in characterizing basaltic lava mixture viscosity.
Viscosity Dependence of Some Protein and Enzyme Reaction Rates: Seventy-Five Years after Kramers.
Sashi, Pulikallu; Bhuyan, Abani K
2015-07-28
Kramers rate theory is a milestone in chemical reaction research, but concerns regarding the basic understanding of condensed phase reaction rates of large molecules in viscous milieu persist. Experimental studies of Kramers theory rely on scaling reaction rates with inverse solvent viscosity, which is often equated with the bulk friction coefficient based on simple hydrodynamic relations. Apart from the difficulty of abstraction of the prefactor details from experimental data, it is not clear why the linearity of rate versus inverse viscosity, k ∝ η(-1), deviates widely for many reactions studied. In most cases, the deviation simulates a power law k ∝ η(-n), where the exponent n assumes fractional values. In rate-viscosity studies presented here, results for two reactions, unfolding of cytochrome c and cysteine protease activity of human ribosomal protein S4, show an exceedingly overdamped rate over a wide viscosity range, registering n values up to 2.4. Although the origin of this extraordinary reaction friction is not known at present, the results indicate that the viscosity exponent need not be bound by the 0-1 limit as generally suggested. For the third reaction studied here, thermal dissociation of CO from nativelike cytochrome c, the rate-viscosity behavior can be explained using Grote-Hynes theory of time-dependent friction in conjunction with correlated motions intrinsic to the protein. Analysis of the glycerol viscosity-dependent rate for the CO dissociation reaction in the presence of urea as the second variable shows that the protein stabilizing effect of subdenaturing amounts of urea is not affected by the bulk viscosity. It appears that a myriad of factors as diverse as parameter uncertainty due to the difficulty of knowing the exact reaction friction and both mode and consequences of protein-solvent interaction work in a complex manner to convey as though Kramers rate equation is not absolute.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, Todd Anthony; Conrad, Clinton P.; Smith, Eugene I.
2011-11-01
Although volcanism far from tectonic boundaries is likely due to upwelling near the lithospheric base, the convective processes that induce upwelling are unclear. Numerical models show that asthenospheric shear can be deflected upward by lateral viscosity variations within the asthenosphere, producing "shear-driven upwelling" (SDU). To constrain the rate, duration, and surface expression of intraplate volcanism caused by SDU, we simulate 2-D flow and peridotite melting in the upper 200 km of the mantle. Asthenospheric shear is driven by lithospheric plates with different thicknesses moving at 3-9 cm/yr, and the initial low-viscosity region is a rectangularly shaped pocket with an imposed viscosity that is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the surrounding asthenosphere. Melting decreases as the pocket deforms and reaches steady state after 3-12 Myr. The age progression of surface volcanism is nearly stationary in the reference frame of the plate, which distinguishes SDU from hot spot volcanism. Similar behavior occurs if the viscosity heterogeneity is induced by variations in the water content of mantle peridotite. If the pocket's low viscosity is caused by excess temperature, buoyant upwelling of the entire pocket dominates volcanism. Differences in the time dependence of volcanism associated with damp and warm pockets may help identify which type of mantle heterogeneity and associated dynamic process best explains weak, intermittent, intraplate volcanism with no obvious age progression. We suggest that asthenospheric shear induced by plate motions and global mantle flow, by exciting SDU, drives some of the non-hot spot small-scale volcanism that occurs away from plate boundaries.
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Huang, Hai
2004-12-01
Stochastic analysis is commonly used to address uncertainty in the modeling of flow and transport in porous media. In the stochastic approach, the properties of porous media are treated as random functions with statistics obtained from field measurements. Several studies indicate that hydrological properties depend on the scale of measurements or support scales, but most stochastic analysis does not address the effects of support scale on stochastic predictions of subsurface processes. In this work we propose a new approach to study the scale dependence of stochastic predictions. We present a stochastic analysis of immiscible fluid-fluid displacement in randomly heterogeneous porous media. While existing solutions are applicable only to systems in which the viscosity of one phase is negligible compare with the viscosity of the other (water-air systems for example), our solutions can be applied to the immiscible displacement of fluids having arbitrarily viscosities such as NAPL-water and water-oil. Treating intrinsic permeability as a random field with statistics dependant on the permeability support scale (scale of measurements) we obtained, for one-dimensional systems, analytical solutions for the first moments characterizing unbiased predictions (estimates) of system variables, such as the pressure and fluid-fluid interface position, and we also obtained second moments, which characterize the uncertainties associated with such predictions. Next we obtained empirically scale dependent exponential correlation function of the intrinsic permeability that allowed us to study solutions of stochastic equations as a function of the support scale. We found that the first and second moments converge to asymptotic values as the support scale decreases. In our examples, the statistical moments reached asymptotic values for support scale that were approximately 1/10000 of the flow domain size. We show that analytical moment solutions compare well with the results of Monte
A. M. Tartakovsky; P. Meakin; H. Huang
2004-12-01
Stochastic analysis is commonly used to address uncertainty in the modeling of flow and transport in porous media. In the stochastic approach, the properties of porous media are treated as random functions with statistics obtained from field measurements. Several studies indicate that hydrological properties depend on the scale of measurements or support scales, but most stochastic analysis does not address the effects of support scale on stochastic predictions of subsurface processes. In this work we propose a new approach to study the scale dependence of stochastic predictions. We present a stochastic analysis of immiscible fluid–fluid displacement in randomly heterogeneous porous media. While existing solutions are applicable only to systems in which the viscosity of one phase is negligible compare with the viscosity of the other (water–air systems for example), our solutions can be applied to the immiscible displacement of fluids having arbitrarily viscosities such as NAPL–water and water–oil. Treating intrinsic permeability as a random field with statistics dependant on the permeability support scale (scale of measurements) we obtained, for one-dimensional systems, analytical solutions for the first moments characterizing unbiased predictions (estimates) of system variables, such as the pressure and fluid–fluid interface position, and we also obtained second moments, which characterize the uncertainties associated with such predictions. Next we obtained empirically scale dependent exponential correlation function of the intrinsic permeability that allowed us to study solutions of stochastic equations as a function of the support scale. We found that the first and second moments converge to asymptotic values as the support scale decreases. In our examples, the statistical moments reached asymptotic values for support scale that were approximately 1/10000 of the flow domain size. We show that analytical moment solutions compare well with the results of
A new non-eddy viscosity subgrid-scale model and its application to channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, K. B.; Ferziger, J. H.
1995-01-01
To date, most large-eddy simulations (LES) have been carried out with eddy viscosity subgrid scale (SGS) models, with only a few exceptions that used the mixed model. Even though the assumptions behind Smagorinsky's model are rather stringent, it has been applied successfully to a variety of turbulent flows. This success is attributed to the ability of eddy viscosity models to drain energy from large scales, thus simulating the dissipative nature of turbulence. Most SGS models are absolutely dissipative, i.e. they remove energy from the large scales at every instant. However, SGS stresses may transfer energy back to the large scales intermittently; this reverse transfer or backscatter is especially important in geophysical flows and in transition. In a fully developed channel flow, there is reverse flow of energy from small to large scales near the walls, but eddy viscosity models are unable to account for this important feature. The dynamic localization eddy viscosity model of Ghosal et al. (1995) allows backscatter by co-evolving an auxiliary equation for the SGS energy; however, the computational cost is considerably larger than for conventional SGS models (Cabot 1994). In this report, a new non-eddy viscosity model based on local approximation of total quantities in terms of filtered ones is introduced; the scale similarity model of Bardina (1983) is a special case of this model. This procedure does not require the assumption of homogeneity, permits backscatter of energy from small to large scales, and is readily implemented in finite difference codes. The results of applying the proposed model to second order finite volume simulation of plane channel flow at high Reynolds numbers (Re(sub b) = 38,000) is described in this report. Greater emphasis is placed on the high Reynolds number flow since it provides a more rigorous test of the SGS model and its potential application. The results are compared to ones produced by the conventional and dynamic Smagorinsky
Cheng, Andrew L; Takao, Cheryl M; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Meiselman, Herbert J; Wood, John C; Detterich, Jon A
2016-04-01
After the Fontan procedure, patients with univentricular hearts can experience long-term complications due to chronic low-shear non-pulsatile pulmonary blood flow. We sought to evaluate hemorheology and its relationship to hemodynamics in children with univentricular hearts. We hypothesized that low-shear blood viscosity and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation would be associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and decreased pulmonary blood flow (PBF). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 62 children undergoing cardiac catheterization-20 with isolated atrial septal defect (ASD), 22 status post Glenn procedure (Glenn), and 20 status post Fontan procedure (Fontan). Shear-dependent blood viscosity, RBC aggregation and deformability, complete blood count, coagulation panel, metabolic panel, fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured. PVR and PBF were calculated using the Fick equation. Group differences were analyzed by ANOVA and correlations by linear regression. Blood viscosity at all shear rates was higher in Glenn and Fontan, partially due to normocytic anemia in ASD. RBC aggregation and deformability were similar between all groups. Low-shear viscosity negatively correlated with PBF in Glenn and Fontan only (R (2) = 0.27, p < 0.001); it also negatively correlated with pulmonary artery pressure in Glenn (R (2) = 0.15, p = 0.01), and positively correlated with PVR in Fontan (R (2) = 0.28, p = 0.02). Our data demonstrate that elevated low-shear blood viscosity is associated with negative hemodynamic perturbations in a passive univentricular pulmonary circulation, but not in a pulsatile biventricular pulmonary circulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keedy, Ryan; Aliseda, Alberto
2016-11-01
Laboratory experiments were performed to understand the effect of viscosity ratio on the development of the round jet when a miscible liquid is injected into another stagnant ambient liquid. Altering the viscosity of the injected liquid jet resulted in noticeable changes in the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in the jet's developing region, including the instability wavelength. The change in the formation of structures at the interface is apparent even when several key non-dimensional numbers (Pe , Re) associated with the flow are kept constant. Large, coherent structures in the turbulent jet resulting from the shear instability of the interface may affect the downstream development of the self-similar profile. Hence, it is important to examine and understand the characteristics of the shear layer instability in order to better understand the role that a viscosity gradient plays in turbulent jet development. The spatial stability equations for a flow in which viscosity varies arbitrarily as a function of scalar concentration are presented. These equations are evaluated at various viscosity ratios and the predicted instability frequencies are compared to experimental results in the range of μjet /μamb = 0 . 5 - 2 and Re 104 . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Whelan, Jamie; Abdallah, Dalia; Piskorz, Konrad; Wojtyk, James T C; Dust, Julian M; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Hoz, Shmaryahu; Buncel, Erwin
2012-10-21
The current study extends our work with spiropyran-merocyanines (SP-MC) as molecular photoswitches by delving into the effects of viscosity. This has led to the interesting finding of a dichotomy in viscosity dependence. Solutions of SP [6'-nitro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro(indolino-2,2'-benzopyran)] in a wide range of ethylene glycol-methanol (EG-MeOH) media (3.59 to 17.9 M in EG) were irradiated 90 s (365 nm). The absorbance at 90 s of MC (532 nm) formed photolytically varied with solvent. The least viscous medium yielded the highest concentration of MC and yields declined with increasing viscosity. Once irradiation ceased each system achieved thermal equilibrium. Molecular dynamics studies of typical thermal reactions governed by electronic and steric factors show that the transition state is achieved primarily after solvent reorganization has occurred to accommodate the new structure. It follows that in such thermal reactions viscosity may not cause any hindrance to the motion of atoms in molecules because solvent has already rearranged. In contrast, photochemical excitations occur at much higher rates (10(-15) s) than solvent reorganization, i.e. dielectric relaxation (10(-10) to 10(-12) s). The viscosity dependence of photochemical MC formation suggests that a major geometrical change is required for excited SP to be converted to MC. The dichotomy in dependence on viscosity is confirmed by the thermal equilibration of SP and MC. The equilibrium constant for the process increases three-fold (from 0.0535 to 0.158) as the EG content of the medium increases. However, the forward rate constant (SP → MC) is almost invariant with EG content or viscosity. The process is viscosity independent. The increase in the equilibrium constant with EG concentration is a result of a decline in the reverse rate constant for MC cyclisation to SP. This is attributed to special stabilisation of the MC that increases with increasing EG concentration. The present study, to our knowledge
CONSTRAINTS ON THE VISCOSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN HOT ACCRETION FLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES
Liu, B. F.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu
2013-07-15
The magnitude of the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in hot accretion flows is investigated in low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Theoretical studies show that a geometrically thin, optically thick disk is truncated at mass accretion rates less than a critical value by mass evaporated vertically from the disk to the corona, with the truncated region replaced by an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The critical accretion rate for such a truncation is a function of the viscosity and magnetic field. Observations of X-ray photon indices and spectral fits of a number of LLAGNs published in the literature provide an estimate of the critical rate of mass accretion and the truncation radius, respectively. By comparing the observational results with theoretical predictions, the viscosity and magnetic field parameters in the hot accretion flow region are estimated. Specifically, the mass accretion rates inferred in different sources constrain the viscosity parameter, whereas the truncation radii of the disk, as inferred from spectral fits, further constrain the magnetic field parameter. It is found that the value of the viscosity parameter in the corona/ADAF ranges from 0.17 to 0.5, with values clustered about 0.2-0.3. Magnetic pressure is required by the relatively small truncation radii for some LLAGNs and is found to be as high as its equipartition value with the gas pressure. The inferred values of the viscosity parameter are in agreement with those obtained from the observations of non-stationary accretion in stellar mass black hole X-ray transients. This consistency provides support for the paradigm that a geometrically thin disk is truncated by means of a mass evaporation process from the disk to the corona at low mass accretion rates.
Time dependent parallel viscosity and relaxation rate of poloidal rotation in the banana regime
Hsu, C.T.; Shaing, K.C.; Gormley, R. )
1994-01-01
Time dependent ion parallel viscous force in the banana regime with arbitrary inverse aspect ratio [epsilon] is calculated using the eigenfunction approach. The flux surface averaged viscosity is then used to study the relaxation process of the poloidal rotation which leads to oscillatory relaxation behavior. The relaxation rate [nu][sub [ital p
Unusual linear dependency of viscosity with temperature in ionic liquid/water mixtures.
Nanda, R
2016-09-21
An unusual linear dependency of viscosity with temperature has been observed in aqueous solutions of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids because of the ion induced structural transition which leads to the violation of both the Stokes-Einstein and fractional Stokes-Einstein equations, suggesting the presence of dynamic heterogeneity in the system.
Time-Dependent Variational Approach to the pure Gauge Theory for Evaluating the Shear Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; Lee, Tong-Gyu; Ishii, Hiroshi
2009-10-01
The time-dependent variational approach to the pure Yang-Mills gauge theory, especially a color su(3) gauge theory, is formulated in the functional Schr"odinger picture with a Gaussian wave functional approximation. The equations of motion for the quantum gauge fields are formulated in the Liouville-von Neumann form. This variational approach is applied in order to derive the shear viscosity, which is one of the transport coefficients for the pure gluonic matter, by using the linear response theory. As a result, the contribution to the shear viscosity from the quantum gluons is zero up to the lowest order of the coupling g in the quantum gluonic matter.
Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh
1993-01-01
Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.
Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh
1993-01-01
Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.
High-resolution intracellular viscosity measurement using time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy.
Parker, Wesley C; Chakraborty, Nilay; Vrikkis, Regina; Elliott, Gloria; Smith, Stuart; Moyer, Patrick J
2010-08-02
A low-cost pulsed laser is used in conjunction with a homebuilt laser confocal-scanning epifluorescence microscope having submicron lateral and axial spatial resolution to determine cytoplasmic viscosity at specific intracytoplasmic locations in J774 mouse macrophage cells. Time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurements are made at each location and global deconvolution techniques are used to determine rotational correlation times. These rotational correlation times are related to the hydrated volume of 8-hydroxyperene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS) to calculate viscosity at specific points inside the cell. In the cytoplasmic areas measured, rotational correlation times of HPTS ranged from 0.186 ns to 0.411 ns, corresponding to viscosities ranging from 1.00 +/- 0.03 cP to 2.21+/- 0.05 cP.
An exact solution in a gravitating fluid with a density-dependent viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Schamel, Hans; Schamel
2013-12-01
An exact nonlinear solution for a cold fluid in presence of a gravitational field and viscous dissipation is obtained using Lagrange variable. It is shown that with a density-dependent viscosity the nonlinear equation can be exactly solved. The solution indicates that in absence of viscosity and initial fluid velocity shear, density collapse occurs at time of the order of inverse Jeans frequency. The effect of viscosity is to delay the collapse but it can not halt the collapse. The initial fluid velocity shear can act in both directions: a positive one leads to delay, a negative one to a speeding up of the density collapse. This nonlinear solution may have some bearing with the structure formations in the universe.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Temperature-Dependency of Viscosity-Sensitive Fluorescent Molecular Rotors
Howell, Sarah; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Haidekker, Mark A.
2011-01-01
Molecular rotors are a group of environment-sensitive fluorescent probes whose quantum yield depends on the ability to form twisted intramolecular chargetransfer (TICT) states. TICT formation is dominantly governed by the solvent's microviscosity, but polarity and the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds play an additional role. The relationship between quantum yield ϕF and viscosity η is widely accepted as a power-law, ϕF = C · ηx. In this study, we isolated the direct influence of the temperature on the TICT formation rate by examining several molecular rotors in protic and aprotic solvents over a range of temperatures. Each solvent's viscosity was determined as a function of temperature and used in the above power-law to determine how the proportionality constant C varies with temperature. We found that the power-law relationship fully explains the variations of the measured steady-state intensity by temperature-induced variations of the solvent viscosity, and C can be assumed to be temperature-independent. The exponent x, however, was found to be significantly higher in aprotic solvents than in protic solvents. We conclude that the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds has a major influence on the relationship between viscosity and quantum yield. To use molecular rotors for the quantitative determination of viscosity or microviscosity, the exponent x needs to be determined for each dye-solvent combination. PMID:21947609
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.; Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.
2008-11-01
The impact of magnetic geometry on neoclassical flows and viscosities for the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) is investigated using the PENTA code [1,2]. Specifically, two topics are investigated: (1) finite-beta effects and (2) configurational variations. The PENTA code is used to calculate flows in HSX with the vacuum magnetic geometry and with finite-beta magnetic surfaces from the VMEC equilibrium code. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX will be discussed.[0pt] [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [0pt] [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006).
Role of Viscosity on Capillary Flow and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kujawski, Daniel; Yerramilli, Sindhoora; Vasudevan, A. K.
2011-02-01
It is documented that the viscosity has a significant effect on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior in terms of the K- da/ dt relation. In order to better understand the role of viscosity and its effect on transport of aqueous solution to the crack tip due to capillary action at the crack tip, experiments were conducted using a glass-metal setup. The confined space between the crack-mouth faces was simulated using wedge-type geometry between a glass slide and 7475 aluminum plate. The space between the glass and aluminum crevice was carefully controlled using spacers. The effect of viscosity was modeled using water, glycerin, and its mixture. According to our best knowledge, this article presents the first simple model of experimental simulation of the capillary flow phenomenon with a goal of arriving at a better understanding of how the viscosity affects the SCC behavior. Experimental results of several materials taken from the literature support the role of viscosity on SCC behavior.
Temperature and concentration dependences of viscosity of Fe85-xCr15Cx (x=10-17) melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterkhova, I. V.; Kamaeva, L. V.; Lad'yanov, V. I.; Korepanov, A. Yu
2017-04-01
The investigations of temperature and concentration dependences of viscosity of Fe85-xCr15Cx (x=10-17) melts have been performed. It has been shown that the viscosity polytherms of the studied melts do not have any peculiarities in the entire studied temperature range and are well described by Arrhenius-type monotonic dependences. It has also been shown that there is no strong dependence between the viscosity of Fe85-xCr15Cx melts at x=10-17 at.%C and carbon concentration, and only close to eutectic concentration a sharp viscosity increase is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiels, C.; Butler, S. L.
2015-09-01
Mantle convection models with a low viscosity asthenosphere and high viscosity surface plates have been shown to produce very large aspect ratio convection cells like those inferred to exist in Earth's mantle and to exhibit two asthenospheric flow regimes. When the surface plate is highly mobile, the plate velocity exceeds the flow velocities in the asthenosphere and the plate drives a Couette-type flow in the asthenospheric channel. For sluggish plates, the flow velocities in the asthenosphere exceed the plate velocity and the asthenospheric flow is more Poiseuille-like. It has been shown that under certain circumstances, flows become increasingly Couette-like as the aspect ratio of the plate is increased in numerical simulations. These models also show an increase in the average surface heat flux with aspect ratio which is counterintuitive, as one would expect that large aspect ratio models would result in older and colder oceanic lithosphere. Previous investigations have used single internal heating rates and Rayleigh numbers and a plate formulation that did not preclude significant deformation within the plate. In this paper, we investigate the conditions necessary for Couette and Poiseuille asthenospheric flows and for surface heat flux to increase with plate aspect ratio by varying the internal heating rate, the Rayleigh number and the representation of surface plates in 2D mantle convection models Plates are represented as a high viscosity layer with (1) a free-slip top surface boundary condition and (2) a force-balance boundary condition that imposes a constant surface velocity within the plate. We find that for models with a free-slip surface boundary condition, the internal heating rate and Rayleigh number do not strongly affect the dominance of Couette or Poiseuille flows in the asthenosphere but the increase in surface heat flux with model aspect ratio in the Poiseuille asthenospheric flow regime increases with internal heating rate. For models using
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhuri, A.; Jacobs, G. B.; Don, W. S.; Abbassi, H.; Mashayek, F.
2017-03-01
A spatio-temporal adaptive artificial viscosity (AV) based shock-capturing scheme is proposed for the solution of both inviscid and viscous compressible flows using a high-order parallel Discontinuous Spectral Element Method (DSEM). The artificial viscosity and artificial thermal conduction coefficients are proportional to the viscous and thermal entropy generating terms, respectively, in the viscous entropy conservation law. The magnitude of AV is limited based on the explicit stable CFL criterion, so that the stable artificial viscous time step size is greater than the convective stable time step size. To further ensure the stability of this explicit approach, an adaptive variable order exponential filter is applied, if necessary, in elements where the AV has been limited. In viscous flow computations a modified Jameson's sensor (Ducros et al., 1999 [61]) limits the AV to small values in viscous shear regions, so as to maintain a high-order resolution in smooth regions and an essentially non-oscillatory behavior near sharp gradients/shocks regions. We have performed a systematic and extensive validation of the algorithm with one-dimensional problems (inviscid moving shock and viscous shock-structure interaction), two-dimensional problems (inviscid steady and unsteady shocked flows and viscous shock-boundary layer interaction), and a three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow over a ramped cavity. These examples demonstrate that the explicit DSEM scheme with adaptive artificial viscosity terms is stable, accurate and efficient.
Viscosity controls humidity dependence of N2O5 uptake to citric acid aerosol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gržinić, G.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Berkemeier, T.; Türler, A.; Ammann, M.
2015-08-01
The heterogeneous loss of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to aerosol particles has a significant impact on the night time nitrogen oxide cycle and therefore the oxidative capacity in the troposphere. Using a 13N short lived radioactive tracer method we studied the uptake kinetics of N2O5 on citric acid aerosol particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The results show that citric acid exhibits lower reactivity than similar di- and polycarboxylic acids, with uptake coefficients between ~ 3 × 10-4-~ 3 × 10-3 depending on humidity (17-70 % RH). This humidity dependence can be explained by a changing viscosity and, hence, diffusivity in the organic matrix. Since the viscosity of highly concentrated citric acid solutions is not well established, we present four different parameterizations of N2O5 diffusivity based on the available literature data or estimates for viscosity and diffusivity. Above 50 % RH, uptake is consistent with the reacto-diffusive kinetic regime whereas below 50 % RH, the uptake coefficient is higher than expected from hydrolysis of N2O5 within the bulk of the particles, and the uptake kinetics may be limited by loss on the surface only. This study demonstrates the impact of viscosity in highly oxidized and highly functionalized secondary organic aerosol material on the heterogeneous chemistry of N2O5 and may explain some of the unexpectedly low loss rates to aerosol derived from field studies.
The effects of depth-dependent viscosity in the lithosphere on post-seismic viscous relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamasaki, T.; Houseman, G. A.
2010-12-01
Following an earthquake elastic strain is relaxed by several mechanisms, including aseismic slip, poroelastic relaxation and viscous relaxation. The observed surface deformation reflects the integrated effect of these mechanisms, and it is therefore essential to evaluate the behaviour of each deformation process in order to advance our understanding of the co-and post-seismic deformations in the earthquake cycle. This evaluation requires mathematical models of the deformation, ground-truthed where possible using geodetic data (GPS and/or InSAR) to measure the surface deformation that accompanies and follows the earthquake. In this study, the effects of depth-dependent viscosity (DDV) variation in the lithosphere on the signature of post-seismic viscous relaxation are compared with the predictions of a uniform viscosity (UNV) model. For this purpose, we use a new parallelized 3-D finite element code, oregano_ve, to solve the linear Maxwell visco-elastic response following an applied internal fault displacement in a rectangular block. The model consists of a visco-elastic layer overlain by an elastic layer; the visco-elastic layer has a depth-dependent viscosity: η = η0exp[c(z0-z)], where η0 is the viscosity at the bottom of the layer, c is a constant (c = 0 for UNV model), z is the depth and z0 is the depth at the bottom of the layer. The fault displacement is implemented using the split node method developed by Melosh and Raefsky (BSSA, 71,1391,1981). We compare the relaxation of displacement that occurs on the surface after an instantaneous strike-slip faulting event for UNV and DDV models. For any given DDV model, we can choose a UNV model which approximately mimics the behaviour of the DDV model, but the required UNV viscosity depends on the distance from the fault; a smaller UNV viscosity is implied for a surface point that is further from the fault. The quality with which a UNV model can match a DDV simulation also depends on distance from the fault. In the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freed, Andrew M.; Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten W.; Okaya, David A.; Sato, Hiroshi; Hatanaka, Yuki
2017-02-01
We developed a 3-D, viscoelastic finite element model of the M9 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake capable of predicting postseismic displacements due to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip. We consider seismically inferred slab geometries associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plate and a wide range of candidate viscoelastic rheologies. For each case, we invert for afterslip based on residual surface displacements (observed GPS minus that predicted due to viscoelastic relaxation) to develop combined viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip models. We are able to find a mechanical model that fully explains all observed geodetic on-land and seafloor horizontal and vertical postseismic displacements. We find that postseismic displacements are in about equal parts due to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, but their patterns are spatially distinct. Accurately predicting both horizontal and vertical on-land postseismic displacements requires a mantle wedge viscosity structure that is depth dependent, reflecting the manner in which temperature, pressure, and water content influence viscosity. No lateral heterogeneities within the mantle wedge viscosity structure beneath northern Honshu are required. Westward-directed postseismic seafloor displacements may be due flow via low-temperature, plastic creep within the lower half of a Pacific lithosphere weakened by plate bending. The distribution of afterslip is controlled by the location of coseismic slip from the Tohoku-oki and other regional historic earthquakes. The paradigm by which afterslip is thought of as the dominant postseismic mechanism immediately following earthquakes, with viscoelastic relaxation to follow in later years, is shown to no longer be valid.
Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence
2015-01-01
Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489
Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence
2015-01-01
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.
Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients: Effect of viscosity
Da Hlaing, Nan; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat; Wilkes, James O.
2007-05-15
The effect of liquid viscosity on the flow regimes and the corresponding pressure gradients along the vertical two-phase flow was investigated. Experiment was carried out in a vertical transparent tube of 0.019 m in diameter and 3 m in length and the pressure gradients were measured by a U-tube manometer. Water and a 50 vol.% glycerol solution were used as the working fluids whose kinematic viscosities were 0.85 x 10{sup -6} and 4.0 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. In our air-liquid annular two-phase flow, the liquid film of various thicknesses flowed adjacent to the wall and the gas phase flowed at the center of the tube. The superficial air velocity, j{sub air}, was varied between 0.0021 and 58.7 m/s and the superficial liquid velocity, j{sub liquid}, was varied between 0 and 0.1053 m/s. In the bubble, the slug and the slug-churn flow regimes, the pressure gradients decreased with increasing Reynolds number. But in the annular and the mist flow regimes, pressure gradients increased with increasing Reynolds number. Finally, the experimentally measured pressure gradient values were compared and are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (author)
The effects of viscosity on the stability of a trailing-line vortex in compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stott, Jillian A. K.; Duck, Peter W.
1994-01-01
We consider the effects of viscosity on the inviscid stability of the Batchelor vortex in a compressible flow. The problem is tackled asymptotically, in the limit of large (streamwise and azimuthal) wavenumbers, together with large Mach numbers. Previous studies, with viscous effects neglected, found that the nature of the solution passes through different regimes as the Mach number increases, relative to the wavenumber. This structure persists when viscous effects are included in the analysis. In the present study the mode present in the incompressible case ceases to be unstable at high Mach numbers and a center mode forms, whose stability characteristics are determined primarily by conditions close to the vortex axis. We find generally that viscosity has a stabilizing influence on the flow, while in the case of center modes, viscous effects become important at much larger Reynolds numbers than for the first class of disturbance.
Membrane Viscosity Determined from Shear-Driven Flow in Giant Vesicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R.; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Kantsler, Vasily; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2013-07-01
The viscosity of lipid bilayer membranes plays an important role in determining the diffusion constant of embedded proteins and the dynamics of membrane deformations, yet it has historically proven very difficult to measure. Here we introduce a new method based on quantification of the large-scale circulation patterns induced inside vesicles adhered to a solid surface and subjected to simple shear flow in a microfluidic device. Particle image velocimetry based on spinning disk confocal imaging of tracer particles inside and outside of the vesicle and tracking of phase-separated membrane domains are used to reconstruct the full three-dimensional flow pattern induced by the shear. These measurements show excellent agreement with the predictions of a recent theoretical analysis, and allow direct determination of the membrane viscosity.
The effect of viscosity on steady transonic flow with a nodal solution topology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owocki, Stanley P.; Zank, Gary P.
1991-01-01
The effect of viscosity on a steady, transonic flow for which the inviscid limit has a nodal solution topology near the critical point is investigated. For the accelerating case, viscous solutions tend to repel each other, so that a very delicate choice of initial conditions is required to prevent them from diverging. Only the two critical solutions extend to arbitrarily large distances into both the subsonic and supersonic flows. For the decelerating case, the solutions tend to attract, and so an entire two-parameter family of solutions now extends over large distances. The general effect of viscosity on the solution degeneracy of a nodal topology is thus to reduce or limit it for the accelerating case and to enhance it for the decelerating case. The astrophysical implications of these findings are addressed.
The effects of viscosity on the stability of a trailing-line vortex in compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stott, Jillian A. K.; Duck, Peter W.
1994-07-01
We consider the effects of viscosity on the inviscid stability of the Batchelor vortex in a compressible flow. The problem is tackled asymptotically, in the limit of large (streamwise and azimuthal) wavenumbers, together with large Mach numbers. Previous studies, with viscous effects neglected, found that the nature of the solution passes through different regimes as the Mach number increases, relative to the wavenumber. This structure persists when viscous effects are included in the analysis. In the present study the mode present in the incompressible case ceases to be unstable at high Mach numbers and a center mode forms, whose stability characteristics are determined primarily by conditions close to the vortex axis. We find generally that viscosity has a stabilizing influence on the flow, while in the case of center modes, viscous effects become important at much larger Reynolds numbers than for the first class of disturbance.
THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS
Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de
2012-03-20
We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.
Viscosity-dependent variations in the cell shape and swimming manner of Leptospira.
Takabe, Kyosuke; Tahara, Hajime; Islam, Md Shafiqul; Affroze, Samia; Kudo, Seishi; Nakamura, Shuichi
2017-02-01
Spirochaetes are spiral or flat-wave-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that have periplasmic flagella between the peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane. Rotation of the periplasmic flagella transforms the cell body shape periodically, allowing the cell to swim in aqueous environments. Because the virulence of motility-deficient mutants of pathogenic species is drastically attenuated, motility is thought to be an essential virulence factor in spirochaetes. However, it remains unknown how motility practically contributes to the infection process. We show here that the cell body configuration and motility of the zoonotic spirochaete Leptospira changes depending on the viscosity of the medium. Leptospira swim and reverse the swimming direction by transforming the cell body. Motility analysis showed that the frequency of cell shape transformation was increased by increasing the viscosity of the medium. The increased cell body transformation induced highly frequent reversal of the swimming direction. A simple kinetic model based on the experimental results shows that the viscosity-induced increase in reversal limits cell migration, resulting in the accumulation of cells in high-viscosity regions. This behaviour could facilitate the colonization of the spirochaete on host tissues covered with mucosa.
New correlation for the temperature-dependent viscosity for saturated liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Laibin
2016-11-01
Based on the recent progress on both the temperature dependence of surface tension [H. L. Yi, J. X. Tian, A. Mulero and I. Cachading, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 126 (2016) 1603, and the correlation between surface tension and viscosity of liquids [J. X. Tian and A. Mulero, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53 (2014) 9499], we derived a new multiple parameter correlation to describe the temperature-dependent viscosity of liquids. This correlation is verified by comparing with data from NIST Webbook for 35 saturated liquids including refrigerants, hydrocarbons and others, in a wide temperature range from the triple point temperature to the one very near to the critical temperature. Results show that this correlation predicts the NIST data with high accuracy with absolute average deviation (AAD) less than 1% for 21 liquids and more than 3% for only four liquids, and is clearly better than the popularly used Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) correlation.
Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-10-01
A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002)]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-10-01
A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.
Entropy-viscosity based LES of turbulent flow in a flexible pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhicheng; Xie, Fangfang; Triantafyllou, Michael; Constantinides, Yiannis; Karniadakis, George
2016-11-01
We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent flow in a flexible pipe conveying incompressible fluid. We are interested in quantifying the flow-structure interaction in terms of mean quantities and their variances. For the LES, we employ an Entropy Viscosity Method (EVM), implemented in a spectral element code. In previous work, we investigated laminar flow and studied the complex interaction between structural and internal flow dynamics and obtained a phase diagram of the transition between states as function of three non-dimensional quantities: the fluid-tension parameter, the dimensionless fluid velocity, and the Reynolds number. Here we extend our studies in the turbulence regime, Re from 5,000 to 50,000. The motion of the flexible pipe affects greatly the turbulence statistics of the pipe flow, with substantial differences for free (self-sustained) vibrations and prescribed (forced) vibrations.
Upper Limit of the Viscosity Parameter in Accretion Flows around a Black Hole with Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagarkoti, Shreeram; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
2016-01-01
Black hole accretion is necessarily transonic; thus, flows must become supersonic and, therefore, sub-Keplerian before they enter into the black hole. The viscous timescale is much longer than the infall timescale close to a black hole. Hence, the angular momentum remains almost constant and the centrifugal force ˜ {l}2/{r}3 becomes increasingly dominant over the gravitational force ˜ 1/{r}2. The slowed down matter piles creating an accretion shock. The flow between shock and inner sonic point is puffed up and behaves like a boundary layer. This so-called Comptonizing cloud/corona produces hard X-rays and jets/outflows and, therefore, is an important component of black hole astrophysics. In this paper, we study steady state viscous, axisymmetric, transonic accretion flows around a Schwarzschild black hole. We adopt a viscosity parameter α and compute the highest possible value of α (namely, {α }{cr}) for each pair of two inner boundary parameters (namely, specific angular momentum carried to horizon, lin and specific energy at inner sonic point, E({x}{in})) which is still capable of producing a standing or oscillating shock. We find that while such possibilities exist for α as high as {α }{cr}=0.3 in very small regions of the flow parameter space, typical {α }{cr} appears to be about ˜0.05-0.1. Coincidentally, this also happens to be the typical viscosity parameter achieved by simulations of magnetorotational instabilities in accretion flows. We therefore believe that all realistic accretion flows are likely to have centrifugal pressure supported shocks unless the viscosity parameter everywhere is higher than {α }{cr}.
Effects of viscosity in a partially ionized channel flow with thermionic emission
Mikellides, Ioannis G.
2009-01-15
The flow of the partially ionized gas inside thermionic hollow cathodes spans a diverse range of theoretical disciplines in plasma physics and fluid mechanics. Understanding and predicting the evolution of such flows has many practical implications because hollow cathodes are critical components of electric propulsion systems used onboard scientific and commercial spacecraft presently in space or in the mission planning stages. As space missions become more demanding of the propulsion system in terms of throughput, understanding and predicting failure mechanisms of the system becomes imperative. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the partially ionized gas generated by a thermionic hollow cathode have been performed to quantify the effects of viscosity inside the cylindrical channel of the device. A comparison of the inviscid and fully viscous flow fields shows that viscosity has a significant impact on the atomic species and a lesser effect on the ions. The internal pressure is determined to be more than 40% higher compared to the inviscid solution and the Reynolds number for the flow of atoms is found to be less than 20 inside the channel. Although the Mach number is computed to be <0.1 for approximately 95% of the channel, the solution for the velocity flow field begins to deviate from the Poiseuille (parabolic) solution at about 50% of the channel due mainly to collisional drag with ions.
Stability of viscosity stratified flows down an incline: Role of miscibility and wall slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sukhendu; Usha, R.
2016-10-01
The effects of wall velocity slip on the linear stability of a gravity-driven miscible two-fluid flow down an incline are examined. The fluids have the matched density but different viscosity. A smooth viscosity stratification is achieved due to the presence of a thin mixed layer between the fluids. The results show that the presence of slip exhibits a promise for stabilizing the miscible flow system by raising the critical Reynolds number at the onset and decreasing the bandwidth of unstable wave numbers beyond the threshold of the dominant instability. This is different from its role in the case of a single fluid down a slippery substrate where slip destabilizes the flow system at the onset. Though the stability properties are analogous to the same flow system down a rigid substrate, slip is shown to delay the surface mode instability for any viscosity contrast. It has a damping/promoting effect on the overlap modes (which exist due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant disturbance with the mixed layer) when the mixed layer is away/close from/to the slippery inclined wall. The trend of slip effect is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid, and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. The stabilizing characteristics of slip can be favourably used to suppress the non-linear breakdown which may happen due to the coexistence of the unstable modes in a flow over a substrate with no slip. The results of the present study suggest that it is desirable to design a slippery surface with appropriate slip sensitivity in order to meet a particular need for a specific application.
Clustering and viscosity in a shear flow of a particulate suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raiskinmäki, P.; Åström, J. A.; Kataja, M.; Latva-Kokko, M.; Koponen, A.; Jäsberg, A.; Shakib-Manesh, A.; Timonen, J.
2003-12-01
A shear flow of particulate suspension is analyzed for the qualitative effect of particle clustering on viscosity using a simple kinetic clustering model and direct numerical simulations. The clusters formed in a Couette flow can be divided into rotating chainlike clusters and layers of particles at the channel walls. The size distribution of the rotating clusters is scale invariant in the small-cluster regime and decreases rapidly above a characteristic length scale that diverges at a jamming transition. The behavior of the suspension can qualitatively be divided into three regimes. For particle Reynolds number Rep≲0.1, viscosity is controlled by the characteristic cluster size deduced from the kinetic clustering model. For Rep˜1, clustering is maximal, but the simple kinetic model becomes inapplicable presumably due to onset of instabilities. In this transition regime viscosity begins to increase. For Rep≳10, inertial effects become important, clusters begin to breakup, and suspension displays shear thickening. This phenomenon may be attributed to enhanced contribution of solid phase in the total shear stress.
A central-upwind scheme with artificial viscosity for shallow-water flows in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Duenas, Gerardo; Beljadid, Abdelaziz
2016-10-01
We develop a new high-resolution, non-oscillatory semi-discrete central-upwind scheme with artificial viscosity for shallow-water flows in channels with arbitrary geometry and variable topography. The artificial viscosity, proposed as an alternative to nonlinear limiters, allows us to use high-resolution reconstructions at a low computational cost. The scheme recognizes steady states at rest when a delicate balance between the source terms and flux gradients occurs. This balance in irregular geometries is more complex than that taking place in channels with vertical walls. A suitable technique is applied by properly taking into account the effects induced by the geometry. Incorporating the contributions of the artificial viscosity and an appropriate time step restriction, the scheme preserves the positivity of the water's depth. A description of the proposed scheme, its main properties as well as the proofs of well-balance and the positivity of the scheme are provided. Our numerical experiments confirm stability, well-balance, positivity-preserving properties and high resolution of the proposed method. Comparisons of numerical solutions obtained with the proposed scheme and experimental data are conducted, showing a good agreement. This scheme can be applied to shallow-water flows in channels with complex geometry and variable bed topography.
Viscous shock anomaly in a variable-viscosity Burgers flow with an active scalar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbot, B.; Mammeri, Y.; Bedjaoui, N.
2015-12-01
This paper examines the effect of viscosity variability on the formation of shocklets (small transient shocks) through the inhomogeneity in composition of the propagating medium. For this purpose, both analytical estimates and numerical spectral method are applied to a Burgers’ equation—where viscosity is a space-time function depending on a coupled advection-diffusion equation for the local mass fraction. The coefficient of viscosity thus behaves as an active scalar. The inhomogeneous shocklet is modeled by a fixed sine wave for the initial velocity profile while different sine waves of higher frequency are used for the initial embedded distribution of scalar. The initial kinematic viscosity ratio {R}ν ={ν }{max}/{ν }{min} ranges from 1 to 4. It is found that, surprisingly, for all conditions at Rν > 1, i.e., for waves becoming more and more viscous on average, there was (1) a steeper maximum gradient in the shock transition zone, and consequently (2) velocity spectra extended toward the finest small scales, and (3) an enhanced energy dissipation rate is observed at the time of peak energy dissipation. These results will be useful to the understanding of small-scale dynamics for one-dimensional shocklets propagating in multi-component gas mixtures where noticeable active scalar effects are present.
Plate-like convection in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curbelo, J.; Mancho, A. M.
2015-12-01
The study of instabilities in fluids in which viscosity experiences a transition at a certain temperature range is of great interest for the understanding of planetary interiors, since this phenomena is suitable for representing a very viscous lithosphere (and thus rather rigid) over a convecting mantle. To this end, we study a 2D convection problem in which viscosity depends on temperature by abruptly changing its value within a narrow temperature gap. Notable solutions are found for a sharp transition viscosity law which are fundamentally related to the presence of a symmetry in the problem. For instance, cyclic series are found consisting of spontaneous plate-like behaviors emerging sporadically through abrupt bursts, and rapidly evolving towards a stagnant lid regime. The plate-like evolution alternates motions towards either right or left, introducing temporary asymmetries on the convecting styles. Further time-dependent regimes with stagnant and plate-like lids are described, which are also greatly influenced by the presence of the symmetry. These results provide convection examples of moving plates, that coexist with subsurface upwards and downwards meandering jets, but without a proper subduction, and can be particularly illustrative for understanding convective styles of the Earth prior to subduction, or that of other planetary bodies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1995-01-01
The physical properties of a supersaturated binary solution such as its density rho, shear viscosity eta, and solute mass diffusivity D are dependent on the solute concentration c: rho = rho(c), eta = eta(c), and D = D(c). The diffusion boundary layer equations related to crystal growth from solution are derived for the case of natural convection with a solution density, a shear viscosity, and a solute diffusivity that are all depen- dent on solute concentration. The solution of these equations has demonstrated the following. (1) At the vicinity of the saturation concentration c(sub s) the solution shear viscosity eta depends on rho as eta(sub s) = eta(rho(sub s))varies as square root of rho(c(sub s)). This theoretically derived result has been verified in experiments with several aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic salts. (2) The maximum solute mass transfer towards the growing crystal surface can be achieved for values of c where the ratio of d ln(D(c)/dc) to d ln(eta(c)/dc) is a maximum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman
2015-03-01
We consider electrically driven dynamics of an incompressible binary fluid, with contrasting densities and viscosities of the two phases, flowing through narrow fluidic channel with walls with predefined surface wettabilities. Through phase field formalism, we describe the interfacial kinetics in the presence of electro-hydrodynamic coupling and address the contact line dynamics of the two-fluid system. We unveil the interplay of the substrate wettability and the contrast in the fluid properties culminating in the forms of two distinct regimes—interface breakup regime and a stable interface regime. Through a parametric study, we demarcate the effect of the density and viscosity contrasts along with the electrokinetic parameters such as the surface charge and ionic concentration on the underlying contact-line-dynamics over interfacial scales.
MHD Stagnation point flows in the presence of resistivity and viscosity
Gratton, F.T.; Heyn, M.F.; Biernat, H.K.; Rijnbeek, R.P.; Gnavi, G. )
1988-07-01
The authors analyze the steady state situation in which two separate and counterstreaming plasmas (assumed to be incompressible) carrying antiparallel magnetic fields are separated by a resistive current layer. Exact solutions are presented which describe the stagnation point flow pattern and magnetic field behavior which result. They incorporate the effects of viscosity, which enables us to model flows with vorticity. The uniform plasma flow which is obtained at large distances from the current layer allows us to specify finite values of the asymptotic magnetic field. The exact solutions complement those of a different type obtained by B.U.O. Sonnerup and E.R. Priest (1975) which assume potential flow, i.e., zero vorticity. The results they obtain are discussed in relation to observational features at the Earth's magnetopause.
Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J
1996-01-01
The small viscosity asymptotics of the inertial range of local structure and of the wall region in wallbounded turbulent shear flow are compared. The comparison leads to a sharpening of the dichotomy between Reynolds number dependent scaling (power-type) laws and the universal Reynolds number independent logarithmic law in wall turbulence. It further leads to a quantitative prediction of an essential difference between them, which is confirmed by the results of a recent experimental investigation. These results lend support to recent work on the zero viscosity limit of the inertial range in turbulence. PMID:11607688
Viscosity controls humidity dependence of N2O5 uptake to citric acid aerosol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gržinić, G.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Berkemeier, T.; Türler, A.; Ammann, M.
2015-12-01
The heterogeneous loss of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to aerosol particles has a significant impact on the night-time nitrogen oxide cycle and therefore the oxidative capacity in the troposphere. Using a 13N short-lived radioactive tracer method, we studied the uptake kinetics of N2O5 on citric acid aerosol particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The results show that citric acid exhibits lower reactivity than similar dicarboxylic and polycarboxylic acids, with uptake coefficients between ∼ 3 × 10-4-∼ 3 × 10-3 depending on humidity (17-70 % RH). At RH above 50 %, the magnitude and the humidity dependence can be best explained by the viscosity of citric acid as compared to aqueous solutions of simpler organic and inorganic solutes and the variation of viscosity with RH and, hence, diffusivity in the organic matrix. Since the diffusion rates of N2O5 in highly concentrated citric acid solutions are not well established, we present four different parameterizations of N2O5 diffusivity based on the available literature data or estimates for viscosity and diffusivity of H2O. Above 50 % RH, uptake is consistent with the reacto-diffusive kinetic regime whereas below 50 % RH, the uptake coefficient is higher than expected from hydrolysis of N2O5 within the bulk of the particles, and the uptake kinetics is most likely limited by loss on the surface only. This study demonstrates the impact of viscosity in highly oxidized and highly functionalized secondary organic aerosol material on the heterogeneous chemistry of N2O5 and may explain some of the unexpectedly low loss rates to aerosol derived from field studies.
Analysis of artificial viscosity effects on reacting flows using a spectral multidomain technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macaraeg, Michele G.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1989-01-01
Standard techniques used to model chemically-reacting flows require an artificial viscosity for stability in the presence of strong shocks. The resulting shock is smeared over at least three computational cells, so that the thickness of the shock is dictated by the structure of the overall mesh and not the shock physics. A gas passing through a strong shock is thrown into a nonequilibrium state and subsequently relaxes down over some finite distance to an equilibrium end state. The artificial smearing of the shock envelops this relaxation zone which causes the chemical kinetics of the flow to be altered. A method is presented which can investigate these issues by following the chemical kinetics and flow kinetics of a gas passing through a fully resolved shock wave at hypersonic Mach numbers. A nonequilibrium chemistry model for air is incorporated into a spectral multidomain Navier-Stokes solution method. Since no artificial viscosity is needed for stability of the multidomain technique, the precise effect of this artifice on the chemical kinetics and relevant flow features can be determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macaraeg, M. G.; Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
Standard techniques used to model chemically-reacting flows require an artificial viscosity for stability in the presence of strong shocks. The resulting shock is smeared over at least three computational cells, so that the thickness of the shock is dictated by the structure of the overall mesh and not the shock physics. A gas passing through a strong shock is thrown into a nonequilibrium state and subsequently relaxes down over some finite distance to an equilibrium end state. The artificial smearing of the shock envelops this relaxation zone which causes the chemical kinetics of the flow to be altered. A method is presented which can investigate these issues by following the chemical kinetics and flow kinetics of a gas passing through a fully resolved shock wave at hypersonic Mach numbers. A nonequilibrium chemistry model for air is incorporated into a spectral multidomain Navier-Stokes solution method. Since no artificial viscosity is needed for stability of the multidomain technique, the precise effect of this artifice on the chemical kinetics and relevant flow features can be determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doquet, V.; Barkia, B.
2015-05-01
The viscoplastic behaviour of two batches of commercially pure titanium with different oxygen contents was characterized at room temperature through tension, creep, relaxation, and strain-rate jump tests along the rolling and transverse directions. Depending on the applied stress, creep saturated, or the primary creep stage was followed by secondary and even tertiary creep leading to fracture within a few hours. 33 % to 40 % of the flow stress was relaxed within 20 hours. The strain-rate sensitivity was found to increase with the oxygen content and when the strain rate decreased. It was up to 25 % higher along the transverse direction than along the rolling direction. The experimental data were used to identify a simple mean field crystal viscoplasticity model. Assuming different viscosities on prismatic and nonprismatic slip systems, the anisotropy and strain-rate dependence of the strain-rate sensitivity were captured. As a consequence of these different viscosities, the relative contributions of each type of slip system to the overall deformation are predicted to vary with the strain rate, in accordance with some data from the literature.
Vertex dynamics simulations of viscosity-dependent deformation during tissue morphogenesis.
Okuda, Satoru; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Adachi, Taiji; Sasai, Yoshiki
2015-04-01
In biological development, multiple cells cooperate to form tissue morphologies based on their mechanical interactions; namely active force generation and passive viscoelastic response. In particular, the dynamic processes of tissue deformations are governed by the viscous properties of the tissues. These properties are spatially inhomogeneous because they depend on the tissue constituents, such as cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, basement membrane and extracellular matrix. The multicellular mechanics of tissue morphogenesis have been investigated in vertex dynamics models. However, conventional models are applicable only to quasi-static deformation processes, which do not account for tissue viscosities. We propose a vertex dynamics model that simulates the viscosity-dependent dynamic deformation processes during tissue morphogenesis. By incorporating local velocity fields into the governing equation of vertex movements, the model turns Galilean invariant. In addition, the viscous properties of tissue components are newly expressed by formulating friction forces on vertices as functions of the relative velocities among the vertices. The advantages of the proposed model are examined by epithelial growth simulations under the employed condition for quasi-static processes. As a result, the epithelial vesicle simulated by the proposed model is linearly elongated with nearly free stress, while that simulated by the conventional model is undulated with compressive residual stress. Therefore, the proposed model is able to reflect the timescale of deformations by satisfying Galilean invariance. Next, the applicability of the proposed model is assessed in epithelial growth simulations of viscous extracellular materials. In this test, the epithelial vesicles are deformed into tubular shapes by oriented cell divisions, and their morphologies are extremely sensitive to extracellular viscosity. Therefore, the dynamic deformations in the proposed model depend on the viscous properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wray, Timothy J.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is routinely used in performance prediction and design of aircraft, turbomachinery, automobiles, and in many other industrial applications. Despite its wide range of use, deficiencies in its prediction accuracy still exist. One critical weakness is the accurate simulation of complex turbulent flows using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a turbulence model. The goal of this research has been to develop an eddy viscosity type turbulence model to increase the accuracy of flow simulations for mildly separated flows, flows with rotation and curvature effects, and flows with surface roughness. It is accomplished by developing a new zonal one-equation turbulence model which relies heavily on the flow physics; it is now known in the literature as the Wray-Agarwal one-equation turbulence model. The effectiveness of the new model is demonstrated by comparing its results with those obtained by the industry standard one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model and two-equation Shear-Stress-Transport k - o model and experimental data. Results for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows in and about complex geometries are presented. It is demonstrated that the Wray-Agarwal model can provide the industry and CFD researchers an accurate, efficient, and reliable turbulence model for the computation of a large class of complex turbulent flows.
Better Strategies for Finite Element Solutions of Variable Viscosity Stokes Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenclever, Jörg; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Shi, Chao
2010-05-01
Accurate numerical solution of variable viscosity Stokes Flow is one of the most important issues for better geodynamic understanding of mantle convection and mantle melting. While a good Stokes solver is usually an integral part of a good Navier-Stokes solver, typically Navier-Stokes equations are solved for flow of a fluid with uniform viscosity. The lumped-mass-matrix is an excellent and cheap preconditioner for uniform viscosity Stokes flow (cf. Maday and Patera, 1989), therefore for most applications to Navier-Stokes flow the ‘Stokes' part of the problem is viewed as well-resolved. Unfortunately, the inverse-viscosity-scaled lumped mass matrix does not work nearly as well to precondition Stokes flow in a fluid with strongly varying viscosity. This issue is already central to accurate numerical studies of convection in Earth's silicate-fluid mantle (May and Moresi, 2008; van Geenen et al., 2009; Burstedde et al., 2009) and may become central for researchers investigating Navier-Stokes problems with lateral variations in viscosity. Here we discuss several known computational hurdles to progress, and suggest strategies that offer promise in overcoming them. The choices for solving the discrete pressure equation arising from Stokes flow typically involve several tradeoffs between speed and storage requirements. In exact math, the discrete pressure matrix S is symmetric, so that it should be possible to use a symmetric preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) Krylov algorithm instead of needing an asymmetric GMRES (cf. Saad, 2003) or GCR (Generalized Conjugate Residual, cf. Van der Vorst, 2003) that would require ~10-50 times more storage of past search directions. However, a CG-like method requires that the action of both S and any pressure preconditioner must be almost perfectly symmetric. This means that we must be very careful about the effects of roundoff in any iterative solver-based pressure preconditioner that may introduce numerically asymmetric operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyer, Robert W.; Trapaga, G.; Flemings, M. C.
1999-01-01
The viscosity of a liquid metal was successfully measured for the first time by a containerless method, the oscillating drop technique. This method also provides a means to obtain a precise, non-contact measurement of the surface tension of the droplet. This technique involves exciting the surface of the molten sample and then measuring the resulting oscillations; the natural frequency of the oscillating sample is determined by its surface tension, and the damping of the oscillations by the viscosity. These measurements were performed in TEMPUS, a microgravity electromagnetic levitator (EML), on the Space Shuttle as a part of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1), which flew in April and July 1997 (STS-83 and STS-94). Some results of the surface tension and viscosity measurements are presented for Pd82Si18. Some observations of the fluid dynamic characteristics (dominant flow patterns, turbulent transition, cavitation, etc.) of levitated droplets are presented and discussed together with magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which were performed to justify these findings.
A Study of Effects of Viscosity on Flow over Slender Inclined Bodies of Revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, H Julian; Perkins, Edward W
1951-01-01
The observed flow field about slender inclined bodies of revolution is compared with the calculated characteristics based upon potential theory. The comparison is instructive in indicating the manner in which the effects of viscosity are manifest. Based on this and other studies, a method is developed to allow for viscous effects on the force and moment characteristics of bodies. The calculated force and moment characteristics of two bodies of high fineness ratio are shown to be in good agreement, for most engineering purposes, with experiment. (author)
Triamine-Modified Polyimides Having Improved Processability and Low Melt Flow Viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meador, Michael A. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochan N. (Inventor); Eby, Ronald K. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
Addition-cured polyimides that contain the reaction product of an aromatic triamine or trianhydride analogue thereof, a reactive end group such as 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid, ester derivatives of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid, anhydride derivatives of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid, or 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride, an aromatic diamine, and a dialkyl ester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid. The resultant starlike polyimides; exhibit lower melt flow viscosity than its linear counterparts, providing for improved processability of the polyimide. Also disclosed are methods for the synthesis of these polyimides as well as composite structures formed using these polyimides.
Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon
2013-01-01
Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T < 10 s). For performance demonstrations, the proposed method was applied to evaluate blood viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a
Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon
2013-01-01
Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T < 10 s). For performance demonstrations, the proposed method was applied to evaluate blood viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandasamy, R.; Muhaimin, I.; Amin, Norsarahaida S.
2010-01-01
This article concerns with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a vertical stretching sheet. A scaling group of transformations is applied to the governing equations. The system remains invariant due to some relations among the parameters of the transformations. Impact of thermophoresis particle deposition in the presence of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity plays an important role on the concentration boundary layer. The results thus obtained are presented graphically and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.
2016-09-01
The nonlinear propagation of low frequency waves, in a collisionless, strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) with a density dependent viscosity, has been studied with a proper Galilean invariant generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. The well known reductive perturbation technique (RPT) has been employed in obtaining the solutions of the longitudinal and transverse perturbations. It has been found that the nonlinear propagation of the acoustic perturbations govern with the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and are decoupled from the sheared fluctuations. In the regions, where transversal gradients of the flow exists, coupling between the longitudinal and transverse perturbations occurs due to convective nonlinearity which is true for the homogeneous case also. The results, obtained here, can have relative significance to astrophysical context as well as in laboratory plasmas.
Concentration and temperature dependence of the viscosity of polyol aqueous solutions.
Longinotti, M Paula; Trejo González, José A; Corti, Horacio R
2014-08-01
The concentration and temperature dependence of the viscosity of supercooled polyol (sucrose, trehalose, glucose and glycerol) aqueous solutions was analyzed with the aim of finding simple and accurate correlation equations for the description of this transport property. Three different equations were examined and compared, two empirical equations and an equation derived from the Avramov-Milchev (AM) model. If a description of the viscosity temperature dependence is intended, the AM model gives the best representation of the experimental data with only two adjustable parameters, which have a clear physical meaning. However, if we focus on both, temperature and concentration dependence, the empirical equations are found to be superior to the AM model, except for the glycerol aqueous system. The AM model includes a parameter related to the system fragility, which was obtained for all the aqueous polyol mixtures previously mentioned as a function of concentration, and also for water-trehalose-sodium tetraborate mixtures as a function of the electrolyte content. The results show that the fragility parameter increases with polyol concentration in the series glycerol
Plate-like convection in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancho, Ana M.; Curbelo, Jezabel
2013-11-01
The study of instabilities in fluids in which viscosity experiences a transition at a certain temperature range is of great interest for the understanding of planetary interiors, since this phenomena models the melting and solidification of a magma ocean and thus is suitable for representing a lithosphere over a convecting mantle. To this end, we study a 2D convection problem in which viscosity depends on temperature by abruptly changing its value by a factor 400 within a narrow temperature gap at which magma melts. We perform a study which combines bifurcation analysis and time dependent simulations. Solutions such as limit cycles are found that are fundamentally related to the presence of the O(2) symmetry. Sporadically during these cycles, through abrupt bursts, spontaneous plate-like behaviors that rapidly evolve towards a stagnant lid regime emerge. The plate-like evolution alternates motions towards either right or left, introducing temporary asymmetries on the convecting styles. Further time dependent regimes are described for different transition laws which are greatly influenced by the presence of the symmetry. We thank CESGA for computing facilities. This research is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science under grant MTM2011-26696 and MINECO: ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087.
Sankaran, Sethuraman; Kim, Hyun Jin; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A
2016-08-16
Computational fluid dynamic methods are currently being used clinically to simulate blood flow and pressure and predict the functional significance of atherosclerotic lesions in patient-specific models of the coronary arteries extracted from noninvasive coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) data. One such technology, FFRCT, or noninvasive fractional flow reserve derived from CT data, has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy as compared to invasively measured fractional flow reserve (FFR) obtained with a pressure wire inserted in the coronary arteries during diagnostic cardiac catheterization. However, uncertainties in modeling as well as measurement results in differences between these predicted and measured hemodynamic indices. Uncertainty in modeling can manifest in two forms - anatomic uncertainty resulting in error of the reconstructed 3D model and physiologic uncertainty resulting in errors in boundary conditions or blood viscosity. We present a data-driven framework for modeling these uncertainties and study their impact on blood flow simulations. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model blood flow and an adaptive stochastic collocation method is used to model uncertainty propagation in the Navier-Stokes equations. We perform uncertainty quantification in two geometries, an idealized stenosis model and a patient specific model. We show that uncertainty in minimum lumen diameter (MLD) has the largest impact on hemodynamic simulations, followed by boundary resistance, viscosity and lesion length. We show that near the diagnostic cutoff (FFRCT=0.8), the uncertainty due to the latter three variables are lower than measurement uncertainty, while the uncertainty due to MLD is only slightly higher than measurement uncertainty. We also show that uncertainties are not additive but only slightly higher than the highest single parameter uncertainty. The method presented here can be used to output interval estimates of hemodynamic indices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whittington, A. G.; Romine, W. L.
2014-12-01
Understanding the dynamics of rhyolitic conduits and lava flows, requires precise knowledge of how viscosity (η) varies with temperature (T), pressure (P) and volatile content (X). In order to address the paucity of viscosity data for high-silica rhyolite at low water contents, which represent water saturation at near-surface conditions, we made 245 viscosity measurements on Mono Craters (California) rhyolites containing between 0.01 and 1.1 wt.% H2O, at temperatures between 796 and 1774 K using parallel plate and concentric cylinder methods at atmospheric pressure. We then developed and calibrated a new empirical model for the log of the viscosity of rhyolitic melts, where non-linear variations due to temperature and water content are nested within a linear dependence of log η on P. The model was fitted to a total of 563 data points: our 245 new data, 255 published data from rhyolites across a wide P-T-X space, and 63 data on haplogranitic and granitic melts under high P-T conditions. Statistically insignificant parameters were eliminated from the model in an effort to increase parsimony and the final model is simple enough for use in numerical models of conduit or lava flow dynamics: log η = -5.142+(13080-2982log(w+0.229))/(T-(98.9-175.9 log(w+0.229)))- P(0.0007-0.76/T ) where η is in Pa s, w is water content in wt.%, P is in MPa and T is in K. The root mean square deviation (rmsd) between the model predictions and the 563 data points used in calibration is 0.39 log units. Experimental constraints have led previously to spurious correlations between P, T, X and η in viscosity data sets, so that predictive models may struggle to correctly resolve the individual effects of P, T and X, and especially their cross-correlations. The increasing water solubility with depth inside a simple isothermal sheet of obsidian suggests that viscosity should decrease by ~1 order of magnitude at ~20m depth and by ~2 orders of magnitude at ~100m depth. If equilibrium water
Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef
2006-06-23
In previous papers, several approaches to programming of the resulting force field in GFFF were described and investigated. The experiments were dealing with flow-velocity and channel thickness, i.e. factors influencing hydrodynamic lift forces (HLF). The potential of density and viscosity of carrier liquid for field programming was predicted and demonstrated by preliminary experiments. This work is devoted to experimental verification of the influence of carrier liquid density and viscosity. Several carrier liquid density and simultaneously viscosity gradients using water-methanol mixtures are in this work implemented in the separation of a model silica mixture. Working with the water-methanol gradients, one is not able to separate the influence of density from the contribution of viscosity. However, we found experimental conditions to show the isolated effect of carrier liquid density (two water-methanol mixtures of equal viscosity differing in their densities). In order to demonstrate the isolated effect of viscosity, we implemented in this work a new system of (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC) carrier liquids. Three different HPMC compositions enabled to vary the viscosity more than two times at almost constant density. With increasing carrier liquid viscosity, the focusing and elevating trend was clearly pronounced for 5 and 10 microm silica particles. By the isolated effect of increased viscosity, the centre of the 10 microm particle zone was elevated to the streamline at 16% of the channel height. These experiments have shown that the influence of carrier liquid viscosity on HLF should be taken into account even at higher levels above the channel bottom, i.e. beyond the near-wall region. Further, it is shown that higher value of carrier liquid viscosity improves the separation of the model mixture in terms of time and resolution.
Assessing the numerical dissipation rate and viscosity in CFD simulations of fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schranner, F. S.; Domaradzki, J. A.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.
2014-11-01
We describe a method for quantifying the effective numerical dissipation rate and the effective numerical viscosity in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. Differently from the previous approach that was formulated in spectral space, the proposed method is developed in a physical-space representation and allows for determining numerical dissipation rates and viscosities locally, i.e., at the individual cell level or for arbitrary subdomains of the computational domain. The method is self-contained using only results produced by the Navier-Stokes solver being investigated. Since no extraneous information is required, the method is suitable for a straightforward quantification of the numerical dissipation as a post-processing step. We demonstrate the method's capabilities on the example of implicit large-eddy simulations of three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex flows that exhibit laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow behavior at different stages of time evolution. For validation, we compare the numerical dissipation rate obtained using this method with exact reference data obtained with an accurate, spectral-space approach. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.
1988-01-01
The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.
Okahara, Shigeyuki; Soh, Zu; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hidenobu; Itoh, Hideshi; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio
2017-03-01
During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), blood viscosity conspicuously increases and decreases due to changes in hematocrit and blood temperature. Nevertheless, blood viscosity is typically not evaluated, because there is no technology that can provide simple, continuous, noncontact monitoring. We modeled the pressure-flow characteristics of an oxygenator in a previous study, and in that study we quantified the influence of viscosity on oxygenator function. The pressure-flow monitoring information in the oxygenator is derived from our model and enables the estimation of viscosity. The viscosity estimation method was proposed and investigated in an in vitro experiment. Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8, 31.0, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37°C to 27°C, the mean inlet pressure (Pin ) and outlet pressure (Pout ) of the oxygenator and the flow (Q) and viscosity of the blood were measured. The estimated viscosity was calculated from the pressure gradient (ΔP = Pin - Pout ) and Q and was compared to the measured blood viscosity. A strong correlation was found between the two methods for all samples. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean bias of -0.0263 mPa.s, a standard deviation of 0.071 mPa.s, limits of agreement of -0.114-0.166 mPa.s, and a percent error of 5%. Therefore, this method is considered compatible with the torsional oscillation viscometer that has plus or minus 5% measurement accuracy. Our study offers the possibility of continuously estimating blood viscosity during CPB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T.-H.; Liou, W. W.; Shabbir, A.; Yang, Z.; Zhu, J.
1994-01-01
A new k-epsilon eddy viscosity model, which consists of a new model dissipation rate equation and a new realizable eddy viscosity formulation, is proposed. The new model dissipation rate equation is based on the dynamic equation of the mean-square vorticity fluctuation at large turbulent Reynolds number. The new eddy viscosity formulation is based on the realizability constraints: the positivity of normal Reynolds stresses and Schwarz' inequality for turbulent shear stresses. We find that the present model with a set of unified model coefficients can perform well for a variety of flows. The flows that are examined include: (1) rotating homogeneous shear flows; (2) boundary-free shear flows including a mixing layer, planar and round jets; (3) a channel flow, and flat plate boundary layers with and without a pressure gradient; and (4) backward facing step separated flows. The model predictions are compared with available experimental data. The results from the standard k-epsilon eddy viscosity model are also included for comparison. It is shown that the present model is a significant improvement over the standard k-epsilon eddy viscosity model.
Viscosity-dependent structural fluctuation of the M80-containing Ω-loop of horse ferrocytochrome c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajesh; Jain, Rishu; Kumar, Rajesh
2013-06-01
To determine the effect of solvent viscosity on low-frequency local motions that control the slow changes in structural dynamics of proteins, we have studied the effects of solvent viscosity on the structural fluctuation of presumably the M80-containing Ω-loop by measuring the rate of thermally-driven CO-dissociation from a natively-folded carbonmonoxycytochrome c (NCO-state) in the 0.65-92.5 cP range of viscosity at pH 7.0. At low viscosities (⩽8 cP), the rate coefficient, kdiss for dissociation of CO from the NCO-state varies inversely with the viscosity, but saturates at high viscosities, suggesting that CO-dissociation reaction involves sequential stages that depend differently on solvent friction, i.e., solvent coupled and nonsolvent-coupled stages of the process. In the low viscosity regime (0.65 ⩽ ηs ⩽ 8.0 cP), the rate-viscosity data were fitted to modified Kramers model, kdiss = [A'/(σ + ηs)n]exp(-ΔG/RT), which produced internal friction, σ = 1.35 cP (±0.88), which suggests that the speed of CO-dissociation from NCO at ηs ⩽ 8.0 cP is controlled by internal friction.
Sheared E×B flow and plasma turbulence viscosity in a Reversed Field Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Regnoli, G.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2004-11-01
The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in Reversed Field Pinch configuration is addressed. The momentum balance equation for a compressible plasma is considered and the terms involved are measured in the outer region of Extrap-T2R RFP device. It results that electrostatic fluctuations determine the plasma flow through the electrostatic component of Reynolds Stress tensor. This term involves spatial and temporal scales comparable to those of MHD activity. The derived experimental perpendicular viscosity is consistent with anomalous diffusion, the latter being discussed in terms of electrostatic turbulence background and coherent structures emerging from fluctuations. The results indicate a dynamical interplay between turbulence, anomalous transport and mean E×B profiles. The momentum balance has been studied also in non-stationary condition during the application of Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive, which is known to reduce the amplitude of MHD modes.
Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong -Kyu; Paz-Soldan, Carloa; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Smith, Sterling P.; Burrell, K. H.
2016-02-05
This paper presents a single mode model that accurately predicts the coupling of applied nonaxisymmetric fields to the plasma response that induces neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. The torque is measured and modeled to have a sinusoidal dependence on the relative phase of multiple nonaxisymmetric field sources, including a minimum in which large amounts of nonaxisymmetric drive is decoupled from the NTV torque. This corresponds to the coupling and decoupling of the applied field to a NTV-driving mode spectrum. Modeling using the perturbed equilibrium nonambipolar transport (PENT) code confirms an effective single mode coupling between the applied field and the resultant torque, despite its inherent nonlinearity. Lastly, the coupling to the NTV mode is shown to have a similar dependence on the relative phasing as that of the IPEC dominant mode, providing a physical basis for the efficacy of this linear metric in predicting error field correction optima in NTV dominated regimes.
Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sozanski, Krzysztof; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Tabaka, Marcin; Hou, Sen; Holyst, Robert
2015-09-01
This paper deals with the recent phenomenological model of the motion of nanoscopic objects (colloidal particles, proteins, nanoparticles, molecules) in complex liquids. We analysed motion in polymer, micellar, colloidal and protein solutions and the cytoplasm of living cells using the length-scale dependent viscosity model. Viscosity monotonically approaches macroscopic viscosity as the size of the object increases and thus gives a single, coherent picture of motion at the nano and macro scale. The model includes interparticle interactions (solvent-solute), temperature and the internal structure of a complex liquid. The depletion layer ubiquitously occurring in complex liquids is also incorporated into the model. We also discuss the biological aspects of crowding in terms of the length-scale dependent viscosity model.
A lattice Boltzmann method for axisymmetric multicomponent flows with high viscosity ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei; Ba, Yan; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao
2016-12-01
A color-gradient lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed to simulate axisymmetric multicomponent flows. This method uses a collision operator that is a combination of three separate parts, namely single-component collision operator, perturbation operator, and recoloring operator. A source term is added into the single-component collision operator such that in each single-component region the axisymmetric continuity and momentum equations can be exactly recovered. The interfacial tension effect is realized by the perturbation operator, in which an interfacial force of axisymmetric form is derived using the concept of continuum surface force. A recoloring operator proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is extended to the axisymmetric case for phase segregation and maintenance of the interface. To enhance the method's numerical stability for handling binary fluids with high viscosity ratio, a multiple-relaxation-time model is used for the collision operator. Several numerical examples, including static droplet test, oscillation of a viscous droplet, and breakup of a liquid thread, are presented to test the capability and accuracy of the proposed color-gradient LBM. It is found that the present method is able to accurately capture the phase interface and produce low spurious velocities. Also, the LBM results are all in good agreement with the analytical solutions and/or available experimental data for a very broad range of viscosity ratios.
Numerical simulation of turbulent free surface flow with two-equation k- eddy-viscosity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, V. G.; Mangiavacchi, N.; Tomé, M. F.; Castelo, A.; Cuminato, J. A.; McKee, S.
2004-02-01
This paper presents a finite difference technique for solving incompressible turbulent free surface fluid flow problems. The closure of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is achieved by using the two-equation eddy-viscosity model: the high-Reynolds k- (standard) model, with a time scale proposed by Durbin; and a low-Reynolds number form of the standard k- model, similar to that proposed by Yang and Shih. In order to achieve an accurate discretization of the non-linear terms, a second/third-order upwinding technique is adopted. The computational method is validated by applying it to the flat plate boundary layer problem and to impinging jet flows. The method is then applied to a turbulent planar jet flow beneath and parallel to a free surface. Computations show that the high-Reynolds k- model yields favourable predictions both of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate and jet impingement flows. However, the results using the low-Reynolds number form of the k- model are somewhat unsatisfactory.
Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL Is Viscosity Dependent and Requires Extragenic DNA
Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius
2013-01-01
Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr−) but do swim (Swm+) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed “pseudoswarmer cells,” that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr− phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity. PMID:23222728
STUDIES ON THE ANOMALOUS VISCOSITY AND FLOW-BIREFRINGENCE OF PROTEIN SOLUTIONS
Lawrence, A. S. C.; Miall, Margaret; Needham, Joseph; Shen, Shih-Chang
1944-01-01
1. An extensive investigation has been made of protein particle shape using the methods of flow-birefringence and anomalous viscosity measurement in the coaxial cell. 2. As a result of investigations on a number of proteins, it is concluded that they may be divided into four groups. Group A consists of those which show flow-anomaly both in the bulk phase and in the surface film. These also show flow-birefringence in the bulk phase. Examples: tobacco mosaic disease virus nucleoprotein; myosin. Though corpuscular proteins, they have elongated particles before denaturation. Group B consists of those which show flow-anomaly only (in the first instance) in the surface film, and no flow-birefringence in the bulk phase. They are probably close to spherical in shape in solution, but form elongated particles as they denature in the surface film. After this process has been completed, they may show flow-anomaly also in the bulk phase. Some proteins show flow-anomaly in the surface film immediately it forms, others only show it after a certain time has elapsed for the building up of the film. We designate the former as group B1 and the latter as group B2. Group B1, immediate surface film flow-anomaly. Examples: serum euglobulin, amphibian embryo euglobulin b. Group B2, slowly appearing surface film flow-anomaly. After the film has once been fully formed and then dispersed by shaking, the solution may have the properties of that of a protein in group B1; i.e., anomalous flow in the film may occur immediately on testing in the viscosimeter. Examples: avian ovalbumin, amphibian embryo pseudoglobulin. Group C consists of those proteins which show flow-anomaly neither in the bulk phase nor in the surface film, under the conditions used by us. They are probably close to spherical in shape. Examples: insulin, methaemoglobin, amphibian embryo euglobulin c, mucoproteins. 3. The theoretical significance of protein fibre molecules, whether native or formed by denaturation in the living
A new correlation in predicting temperature-dependent viscosity of saturated liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Laibin; Zheng, Mengmeng
2017-01-01
The Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) correlation is the known most accurate equation used to estimate and predict temperature-dependent viscosity of fluids. But its accuracy analysis for saturated liquids is still unknown. In this paper, we checked its ability for 49 saturated liquids by using the data in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Webbook. Through detailed accuracy analysis, we found that the VFT correlation works qualitatively but does not work well quantitavely. We shown the temperature ranges in which the VFT correlation holds for absolute average deviations (AADs) of ˜1%, ˜2% and ˜5%. The corresponding coefficients are also obtained for engineers to use it directly. We also proposed a new four-parameter correlation to improve the predictive ability. We show that the new correlation holds for 5 fluids with AAD < 1%, 37 fluids with AAD < 2%, 43 fluids with AAD < 3% and 48 fluids with AAD < 4%.
Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei
2016-11-01
This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei
2016-11-01
This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.
Maçanita, António L; Zachariasse, Klaas A
2011-04-21
Intramolecular excimer formation with 1,5-bis(1-pyrenylcarboxy)pentane, (1PC(5)1PC) is studied as a function of temperature in a series of alkane solvents and in toluene, covering a wide range of solvent viscosities η, from 0.2 to 125 cP. The rate constant k(a) of the monomer → excimer reaction is determined from the effectively single exponential monomer fluorescence decays. For the viscosity dependence of k(a) in n-alkanes, the Stokes-Einstein relation k(a) ∼ η(-1.0) does not hold. Instead, k(a) is proportional to η(-α), with α increasing upon cooling, from 0.56 at 85 °C to 0.86 at -30 °C. The activation energy E(a) of excimer formation with 1PC(5)1PC, always larger than the activation energy E(T/η) of solvent viscous flow, decreases when the solvent viscosity becomes smaller, from 20.7 kJ/mol in n-hexadecane to 11.8 kJ/mol in n-butane, approaching a value of 11-12 kJ/mol for the low viscosity solvents. As the excimer formation process depends on the restricted diffusion of the 1PC end groups as well as on the C-O and C-C rotations in the -O(CH(2))(5)O- chain, the limiting barrier of 11-12 kJ/mol is attributed to the activation energy E(c) of the multiple bond rotations. This fractional viscosity dependence (α < 1.0) is caused by the multidimensional character of the barrier crossing in the excimer formation process. This multidimensional character should also be taken into account in investigations of polymers and biological media employing excimer formation.
Lv, Chunmei; Zou, Dawei; Qin, Meng; Meng, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei
2013-08-27
Many cellular processes, such as the diffusion of biomacromolecules, the movement of molecular motors, and the conformational dynamics of proteins, are subjected to hydrodynamic forces because of the high viscosities of cellular environments. However, it is still unknown how hydrodynamic forces are related to the physical properties of different viscogens. Here, using the atomic force microscope-based force spectroscopy technique, we directly measured the hydrodynamic forces acting on a moving cantilever in various viscogen solutions. We found that the hydrodynamic force is not only dependent on the viscosity but also related to the molecular weight of viscogens. Counterintuitively, at the same macroscopic viscosity, the hydrodynamic force rises with the increasing molecular weight of viscogens, although the local microscopic viscosity of the solution decreases. This finding provides insights into the origin of hydrodynamic forces in biomolecule solutions and could inspire many force-spectroscopy-based techniques to measure the molecular weight and conformational changes of biomacromolecules in biological settings directly.
Effect of fluid viscosity on the liquid-feeding flow phenomena of a female mosquito.
Kim, Bo Heum; Ha, Hojin; Seo, Eun Seok; Lee, Sang Joon
2013-03-15
Liquid-sucking phenomena by the two-pump system of female mosquitoes were investigated to understand the feeding mechanism. In most previous experimental studies on liquid-feeding insects, the net increase of mass was divided by the feeding time and fluid density to evaluate the intake rate. However, this weighting method is not so precise for mosquitoes, because they are too lightweight to measure the gain of mass accurately. In this study, the intake rate of female mosquitoes feeding on various sucrose solutions was estimated using a micro-particle image velocimetry technique. As the sucrose concentration increased from 1% to 50%, the intake rate decreased from 17.3 to 5.8 nl s(-1). In addition, the temporal volume variations of the two pump chambers were estimated based on the velocity and acceleration information of the flow at the center of the food canal of the proboscis. One pumping period was divided into four elementary phases, which are related to the different operational modes of the two pumps. According to the hypothetical model established in this study, the phase shift () between the two pump chambers increases from 14 to 28 ms and the percentage of reverse flow to forward flow in a pumping period decreases from 7.6% to 1.7% with increasing viscosity. The developed analytical methodology thus aids in the study of an insect's feeding mechanism.
Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy
2009-11-01
Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.
Kuss, N; Bauknecht, E; Felbinger, C; Gehm, J; Gehm, L; Pöschl, J; Ruef, P
2015-10-06
Determination of shear stresses at given shear rates allow approximation of flow curves by mathematical models and to calculate viscosities of non-Newtonian fluids. In term neonates, the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is markedly below that of adults, therefore rheological properties of blood play an important role in maintaining perfusion. Whole blood viscosity was measured in umbilical cord blood taken from 62 term neonates using the LS 300 viscometer. Individual parameters that influence the viscosity of whole blood were measured: red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and RBC deformability. The flow curve of whole blood of neonates was approximated by the method of Ostwald with the highest quality whereas in adults the best approximation was found by the method of Casson. With hematocrits of 0.40, the viscosity of whole blood in newborns approximated by Ostwald (9.84 ± 5.12 mPa·s) was significantly lower than that of adults (15.34 ± 3.01 mPa·s). The aggregation index of the blood of newborns was markedly lower (2.98 ± 2.12) than in adults (14.63 ± 3.50) whereas RBC deformability was higher in neonates. The viscosity of plasma determined by Ostwald revealed a lower exponent (n) in neonates (0.94 ± 022) compared to adults (1.01 ± 0.12) and the viscosity determined by Newton was lower in neonates (1.04 ± 0.16 mPa·s) than in adults (1.19 ± 0.07 mPa·s). The flow curve of neonatal blood which is best approximated by the model of Ostwald emphasizes its important viscous properties necessary for conditions with physiologically low blood pressure.
Acto-myosin cytoskeleton dependent viscosity and shear-thinning behavior of the amoeba cytoplasm.
Marion, Sabrina; Guillen, Nancy; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Wilhelm, Claire
2005-05-01
The mechanical behavior of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica plays a major role in the invasive process of host tissues and vessels. In this study, we set up an intracellular rheological technique derived from magnetic tweezers to measure the viscoelastic properties within living amoebae. The experimental setup combines two magnetic fields at 90 degrees from each other and is adapted to an inverted microscope, which allows monitoring of the rotation of pairs of magnetic phagosomes. We observe either the response of the phagosome pair to an instantaneous 45 degrees rotation of the magnetic field or the response to a permanent uniform rotation of the field at a given frequency. By the first method, we concluded that the phagosome pairs experience a soft viscoelastic medium, represented by the same mechanical model previously described for the cytoplasm of Dictyostelium discoideum [Feneberg et al. in Eur Biophys J 30(4):284-294 2001]. By the second method, the permanent rotation of a pair allowed us to apply a constant shear rate and to calculate the apparent viscosity of the cytoplasm. As found for entangled polymers, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate applied (shear-thinning behavior) and exhibits a power-law-type thinning, with a corresponding exponent of 0.65. Treatment of amoeba with drugs that affect the actin polymer content demonstrated that the shear-thinning behavior of the cytoplasm depends on the presence of an intact actin cytoskeleton. These data present a physiologic relevance for Entamoeba histolytica virulence. The shear-thinning behavior could facilitate cytoplasm streamings during cell movement and cell deformation, under important shear experienced by the amoeba during the invasion of human tissues. In this study, we also investigated the role of the actin-based motor myosin II and concluded that myosin II stiffens the F-actin gel in living parasites likely by its cross-linking activity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Bharti, P. K.
2013-09-01
We show that the global nonlinear stability threshold for convection in a couple-stress fluid with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. It has also been found that the couplestress fluid is more stable than the ordinary viscous fluid and then the effect of couple-stress parameter (F) and variable dependent viscosity (Γ) on the onset of convection is also analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahzadi, Iqra; Nadeem, S.; Rabiei, Faranak
The current article deals with the combine effects of single wall carbon nanotubes and effective viscosity for the peristaltic flow of nanofluid through annulus. The nature of the walls is assumed to be permeable. The present theoretical model can be considered as mathematical representation to the motion of conductive physiological fluids in the existence of the endoscope tube which has many biomedical applications such as drug delivery system. The outer tube has a wave of sinusoidal nature that is travelling along its walls while the inner tube is rigid and uniform. Lubrication approach is used for the considered analysis. An empirical relation for the effective variable viscosity of nanofluid is proposed here interestingly. The viscosity of nanofluid is the function of radial distance and the concentration of nanoparticles. Exact solution for the resulting system of equations is displayed for various quantities of interest. The outcomes show that the maximum velocity of SWCNT-blood nanofluid enhances for larger values of viscosity parameter. The pressure gradient in the more extensive part of the annulus is likewise found to increase as a function of variable viscosity parameter. The size of the trapped bolus is also influenced by variable viscosity parameter. The present examination also revealed that the carbon nanotubes have many applications related to biomedicine.
Otevrel, Marek; Klepárník, Karel
2002-10-01
The partial differential equation describing unsteady velocity profile of electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a cylindrical capillary filled with a nonconstant viscosity electrolyte was derived. Analytical solution, based on the general Navier-Stokes equation, was found for constant viscosity electrolytes using the separation of variables (Fourier method). For the case of a nonconstant viscosity electrolyte, the steady-state velocity profile was calculated assuming that the viscosity decreases exponentially in the direction from the wall to the capillary center. Since the respective equations with nonconstant viscosity term are not solvable in general, the method of continuous binding conditions was used to solve this problem. In this method, an arbitrary viscosity profile can be modeled. The theoretical conclusions show that the relaxation times at which an EOF approaches the steady state are too short to have an impact on a separation process in any real systems. A viscous layer at the wall affects EOF significantly, if it is thicker than the Debye length of the electric double layer. The presented description of the EOF dynamics is applicable to any microfluidic systems.
Calculator program predicts liquid viscosities
Arnold, V.E.
1984-01-01
In the absence of experimental data, the prediction of liquid viscosities for petroleum fractions can be a very difficult problem. In light of the complex nature of petroleum fractions and the difficulty of even identifying the components present in such a mixture, the standard methods generally used for estimating liquid viscosities from pure component data are not applicable. Yet some prediction method is necessary since fluid flow and heat transfer calculations depend on accurate viscosity estimates. Watson, et al., provided the pioneering work to fill this need by developing correlations capable of predicting viscosities at two or more temperatures solely from common petroleum fraction characterizing parameters. The API Data Book presents a convenient nomograph for determining the kinematic viscosity of petroleum fractions at 100/sup 0/ F. and 210/sup 0/ F. when only the Watson characterization factor and API of the cut are known. This nomograph is essentially a replotting of Watson's graphs in a more usable format.
Renormalization group flow, stability, and bulk viscosity in a large N thermal QCD model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Keshav; Emelin, Maxim; Gale, Charles; Richard, Michael
2017-04-01
The ultraviolet completion of a large N QCD model requires introducing new degrees of freedom at certain scale so that the UV behavior may become asymptotically conformal with no Landau poles and no UV divergences of Wilson loops. These UV degrees of freedom are represented by certain antibranes arranged on the blown-up sphere of a warped resolved conifold in a way that they are separated from the other set of branes that control the IR behavior of the theory. This separation of the branes and the antibranes creates instability in the theory. Further complications arise from the curvature of the ambient space. We show that, despite these analytical hurdles, stability may still be achieved by switching on appropriate world-volume fluxes on the branes. The UV degrees of freedom, on the other hand, modify the RG flow in the model. We discuss this in details by evaluating the flow from IR confining to UV conformal. Finally we lay down a calculational scheme to study bulk viscosity which, in turn, would signal the inherent nonconformality in this model.
Roar Skartlien; Espen Sollum; Andreas Akselsen; Paul Meakin
2012-07-01
A 3D lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow with amphiphilic surfactant was used to investigate the evolution of emulsion morphology and shear stress in starting shear flow. The interfacial contributions were analyzed for low and high volume fractions and varying surfactant activity. A transient viscoelastic contribution to the emulsion rheology under constant strain rate conditions was attributed to the interfacial stress. For droplet volume fractions below 0.3 and an average capillary number of about 0.25, highly elliptical droplets formed. Consistent with affine deformation models, gradual elongation of the droplets increased the shear stress at early times and reduced it at later times. Lower interfacial tension with increased surfactant activity counterbalanced the effect of increased interfacial area, and the net shear stress did not change significantly. For higher volume fractions, co-continuous phases with a complex topology were formed. The surfactant decreased the interfacial shear stress due mainly to advection of surfactant to higher curvature areas. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for polymer blends in terms of transient interfacial stresses and limited enhancement of the emulsion viscosity at larger volume fractions where the phases are co-continuous.
Anisotropic eddy viscosity models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Cabot, W.
1996-01-01
A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.
Fractional Viscosity Dependence of Reaction Kinetics in Glass-Forming Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Seulki; Cho, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June
2017-08-01
The diffusion of molecules in complex systems such as glasses and cell cytoplasm is slow, heterogeneous, and sometimes nonergodic. The effects of such intriguing diffusion on the kinetics of chemical and biological reactions remain elusive. In this Letter, we report that the kinetics of the polymer loop formation reaction in a Kob-Andersen (KA) glass forming liquid is influenced significantly by the dynamic heterogeneity. The diffusion coefficient D of a KA liquid deviates from the Stokes-Einstein relation at low temperatures and D shows a fractional dependence on the solvent viscosity ηs, i.e., D ˜ηs-ξD with ξD=0.85 . The dynamic heterogeneity of a KA liquid affects the rate constant krxn of the loop formation and leads to the identical fractional dependence of krxn on ηs with krxn˜ηs-ξ and ξ =ξD, contrary to reactions in dynamically homogeneous solutions where krxn˜ηs-1.
Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong -Kyu; Paz-Soldan, Carloa; ...
2016-02-05
This paper presents a single mode model that accurately predicts the coupling of applied nonaxisymmetric fields to the plasma response that induces neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. The torque is measured and modeled to have a sinusoidal dependence on the relative phase of multiple nonaxisymmetric field sources, including a minimum in which large amounts of nonaxisymmetric drive is decoupled from the NTV torque. This corresponds to the coupling and decoupling of the applied field to a NTV-driving mode spectrum. Modeling using the perturbed equilibrium nonambipolar transport (PENT) code confirms an effective single mode coupling between themore » applied field and the resultant torque, despite its inherent nonlinearity. Lastly, the coupling to the NTV mode is shown to have a similar dependence on the relative phasing as that of the IPEC dominant mode, providing a physical basis for the efficacy of this linear metric in predicting error field correction optima in NTV dominated regimes.« less
The Efficiency of Magma Ocean Cumulate Overturn using a strong temperature-dependent Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesa, A.-C.; Breuer, D.
2012-04-01
The impact heat accumulated during the late stage of the planetary accretion can melt a significant part or even the entire mantle of a planetary body - producing a global magma ocean. The subsequent cooling of the interior causes the magma ocean to freeze rapidly from the core-mantle boundary to the surface due to the steeper slope of the mantle adiabat compared to the slope of the solidus. Freezing of a magma ocean is a highly complex process, which has been investigated by several authors [e.g. 1, 2]. In the present work, we assume fractional crystallization of such a magma ocean. For fractional crystallization, dense cumulates are produced with time close to the surface, largely due to iron enrichment in the evolving magma ocean liquid [2]. A gravitationally unstable mantle forms, which is prone to overturn. We investigate the cumulate overturn and its influence on the thermal evolution of Mars using the 3D spherical/2D cylindrical mantle convection code Gaia [3, 4]. We present different simulations using the initial conditions from [2] and a strong temperature dependence of the viscosity. Our simulations show that using a rather weak temperature dependence of the viscosity (e.g. using an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol as in [2]) results in a complete overturn (i.e. dense cumulates from the surface sink to the core mantle boundary). A stable density gradient evolves in the mantle, in which the convection ceases and cannot be rejuvenated during the entire evolution of Mars even with heating by radioactive elements. The lack of convection, however, is not compatible with the observed long-standing volcanic activity and elastic thickness estimates on Mars. When using a strongly temperature dependent viscosity (e.g. typical activation energy for mantle material of 300 kJ/mol), a stagnant lid forms rapidly on top of the convective interior preventing the uppermost dense cumulates to overturn. The formation of the lid is also given assuming the high surface
[The influence of viscosity of synthetic urine on the flow rate through catheters].
Braunwarth, H; Brill, F H H; Hegeholz, D; Hammerer, P
2012-03-01
There are special requirements for draining a pouch, e.g. length, flexibility and ability to drain highly viscous urine. We checked in vitro the flow time of pure and synthetic urine thickened with hydroxyethylcellulose (0.125% and 0.250%, HEC) on selected catheters. We found for SpeediCath Compact Male (SCCM) as a CH12 catheter the shortest flow times for undiluted and urine thickened with 0.125% and for SafetyCath Plus for urine thickened with 0.250%. For catheters with CH14 we found significantly shorter flow times for all tested solutions. The flow time does not depend on amount and area of the catheter eyes; we found no difference in the flow time for 4-eye (MobiStom) and 2-eye catheters.
Plume formation in strongly temperature-dependent viscosity fluids: Application to early Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Yun
One of the most prominent features of Mars is the hemispherical dichotomy. The Martian surface consists of a heavily cratered elevated southern hemisphere and a resurfaced depressed northern hemisphere. The dichotomy seems to have formed very early in the history of the planet. Another interesting feature is a remnant magnetization of the crust, which suggests that early Mars had a magnetic field. Investigation of the origin of these features provides insights into the early history of Mars as well as other terrestrial planets including Earth. We develop a hypothesis that the dichotomy is caused by an early transient superplume produced by a hot Martian core. At first glance, the superplume hypothesis seems unlikely because the number of plumes in typical fluids heated from below is very large and the plumes are relatively small. However, solid rocks are rather unusual fluids whose viscosity varies with temperature by many orders of magnitude. Plume formation in such fluids is a complex and poorly understood phenomena. Thus, we begin with a systematic two- dimensional numerical and theoretical investigation of plume formation in strongly temperature-dependent viscosity fluids. Then we extend both the numerical calculations and the theory to fully three-dimensional geometry. We find the conditions under which a single transient superplume forms. One of the most important conditions is the requirement that the core was at least several hundred degrees Kelvin hotter than the mantle. Geophysical data and theoretical models of core formation suggest that this is likely to be the case. We find that the superplume can easily satisfy the timing constraints on the formation of the dichotomy. In the last part we consider the coupled core-mantle thermal evolution and investigate the cooling of the initially superheated core and the generation of the magnetic field on early Mars. We show that the core cooling is sufficiently rapid to induce convection inside the core and allow
Interfacial dynamics in pressure-driven two-layer laminar channel flow with high viscosity ratios.
Matar, O K; Lawrence, C J; Sisoev, G M
2007-05-01
The large-scale dynamics of an interface separating two immiscible fluids in a channel is studied in the case of large viscosity contrasts. A long-wave analysis in conjunction with the Kármán-Polhausen method to approximate the velocity profile in the less viscous fluid is used to derive a single equation for the interface. This equation accounts for the presence of interfacial stress, capillarity, and viscous retardation as well as inertia in the less viscous fluid layer where the flow is considered to be quasistatic; the equation is shown to reduce to a Benney-type equation and the Kuramoto-Sivashinskiy equation in the relevant limits. The solutions of this equation are parametrized by an initial thickness ratio h0 and a dimensionless parameter S , which measures the relative significance of inertial to capillary forces. A parametric continuation technique is employed, which reveals that nonuniqueness of periodic solutions is possible in certain regions of (h0,S) space. Transient numerical simulations are also reported, whose results demonstrate good agreement with the bifurcation structure obtained from the parametric continuation results.
Modelling transverse turbulent mixing in a shallow flow by using an eddy viscosity approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualtieri, C.
2009-04-01
The mixing of contaminants in streams and rivers is a significant problem in environmental fluid mechanics and rivers engineering since to understand the impact and the fate of pollutants in these water bodies is a primary goal of water quality management. Since most rivers have a high aspect ratio, that is the width to depth ratio, discharged pollutants become vertically mixed within a short distance from the source and vertical mixing is only important in the so-called near-field. As a rule of thumb, neutrally buoyant solute becomes fully mixed vertically within 50-75 depths from the source. Notably, vertical mixing analysis relies on well-known theoretical basis, that is Prandtl mixing length model, which assumes the hypothesis of plane turbulent shear flow and provides theoretical predictions of the vertical turbulent diffusivity which closely match experimental results. In the mid-field, the vertical concentration gradients are negligible and both subsequent transverse and longitudinal changes of the depth-averaged concentrations of the pollutants should be addressed. In the literature, for the application of one-dimensional water quality models the majority of research efforts were devoted to estimate the rate of longitudinal mixing of a contaminant, that is the development of a plume resulting from a temporally varying pollutant source once it has become cross-sectionally well-mixed, in the far-field. Although transverse mixing is a significant process in river engineering when dealing with the discharge of pollutants from point sources or the mixing of tributary inflows, no theoretical basis exists for the prediction of its rate, which is indeed based upon the results of experimental works carried on in laboratory channels or in streams and rivers. Turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity approach, such as the k-É model, k-? and their variation are the most widely used turbulence models and this is largely due to their ease in implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikia, Bijaylakshmi; Ramachandran, Ashwin; Sinha, Krishnendu; Govindarajan, Rama
2017-02-01
Accurate prediction of laminar to turbulent transition in compressible flows is a challenging task, as it can be affected by a combination of factors. Compressibility causes large variations in thermodynamic as well as transport properties of a gas, which in turn are known to affect flow stability. We study the stratification of individual transport properties and their combined behavior. We also examine the effect of a change in the magnitude of viscosity and conductivity on flow stability. The Couette flow of a perfect gas is our model problem and both modal and non-modal analyses are carried out. We notice a large destabilizing role of the increase in the conductivity value and a dramatic stabilizing effect of mean viscosity stratification, over a range of free-stream Mach number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and disturbance wavenumber. In the combined case, viscosity stratification plays a dominant role. We find this to be the case for finite-time transient growth in the parameter regime below linear instability as well as asymptotically at large time. A budget of the transient growth energy amplification is also shown to identify the effects of transport properties on the constituents of perturbation energy. The extensive results presented in this paper, we believe should motivate those studying more realistic flows to examine how these contrasting effects of stratification come together.
Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.
2013-11-28
The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.
Plasma viscosity: a forgotten variable.
Késmárky, Gábor; Kenyeres, Péter; Rábai, Miklós; Tóth, Kálmán
2008-01-01
Evaluation of plasma viscosity has been underutilized in the clinical practice. Plasma viscosity is determined by water-content and macromolecular components. Plasma is a highly concentrated protein solution, therefore weak protein-protein interactions can play a role that is not characterized by electrophoresis. The effect of a protein on plasma viscosity depends on its molecular weight and structure. The less spheroid shape, the higher molecular weight, the higher aggregating capacity, and the higher temperature or pH sensitivity a protein has, the higher plasma viscosity results. Plasma is a Newtonian fluid, its viscosity does not depend on flow characteristics, therefore it is simple to measure, especially in capillary viscosimeters. Its normal value is 1.10-1.30 mPa s at 37 degrees C and independent of age and gender. The measurement has high stability and accuracy, thus little alterations may be pathologically important. Inflammations, tissue injuries resulting in plasma protein changes can increase its value with high sensitivity, though low specificity. It can increase in parallel with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but it is not influenced by hematocrit (anemia, polycytemia), or time to analysis. Based on these favorable features, in 1942 plasma viscosity was recommended to substitute ESR. In hyperviscosity syndromes plasma viscosity is better in follow-up than ESR. In rheumatoid arthritis, its sensitivity and specificity are better than that of ESR or C-reactive protein. Plasma fibrinogen concentration and plasma viscosity are elevated in unstable angina pectoris and stroke and their higher values are associated with higher rate of major adverse clinical events. Elevation of plasma viscosity correlates to the progression of coronary and peripheral artery diseases. In conclusion, plasma viscosity should be measured routinely in medical practice.
Hartmann flow with temperature-dependent physical properties. [magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linn, G. T.; Walker, J. S.
1978-01-01
Attention is given to the steady, fully developed, one-dimensional flow of a liquid metal in which thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity are functions of temperature. It is found that the properties are decreasing functions of temperature and the first differences between temperature-dependent and constant properties are discussed.
Hartmann flow with temperature-dependent physical properties. [magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linn, G. T.; Walker, J. S.
1978-01-01
Attention is given to the steady, fully developed, one-dimensional flow of a liquid metal in which thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity are functions of temperature. It is found that the properties are decreasing functions of temperature and the first differences between temperature-dependent and constant properties are discussed.
Zhang, Junfeng; Johnson, Paul C.; Popel, Aleksander S.
2010-01-01
Concentrated erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell) suspensions flowing in microchannels have been simulated with an immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann algorithm, to examine the cell layer development process and the effects of cell deformability and aggregation on hemodynamic and hemorheological behaviors. The cells are modeled as two-dimensional deformable biconcave capsules and experimentally measured cell properties have been utilized. The aggregation among cells is modeled by a Morse potential. The flow development process demonstrates how red blood cells migrate away from the boundary toward the channel center, while the suspending plasma fluid is displaced to the cell free layer regions left by the migrating cells. Several important characteristics of microscopic blood flows observed experimentally have been well reproduced in our model, including the cell free layer, blunt velocity profile, changes in apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus effect. We found that the cell free layer thickness increases with both cell deformability and aggregation strength. Due to the opposing effects of the cell free layer lubrication and the high viscosity of cell-concentrated core, the influence of aggregation is complex but. The lubrication effect appears to dominate, causing the relative apparent viscosity to decrease with aggregation. It appears therefore that the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann numerical model may be useful in providing valuable information on microscopic blood flows in various microcirculation situations. PMID:19323969
Oulaid, Othmane; Saad, Abdul-Khalik W; Aires, Pedro S; Zhang, Junfeng
2016-01-01
The tank-treading rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in shear flows has been studied extensively with experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. Even for this relatively simple system, complicated motion and deformation behaviors have been observed, and some of the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we attempt to advance our knowledge of the relationship among cell motion, deformation, and flow situations with a numerical model. Our simulation results agree well with experimental data, and confirm the experimental finding of the decrease in frequency/shear-rate ratio with shear rate and the increase of frequency with suspending viscosity. Moreover, based on the detailed information from our simulations, we are able to interpret the frequency dependency on shear rate and suspending viscosity using a simple two-fluid shear model. The information obtained in this study thus is useful for understanding experimental observations of RBCs in shear and other flow situations; the good agreement to experimental measurements also shows the potential usefulness of our model for providing reliable results for microscopic blood flows.
A carbon-free lithium-ion solid dispersion redox couple with low viscosity for redox flow batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhaoxiang; Koenig, Gary M.
2016-08-01
A new type of non-aqueous redox couple without carbon additives for flow batteries is proposed and the target anolyte chemistry is demonstrated. The so-called ;Solid Dispersion Redox Couple; incorporates solid electroactive materials dispersed in organic lithium-ion battery electrolyte as its flowing suspension. In this work, a unique and systematic characterization approach has been used to study the flow battery redox couple in half cell demonstrations relative to a lithium electrode. An electrolyte laden with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has been characterized in multiple specially designed lithium half cell configurations. The flow battery redox couple described in this report has relatively low viscosity, especially in comparison to other flow batteries with solid active materials. The lack of carbon additive allows characterization of the electrochemical properties of the electroactive material in flow without the complication of conductive additives and unambiguous observation of the electrorheological coupling in these dispersed particle systems.
Thermal and Mechanical Erosion by Low-Viscosity Lava Flows at Hrad Vallis, Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.
2012-12-01
involving lava flows with depths of 5 to 20 m and dynamic viscosities on the order of ~1 Pa s. These rates of incision are estimated to have been associated with lava discharges as great as ~100,000 to 600,000 cubic meters per second and Reynolds numbers well in excess of 10,000, suggesting fully turbulent flow. Consistent with the findings of recent modeling efforts (Hurwitz et al., 2012, Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, v.117), incision rates by thermal mechanisms are estimated to have been especially significant at Hrad Vallis as a result of the low channel slopes typical of this system, and should have exceeded mechanical incision rates for slopes less than 0.09 degrees. A volcanic origin for the Hrad Vallis system is in accord with the volcanic origins recently suggested for other Martian outflow systems, and correspondingly has important implications regarding our understanding of the past nature of surface conditions on Mars, and the planet's near-surface volatile content.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Vimal Kumar; Ram, Paras; Sharma, Ravi Kumar; Tripathi, Dharmendra
2017-06-01
The aim of this paper is to study the Bodewadt flow of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of geothermal viscosity. The effects of porosity on an unsteady boundary layer flow of water-based magnetic nanofluids over a uniformly heated stationary disk are discussed numerically. Fluid viscosity is considered as a function of both depth and temperature. The Runge-Kutta fourth-order method along with the shooting technique is employed for solving a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The computed results reveal that heat transfer is appreciably enhanced with more porosity and rotation of the fluid. Also, varying the fluids Prandtl number from 20 to 80, the rate of heat transfer increases by 93.35% and faster cooling of the system occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amy, L. A.; Peakall, J.; Talling, P. J.
2005-08-01
Vertical stratification of particle concentration is a common if not ubiquitous feature of submarine particulate gravity flows. To investigate the control of stratification on current behaviour, analogue stratified flows were studied using laboratory experiments. Stratified density currents were generated by releasing two-layer glycerol solutions into a tank of water. Flows were sustained for periods of tens of seconds and their velocity and concentration measured. In a set of experiments the strength of the initial density and viscosity stratification was increased by progressively varying the lower-layer concentration, CL. Two types of current were observed indicating two regimes of behaviour. Currents with a faster-moving high-concentration basal region that outran the upper layer were produced if CL < 75%. Above this critical value of CL, currents were formed with a relatively slow, high-concentration base that lagged behind the flow front. The observed transition in behaviour is interpreted to indicate a change from inertia- to viscosity-dominated flow with increasing concentration. The reduction in lower-layer velocity at high concentrations is explained by enhanced drag at low Reynolds numbers. Results show that vertical stratification produces longitudinal stratification in the currents. Furthermore, different vertical and temporal velocity and concentration profiles characterise the observed flow types. Implications for the deposit character of particle-laden currents are discussed and illustrated using examples from ancient turbidite systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, A. X.; Moates, F. C.; Narayanan, R.
1995-07-01
In this paper our most recent research results on natural convection in a closed cylinder, where our interest focuses on pattern structure dependence on aspect ratio and on temperature-dependent viscosity, are summarized. The main results are (a) the experiments on the onset pattern and conditions for pure Rayleigh convection in circular cylinders compare favorably with linearized stability results of Hardin et al. [Int. J. Num. Methods Fluids 10, 79 (1990)], as well as three-dimensional nonlinear calculations made by us; and (b) experiments and nonlinear calculations indicate a variation of the patterns at and near the codimension two points when large temperature differences are introduced, so as to cause a substantial change in viscosity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Scripa, R. N.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.
2004-01-01
The relaxation phenomenon of semiconductor melts, or the change of melt structure with time, impacts the crystal growth process and the eventual quality of the crystal. The thermophysical properties of the melt are good indicators of such changes in melt structure. Also, thermophysical properties are essential to the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the Hg-based II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results on the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of Hg-based II-VI compounds. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. Results were compared with available published data and showed good agreement. The implication of the structural changes at different temperature ranges was also studied and discussed.
Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Amin, Norsarahaida S.
2014-01-01
The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results. PMID:24927277
Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Amin, Norsarahaida S
2014-01-01
The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results.
Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weed, Jonathan Robert
The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Xin; Ye, Xia
2016-10-01
This paper concerns an initial-boundary value problem of the inhomogeneous incompressible MHD equations in a smooth bounded domain. The viscosity and resistivity coefficients are density-dependent. The global well-posedness of strong solutions is established, provided the initial norms of velocity and magnetic field are suitably small in some sense, or the lower bound of the transport coefficients are large enough. More importantly, there is not any smallness condition on the density and its gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, S.; Ijaz, S.
2015-10-01
The present theoretical model deals with the analysis of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of a single wall carbon nanotube within the considered base fluid flowing through multiple stenosed arteries. A mathematical model is presented for the mild stenosis case and then solved by using symmetry boundary conditions to determine the exact solution of temperature, axial velocity and pressure gradient. The main hemodynamics due to multiple stenosis is also computed under the influence of a SWCNT. Numerical simulations are presented for the SWCNT with different values of nanoparticles volume fraction. The behavior of fluid flow for blood based SWCNT is discussed through graphs and streamlines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alligné, S.; Decaix, J.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.
2015-12-01
The 1D modelling of cavitation vortex rope dynamics in Francis turbine draft tube is decisive for prediction of pressure fluctuations in the system. However, models are defined with parameters which values must be quantified either experimentally or numerically. In this paper a methodology based on CFD simulations is setup to identify these parameters by exciting the flow through outlet boundary condition. A simplified test case is considered to assess if 1D cavitation model parameters can be identified from CFD simulations. It is shown that a low wave speed and a second viscosity due to the cavitating flow can be identified.
High viscosity gas fluidization of fine particles: An extended window of quasihomogeneous flow.
Valverde, Jose Manuel; Castellanos, Antonio
2006-08-01
We explore the role of gas viscosity in the behavior of gas-fluidized beds of fine powders by means of experimental measurements using nitrogen and neon as fluidizing gases, and theoretical considerations. The existence of a nonbubbling fluidlike regime has been recently observed in beds of fine powders fluidized with nitrogen. Our experiments with neon reveal a discontinuous transition from heterogeneous fluidization to a highly expanded homogeneous fluidization state. We point out that increasing gas viscosity enhances the coherence of agglomerate swarms, which promotes a local void-splitting mechanism, thus improving the uniformity of fluidization. Our theoretical analysis predicts that further increase of gas viscosity would produce a full suppression of the bubbling regime, i.e., the uniformly fluidized bed would undergo a direct transition to a turbulent regime as seen in beds of nanoparticles fluidized by nitrogen and in liquid-fluidized beds of moderate-density beads.
Laskowski, Gregory Michael
2005-12-01
Flows with strong curvature present a challenge for turbulence models, specifically eddy viscosity type models which assume isotropy and a linear and instantaneous equilibrium relation between stress and strain. Results obtained from three different codes and two different linear eddy viscosity turbulence models are compared to a DNS simulation in order to gain some perspective on the turbulence modeling capability of SIERRA/Fuego. The Fuego v2f results are superior to the more common two-layer k-e model results obtained with both a commercial and research code in terms of the concave near wall behavior predictions. However, near the convex wall, including the separated region, little improvement is gained using the v2f model and in general the turbulent kinetic energy prediction is fair at best.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfusterschmied, G.; Kucera, M.; Wistrela, E.; Manzaneque, T.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.
2015-10-01
It is the objective of this paper to report on the performance of piezoelectric MEMS resonators for viscosity and density measurements at elevated temperatures. A custom-built temperature controlled measurement setup is designed for fluid temperatures up to 100 °C. Piezoelectric single-side clamped resonators are fabricated, excited in 2nd order of the roof tile-shaped mode (13-mode) and exposed to several liquids (i.e. D5, N10, N35, PAO8, olive oil, ester oil and N100). At the next step, these results are analysed applying a straightforward evaluation model, thus demonstrating that with piezoelectric MEMS resonators the density (i.e. from {ρ\\min}=785 kg m-3 to {ρ\\max}=916 kg m-3) and viscosity (i.e. from {μ\\min}=1.20 mPa s to {μ\\max}=286.36 mPa s) values of liquids can be precisely determined in a wide range. Compared to standard measurement techniques, the results show for the first parameter a mean deviation of about 1.04% at 100 °C for all the liquids investigated. For the second parameter, the standard evaluation model implies a systematic deviation in viscosity with respect to the calibration being N35 in this study. This inherent lack of strength has a significant influence on the accuracy, especially at 100 °C due to fluids having a viscosity reduced by a factor of 30 for N100 compared to room temperature. This leads to relative deviations of about 23% at 100 °C and indicates the limits of the evaluation model.
Free convection in a vertical duct of square cross section with variable viscosity
Payvar, P. . Dept.of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-03-01
Nusselt numbers and dimensionless flow rates have been calculated as functions of Prandtl number, Grashof number, and a viscosity parameter that takes into account variation of viscosity with temperature. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient and flow rate on the viscosity parameter is shown to be strong enough to require consideration of temperature variation of viscosity for accurate calculations. The results are useful in the design of heat sink assemblies having square vertical slots.
An, Hongli; Yuen, Manwai
2014-05-15
In this paper, we investigate the analytical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with dependent-density viscosity. By using the characteristic method, we successfully obtain a class of drifting solutions with elliptic symmetry for the Navier-Stokes model wherein the velocity components are governed by a generalized Emden dynamical system. In particular, when the viscosity variables are taken the same as Yuen [M. W. Yuen, “Analytical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations,” J. Math. Phys. 49, 113102 (2008)], our solutions constitute a generalization of that obtained by Yuen. Interestingly, numerical simulations show that the analytical solutions can be used to explain the drifting phenomena of the propagation wave like Tsunamis in oceans.
Sandhagen, Bo; Lind, Lars
2012-01-01
It has previously been shown that a high hemoglobin value, a major determinant of whole blood viscosity (WBV), predicts cardiovascular events. One putative mechanism might be an impaired endothelial function. Erythrocyte deformability is another rheologic feature of the erythrocyte being of importance for the flow properties of the blood, especially in the capillaries. The present study evaluates the relationships between blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability assessed as erythrocyte fluidity (EF), coronary risk and endothelial vasodilatory function. In the population-based PIVUS study (1016 subjects aged 70); endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) was evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine given in the brachial artery and the brachial artery ultrasound technique with measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). WBV, plasma viscosity (PV) and EF were measured in a random sample of 573 subjects. WBV and PV were positively and EF negatively related to Framingham risk score. EDV was inversely related to both whole blood and plasma viscosity. FMD was not related to any rheologic variable. In multiple regression analyses WBV and EF were significantly related to EDV independently of gender, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in the forearm, but not FMD, was negatively related to whole blood viscosity and positively related to EF independently of traditional risk factors in elderly subjects, indicating a pathophysiological link between impaired hemorheology and coronary risk.
Calculation of laminar and turbulent boundary layers for two-dimensional time-dependent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.
1977-01-01
A general method for computing laminar and turbulent boundary layers for two-dimensional time-dependent flows is presented. The method uses an eddy-viscosity formulation to model the Reynolds shear-stress term and a very efficient numerical method to solve the governing equations. The model was applied to steady two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows and was shown to give good results. A discussion of the numerical method and the results obtained by the present method for both laminar and turbulent flows are discussed. Based on these results, the method is efficient and suitable for solving time-dependent laminar and turbulent boundary layers.
Magnetic viscosity by localized shear flow instability in magnetized accretion disks
Matsumoto, R.; Tajima, T.
1995-01-01
Differentially rotating disks are subject to the axisymmetric instability for perfectly conducting plasma in the presence of poloidal magnetic fields. For nonaxisymmetric perturbations, the authors find localized unstable eigenmodes whose eigenfunction is confined between two Alfven singularities at {omega}{sub d} = {+-} {omega}{sub A}, where {omega}{sub d} is the Doppler-shifted wave frequency, and {omega}{sub A} = k{parallel}v{sub A} is the Alfven frequency. The radial width of the unstable eigenfunction is {Delta}x {approximately} {omega}{sub A}/(Ak{sub y}), where A is the Oort`s constant, and k{sub y} is the azimuthal wave number. The growth rate of the fundamental mode is larger for smaller value of k{sub y}/k{sub z}. The maximum growth rate when k{sub y}/k{sub z} {approximately} 0.1 is {approximately} 0.2{Omega} for the Keplerian disk with local angular velocity {Omega}. It is found that the purely growing mode disappears when k{sub y}/k{sub z} > 0.12. In a perfectly conducting disk, the instability grows even when the seed magnetic field is infinitesimal. Inclusion of the resistivity, however, leads to the appearance of an instability threshold. When the resistivity {eta} depends on the instability-induced turbulent magnetic fields {delta}B as {eta}([{delta}B{sup 2}]), the marginal stability condition self-consistently determines the {alpha} parameter of the angular momentum transport due to the magnetic stress. For fully ionized disks, the magnetic viscosity parameter {alpha}{sub B} is between 0.001 and 1. The authors` three-dimensional MHD simulation confirms these unstable eigenmodes. It also shows that the {alpha} parameter observed in simulation is between 0.01 and 1, in agreement with theory. The observationally required smaller {alpha} in the quiescent phase of accretion disks in dwarf novae may be explained by the decreased ionization due to the temperature drop.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Losq, Charles; Neuville, Daniel R.
2016-04-01
The rheological and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts played a crucial role in the formation and the evolution of the Earth. For instance, they influenced the evolution of a plausible primordial magma ocean, and, as a result, the differentiation of the Earth mantle and crust. Further, they control the dynamic of volcanic eruptions. Because of that, modelling the viscosity or the heat capacity of silicate melts is crucial in order to model the physical processes they are involved in. The Adam and Gibbs theory of viscous flow offers a thermodynamic framework that assumes that the viscosity η (Pa s) at a temperature T (K) of a melt can be expressed as: log(η) = A + ----Be--- e T Sconf(T) (1) with Ae a pre-exponential constant related to the viscosity at infinite temperature, Be (J mol-1) a constant proportional to the potential energy barrier opposed to the cooperative rearrangement of the liquid structure and Sconf(T) (J mol-1 K-1) the melt configurational entropy. With expressing Sconf(T) as the sum of the residual entropy of the glass and of the variation in melt configurational heat capacity, it is possible to link existing thermodynamic and viscosity data for melts with various chemical composition, e.g., SiO2, NaAlSi3O8 or CaAl2Si2O8. Further, it also is possible to describe the viscosity variation induced by mixing Ca and Mg or Na and K in silicate melts, under the assumption that such mixing produces an ideal excess entropy of mixing. An interesting point in the Adam and Gibbs framework is that it assumes that viscous flow occurs through the cooperative re-arrangement of molecular sub-regions in the melt. From high temperature 29Si NMR and Raman spectroscopy data, it actually is known that viscous flow occurs because of the cooperative exchange of oxygen atoms between tetrahedral SiO2 units, allowing their motions. Therefore, it is tempting to link such structural knowledge to heat capacity and viscosity data through the use of equation 1. In this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suckale, Jenny; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Hager, Bradford H.
2010-07-01
Buoyancy-driven flow is of fundamental importance for numerous geodynamic phenomena. Since the equations of motion governing multiphase flow are rarely amenable to analytical solutions, numerical simulations provide a compelling alternative. They offer the ability to carefully analyze flow phenomena under differing regimes, initial conditions, and flow dynamics. The three key challenges in these computations are (1) the accurate solution of the equations of motion in the presence of large viscosity contrasts, (2) the representation of strongly deforming interfaces between different fluids, and (3) the accurate coupling of fluid and interface solver. In three dimensions, these challenges become even more intricate, and the appropriate choice of numerical scheme has a profound influence on the tractability, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the computational simulation. This is the first paper of two that examine numerical simulations of buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In this paper, we present our numerical approach which tackles the above three main challenges through a combination of three numerical methods, namely, (1) an extended ghost fluid type discretization which we developed specifically for the Stokes regime, (2) the level set method, and (3) the extension velocity technique. We find that all three components are crucial to obtain a versatile numerical tool for simulating complex structures in evolving flow. We validate our code by reproducing four benchmark problems in two and three dimensions. We devote special attention to comparing our method to other existing techniques, detailing the advantages of this approach. Finally, we highlight several types of geophysical flow problems for which we believe our method to be well suited.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katagi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Hashimoto, Manabu
2008-06-01
To investigate the influence of spatial change of viscosity on postseismic deformation associated with the interplate 1946 Nankai earthquake (M 8.0) at the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, we newly constructed a realistic viscoelastic structure model, taking into account temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity of materials. For this purpose, we first compiled leveling and triangulation data during postseismic periods and clarified characteristics of the amount and spatial patterns of postseismic vertical displacement and principal strain fields. Then, we calculated the spatial distributions of viscosity from temperature and flow fields, which were obtained from 2D subduction models. By incorporating the obtained viscosity structure into 3D viscoelastic finite element models, we constructed a temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity structure model (MODEL P2). Based on MODEL P2, we constructed a viscoelastic structure model, taking into account Poisson's ratio for the oceanic plate and low-velocity regions and the existence of low-viscosity materials beneath the Shikoku and Chugoku districts (MODEL P3), which were revealed from seismic tomography. We also constructed a conventional layered viscoelastic structure model (MODEL L1) and plate subduction model (MODEL P1) with constant viscosity for each region and evaluated the effects of different viscoelastic structures on postseismic surface deformations, using the coseismic slip distribution obtained by inversion analyses of geodetic data. We also compared the calculated surface deformations with the observed postseismic crustal deformations in and around Shikoku. The results show that postseismic surface deformation fields for the newly constructed MODEL P2 are rather different from those for MODELs L1 and P1. Landward horizontal displacements for MODEL P2 are smaller than those for MODELs L1 and P1, seaward horizontal displacements are negligible, and vertical displacement is characterized by small subsidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuichi, M.
2009-12-01
We are interested in solving a large-scale plate-mantle simulation enables capture of the large and complex deformation of a subducting plate. In our earlier study (Furuichi, et al 2008), we developed a numerical method toward plate-mantle simulation especially for the highly parallel vector supercomputer system (e.g. Earth Simulator). Our scheme is based on the finite volume method combines (i) the multigrid technique together with ACuTE smoother algorithm (Kameyama et al., 2005), and (ii) the low diffusive CIP-CSLR advection. The validity test of our simulation code by using a fluid rope coiling event (Furuichi, et al 2009) showed that our method enable us to reproduce large non-linear deformation problems of a rigid plate surrounded by soft material without serious quantitative errors. Then as a next step, I am trying to create a Stokes flow solver scalable against a large jump in a viscosity profile, for moving surface (geometrically free boundary) problems. It is for solving the Stokes flow motion under the same condition as real earth. In this presentation, I propose to apply BFBt preconditioner and AMG techniques for the problems of large viscosity contrast and moving free surface boundary condition respectively. I would like to show some numerical experiments for a self-gravitating motion of the layered Stokes flow.
Sampedro, José G; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A; Uribe, Salvador
2002-08-01
The effect of increasing trehalose concentrations on the kinetics of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Kluyveromyces lactis was studied at different temperatures. At 20 degrees C, increasing concentrations of trehalose (0.2 to 0.8 M) decreased V(max) and increased S(0.5) (substrate concentration when initial velocity equals 0.5 V(max)), mainly at high trehalose concentrations (0.6 to 0.8 M). The quotient V(max)/S(0.5) decreased from 5.76 micromol of ATP mg of protein(-1) x min(-1) x mM(-1) in the absence of trehalose to 1.63 micromol of ATP mg of protein(-1) x min(-1) x mM(-1) in the presence of 0.8 M trehalose. The decrease in V(max) was linearly dependent on solution viscosity (eta), suggesting that inhibition was due to hindering of protein domain diffusional motion during catalysis and in accordance with Kramer's theory for reactions in solution. In this regard, two other viscosity-increasing agents, sucrose and glycerol, behaved similarly, exhibiting the same viscosity-enzyme inhibition correlation predicted. In the absence of trehalose, increasing the temperature up to 40 degrees C resulted in an exponential increase in V(max) and a decrease in enzyme cooperativity (n), while S(0.5) was not modified. As temperature increased, the effect of trehalose on V(max) decreased to become negligible at 40 degrees C, in good correlation with the temperature-mediated decrease in viscosity. The trehalose-mediated increase in S(0.5) was similar at all temperatures tested, and thus, trehalose effects on V(max)/S(0.5) were always observed. Trehalose increased the activation energy for ATP hydrolysis. Trehalose-mediated inhibition of enzymes may explain why yeast rapidly hydrolyzes trehalose when exiting heat shock.
Harrington, R.E.
1980-10-01
Highly sensitive streaming birefringence measurements combined with intrinsic viscosity are used to characterize the shape anisometry and optical anisotropy of nucleosomes over a range of salt concentration > 30 mM KCl and of structures obtained by the condensation of high molecular weight DNA with polylysine. These measurements appear useful for several reasons. Both streaming birefringence and intrinsic viscosity are hydrodynamic properties based upon the rotational diffusion of macromolecular particles and hence are inherently more sensitive to details of particle anisometry than are hydrodynamic properties based upon translational diffusion. An established body of both hydrodynamic and continuum dielectric optical theory is available with which to interpret streaming birefringence results. Extinction angles (i.e., mean orientation angles of particles in a velocity gradient) are entirely hydrodynamic properties, and hence can be interpreted through the rotational coefficient to characterize particle anisometry and to estimate absolute dimensions. The ratio of Maxwell coefficient to intrinsic viscosity is proportional to the absolute particle anisotropy. The high optical anisotropy of DNA relative to that of associated protein permits certain details of tertiary structure and shape anisometry to be estimated from the observed optical anisotropy compared to optical models involving the DNA alone. The method is essentially independent of solvent.
Viscosity-dependent dynamics of CO rebinding to microperoxidase-8 in glycerol/water solution.
Park, Jaeheung; Lee, Taegon; Lim, Manho
2010-08-26
Rebinding kinetics of CO to microperoxidase-8 (Mp), an excellent model system for the active site of heme proteins such as myoglobin and hemoglobin, was measured after photolysis of MpCO in solutions with various viscosities and temperatures, using femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy. Whereas the geminate rebinding of CO to Mp in water is negligible, significant fractions of CO rebind nonexponentially within 1 ns at room temperature in a glycerol/water solution. The geminate yield of the CO rebinding increases and its rate accelerates as the viscosity of the solution increases either by increasing glycerol content in glycerol/water mixtures at 294 K or by decreasing temperature of the solution from 323 to 283 K. The nonexponential rebinding kinetics can be described by the theory of a diffusion-controlled reaction and the data are well reproduced by the pair survival probability function in the absence of any interaction potential between the pair. The rebinding kinetics was also successfully described by the SRC model, a distributed linear coupling model for the CO rebinding.
2012-01-01
This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s−1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect. PMID:22824064
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Victoria, L.; Arenas, A.
2004-01-01
A device designed to demonstrate the dependence of viscosity on temperature and to check the validity of the exponential relationship is described. The device has the advantage of versatility as it can be adapted to different types of viscosimeters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Victoria, L.; Arenas, A.
2004-01-01
A device designed to demonstrate the dependence of viscosity on temperature and to check the validity of the exponential relationship is described. The device has the advantage of versatility as it can be adapted to different types of viscosimeters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weatherbee, Andrew; Popov, Ivan; Vitkin, Alex
2017-08-01
The viscosity of turbid colloidal glucose solutions has been accurately determined from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) M-mode measurements and our recently developed OCT dynamic light scattering model. Results for various glucose concentrations, flow speeds, and flow angles are reported. The relative "combined standard uncertainty" uc(η) on the viscosity measurements was ±1% for the no-flow case and ±5% for the flow cases, a significant improvement in measurement robustness over previously published reports. The available literature data for the viscosity of pure water and our measurements differ by 1% (stagnant case) and 1.5% (flow cases), demonstrating good accuracy; similar agreement is seen across the measured glucose concentration range when compared to interpolated literature values. The developed technique may contribute toward eventual noninvasive glucose measurements in medicine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Mahajan, Amit
2013-08-01
A nonlinear stability threshold for rotation in a couple-stress fluid heated from below saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. The effects of couple-stress parameter, variable dependent viscosity, medium permeability, Taylor number and Darcy-Brinkman number on the onset of convection are also analysed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Elizabeth M.; Parsons, Barry; Driscoll, Mavis
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional FEM is used to investigate the flow driven by the horizontal temperature gradient at a fracture zone and to calculate the resulting geoid and topography anomalies. Using a three-layered viscosity structure for the upper mantle, results are presented for the effects of varying: (1) the viscosity contrast between the fluid layers: (2) the Rayleigh number based on the viscosity of the bottom layer; and (3) the thickness of the low-viscosity channel. Good agreement is obtained with the results of geoid anomalies over the Udintsev fracture zone when the viscosity of the top layer is greater than one order of magnitude less than post-glacial rebound values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Khan, Zafar Hayat; Bég, O. Anwar
2016-09-01
In this paper, a mathematical study is conducted of steady incompressible flow of a temperature-dependent viscous nanofluid from a vertical stretching sheet under applied external magnetic field and gravitational body force effects. The Reynolds exponential viscosity model is deployed. Electrically-conducting nanofluids are considered which comprise a suspension of uniform dimension nanoparticles suspended in viscous base fluid. The nanofluid sheet is extended with a linear velocity in the axial direction. The Buonjiornio model is utilized which features Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. The partial differential equations for mass, momentum, energy and species (nano-particle concentration) are formulated with magnetic body force term. Viscous and Joule dissipation effects are neglected. The emerging nonlinear, coupled, boundary value problem is solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with a shooting technique. Graphical solutions for velocity, temperature, concentration field, skin friction and Nusselt number are presented. Furthermore stream function plots are also included. Validation with Nakamura's finite difference algorithm is included. Increasing nanofluid viscosity is observed to enhance temperatures and concentrations but to reduce velocity magnitudes. Nusselt number is enhanced with both thermal and species Grashof numbers whereas it is reduced with increasing thermophoresis parameter and Schmidt number. The model is applicable in nano-material manufacturing processes involving extruding sheets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieśliński, Janusz T.; Ronewicz, Katarzyna; Smoleń, Sławomir
2015-12-01
In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer's data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, M.
2016-12-01
Diffusive processes of large scales in the Earth's core are dominated not by the molecular diffusion but by the eddy diffusion. To carry out numerical simulations of realistic geodynamo models, it is important to adopt appropriate parameters. However, the eddy viscous diffusion, or the eddy viscosity, is not a property of the core fluid but of the core flow. Hence it is significant to estimate the eddy viscosity from core flow models. In fact, fluid motion near the Earth's core surface provides useful information on core dynamics, features of the core-mantle boundary (CMB), and core-mantle coupling, for example. Such core fluid motion can be estimated from spatial and temporal distributions of the geomagnetic field. Most of core surface flow models rely on the frozen-flux approximation (Roberts and Scott, 1965), in which the magnetic diffusion is neglected. It should be noted, however, that there exists a viscous boundary layer at the CMB, where the magnetic diffusion may play an important role in secular variations of geomagnetic field. Therefore, a new approach to estimation of core surface flow has been devised by Matsushima (2015). That is, the magnetic diffusion is explicitly incorporated within the viscous boundary layer, while it is neglected below the boundary layer at the CMB which is assumed to be a spherical surface. A core surface flow model between 1840 and 2015 has been derived from a geomagnetic field model, COV-OBS.x1 (Gillet et al., 2015). Temporal variations of core flows contain information on phenomena in relation with core-mantle coupling, such as the LOD (length-of-day), and spin-up/spin-down of core flows. In particular, core surface flows inside the viscous boundary layer at the CMB may reveal an interesting feature in relation with Earth's rotation. We have examined time series of the LOD and vorticity derived from the core surface flow model. We have found a possible correlation between the LOD and the axial component of global vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khor, Jian Wei; Gai, Ya; Tang, Sindy
2016-11-01
We describe the dimensionless groups that determine the break-up probability of droplets in a concentrated emulsion during its flow in a tapered microchannel consisting of a narrow constriction. Such channel geometry is commonly used in droplet microfluidics to investigate the content of droplets from a concentrated emulsion. In contrast to solid wells in multi-well plates, drops are metastable, and are prone to break-up which compromises the accuracy and the throughput of the assay. Unlike single drops, the break-up process in a concentrated emulsion is stochastic. Analysis of the behavior of a large number of drops (N >5000) shows that the probability of break-up increases with applied flow rate, the size of the drops relative to the size of the constriction, and the viscosity ratio of the emulsion. We found that the break-up probability collapses into a single curve when plotted as a function of the product of capillary number, viscosity ratio, and confinement factor defined as the un-deformed radius of the drop relative to the hydraulic radius of the constriction. The results represent a critical step towards the understanding of the physics governing instability in concentrated emulsions.
Evju, Øyvind; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Mardal, Kent-André
2013-11-15
Recent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies relate abnormal blood flow to rupture of cerebral aneurysms. However, it is still debated how to model blood flow with sufficient accuracy. Common assumptions made include Newtonian behaviour of blood, traction free outlet boundary conditions and inlet boundary conditions based on available literature. These assumptions are often required since the available patient specific data is usually restricted to the geometry of the aneurysm and the surrounding vasculature. However, the consequences of these assumptions have so far been inadequately addressed. This study investigates the effects of 4 different viscosity models, 2 different inflow conditions and 2 different outflow conditions in 12 middle cerebral artery aneurysms. The differences are quantified in terms of 3 different wall shear stress (WSS) metrics, involving maximal WSS, average WSS, and proportion of aneurysm sac area with low WSS. The results were compared with common geometrical metrics such as volume, aspect ratio, size ratio and parent vessel diameter and classifications in terms of sex and aneurysm type. The results demonstrate strong correlations between the different viscosity models and boundary conditions. The correlation between the different WSS metrics range from weak to medium. No strong correlations were found between the different WSS metrics and the geometrical metrics or classifications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar
2017-07-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for simulating viscous, incompressible, steady-state blood flow containing copper nanoparticles and coupled heat transfer through a composite stenosed artery with permeable walls. Wall slip hydrodynamic and also thermal buoyancy effects are included. The artery is simulated as an isotropic elastic tube, following Joshi et al. (2009), and a variable viscosity formulation is employed for the flowing blood. The equations governing the transport phenomena are non-dimensionalized and the resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically in the steady state subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical computations are conducted to quantify the effects of relevant hemodynamic, thermophysical and nanoscale parameters emerging in the model on velocity and temperature profiles, wall shear stress, impedance resistance and also streamline distributions. The model may be applicable to drug fate transport modeling with nanoparticle agents and also to the optimized design of nanoscale medical devices for diagnosing stenotic diseases in circulatory systems.
Predictions of axisymmetric free turbulent shear flows using a generalized eddy-viscosity approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgenthaler, J. H.
1973-01-01
The generalized eddy viscosity approach is described and results are presented of test cases which show that predictions obtained by this approach are adequate for most engineering applications. Because of the importance of starting computations from the injection station where experimentally determined mean and turbulence parameters are rarely available, a very simple core model applicable to simple step-type (slug) profiles was developed. Agreement between predicted and experimental mean profiles was generally almost as good for calculations made by using this model throughout the core region and the transition model for all subsequent regions as predictions made by starting from experimental profiles in the transition region. The generalized eddy-viscosity model, which was developed in part through correlation of turbulence parameters, successfully predicted turbulent shear stress, turbulent intensity, and mean velocity profiles for a 0.040-inch-diameter microjet. Therefore, successful scaling by the model was demonstrated since data used in its development was for jet areas up to 90,000 times as large as the microjet and velocities only 1/20th as high.
Dynamics of a high viscosity layer in response to shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esmaili, Ehsan; Staples, Anne
2016-11-01
We use the Shan-Chen multicomponent Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to investigate the time evolution of a thin liquid film (phase I) coating a solid surface under the action of a shearing force imposed by a surrounding fluid (phase II), whose viscosity is significantly lower than that of the film. The goal of this study is to use LBM to capture the contact line motion and interfacial dynamics for an oil-like liquid film which is driven by the upper phase (water) movement as a first approach to modeling thin film dewetting in wave swept marine environments. Lubrication theory is used to validate the results for the driven thin film, and the LBM simulations investigate the effects of the upper phase movement, lower phase thickness, and angle of the imposed shearing force on the thin film profile. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1437387.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao
2015-09-01
Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008), 10.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the behavior of
Liu, Haihu; Ju, Yaping; Wang, Ningning; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao
2015-09-01
Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon omnipresent in nature and various industrial processes, but its effects are not considered in many existing multiphase flow simulations due to modeling complexity. In this work, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the contact-line dynamics with consideration of the contact angle hysteresis for a broad range of kinematic viscosity ratios. In this method, the immiscible two-phase flow is described by a color-fluid model, in which the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator is adopted to increase numerical stability and suppress unphysical spurious currents at the contact line. The contact angle hysteresis is introduced using the strategy proposed by Ding and Spelt [Ding and Spelt, J. Fluid Mech. 599, 341 (2008)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112008000190], and the geometrical wetting boundary condition is enforced to obtain the desired contact angle. This method is first validated by simulations of static contact angle and dynamic capillary intrusion process on ideal (smooth) surfaces. It is then used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a droplet on a nonideal (inhomogeneous) surface subject to a simple shear flow. When the droplet remains pinned on the surface due to hysteresis, the steady interface shapes of the droplet quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical results. Four typical motion modes of contact points, as observed in a recent study, are qualitatively reproduced with varying advancing and receding contact angles. The viscosity ratio is found to have a notable impact on the droplet deformation, breakup, and hysteresis behavior. Finally, this method is extended to simulate the droplet breakup in a microfluidic T junction, with one half of the wall surface ideal and the other half nonideal. Due to the contact angle hysteresis, the droplet asymmetrically breaks up into two daughter droplets with the smaller one in the nonideal branch channel, and the
Nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing mode instability with shear flow and viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, L.; Morrison, P. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of shear flow on the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is investigated via numerical solutions of the resistive MHD equations in slab geometry, using a finite-difference alternative-direction implicit method. It was found that, when the shear flow is small (V less than 0.3), the tearing mode saturates within one resistive time, whereas for larger flows the nonlinear saturation develops on longer time scales. The magnetic energy release decreases and the saturation time increases with increasing values of V for both small and large resistivity. Shear flow was found to decrease the saturated magnetic island width and to generate currents far from the tearing layer. Results suggest that equilibrium shear flow may improve the confinement of tokamak plasma.
Nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing mode instability with shear flow and viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, L.; Morrison, P. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of shear flow on the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is investigated via numerical solutions of the resistive MHD equations in slab geometry, using a finite-difference alternative-direction implicit method. It was found that, when the shear flow is small (V less than 0.3), the tearing mode saturates within one resistive time, whereas for larger flows the nonlinear saturation develops on longer time scales. The magnetic energy release decreases and the saturation time increases with increasing values of V for both small and large resistivity. Shear flow was found to decrease the saturated magnetic island width and to generate currents far from the tearing layer. Results suggest that equilibrium shear flow may improve the confinement of tokamak plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui
2016-11-01
The nonlinear asymptotic stability of Lane-Emden solutions is proved in this paper for spherically symmetric motions of viscous gaseous stars with the density dependent shear and bulk viscosities which vanish at the vacuum, when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the stability regime {(4/3, 2)}, by establishing the global-in-time regularity uniformly up to the vacuum boundary for the vacuum free boundary problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson systems with spherical symmetry, which ensures the global existence of strong solutions capturing the precise physical behavior that the sound speed is {C^{{1}/{2}}}-Hölder continuous across the vacuum boundary, the large time asymptotic uniform convergence of the evolving vacuum boundary, density and velocity to those of Lane-Emden solutions with detailed convergence rates, and the detailed large time behavior of solutions near the vacuum boundary. Those uniform convergence are of fundamental importance in the study of vacuum free boundary problems which are missing in the previous results for global weak solutions. Moreover, the results obtained in this paper apply to much broader cases of viscosities than those in Fang and Zhang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 191:195-243, 2009) for the theory of weak solutions when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the most physically relevant range. Finally, this paper extends the previous local-in-time theory for strong solutions to a global-in-time one.
The effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the deformation of red blood cells in a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sesay, Juldeh
2005-11-01
The analyses of the effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the membrane of red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in a shear flow are presented. The specific objective is to investigate the mechanical deformation on the surfaces of an ellipsoidal particle model. The hydrodynamic stresses and other forces on the surface of the particle are used to determine the cell deformation. We extended previous works, which were based on the Newtonian fluid models, to the non-Newtonian case, and focus on imposed shear rate values between 1 and 100 per second. Two viscosity models are investigated, which respectively correspond to a normal person and a patient with cerebrovascular accident (CVA). The results are compared with those obtained assuming a Newtonian model. We observed that the orientation of the cell influences the deformation and the imposed shear rate drives the local shear rate distribution along the particle surface. The integral particle deformation for the non-Newtonian models in the given shear rate regime is higher than that for the Newtonian reference model. Finally, the deformation of the cell surface decreases as the dissipation ratio increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Cheng-Ling; Peyroux, Juliette; Perez, Alex; Tsui, Chi-Leung; Wang, Wei-Chih
2009-03-01
Viscosity measurement by bend loss of fiber is presented. The sensing principle makes use of the damping characteristic of a vibrating optical fiber probe with fix-free end configuration. By measuring the displacement of the fiber probe, the viscosity can be determined by matching the probe's displacement with the displacement built in the database obtained by either experimental method or Finite element calculation. Experimental results are presented by measuring the sucrose and glycerol solutions of different concentrations with a viscosity varying from 1 to 15 cP. Stokes' flow assumption is utilized to attenuate the mass density effect and simplify the viscosity measurement.
Scale-Dependent Models for Atmospheric Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Rupert
2010-01-01
Atmospheric flows feature length scales from 10-5 to 105 m and timescales from microseconds to weeks or more. For scales above several kilometers and minutes, there is a natural scale separation induced by the atmosphere's thermal stratification, together with the influences of gravity and Earth's rotation, and the fact that atmospheric-flow Mach numbers are typically small. A central aim of theoretical meteorology is to understand the associated scale-specific flow phenomena, such as internal gravity waves, baroclinic instabilities, Rossby waves, cloud formation and moist convection, (anti-)cyclonic weather patterns, hurricanes, and a variety of interacting waves in the tropics. Single-scale asymptotics yields reduced sets of equations that capture the essence of these scale-specific processes. For studies of interactions across scales, techniques of multiple-scales asymptotics have received increasing recognition in recent years. This article recounts the most prominent scales and associated scale-dependent models and summarizes recent multiple-scales developments.
Rough dependence upon initial data exemplified by explicit solutions and the effect of viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y. Charles
2017-03-01
In this article, we present some interesting non-steady explicit solutions to the 2D Euler and Navier–Stokes equations. Explicit calculations on the explicit solutions show that Navier–Stokes (and Euler) equations have the novel property of rough dependence upon initial data in contrast to the sensitive dependence upon initial data found in chaos. Through the explicit calculations, we are able to obtain a lower bound on the norm of the Fréchet derivative of the solution operator at the explicit solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations. The lower bound approaches infinity as the Reynolds number approaches infinity. For Euler equations, this lower bound is indeed infinity. The rough dependence property in the inviscid case is closely related to the theorem of Cauchy. The viscous effect on the theorem of Cauchy and the rough dependence property is also studied.
Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.
2015-11-01
In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.
Study of blood viscosity at low shear rate and its flow through viscoelastic tubes and ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, N.; Sarkar, A.; Srinivas, A.; Kapusetti, G.
2012-02-01
A nonlinear mathematical model is developed analytically to study the flow characteristics of visco-elastic fluid through a visco-elastic pipe when it is subjected to external body acceleration. The equations governing the motion of the system are solved analytically with the use of appropriate boundary conditions. For the present scope of study the flow of visco-elastic fluid (blood) in smaller artery which is visco-elastic in nature has been taken. The artery is assumed to be a flexible cylindrical tube containing a non-Newtonian fluid. The unsteady flow mechanism in the artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from the normal functioning of the heart and also the external body acceleration. Numerical models have finally been developed for Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluid in order to have a thorough quantitative measure of the effects of body acceleration on the flow velocity, volume flow rate and the wall shear stress of blood in normal human artery and when the artery gets stiffer, just to validate the applicability of the present mathematical model.
Odd viscosity in two-dimensional incompressible fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeshan, Sriram; Abanov, Alexander G.
2017-09-01
In this work, we present observable consequences of a parity-violating odd-viscosity term in incompressible 2+1D hydrodynamics. For boundary conditions depending on the velocity field (flow) alone we show that (i) the fluid flow quantified by the velocity field is independent of odd viscosity, (ii) the force acting on a closed contour is independent of odd viscosity, and (iii) the odd-viscosity part of torque on a closed contour is proportional to the rate of change of area enclosed by the contour with the proportionality constant being twice the odd viscosity. The last statement allows us to define a measurement protocol of odd viscostance in analogy to Hall resistance measurements. We also consider no-stress boundary conditions that explicitly depend on odd viscosity. A classic hydrodynamics problem with no-stress boundary conditions is that of a bubble in a planar Stokes flow. We solve this problem exactly for shear and hyperbolic flows and show that the steady-state shape of the bubble in the shear flow depends explicitly on the value of odd viscosity.
The effect of temperature dependence of viscosity on a Brownian heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asfaw Taye, Mesfin; Fekade Duki, Solomon
2015-12-01
We modeled a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a spatially varying temperature. The strength for the viscous friction γ(x) is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T(x) of the medium increases (γ(x) = Be- AT(x)) as proposed originally by Reynolds [O. Reynolds, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 157 (1886)]. Our result depicts that the velocity of the motor is considerably higher when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of the case where the viscous friction is temperature independent. The dependence of the efficiency η as well as the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator Pref on model parameters is also explored. If the motor designed to achieve a high velocity against a frictional drag, in the absence of external load f, we show that Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit as long as the viscous friction is temperature dependent A ≠ 0. On the contrary, in the limit A → 0 or in general in the presence of an external load (for any A) f ≠ 0, at quasistatic limit, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is attainable as long as the heat exchange via kinetic energy is omitted. For all cases, far from quasistatic limit, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator are higher for constant γ case than the case where γ is temperature dependent. On the other hand, if one includes the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit. Moreover, the dependence for the optimized and maximum power efficiencies on the determinant model parameters is explored.
The effect of temperature dependence of viscosity on a Brownian heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taye, Mesfin Asfaw; Duki, Solomon Fekade
2015-12-01
We modeled a Brownian heat engine as a Brownian particle that hops in a periodic ratchet potential where the ratchet potential is coupled with a spatially varying temperature. The strength for the viscous friction γ( x) is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T( x) of the medium increases ( γ( x) = B e - AT( x)) as proposed originally by Reynolds [O. Reynolds, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 177, 157 (1886)]. Our result depicts that the velocity of the motor is considerably higher when the viscous friction is temperature dependent than that of the case where the viscous friction is temperature independent. The dependence of the efficiency η as well as the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator P ref on model parameters is also explored. If the motor designed to achieve a high velocity against a frictional drag, in the absence of external load f, we show that Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit as long as the viscous friction is temperature dependent A ≠ 0. On the contrary, in the limit A → 0 or in general in the presence of an external load (for any A) f ≠ 0, at quasistatic limit, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is attainable as long as the heat exchange via kinetic energy is omitted. For all cases, far from quasistatic limit, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator are higher for constant γ case than the case where γ is temperature dependent. On the other hand, if one includes the heat exchange at the boundary of the heat baths, Carnot efficiency or Carnot refrigerator is unattainable even at quasistatic limit. Moreover, the dependence for the optimized and maximum power efficiencies on the determinant model parameters is explored.
Viscosity and surface tension effects during multiphase flow in propped fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzikowski, Michał; Dąbrowski, Marcin
2017-04-01
Geological sequestration of CO2 was proposed as an important mechanism to reduce its emission into atmosphere. CO2 exhibits a higher affinity to organic matter than methane molecules and, potentially, it could be pumped and stored in shale reservoirs while enhancing late stage shale gas production. A successful analysis of CO2 sequestration in low matrix permeability rocks such as shales requires a thorough understanding of multiphase flow in stimulated rock fractures, which provide most significant pathways for fluids in such systems. Multiphase fracture flows are also of great relevance to brine, oil and gas migration in petroleum systems, water and stream circulation in geothermal reservoirs, and chemical transport of non-aqueous phase liquids in shallow hydrogeological systems, particularly in partially saturated zones. There are various physical models that describe phenomena taking place during multiphase flow through porous media. One of key aspects that need to be considered are pore-scale effects related to capillarity. Unfortunately, detailed models that describe motion and evolution of phase or component boundary require direct numerical simulations and spatial resolutions that are hard to reach when considering industrial relevant systems. Main aim of the presented work was the development of reduced 2.5D models based on Brinkman approximation of thin domain flow that would be able to capture local scale phenomena without expensive 3D simulations. Presented approach was designed specifically to tackle incompressible and immiscible systems and is based on Continuous Surface Force approach presented by Brackbill et al., implemented using Lattice Boltzmann Method. Presented approach where firstly validated against standard test cases with known classical solution and known experimental data. In the second part, we present and discuss two component, immiscible permeability data for rough and propped fracture obtained with our code for a rage of proppants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pan, C. H. T.; Malanoski, S. B.
1972-01-01
A preliminary design study was performed to seek a fluid-film thrust bearing design intended to be part of a high-speed, hybrid (rolling element/fluid film) bearing configuration. The base line used is a design previously tested. To improve the accuracy of theoretical predictions of load capacity, flow rate, and friction power loss, an analytical procedure was developed to include curvature effects inherent in thrust bearings and to allow for the temperature rise in the fluid due to viscous heating. Also, a narrow-groove approximation in the treatment of the temperature field was formulated to apply the procedure to the Whipple thrust bearing. A comparative trade-off study was carried out assuming isothermal films; its results showed the shrouded-step design to be superior to the Whipple design for the intended application. An extensive parametric study was performed, employing isoviscous calculations, to determine the optimized design, which was subsequently recalculated allowing for temperature effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrabi Pari, Sharareh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Javidan, Kurosh
2016-10-01
The nuclear suppression factor RAA and elliptic flow ν2 are calculated by considering the effects of shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio η/s, using the viscose hydrodynamics at the first- and second-orders of approximation and considering temperature dependent coupling αs(T). It is shown that the second-order viscose hydrodynamics (varying shear viscosity to entropy ratio) with averaged value of 4πη/s = 1.5 ± 0.1 gives the best results of RAA and ν2 in comparison to the experimental data.
Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.
2016-11-01
We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.
Lopez; Hirsa
1998-10-01
Recent developments in nonlinear optical techniques for noninvasive probing of a surfactant influenced gas/liquid interface allow for the measurement of the surfactant surface concentration, c, and thus provide new opportunities for the direct determination of its intrinsic viscosities. Here, we present the theoretical foundations, based on the Boussinesq-Scriven surface model without the usual simplification of constant viscosities, for an experimental technique to directly measure the surface shear (µs) and dilatational (kappas) viscosities of a Newtonian interface as functions of the surfactant surface concentration. This ability to directly measure the surfactant concentration permits the use of a simple surface flow for the measurement of the surface viscosities. The requirements are that the interface must be nearly flat, and the flow steady, axisymmetric, and swirling; these flow conditions can be achieved in the deep-channel viscometer driven at relatively fast rates. The tangential stress balance on such an interface leads to two equations; the balance in the azimuthal direction involves only µs and its gradients, and the balance in the radial direction involves both µs and kappas and their gradients. By further exploiting recent developments in laser-based flow measuring techniques, the surface velocities and their gradients which appear in the two equations can be measured directly. The surface tension gradient, which appears in the radial balance equation, is incorporated from the equation of state for the surfactant system and direct measurements of the surfactant surface concentration distribution. The stress balance equations are then ordinary differential equations in the surface viscosities as functions of radial position, which can be readily integrated. Since c is measured as a function of radial position, we then have a direct measurement of µs and kappas as functions of c. Numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed
Bedrov, Dmitry; Smith, Grant D.; Sewell, Thomas D.
2000-04-22
Equilibrium molecular dynamics methods were used in conjunction with linear response theory and a recently published potential-energy surface [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3570 (1999)] to compute the liquid shear viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient of the high explosive HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) over the temperature domain 550-800 K. Predicted values of the shear viscosity range from 0.0055 Pa *s at the highest temperature studied up to 0.45 Pa *s for temperatures near the melting point. The results, which represent the first publication of the shear viscosity of HMX, are found to be described by an Arrhenius rate law over the entire temperature domain studied. The apparent activation energy for the shear viscosity is found to scale with the heat of vaporization in a fashion consistent with those for a wide variety of simple nonmetallic liquids. The self-diffusion coefficient, which requires significantly shorter trajectories than the shear viscosity for accurate calculation, also exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the simulated temperature domain. This has potentially important implications for predictions of the shear viscosity at temperatures near the melting point. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Benyuan; Liao, Changrong; Li, Zhuqiang; Xie, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiaochun
2017-02-01
High viscosity linear polysiloxane magnetorheological fluid (HVLP MRF) was demonstrated with excellent suspension stability. Such material is suitable for application in the magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) under axial impact loading conditions. On this basis, a new energy absorber incorporating a radial valve with high magnetic field utilization and a corrugated tube is proposed. In energy absorption applications where the MREA is rarely if ever used, our MREA takes the ultra-stable HVLP MRF as controlled medium in order for a long-term stability. For MREA performing at very high shear rates where the minor losses are important contributing factors to damping, a nonlinear analytical model, based on the Herschel-Bulkley flow model (HB model), is developed taking into account the effects of minor losses (called HBM model). The HB model parameters are determined by rheological experiments with a commercial shear rheometer. Then, continuity equation and governing differential equation of the HVLP MRF in radial flow are established. Based on the HB model, the expressions of radial velocity distribution are deduced. The influences of minor losses on pressure drop are analyzed with mean fluid velocities. Further, mechanical behavior of the corrugated tube is investigated via drop test. In order to verify the theoretical methodology, a MREA is fabricated and tested using a high-speed drop tower facility with a 600 kg mass at different drop heights and in various magnetic fields. The experiment results show that the HBM model is capable of well predicting the impact behavior of the proposed MREA.
Wang, Zhao; Tan, Lun; Pan, Xumin; Liu, Gao; He, Yahua; Jin, Wenchao; Li, Meng; Hu, Yongming; Gu, Haoshuang
2017-08-30
The rapid development of microscaled piezoelectric energy harvesters has provided a simple and highly efficient way for building self-powered sensor systems through harvesting the mechanical energy from the ambient environment. In this work, a self-powered microfluidic sensor that can harvest the mechanical energy of the fluid and simultaneously monitor their characteristics was fabricated by integrating the flexible piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with the well-designed microfluidic chips. Those devices could generate open-circuit high output voltage up to 1.8 V when a droplet of water is flowing past the suspended PVDF nanofibers and result in their periodical deformations. The impulsive output voltage signal allowed them to be utilized for droplets or bubbles counting in the microfluidic systems. Furthermore, the devices also exhibited self-powered sensing behavior due to the decreased voltage amplitude with increasing input pressure and liquid viscosity. The drop of output voltage could be attributed to the variation of flow condition and velocity of the droplets, leading to the reduced deformation of the piezoelectric PVDF layer and the decrease of the generated piezoelectric potential.
Collision energy dependence of viscous hydrodynamic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich
2012-05-01
Using a (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamical model, we study the dependence of flow observables on the collision energy ranging from s=7.7A GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to s=2760A GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). With a realistic equation of state, Glauber model initial conditions, and a small specific shear viscosity η/s=0.08, the differential charged hadron elliptic flow v2ch(pT,s) is found to exhibit a very broad maximum as a function of s around top RHIC energy, rendering it almost independent of collision energy for 39⩽s⩽2760A GeV. Compared to ideal fluid dynamical simulations, this “saturation” of elliptic flow is shifted to higher collision energies by shear viscous effects. For color-glass-motivated Monte Carlo-Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi initial conditions, which require a larger shear viscosity η/s=0.2 to reproduce the measured elliptic flow, a similar saturation is not observed up to LHC energies, except for very low pT. We emphasize that this saturation of the elliptic flow is not associated with the QCD phase transition, but arises from the interplay between radial and elliptic flow, which shifts with s depending on the fluid's viscosity and leads to a subtle cancellation between increasing contributions from light particles and decreasing contributions from heavy particles to v2 in the s range, where v2ch(pT,s) at fixed pT is maximal. By generalizing the definition of spatial eccentricity ɛx to isothermal hypersurfaces, we calculate ɛx on the kinetic freeze-out surface at different collision energies. Up to top RHIC energy, s=200A GeV, the fireball is still out-of-plane deformed at freeze-out, while at LHC energy the final spatial eccentricity is predicted to approach zero.
Animireddy, Dwitha; Reddy Bekkem, Venkata Thimma; Vallala, Pranitha; Kotha, Sunil Babu; Ankireddy, Swetha; Mohammad, Noorjahan
2014-07-01
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.
2007-11-02
diabetes mellitus and to investigate the role that various cellular and plasma components play in determining blood viscosity at physiologic shear rates... diabetes mellitus and to investigate the role that various cellular and plasma components play in determining blood viscosity at physiologic shear rates.
Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.
2012-04-01
Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandasamy, Ramasamy; Muhaimin, Ismoen; Saim, Hashim Bin
2010-08-01
This paper concerns with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a vertical stretching sheet. The flow is permeated by a uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. A scaling group of transformations is applied to the governing equations. The system remains invariant due to some relations among the parameters of the transformations. After finding three absolute invariants a third-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to the momentum equation and two second-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to energy and diffusion equations are derived. The equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically. It is found that the decrease in the temperature-dependent fluid viscosity makes the velocity to decrease with the increasing distance of the stretching sheet. At a particular point of the sheet the fluid velocity decreases with the decreasing viscosity but the temperature increases in this case. It is found that with the increase of magnetic field intensity the fluid velocity decreases but the temperature increases at a particular point of the heated stretching surface. Impact of thermophoresis particle deposition with chemical reaction in the presence of heat source/sink plays an important role on the concentration boundary layer. The results thus obtained are presented graphically and discussed.
Morimoto, Hisao; Maekawa, Toru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2002-06-01
We study the rheological and magnetic characteristics of a magnetic fluid. The system, which we investigate, is as follows. Ferromagnetic particles are dispersed in a solvent, which is subjected to both ac magnetic and shear flow fields. The translational and rotational motions of particles are calculated by the Brownian dynamics method based on Langevin equations and the rheological and magnetic characteristics of the magnetic fluid system are estimated. First, we investigate the rheological and magnetic characteristics of the system in a dc magnetic field and then we analyze the effect of an ac magnetic field on those characteristics. We find that the negative viscosity effect is induced at a certain frequency range of the ac magnetic field. We also find that there are two main mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of negative viscosity. (1) Resonance between the rotational motions of the dipoles of particles and the fluctuation of ac magnetic fields occurs when applied magnetic fields are weak compared to the shear rate, in which case particles can still rotate in magnetic fields. Beyond this resonance frequency, negative viscosity appears. (2) The magnetic dipole moments of particles are forced to stay in the direction of the magnetic field when strong magnetic fields are applied in relatively low shear flow fields. However, negative viscosity occurs when the frequency of external magnetic fields exceeds a critical value, in which case the dipoles rotate continuously in a shear flow without stopping. In both cases, the mean angular velocity of the particles becomes higher than that of the solvent.
Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai
2009-04-15
Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)
Fang, Jiajie; Zhu, Tao; Sheng, Jie; Jiang, Zhongying; Ma, Yuqiang
2015-01-01
The solution viscosity near an interface, which affects the solution behavior and the molecular dynamics in the solution, differs from the bulk. This paper measured the effective viscosity of a dilute poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) solution adjacent to a Au electrode using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. We evidenced that the effect of an adsorbed PEG layer can be ignored, and calculated the zero shear rate effective viscosity to remove attenuation of high shear frequency oscillations. By increasing the overtone n from 3 to 13, the thickness of the sensed polymer solution decreased from ~70 to 30 nm. The zero shear rate effective viscosity of the polymer solution and longest relaxation time of PEG chains within it decrease with increasing solution thickness. The change trends are independent of the relation between the apparent viscosity and shear frequency and the values of the involved parameter, suggesting that the polymer solution and polymer chains closer to a solid substrate have a greater effective viscosity and slower relaxation mode, respectively. This method can study the effect of an interface presence on behavior and phenomena relating to the effective viscosity of polymer solutions, including the dynamics of discrete polymer chains. PMID:25684747
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, C. S. K.; Sandeep, N.; Malvandi, A.
2016-12-01
Nanofluids are potential heat transfer fluids with enhanced thermal and physical properties can be applied in many areas. External magnetic field have tendency to set the thermal and physical properties of nanofluids. With this motivation, we investigated the effects of temperature dependent viscosity, heat source/sink and viscous dissipation on natural convective heat transfer of radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) non-Newtonian nanofluid caused by a cone. For this study, a simulation is performed by mixing of copper nanoparticles in the kerosene. The self similar transformed governing equations are solved by enforcing Runge-Kutta based shooting technique. We acquire the significant accuracy of the recent results by comparing with the published results. In addition, it is indicated that the dual solutions exist for both the base fluid and nanofluid cases. The effects of dimensionless parameters including Eckert number, Weissenberg number, Power-law index, viscous variation parameter, heat source/sink, thermal radiation parameter, and magnetic field parameter on velocity and temperature fields along with the friction factor coefficient and the local Nusselt number are discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is shown that nanoparticles inclusion into the non-Newtonian fluids has a positive effect on thermal performance. In addition, the viscous variation parameter has a tendency to encourage the friction factor coefficient as well as the heat transfer rate. Moreover, Cu-kerosene nanofluid signifies a better thermal performance than the Ag-kerosene nanofluid.
Kassis, Timothy; Yarlagadda, Sri Charan; Kohan, Alison B; Tso, Patrick; Breedveld, Victor; Dixon, J Brandon
2016-05-15
Dietary lipids are transported from the intestine through contractile lymphatics. Chronic lipid loads can adversely affect lymphatic function. However, the acute lymphatic pump response in the mesentery to a postprandial lipid meal has gone unexplored. In this study, we used the rat mesenteric collecting vessel as an in vivo model to quantify the effect of lipoproteins on vessel function. Lipid load was continuously monitored by using the intensity of a fluorescent fatty-acid analog, which we infused along with a fat emulsion through a duodenal cannula. The vessel contractility was simultaneously quantified. We demonstrated for the first time that collecting lymphatic vessels respond to an acute lipid load by reducing pump function. High lipid levels decreased contraction frequency and amplitude. We also showed a strong tonic response through a reduction in the end-diastolic and systolic diameters. We further characterized the changes in flow rate and viscosity and showed that both increase postprandially. In addition, shear-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells differed when cultured with lipoproteins. Together these results show that the in vivo response could be both shear and lipid mediated and provide the first evidence that high postprandial lipid has an immediate negative effect on lymphatic function even in the acute setting. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Computational Relativistic Astrophysics Using the Flow Field-Dependent Variation Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2002-01-01
We present our method for solving general relativistic nonideal hydrodynamics. Relativistic effects become pronounced in such cases as jet formation from black hole magnetized accretion disks which may lead to the study of gamma-ray bursts. Nonideal flows are present where radiation, magnetic forces, viscosities, and turbulence play an important role. Our concern in this paper is to reexamine existing numerical simulation tools as to the accuracy and efficiency of computations and introduce a new approach known as the flow field-dependent variation (FDV) method. The main feature of the FDV method consists of accommodating discontinuities of shock waves and high gradients of flow variables such as occur in turbulence and unstable motions. In this paper, the physics involved in the solution of relativistic hydrodynamics and solution strategies of the FDV theory are elaborated. The general relativistic astrophysical flow and shock solver (GRAFSS) is introduced, and some simple example problems for computational relativistic astrophysics (CRA) are demonstrated.
Effect of temperature on the viscosities of mixed micellar solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, C. Durga; Kumar, D. Sudheer; Sarma, G. V. S.; Ramesh, K. V.
2017-07-01
The effect of addition of Triton X-100 (TX-100) on the viscosities of Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solution containingNaCl and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution containingKBr at various temperatures are presented. The viscosity of SDS micellar solution is found to increase on addition of TX-100 at all temperatures (25 to 45 °C). However the increase in viscosity is large up to certain % of TX-100, after that the increase in viscosity is found to be small. Where as in CTAB micelles, at lower temperatures, the viscosity of micellar solution decreased up to certain composition of TX-100 and with further addition of TX-100 the viscosity got increaed. At higher temperatures viscosity of CTAB micellar solution increased on addition of TX-100. Depending on the nature of surfactant system and temperature, the viscosity of micellar solution may increase or decrease on addition of TX-100. The thermodynamic parameters for the viscous flow of micellar solutions in the presence of TX-100 are also determined. The effect of TX-100 on the viscosity and the activation enthalpy for viscous flow of anionic micelles is tremendously large as compared to cationic micelles. This is due to transition of micellar shape from rod to elongated rod or to sphere in the presence of added TX-100.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, M.; Alim, M. A.; Nasrin, R.; Alam, M. S.
2016-07-01
An analysis is performed to study the free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid about a semi-infinite inclined porous plate under the action of radiation, chemical reaction in presence of magnetic field with variable viscosity. The dimensionless governing equations are steady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equation. Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The effects of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, the results of velocity profile decreases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and viscosity parameter but there is no effect for reaction parameter. The temperature profile decreases in presence of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and Prandtl number but increases for radiation parameter. Also, concentration profile decreases for the increasing values of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and reaction parameter. All numerical calculations are done with respect to salt water and fixed angle of inclination of the plate.
Ali, M.; Alim, M. A. Nasrin, R.; Alam, M. S.
2016-07-12
An analysis is performed to study the free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid about a semi-infinite inclined porous plate under the action of radiation, chemical reaction in presence of magnetic field with variable viscosity. The dimensionless governing equations are steady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equation. Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The effects of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, the results of velocity profile decreases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and viscosity parameter but there is no effect for reaction parameter. The temperature profile decreases in presence of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and Prandtl number but increases for radiation parameter. Also, concentration profile decreases for the increasing values of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and reaction parameter. All numerical calculations are done with respect to salt water and fixed angle of inclination of the plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Anoop Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Chhabra, Rajendra Prasad
2017-08-01
In this work, the buoyancy-induced convection from an isothermal spheroid is studied in a Bingham plastic fluid. Extensive results on the morphology of approximate yield surfaces, temperature profiles, and the local and average Nusselt numbers are reported to elucidate the effects of the pertinent dimensionless parameters: Rayleigh number, 102 ≤ Ra ≤ 106; Prandtl number, 20 ≤ Pr ≤ 100; Bingham number, 0 ≤ Bn ≤ 103, and aspect ratio, 0.2 ≤ e ≤ 5. Due to the fluid yield stress, fluid-like (yielded) and solid-like (unyielded) regions coexist in the flow domain depending upon the prevailing stress levels vis-a-vis the value of the fluid yield stress. The yielded parts progressively grow in size with the rising Rayleigh number while this tendency is countered by the increasing Bingham and Prandtl numbers. Due to these two competing effects, a limiting value of the Bingham number ( Bn max) is observed beyond which heat transfer occurs solely by conduction due to the solid-like behaviour of the fluid everywhere in the domain. Such limiting values bear a positive dependence on the Rayleigh number ( Ra) and aspect ratio ( e). In addition to this, oblate shapes ( e < 1) foster heat transfer with respect to spheres ( e = 1) while prolate shapes ( e > 1) impede it. Finally, simple predictive expressions for the maximum Bingham number and the average Nusselt number are developed which can be used to predict a priori the overall heat transfer coefficient in a new application. Also, a criterion is developed in terms of the composite parameter Bn• Gr-1/2 which predicts the onset of convection in such fluids. Similarly, another criterion is developed which delineates the conditions for the onset of settling due to buoyancy effects. The paper is concluded by presenting limited results to delineate the effects of viscous dissipation and the temperature-dependent viscosity on the Nusselt number. Both these effects are seen to be rather small in Bingham plastic fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aladool, A.; Aziz, M. M.; Wright, C. D.
2017-06-01
The crystallization dynamics in the phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 is modelled using the more detailed Master equation method over a wide range of heating rates commensurate with published ultrafast calorimetry experiments. Through the attachment and detachment of monomers, the Master rate equation naturally traces nucleation and growth of crystallites with temperature history to calculate the transient distribution of cluster sizes in the material. Both the attachment and detachment rates in this theory are strong functions of viscosity, and thus, the value of viscosity and its dependence on temperature significantly affect the crystallization process. In this paper, we use the physically realistic Mauro-Yue-Ellison-Gupta-Allan viscosity model in the Master equation approach to study the role of the viscosity model parameters on the crystallization dynamics in Ge2Sb2Te5 under ramped annealing conditions with heating rates up to 4 × 104 K/s. Furthermore, due to the relatively low computational cost of the Master equation method compared to atomistic level computations, an iterative numerical approach was developed to fit theoretical Kissinger plots simulated with the Master equation system to experimental Kissinger plots from ultrafast calorimetry measurements at increasing heating rates. This provided a more rigorous method (incorporating both nucleation and growth processes) to extract the viscosity model parameters from the analysis of experimental data. The simulations and analysis revealed the strong coupling between the glass transition temperature and fragility index in the viscosity and crystallization models and highlighted the role of the dependence of the glass transition temperature on the heating rate for the accurate estimation of the fragility index of phase-change materials from the analysis of experimental measurements.
Influence of Ni Additions on the Viscosity of Liquid Al2Cu
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudry, S.; Vus, V.; Yakymovych, A.
2017-07-01
The viscosity of the liquid Al-Cu-Ni alloys has been studied by means of an oscillating crucible method. The activation energy of viscous flow was estimated from temperature dependences of the viscosity. The analysis of concentration dependence of the viscosity across a section Al67Cu33-Ni reveals its negative deviation from the linear dependence. Such behaviour of the viscosity coefficient upon additions of Ni into the liquid Al67Cu33 alloy could be caused by change of the interaction parameters between different structural units in the investigated melts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belletête, Michel; Sarpal, Ranjit S.; Durocher, Gilles
1993-01-01
The fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes (τ F) of 3,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-indole ( 1), in a series of eighteen nonpolar, polar aprotic and/or protic solvents, range from 2.4 X 10 -4 to 0.12 and from 1 to 520 ps, respectively, as a result of viscosity dependent fast internal conversion. Rates of internal conversion are shown to be dependent upon the bulk viscosity of the solvent as opposed to the microviscosity (free volume effect of the solvent). Both φ F (or τ F) = Cη 2/3 with an identical value of C whatever the nature of the solvent is. This molecule may then be regarded as an excellent viscosity probe for heterogeneous systems and polymers over a large range of viscosities. Various solvatochromic methods have been used to evaluate the ground and excited state dipole moments of 1. The Bilot—Kawski method gives optimized values of 3.8 and 7.8 D, respectively, with a negligible polarizability of the molecule.
Kimura, Y; Kida, Y; Matsushita, Y; Yasaka, Y; Ueno, M; Takahashi, K
2015-06-25
Translational diffusion coefficients of diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP), diphenylacetylene (DPA), and carbon monoxide (CO) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIm][NTf2]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]) were determined by the transient grating (TG) spectroscopy under pressure from 0.1 to 200 MPa at 298 K and from 298 to 373 K under 0.1 MPa. Diffusion coefficients of these molecules at high temperatures in tributylmethylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P4441][NTf2]), and tetraoctylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P8888][NTf2]), and also in the mixtures of [BMIm][NTf2], N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Pp13][NTf2]), and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P66614][NTf2]) with ethanol or chloroform have been determined. Diffusion coefficients except in ILs of phosphonium cations were well scaled by the power law of T/η, i.e., (T/η)(P), where T and η are the absolute temperature and the viscosity, irrespective of the solvent species, pressure and temperature, and the compositions of mixtures. The values of the exponent P were smaller for the smaller size of the molecules. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficients in ILs of phosphonium cations with longer alkyl chains were larger than the values expected from the correlation obtained by other ILs and conventional liquids. The deviation becomes larger with increasing the number of carbon atoms of alkyl-chain of cation, and with decreasing the molecular size of diffusing molecules. The molecular size dependence of the diffusion coefficient was correlated by the ratio of the volume of the solute to that of the solvent as demonstrated by the preceding work (Kaintz et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 11697 ). Diffusion coefficients have been well correlated with the power laws of both T/η and the relative volume of the solute to the solvent.
Singh, Lokendra P; Issenmann, Bruno; Caupin, Frédéric
2017-04-12
The anomalous decrease of the viscosity of water with applied pressure has been known for over a century. It occurs concurrently with major structural changes: The second coordination shell around a molecule collapses onto the first shell. Viscosity is thus a macroscopic witness of the progressive breaking of the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network that makes water so peculiar. At low temperature, water at ambient pressure becomes more tetrahedral and the effect of pressure becomes stronger. However, surprisingly, no data are available for the viscosity of supercooled water under pressure, in which dramatic anomalies are expected based on interpolation between ambient pressure data for supercooled water and high pressure data for stable water. Here we report measurements with a time-of-flight viscometer down to [Formula: see text] and up to [Formula: see text], revealing a reduction of viscosity by pressure by as much as 42%. Inspired by a previous attempt [Tanaka H (2000) J Chem Phys 112:799-809], we show that a remarkably simple extension of a two-state model [Holten V, Sengers JV, Anisimov MA (2014) J Phys Chem Ref Data 43:043101], initially developed to reproduce thermodynamic properties, is able to accurately describe dynamic properties (viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and rotational correlation time) as well. Our results support the idea that water is a mixture of a high density, "fragile" liquid, and a low density, "strong" liquid, the varying proportion of which explains the anomalies and fragile-to-strong crossover in water.
Daas, Mutaz; Bleyle, Derek
2006-03-01
Computational and experimental investigation in 10-cm ID horizontal pipes have been carried out utilizing carbon dioxide as the gas phase and two types of oil with different viscosities; namely 0.0025Pas and 0.05Pas, as the liquid phase. The influence of oil viscosity on the magnitude of total pressure drop and each of its components as well as the effectiveness of a drag reducing additive (DRA, CDR WS 500M flow improver) in decreasing the pressure loss was investigated in two-phase oil-gas slug flow. The effects of changing oil viscosity on the contribution of frictional and accelerational components to total pressure drop in slug flow were also examined and analyzed. Computations of accelerational and frictional components of pressure drop were performed. The accelerational component of pressure drop was dominant in the 0.0025Pas oil while the frictional component had significant contributions in the 0.05Pas oil. Despite the fact that the magnitude of drag reduction was higher in the 0.05Pas oil, the DRA was more effective in reducing the total pressure drop and its components in the 0.0025Pas oil. (author)
Girardo, Salvatore; Cingolani, Roberto; Pisignano, Dario
2007-10-28
We present a study of the rheological phenomenology of a non-Newtonian glass former within hybrid microchannels above the vitrification region. We determined the temperature behavior of the viscosity, which is well fitted by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman law for shear rates between 4 x 10(-2) and 9 x 10(-1) s(-1). The microflow viscosity was compared with previously reported conductivity data of the investigated molecular system. Our findings provide an insight into the coupling between the structural dynamics in the bulk and that within the microchannels, suggesting lithographically defined microfluidic systems as promising tools for the investigation of the rheological properties of complex liquids.
Dilatational viscosity of dilute particle-laden fluid interface at different contact angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lishchuk, Sergey V.
2016-12-01
We consider a solid spherical particle adsorbed at a flat interface between two immiscible fluids and having arbitrary contact angle at the triple contact line. We derive analytically the flow field corresponding to dilatational surface flow in the case of a large ratio of dynamic shear viscosities of two fluids. Considering a dilute assembly of such particles we calculate numerically the dependence on the contact angle of the effective surface dilatational viscosity particle-laden fluid interface. The effective surface dilatational viscosity is proportional to the size and surface concentration of particles and monotonically increases with the increase in protrusion of particles into the fluid with larger shear viscosity.
Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.
2017-01-01
We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.
Blume, K; Dietrich, K; Lilienthal, S; Ternes, W; Drotleff, A M
2015-04-15
Egg yolk and its main component, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were consecutively pasteurised, optimally freeze-dried, and dispersed in various NaCl solutions (0-10%). Heat-induced changes in the protein secondary structures which accompanied viscosity-increasing aggregation processes were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the intensities of intermolecular β-sheets (1622 cm(-1)) and results were compared with the temperature-dependent viscosities. Considerable changes in secondary structures observed after reconstitution of freeze-dried LDL had no detectable effect on the characteristic heat-induced viscosity curves but suggest that LDL plays a particular role in the unwanted gel formation of egg yolk after conventional freezing. For all egg yolk samples and all NaCl-containing LDL samples, the sigmoidal changes in the absorbance units vs. temperature curves corresponded with the first increase in heat-induced viscosity. Both analytical methods showed that the presence of ionic strength caused a shift in curve progressions towards higher temperatures, indicating increased thermal stability.
Chin, Jonathan; Boek, Edo S; Coveney, Peter V
2002-03-15
We present a lattice Boltzmann study of the flow of a binary fluid where the fluid components have different viscosities. For this purpose, a microscopic interaction model (due to Shan & Chen) is used. The model is validated for Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids and the dispersion of a capillary wave. We then study the unstable displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid in a two-dimensional channel. Although a finger-like structure was observed in many simulations, it is not clear if this structure was produced due to viscous fingering or due to other effects.
Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramov, I.
2014-03-01
Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.
Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses.
Avramov, I
2014-03-01
Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.
Flow regimes and parameter dependence in nanochannel flows.
Liu, Chong; Li, Zhigang
2009-09-01
Nanoscale fluid flow systems involve both microscopic and macroscopic parameters, which compete with each another and lead to different flow regimes. In this work, we investigate the interactions of four fundamental parameters, including the fluid-fluid, fluid-wall binding energies, temperature of the system, and driving force, and their effects on the flow motion in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. By illustrating the fluid flux as a function of a dimensionless number, which represents the effective surface effect on the fluid, we show that the fluid motion in nanochannels falls into different regimes, each of which is associated with a distinct mechanism. The mechanisms in different situations reveal the effects of the parameters on the fluid dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, P. K.; McDonnell, A. G.; Prabhakar, R.; Yeo, L. Y.; Friend, J.
2011-02-01
Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (lsim10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities—water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.
Time Dependent Simulation of Turbopump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert
2001-01-01
The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to enhance incompressible flow simulation capability for developing aerospace vehicle components, especially unsteady flow phenomena associated with high speed turbo pumps. Unsteady Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)-rig1 1 1/2 rotations are completed for the 34.3 million grid points model. The moving boundary capability is obtained by using the DCF module. MLP shared memory parallelism has been implemented and benchmarked in INS3D. The scripting capability from CAD geometry to solution is developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing and fluid/structure coupling is initiated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandasamy, R.; Muhaimin, I.; Kamachi, G.
2011-12-01
This paper deals with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a porous vertical stretching sheet. The flow is permeated by a uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The partial differential equations governing the problem under consideration are transformed by a special form of Lie group transformations, namely, scaling group of transformations, into a system of ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Gill algorithm and the shooting method. The conclusion is drawn that the flow field and temperature profiles are significantly influenced by the Lewis number, Brownian motion number, and thermophoresis number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, Nicholas
2015-03-01
Viscosity is a transport coefficient relating to transport of momentum, and usually thought of as the analog of friction that occurs in fluids and solids. More formally, it is the response of the stress to the gradients of the fluid velocity field, or to the rate of change of strain (derivatives of displacement from a reference state). In general, viscosity is described by a fourth-rank tensor. Invoking rotation invariance, it reduces to familiar shear and bulk viscosity parts, which describe dissipation, but it can also contain an antisymmetric part, analogous to the Hall conductivity part of the conductivity tensor. In two dimensions this part is a single number, the Hall viscosity. Symmetry of the system under time reversal (or, in two dimensions, reflections) forces it to vanish. In quantum fluids with a gap in the bulk energy spectrum and which lack both time reversal and reflection symmetries the Hall viscosity can be nonzero even at zero temperature. For integer quantum Hall states, it was first calculated by Avron, Seiler, and Zograf, using a Berry curvature approach, analogous to the Chern number for Hall conductivity. In 2008 this was extended by the present author to fractional quantum Hall states and to BCS states in two dimensions. I found that the general result is given by a simple formula ns / 2 , where n is the particle number density, and s is the ``orbital spin'' per particle. The spin s is also related to the shift S, which enters the relation between particle number and magnetic flux needed to put the ground state on a surface of non-trivial topology with introducing defect excitations, by S = 2 s ; the connection was made by Wen and Zee. The values of s and S are rational numbers, and are robust--unchanged under perturbations that do not cause the bulk energy gap to collapse--provided rotation as well as translation symmetry are maintained. Hall viscosity can be measured in principle, though a simple way to do so is lacking. It enters various
Negative-viscosity lattice gases
Rothman, D.H. )
1989-08-01
A new irreversible collision rule is introduced for lattice-gas automata. The rule maximizes the flux of momentum in the direction of the local momentum gradient, yielding a negative shear viscosity. Numerically results in 2D show that the negative viscosity leads to the spontaneous ordering of the velocity field, with vorticity resolvable down to one lattice-link length. The new rule may be used in conjunction with previously proposed collision rules to yield a positive shear viscosity lower than the previous rules provide. In particular, Poiseuille flow tests demonstrate a decrease in viscosity by more than a factor of 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weijermars, R.; Dooley, T. P.; Jackson, M. P. A.; Hudec, M. R.
2014-09-01
Geological mass flows extruding from a point source include mud, lava, and salt issued from subsurface reservoirs and ice from surface feeders. The delivery of the material may occur via a salt stock, a volcanic pipe (for magma and mud flows), or a valley glacier (for ice). All these source flows are commonly skewed by a superposed far-field velocity vector imposed by the topographic slope and thus develop plumes having a wide range of shapes. The morphological evolution of the perimeter of the plumes (in plan view) can be simulated by varying the key parameters in a simple analytical flow description on the basis of Rankine equations. Our model systematically varies the strength of the point source relative to the downslope far-field velocity of its expelled mass. The flow lines are critically controlled by the relative speed of the two rates, which can be concisely expressed by the dimensionless Rankine number (Rk, introduced in this study). For steady flows, plume widths can be expressed as a function of Rk. The viscosity of the rock, mud, or lava mass involved in the gravity flow affects Rk and thus the appearance of the plumes. For unsteady source strength, Rk becomes time dependent and the plume width varies over time. The model flow shapes suggest that the plume shapes of natural gravity flows of terrestrial surface materials (mud, lava, salt, and ice) commonly express fast initial flux of the source, followed by an exponential decline of the source strength. Flows having initially higher Rk but otherwise equal life cycles create broader plumes. Peaks in the source flux due to magmatic pulsing during the eruption cycle can explain the formation of pillow lavas. Rather than instantaneously reaching full strength before declining, some natural source flows start by swelling slowly, leading to the creation of unique plume shapes like a flying saucer.
Time-Dependent Simulations of Turbopump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort will provide developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, impact of non-uniform inflows, system vibration and impact on the structure. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated with simple test cases. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability will be presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei F.; Hanna, Sarah J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Potter, Katie; You, Yuan; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.
2016-07-01
To improve predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate change, knowledge of the viscosities and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) is required. Most qualitative and quantitative measurements of viscosity and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter have focused on SOM particles generated from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as α-pinene and isoprene. In this study, we quantify the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities at 295 ± 1 K of SOM produced by photo-oxidation of toluene, an anthropogenic VOC. The viscosities of toluene-derived SOM were 2 × 10-1 to ˜ 6 × 106 Pa s from 30 to 90 % RH, and greater than ˜ 2 × 108 Pa s (similar to or greater than the viscosity of tar pitch) for RH ≤ 17 %. These viscosities correspond to Stokes-Einstein-equivalent diffusion coefficients for large organic molecules of ˜ 2 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 for 30 % RH, and lower than ˜ 3 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 for RH ≤ 17 %. Based on these estimated diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm toluene-derived SOM particles is 0.1-5 h for 30 % RH, and higher than ˜ 100 h for RH ≤ 17 %. As a starting point for understanding the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter over cities, we applied the mixing times determined for toluene-derived SOM particles to the world's top 15 most populous megacities. If the organic particulate matter in these megacities is similar to the toluene-derived SOM in this study, in Istanbul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, mixing times in organic particulate matter during certain periods of the year may be very short, and the particles may be well-mixed. On the other hand, the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter in Beijing, Mexico City, Cairo, and Karachi may be long and the particles may not be well-mixed in the afternoon (15:00-17:00 LT) during certain times of the
Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei F.; Hanna, Sarah J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Potter, Katie; You, Yuan; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.
2016-01-01
To improve predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate change, knowledge of the viscosities and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) is required. Most qualitative and quantitative measurements of viscosity and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter have focused on SOM particles generated from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as α-pinene and isoprene. In this study, we quantify the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities at 295±1K of SOM produced by photo-oxidation of toluene, an anthropogenic VOC. The viscosities of toluene-derived SOM were 2 × 10^{₋1} to ~6 ×10^{6}Pa s from 30 to 90%RH, and greater than ~2 × 10^{8} Pa s (similar to or greater than the viscosity of tar pitch) for RH ≤ 17%. These viscosities correspond to Stokes–Einstein-equivalent diffusion coefficients for large organic molecules of ~2 ×10^{₋15}cm^{2}s^{₋1} for 30 % RH, and lower than ~3 × 10^{₋17}cm^{2}s^{₋1} for RH ≤ 17 %. Based on these estimated diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm toluene-derived SOM particles is 0.1–5 h for 30% RH, and higher than ~100 h for RH ≤ 17%. As a starting point for understanding the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter over cities, we applied the mixing times determined for toluene-derived SOM particles to the world's top 15 most populous megacities. If the organic particulate matter in these megacities is similar to the toluene-derived SOM in this study, in Istanbul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, mixing times in organic particulate matter during certain periods of the year may be very short, and the particles may be well-mixed. On the other hand, the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter in Beijing, Mexico City, Cairo, and Karachi may be long and the
Microfluidic flow-dependent optical particle trapping and circulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinton, David; Blakely, Thomas; Gordon, Reuven
2007-11-01
Through the planar integration of microfluidics and fiber optics, flow-dependent optical trapping and stable circulation are achieved. Two configurations are demonstrated: Single tapered fiber traps aligned with the up-stream flow direction; and dual fiber cross-flow optical traps with alignment bias relative to the flow direction. In both configurations, particle trapping results from a combination of flow-induced drag force and optical scattering forces. In the tapered fiber traps, the stable particle trapping is achieved through a balance of forward scattering and fluid drag force, with particle position indicating the relative strength each. In the dual fiber traps, two fibers are oriented in the cross-stream direction. Employing a bias in the optical fiber in-plane alignment angle results in a flow dependence for stability and circulation. The result is a microfluidic flow-dependent circulating optical trap which may be employed to indicate flow direction, magnitude, or employed to mix co-laminar streams. A strong dependence on particle size also indicates potential for stream-wise particle sorting by size. Lastly, two extensions of this work are discussed: Microfluidic and optical interactions in multiphase (oil-water-particle) systems; and flow dependencies of optically-trapped linear arrays of particles.
Influence of cooling on lava-flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stasiuk, Mark V.; Jaupart, Claude; Stephen, R.; Sparks, J.
1993-04-01
Experiments have been carried out to determine the effects of cooling on the flow of fluids with strongly temperature dependent viscosity. Radial viscous-gravity currents of warm glucose syrup were erupted at constant rate into a flat tank filled with a cold aqueous solution. Cold, viscous fluid accumulates at the leading edge, altering the flow shape and thickness and slowing the spreading. The flows attain constant internal temperature distributions and bulk viscosities. The value of the bulk viscosity depends on the Péclet number, which reflects the advective and diffusive heat transport properties of the flow, the flow skin viscosity, which reflects cooling, and the eruption viscosity. Our results explain why most lava flows have bulk viscosities much higher than the lava eruption viscosity. The results can be applied to understanding dynamic lava features such as flow-front thickening, front avalanches, and welded basal breccias.
A Numerical Model for Time-Dependent Gravity-Driven Flow in a Collapsible Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Amanda; Borkin, Michelle; Mandre, Shreyas
2009-11-01
We present details of a Navier-Stokes solver to address fluid flows through a circular tube with elastic walls. This is the first implementation of a large structured-grid fluid dynamics code on this architecture. This class of problems, fluid flow through collapsible tubes, is very important to the study of biological systems (respiratory system, circulatory system, etc.) and physical systems (fluid dynamics, engineering, etc.). In contrast to other models, we focus on integrating wall elasticity and time dependance. We successfully model the flow of blood through the jugular vein of a giraffe over time by numerically evaluating a series of hyperbolic PDEs using Lax-Wendroff. Through careful error and stability analysis, we were able to create an accurate and stable simulation. We were able to examine the role that elasticity plays at various length scales and determine it has an impact on the flow velocity over large length scales (i.e. a giraffe) whereas it is negligible over small length scales (i.e. a human) as it is likely overwhelmed by factors such as lateral flow and viscosity. This work presents a strong framework for future CFD studies regarding various human blood flow physiologies including the abdominal aorta.
Effective viscosity of dilute bacterial suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, Brian M.
This dissertation explores the bulk (volume averaged) properties of suspensions of microswimmers in a fluid. A microswimmer is a microscopic object that propels itself through a fluid. A common example of a microswimmer is a bacterium, such as Bacillus subtilis. Our particular interest is the bulk rheological properties of suspensions of bacteria -- that is, studying how such a suspension deforms under the application of an external force. In the simplest case, the rheology of a fluid can be described by a scalar effective viscosity. The goal of this dissertation is to find explicit formulae for the effective viscosity in terms of known geometric and physical parameters characterizing bacteria and use them to explain experimental observations. Throughout the dissertation, we consider bacterial suspensions in the dilute limit, where bacteria are assumed to be so far apart that interactions between them are negligible. This simplifies calculations significantly and is the regime in which the most striking experimental results have been observed. We first study suspensions of self-propelled particles using a two-dimensional (2D) Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model. A bacterium is modeled as a disk in 2D with self-propulsion provided by a point force in the fluid. A formula is obtained for the effective viscosity of such suspensions in the dilute limit. This formula includes the two terms that are found in the 2D version of Einstein's classical result for a passive suspension of spheres. To this, our main contribution is added, an additional term due to self-propulsion which depends on the physical and geometric properties of the suspension. This work demonstrates how bacterial self-propulsion can alter the viscosity of a fluid and highlights the importance of bacterial orientation. Next, we present a more realistic PDE model for dilute suspensions of swimming bacteria in a three-dimensional fluid. In this work, a bacterium is modeled as a prolate spheroid with
Viscosity and electric properties of water aerosols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shavlov, A. V.; Sokolov, I. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.
2016-09-01
The flow of water mist in a narrow duct has been studied experimentally. The profile of the velocity of drops has been measured, and the viscosity of the mist has been calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at low gradients of the rate of shear the viscosity of the mist can exceed that of clean air by tens and even hundreds of times. The electric charge of the drops has been measured. It has been found that the viscosity of the mist differs from that of clean air at gradients of the rate of shear that are less than the frequency of the establishment of electric equilibrium between the drops. A comparative analysis of the viscosities of the mist and a drop cluster has been carried out, and the dependence of the viscosity of the water aerosol on the radius and the charge of the drops has been predicted. The possible role of aerosols that contain submicron drops in the known "clear air turbulence" problem has been shown.
Time-Dependent Simulations of Turbopump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert
2002-01-01
Unsteady flow simulations for RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) 2nd Generation baseline turbopump for one and half impeller rotations have been completed by using a 34.3 Million grid points model. MLP (Multi-Level Parallelism) shared memory parallelism has been implemented in INS3D, and benchmarked. Code optimization for cash based platforms will be completed by the end of September 2001. Moving boundary capability is obtained by using DCF module. Scripting capability from CAD (computer aided design) geometry to solution has been developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing. Fluid/Structure coupling has been initiated.
Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
2006-01-01
The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.
Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.
2006-01-01
The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.
The viscosity of planetary tholeiitic melts: A configurational entropy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sehlke, A.; Whittington, A. G.
2016-12-01
The viscosity (η) of silicate melts is a fundamental physical property controlling mass transfer in magmatic systems. Viscosity can span many orders of magnitude, strongly depending on temperature and composition. Several models are available that describe this dependency for terrestrial melts quite well. Planetary basaltic lavas however are distinctly different in composition, being dominantly alkali-poor, iron- rich and/or highly magnesian. We measured the viscosity of 20 anhydrous tholeiitic melts, of which 15 represent known or estimated surface compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. The planetary basalts span a viscosity range of 2 orders of magnitude at liquidus temperatures and 4 orders of magnitude near the glass transition, and can be more or less viscous than terrestrial lavas (Figure A). We find that current models under- and overestimate superliquidus viscosities by up to 2 orders of magnitude for these compositions, and deviate even more strongly from measured viscosities toward the glass transition. We used the Adam-Gibbs (A-G) theory to relate viscosity (η) to absolute temperature (T) and the configurational entropy of the system at that temperature (Sconf), which is in the form of log η=Ae+Be/TSconf. Heat capacities (CP) for glasses and liquids of our investigated compositions were calculated via available literature models. We show that the A-G theory is applicable to model the viscosity of individual complex tholeiitic melts containing 10 or more major oxides as well or better than the commonly used empirical equations. We successfully modeled the global viscosity data set using a constant Ae of -3.34±0.22 log units and 12 adjustable sub-parameters, which capture the compositional and temperature dependence on melt viscosity. Seven sub-parameters account for the compositional dependence of Be and 5 for Sconf. Our model reproduces the 496 measured viscosity data points with a
The viscosity of planetary tholeiitic melts: A configurational entropy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sehlke, Alexander; Whittington, Alan G.
2016-10-01
The viscosity (η) of silicate melts is a fundamental physical property controlling mass transfer in magmatic systems. Viscosity can span many orders of magnitude, strongly depending on temperature and composition. Several models are available that describe this dependency for terrestrial melts quite well. Planetary basaltic lavas however are distinctly different in composition, being dominantly alkali-poor, iron-rich and/or highly magnesian. We measured the viscosity of 20 anhydrous tholeiitic melts, of which 15 represent known or estimated surface compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. The planetary basalts span a viscosity range of 2 orders of magnitude at liquidus temperatures and 4 orders of magnitude near the glass transition, and can be more or less viscous than terrestrial lavas. We find that current models under- and overestimate superliquidus viscosities by up to 2 orders of magnitude for these compositions, and deviate even more strongly from measured viscosities toward the glass transition. We used the Adam-Gibbs theory (A-G) to relate viscosity (η) to absolute temperature (T) and the configurational entropy of the system at that temperature (Sconf), which is in the form of log η =Ae +Be /TSconf . Heat capacities (CP) for glasses and liquids of our investigated compositions were calculated via available literature models. We show that the A-G theory is applicable to model the viscosity of individual complex tholeiitic melts containing 10 or more major oxides as well or better than the commonly used empirical equations. We successfully modeled the global viscosity data set using a constant Ae of -3.34 ± 0.22 log units and 12 adjustable sub-parameters, which capture the compositional and temperature dependence on melt viscosity. Seven sub-parameters account for the compositional dependence of Be and 5 for Sconf. Our model reproduces the 496 measured viscosity data points with a 1
The importance of three dimensional dune morphology on the time dependent flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Reesink, Arnold; Best, Jim
2017-04-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively studied and there is general understanding of the nature of the flow over dunes formed over two dimensional dunes under equilibrium flow conditions. This model is typically used to explain flow fields over all dunes fields. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly reorganizing to form complex three-dimensional morphologies (ripples, dunes and bar forms). Here we investigate how flow over natural three dimensional dunes differs from the accepted model of flow of two dimensional dunes. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume where fine sand was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. On four occasions, the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models (DEM). Here to demonstrate the approach we choose the DEM with the greatest topographic variation and apply a new Large Eddy Simulation model with an wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) turbulence model and a non-linear higher-order numerical differencing scheme. This provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of the flow field over the static three-dimensional dune morphology at millimeter and hertz scale resolution. The numerically predicted flows were analyzed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. The results show that the superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow regions, in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the points of flow reattachment. Coalescence of vortices generated downstream and can be seen to move to the free surface and form kolk signatures. These structures also correlate in space and time showing a clear flow morphology feedback. The modified flow field
Channel-width dependent pressure-driven flow characteristics of shale gas in nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jie; Yu, Hao; Fan, Jingcun; Wang, Fengchao; Lu, Detang; Liu, He; Wu, Hengan
2017-04-01
Understanding the flow characteristics of shale gas especially in nanopores is extremely important for the exploitation. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the hydrodynamics of methane in nanometre-sized slit pores. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD), the static properties including density distribution and self-diffusion coefficient of the confined methane are firstly analyzed. For a 6 nm slit pore, it is found that methane molecules in the adsorbed layer diffuse more slowly than those in the bulk. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD), the pressure-driven flow behavior of methane in nanopores is investigated. The results show that velocity profiles manifest an obvious dependence on the pore width and they translate from parabolic flow to plug flow when the width is decreased. In relatively large pores (6 - 10 nm), the parabolic flow can be described by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equation with appropriate boundary conditions because of its slip flow characteristic. Based on this equation, corresponding parameters such as viscosity and slip length are determined. Whereas, in small pores (˜ 2 nm), the velocity profile in the center exhibits a uniform tendency (plug flow) and that near the wall displays a linear increase due to the enhanced mechanism of surface diffusion. Furthermore, the profile is analyzed and fitted by a piecewise function. Under this condition, surface diffusion is found to be the root of this anomalous flow characteristic, which can be negligible in large pores. The essential tendency of our simulation results may be significant for revealing flow mechanisms at nanoscale and estimating the production accurately.
Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.
2008-12-01
Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawale, R. T.; Deosarkar, S. D.; Kalyankar, T. M.
2015-07-01
Density ( ρ), viscosity ( η) and refractive index ( n D) of an antiemetic drug metoclopramide (4-amino-5-chloro- N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride) solutions containing amino acids (glycine, D-alanine, L-cystine and L-histidine) were measured in the concentration range 0.01-0.17 mol/dm3 at 303.15 K. The apparent molar volume (φv) of this drug in aqueous amino acid solutions was calculated from the density data and fitted to the Massons relation, and the partial molar volume φ{v/0} of the drug was determined graphically. The partial molar volumes of transfer (Δtrφ{v/0}) of drug at infinite dilution from pure water to aqueous amino acid solutions were calculated and interpreted in terms of different interactions between the drug and amino acids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seddeek, M. A.; Darwish, A. A.; Abdelmeguid, M. S.
2007-03-01
The effect of chemical reaction and variable viscosity on hydromagnetic mixed convection heat and mass transfer for Hiemenz flow through porous media has been studied in the presence of radiation and magnetic field. The plate surface is embedded in a uniform Darcian porous medium in order to allow for possible fluid wall suction or blowing and has a power-law variation of both the wall temperature and concentration. The similarity solution is used to transform the system of partial differential equations, describing the problem under consideration, into a boundary value problem of coupled ordinary differential equations, and an efficient numerical technique is implemented to solve the reduced system. Numerical calculations are carried out, for various values of the dimensionless parameters of the problem, which include a variable viscosity, chemical reactions, radiation, magnetic field, porous medium and power index of the wall temperature parameters. Comparisons with previously published works are performed and excellent agreement between the results is obtained. The results are presented graphically and the conclusion is drawn that the flow field and other quantities of physical interest are significantly influenced by these parameters.
Does optic flow parsing depend on prior estimation of heading?
Warren, Paul A; Rushton, Simon K; Foulkes, Andrew J
2012-10-11
We have recently suggested that neural flow parsing mechanisms act to subtract global optic flow consistent with observer movement to aid in detecting and assessing scene-relative object movement. Here, we examine whether flow parsing can occur independently from heading estimation. To address this question we used stimuli comprising two superimposed optic flow fields comprising limited lifetime dots (one planar and one radial). This stimulus gives rise to the so-called optic flow illusion (OFI) in which perceived heading is biased in the direction of the planar flow field. Observers were asked to report the perceived direction of motion of a probe object placed in the OFI stimulus. If flow parsing depends upon a prior estimate of heading then the perceived trajectory should reflect global subtraction of a field consistent with the heading experienced under the OFI. In Experiment 1 we tested this prediction directly, finding instead that the perceived trajectory was biased markedly in the direction opposite to that predicted under the OFI. In Experiment 2 we demonstrate that the results of Experiment 1 are consistent with a positively weighted vector sum of the effects seen when viewing the probe together with individual radial and planar flow fields. These results suggest that flow parsing is not necessarily dependent on prior estimation of heading direction. We discuss the implications of this finding for our understanding of the mechanisms of flow parsing.
Effective viscosity of magnetic nanofluids through capillaries.
Patel, Rajesh
2012-02-01
The simultaneous effect of magnetic field and temperature on the capillary viscosity of magnetic nanofluid is an important parameter for a new class of applications such as nanoduct flow, nanomotors, micro- and nanofluidic devices, for transformer cooling, magnetic targeted drug delivery, etc. The effective viscosity of a nanofluid is explained based on the rotation of the particles and the effect of torque on it due to an externally applied magnetic field. Two types of fluids are used here, temperature-sensitive and non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids. In both types of fluids, decrease in effective viscosity with temperature is observed, but in both cases the mechanism for the decrement is quite different. One is due to temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and the other is due to removal of the secondary surfactant. For temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids, a Curie temperature of ~80 °C is extracted from this study. For non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids ~65% of the secondary surfactant is removed for a change in temperature, ΔT = 40 °C. This is analogous with removal of a drug from magnetic particles for targeted drug delivery. Further, a linear dependence of effective viscosity with different capillary size and ξ (angle between magnetic field and flow direction, ξε[0,π/2]) is also observed. This linear dependence can also be a good approximation for the study of magnetic drug targeting, as in the human body the capillaries are of different sizes, and the externally applied magnetic field is not always parallel or perpendicular to the drug flow direction.
Effective viscosity of magnetic nanofluids through capillaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Rajesh
2012-02-01
The simultaneous effect of magnetic field and temperature on the capillary viscosity of magnetic nanofluid is an important parameter for a new class of applications such as nanoduct flow, nanomotors, micro- and nanofluidic devices, for transformer cooling, magnetic targeted drug delivery, etc. The effective viscosity of a nanofluid is explained based on the rotation of the particles and the effect of torque on it due to an externally applied magnetic field. Two types of fluids are used here, temperature-sensitive and non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids. In both types of fluids, decrease in effective viscosity with temperature is observed, but in both cases the mechanism for the decrement is quite different. One is due to temperature dependence of the magnetic moment and the other is due to removal of the secondary surfactant. For temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids, a Curie temperature of ˜80 ∘C is extracted from this study. For non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluids ˜65% of the secondary surfactant is removed for a change in temperature, ΔT = 40 ∘C. This is analogous with removal of a drug from magnetic particles for targeted drug delivery. Further, a linear dependence of effective viscosity with different capillary size and ξ (angle between magnetic field and flow direction, ξ∈[0,π/2]) is also observed. This linear dependence can also be a good approximation for the study of magnetic drug targeting, as in the human body the capillaries are of different sizes, and the externally applied magnetic field is not always parallel or perpendicular to the drug flow direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pope, Francis; Athanasiadis, Thanos; Botchway, Stan; Davdison, Nicholas; Fitzgerald, Clare; Gallimore, Peter; Hosny, Neveen; Kalberer, Markus; Kuimova, Marina; Vysniauskas, Aurimas; Ward, Andy
2017-04-01
dependent aerosol viscosity. (1) Hosny, N. A., C. Fitzgerald, A. Vysniauskas, T. Athanasiadis, T. Berkemeier, N. Uygur, U. Pöschl, M. Shiraiwa, M. Kalberer, F.D. Pope and M.K. Kuimova (2016) 'Direct imaging of changes in aerosol particle viscosity upon hydration and chemical aging'. Chemical Science, 17, 32194-32203. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1039/C5SC02959G
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.
Hematocrit dependence of flow signal in optical coherence tomography angiography
Yang, Jianlong; Su, Johnny; Wang, Jie; Men, Silu; Jia, Yali; Huang, David; Liu, Gangjun
2017-01-01
The hematocrit dependence of flow signal (split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography-SSADA decorrelation value) was investigated in this paper. Based on the normalized field temporal correlation function and concentration dependent particle scattering properties, the relationship between hematocrit and flow signal was analytically derived. Experimental verification of the relationship was performed with custom-designed microfluidic chips and human blood with 45%, 40% and 32% hematocrit. It was found that, in large flow channels and blood vessels, the normal hematocrit is near the decorrelation saturation point and therefore a change in hematocrit has little effect on the SSADA decorrelation value (flow signal). However, in narrow channels in the capillary size range, the effective hematocrit (adjusted for the overlap between OCT beam and channel) is in the range of 6.7-9.5% and therefore variation in hematocrit does significantly affect the flow signal. PMID:28270984
An inverse method for non-invasive viscosity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullana, J.-M.; Dispot, N.; Flaud, P.; Rossi, M.
2007-04-01
A procedure is presented which allows to compute in a non-invasive manner, blood viscosity through flow measurements obtained at a fixed vessel cross-section. The data set is made of measurements (artery radius and spatially discrete velocity profiles) performed at given time intervals for which the signal to noise ratio is typical of U.S. Doppler velocimetry in clinical situation. This identification approach is based on the minimization, through a backpropagation algorithm, of a cost function quantifying the distance between numerical data obtained through Navier-Stokes simulations and experimental measurements. Since this cost function implicitly depends on the value of viscosity used in numerical simulations, its minimization determines an effective viscosity which is shown to be robust to measurement errors and sampling time. Such an approach is shown to work in an in vitro experiment, and seems to be suitable for in vivo measurements of viscosity by the atraumatic techniques of Doppler echography.
Grissom, C.B.; Cleland, W.W.
1988-04-19
The role of the metal ion in the oxidative decarboxylation of malate by chicken liver NADP malic enzyme and details of the reaction mechanism have been investigated by /sup 13/C isotope effects. With saturating NADP and the indicated metal ion at a total concentration 10-fold higher than its K/sub m/, the following primary /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effects at C/sub 4/ of malate (/sup 13/(VK/sub mal/)) were observed at pH 8.0: Mg/sup 2 +/, 1.0336; Mn/sup 2 +/, 1.0365; Cd/sup 2 +/, 1.0366; Zn/sup 2 +/, 1.0337; Co/sup 2 +/, 1.0283; Ni/sup 2 +/, 1.025. Knowing the partitioning of the intermediate oxalacetate between decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation. For Mg/sup 2 +/ as activator, this was 1.049 with NADP and 1.046 with 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate, although the intrinsic primary deuterium isotope effects on dehydrogenation were 5.6 and 4.2, and the partition ratios of the oxalacetate intermediate for decarboxylation as opposed to hydride transfer were 0.11 and 3.96. It was not possible to calculate reasonable intrinsic carbon isotope effects with the other metal ions by use of the partitioning ratio of oxalacetate because of decarboxylation by another mechanism. The variation of /sup 13/(VK/sub mal/) with pH was used to dissect the total forward and external components. When the authors attempted to use the variation of /sup 13/(VK/sub mal/) with solution viscosity to determine the internal and external commitments, incorrect values were obtained because of a specific effect of the viscosogen in decreasing the K/sub m/ for malate, so that VK/sub mal/ actually increased with viscosity instead of decreasing, as theory predicts.
System Size and Shape Dependence of the Viscous Damping of Anisotropic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelrahman, Niseem
2017-01-01
We present recent STAR measurements of the anisotropic flow coefficients vn (n = 1 - 6) in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV and U+U collisions at √{sNN} = 193 GeV. For a given system, the differential vn measurements indicate acoustic scaling patterns which reflect the detailed dependence of vn on collision-system size and eccentricity (ɛn). These measurements constrain the viscous coefficient which encodes the specific shear viscosity η / s . Our measurements show that all the collision-systems give the same viscous coefficient after scaling-out the collision-system size and eccentricity. For the STAR Collaboration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2013-05-01
We propose a method for extracting the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio (η/s) of the quark-gluon plasma from experimental data. We argue that uncertainty due to poor knowledge of the earliest stages of a heavy-ion collision is smallest for ultra-central events. The most precise value of η/s can thus be obtained from a global fit to pT-integrated Fourier harmonics of azimuthal correlations. We further outline a method for quantifying the overall uncertainty in the extracted value. Only after a comprehensive and systematic accounting of all sources of uncertainty can a reliable measurement be claimed. In these proceedings we report preliminary results; full and final results will be presented in a separate publication.
Toda, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Hisamoto
2006-12-01
A viscosity equation for concentrated solutions or suspensions is derived as an extension of Einstein's hydrodynamic viscosity theory for dilute dispersions of spherical particles. The derivation of the equation is based on the calculation of dissipation of mechanical energy into heat in the dispersion, subtracting the energy dissipation in the portion of solutes or particles. The viscosity equation derived thus was well fitted to the viscosity-concentration relationship of the concentrated aqueous solutions of glucose and sucrose. For the suspensions of bakers' yeast, the concentration dependency of viscosity was expressed well with some modification for the flow pattern around suspended particles. It is suggested that these viscosity equations can be widely applied to both diluted and concentrated dispersions of various solutes and particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamasaki, Tadashi
2016-04-01
Development of the satellite observations (GPS and/or InSAR) has allowed us to precisely measure surface deformation. However any geodetic observation by itself does not tell us a mechanism of the deformation. All we can do the most is to compare such an observation to some quantitative predictions, only from which we can deduce a possible deformation mechanism. We therefore need to understand characteristic deformation pattern for a given source mechanism. This study particularly pays attention to magmatic activity in depth as the source, aiming to distinguish magma-induced crustal deformation by better knowing how the activity can be reflected in geodetically observable surface deformation. A parallelized 3-D finite element code, OREGANO_VE [e.g., Yamasaki and Houseman, 2015, J. Geodyn., 88, 80-89], is used to solve the linear Maxwell visco-elastic response to an applied internal inflation/deflation of magma chamber. The rectangular finite element model is composed with a visco-elastic layer overlaid by an elastic layer with thickness of H, and the visco-elastic layer extends over the rest of crust and the uppermost mantle. The visco-elastic crust has a depth-dependent viscosity (DDV) as an exponential function of depth due to temperature-dependent viscosity: hc = h0 exp[c(1 - z/L0)], where h0 is the viscosity at the bottom of the crust, c is a constant; c > 0 for DDV model and c = 0 for uniform viscosity (UNV) model, z is the depth, and L0 is a reference length-scale. The visco-elastic mantle has a spatially uniform viscosity hm. The inflation and/or deflation of sill-like magma chamber is implemented by using the split node method developed by Melosh and Raefsky [1981, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 71, 1391-1400]. UNV model with c = 0 employed in this study shows that the inflation-induced surface uplift would abate with time by visco-elastic relaxation. The post-inflation subsidence would erase the uplift in ~ 50 - 100 times Maxwell relaxation time of the crust
Initial Viscosity Controls on Thermal Evolution and Water Cycling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chotalia, K.; Cagney, N.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Brodholt, J. P.
2016-12-01
Parametrised models provide great insight into the thermal and rheological evolution of a cooling planet. They have previously been used to investigate the effects of a water-dependent rheology, a layered convective model and viscous dissipation. However, most models fail to look at the effects of initial conditions, particularly viscosity which is a function of grainsize and water concentration. We present models to investigate the effects of initial viscosity in both parametrised and Cartesian models to highlight the role of viscosity in planetary evolution. The model is based on Crowley et al. (2011), which solves for the conservation of mass and energy across a surface ocean and mantle. Using a variable order numerical differentiation formulae solver, mantle temperature and water concentration of both the mantle and surface ocean are determined. Further investigation will show the dynamics in 2D with a thermal evolution similar to those seen in the parametrised model and comparisons to a thermodynamic depth-dependent code based on mixing length theory. Preliminary results show that initial viscosity controls the dynamics of the convecting system where water does not influence viscosity. When the initial viscosity is high, the system is too stiff to convect and undergoes a period of heating until viscosity is low enough to allow the mantle to cool. A low initial viscosity enables a high surface heat flow and the mantle experiences a period of rapid cooling. These two distinct regimes control the exchange of water between the mantle and surface reservoirs, either catastrophically releasing water during initial cooling or stalling the release of water until convection occurs after initial heating. This ongoing work reveals that the initial viscosity is crucial for understanding the complex feedback between volatiles and planetary evolution.
Viscosity of sodium-borate melts containing mechanically activated REM oxide additions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabov, V. V.; Istomin, S. A.; Khokhryakov, A. A.; Ivanov, A. V.; Paivin, A. S.
2015-08-01
The viscosity of sodium-borate melts containing 1 wt % mechanically activated lanthanide group REM oxide is measured in the temperature range 950-1650 K using an oscillating viscometer. The dependences of the viscosity on temperature and composition are determined. The logarithmic dependences have high- and low-temperature portions with different viscous flow activation energies. It is found that the melt structure changes as a function of composition and temperature.
Shear viscosity of shocked metals at mega-bar pressures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Fu-Sheng
2013-06-01
Viscosity of metals at high pressures and temperatures has been one of the most concerned problems in weapon physics and geophysics, e.g., the shear viscosity coefficients of substances in earth's mantle and earth's core at mega-bar pressures are needed for understanding the core mantle convection in deep earth. But the experimental data is very scarce because the conventional measurement methods can hardly be applied to such compression conditions [1]. In this talk, the principle of small-disturbance perturbation method [2] is re-investigated based on both the analytic solution and the numerical solution of the two-dimentional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on front. In numerical solution, the real viscosity, which governs the flow behind the shock front and the perturbation damping feature, and the artificial viscosity, whick controls the numerical oscillation, separately treated. The relation between the viscosity of flow and the damping features of perturbation amplitude is quantitatively established for the loading situations of Sakharov's [3] and a flyer-impact situation with a finite disturbance. The later is the theoretical basis to develop a new experimental method, called the flyer-impact small-disturbance method [4]. In the flyer-impact small-disturbance method, the two-stage light-gas gun is used to launch a metal flyer. When the flyer directly impacts on the wedge-shaped sample with a sinusoidal surface, a two-dimensional shock flow of sinusoidal distubance on its front is generated. The amplitude of disturbance and its dependance with propagation distance is measured by use of an electric pin-array probe or a fibre-array probe. Correspondingly, the solution of the flow is given by numerically solving the hydrodynamic equations by the finite difference technique to find out the quantative correlations among the amplitude decay, the initial distribution of flow, the amplitude of initial disturbance, the shear viscosity of the flow, and the material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Vinay A.; Schuh, Jonathon K.; Montoto, Elena C.; Pavan Nemani, V.; Qian, Shaoyi; Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Ewoldt, Randy H.; Smith, Kyle C.
2017-09-01
Redox-active small molecules, used traditionally in redox flow batteries (RFBs), are susceptible to crossover and require expensive ion exchange membranes (IEMs) to achieve long lifetimes. Redox-active polymer (RAP) solutions show promise as candidate electrolytes to mitigate crossover through size-exclusion, enabling the use of porous separators instead of IEMs. Here, poly(vinylbenzyl ethyl viologen) is studied as a surrogate RAP for RFBs. For oxidized RAPs, ionic conductivity varies weakly between 1.6 and 2.1 S m-1 for RAP concentrations of 0.13-1.27 mol kg-1 (monomeric repeat unit per kg solvent) and 0.32 mol kg-1 LiBF4 with a minor increase upon reduction. In contrast, viscosity varies between 1.8 and 184.0 mPa s over the same concentration range with weakly shear-thinning rheology independent of oxidation state. Techno-economic analysis is used to quantify reactor cost as a function of electrolyte transport properties for RAP concentrations of 0.13-1.27 mol kg-1, assuming a hypothetical 3V cell and facile kinetics. Among these concentrations, reactor cost is minimized over a current density range of 600-1000 A m-2 with minimum reactor cost between 11-17 per kWh, and pumping pressures below 10 kPa. The predicted low reactor cost of RAP RFBs is enabled by sustained ionic mobility in spite of the high viscosity of concentrated RAP solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmiawan, P.; Saryanto, H.; Sebayang, D.
2017-05-01
The effect of screw rotating speed on cold feed rubber blending production were evaluated. The specimens were prepared by using QSM 200 extruding machine with variable screw rotating speed 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 20 RPM. The temperature set in the screw and head of the barrel was around 80 °C by using Temperature Controll Unit (TCU), and was set around 70°C in zone 1 and 2. Mooney Viscometer was used to evaluate the viscosity and Mooney Scorch Time of cold rubber blending before and after extruding process. In addition, the dynamic rubber process analyzer was used to evaluate the Die Swell of rubber blending after extruding process. The result indicated that the increase of screw rotating speed has a significant effect to increase the flow rate, temperature and the viscosity of the rubber blending. Otherwise, the Mooney Scorch Time (MST) increases due to the decrease of the screw rotating speed. It does not have a significant effect to the die swell of rubber blending.
A DEM contact model for history-dependent powder flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashibon, Adham; Schubert, Raphael; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten
2016-11-01
Die filling is an important part of the powder handling process chain that greatly influences the characteristic structure and properties of the final part. Predictive modelling and simulation of the die-filling process can greatly contribute to the optimization of the part and the whole production procedure, e.g. by predicting the resulting powder compaction structure as a function of filling process parameters. The rheology of powders can be very difficult to model especially if heterogeneous agglomeration or time-dependent consolidation effects occur. We present a new discrete element contact force model that enables modelling complex powder flow characteristics including direct time-dependent consolidation effects and load history-dependent cohesion to describe the filling process of complex, difficult to handle powders. The model is demonstrated for simple flow and an industrial powder flow.
Hydrodynamic Viscosity in Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Strittmatter, Peter A.; Biermann, Peter L.
We propose a generalized accretion disk viscosity prescription based on hydrodynamically driven turbulence at the critical effective Reynolds number. This approach is consistent with recent re-analysis by Richard & Zahn (1999) of experimental results on turbulent Couette-Taylor flows. This new β-viscosity formulation applies to both selfgravitating and non-selfgravitating disks and is shown to yield the standard α-disk prescription in the case of shock dissipation limited, non-selfgravitating disks.
Flow dependence of the PRD in EBR-II
Meneghetti, D.
1994-12-31
The linear (and Doppler) feedback components of the power reactivity decrement (PRD) for various loading configurations of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) have been reported. (The PRD at a power is here the negative of the reactivity required to bring the reactor from zero-power, hot-critical, to that power.) The delineation of the feedback components into power dependent and power-to-flow dependent parts have also been reported. The nonlinear feedback component, primarily due to bowings of the subassembly ducts, is deduced by subtraction of the calculated total linear (and small Doppler) component from the measured values of PRD as a function of reactor power. Furthermore, this component is generally assumed to be a function of the power-to-flow ratio of the reactor for purposes of estimating PRD values at differing flows. If the nonlinear reactivity component is indeed solely power-to-flow dependent, then the values of measured total PRDs for differing flows should lie for the respective power values, corresponding to equivalent power-to-flow values, on a straight line having a negative slope. (This slope would be the power rate of the solely power part of the linear component of the PRD). Evidence that this may not be a reasonable assumption is reported.
Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas
Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-05-15
Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacey, Roy A.; Reynolds, D.; Taranenko, A.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alexander, J. M.; Liu, Fu-Hu; Gu, Yi; Mwai, A.
2016-10-01
It is shown that the acoustic scaling patterns of anisotropic flow for different event shapes at a fixed collision centrality (shape-engineered events), provide robust constraints for the event-by-event fluctuations in the initial-state density distribution from ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The empirical scaling parameters also provide a dual-path method for extracting the specific shear viscosity {(η /s)}{QGP} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in these collisions. A calibration of these scaling parameters via detailed viscous hydrodynamical model calculations, gives {(η /s)}{QGP} estimates for the plasma produced in collisions of Au + Au (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=0.2 {TeV}) and Pb + Pb (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}=2.76 {TeV}). The estimates are insensitive to the initial-state geometry models considered.
Malagutti, Nicolò; Karantonis, Dean M; Cloherty, Shaun L; Ayre, Peter J; Mason, David G; Salamonsen, Robert F; Lovell, Nigel H
2007-01-01
The effect of blood hematocrit (HCT) on a noninvasive flow estimation algorithm was examined in a centrifugal implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP) used for ventricular assistance. An average flow estimator, based on three parameters, input electrical power, pump speed, and HCT, was developed. Data were collected in a mock loop under steady flow conditions for a variety of pump operating points and for various HCT levels. Analysis was performed using three-dimensional polynomial surfaces to fit the collected data for each different HCT level. The polynomial coefficients of the surfaces were then analyzed as a function of HCT. Linear correlations between estimated and measured pump flow over a flow range from 1.0 to 7.5 L/min resulted in a slope of 1.024 L/min (R2=0.9805). Early patient data tested against the estimator have shown promising consistency, suggesting that consideration of HCT can improve the accuracy of existing flow estimation algorithms.
Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela
2010-05-01
Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where
Flow parsing and heading perception show similar dependence on quality and quantity of optic flow.
Foulkes, Andrew J; Rushton, Simon K; Warren, Paul A
2013-01-01
Here we examine the relationship between the perception of heading and flow parsing. In a companion study we have investigated the pattern of dependence of human heading estimation on the quantity (amount of dots per frame) and quality (amount of directional noise) of motion information in an optic flow field. In the present study we investigated whether the flow parsing mechanism, which is thought to aid in the assessment of scene-relative object movement during observer movement, exhibits a similar pattern of dependence on these stimulus manipulations. Finding that the pattern of flow parsing effects was similar to that observed for heading thresholds would provide some evidence that these two complementary roles for optic flow processing are reliant on the same, or similar, neural computation. We found that the pattern of flow parsing effects observed does indeed display a striking similarity to the heading thresholds. As with judgements of heading, there is a critical value of around 25 dots per frame; below this value flow parsing effects rapidly deteriorate and above this value flow parsing effects are stable [see Warren et al. (1988) for similar results for heading]. Also, as with judgements of heading, when there were 50 or more dots there was a systematic effect of noise on the magnitude of the flow parsing effect. These results are discussed in the context of different possible schemes of flow processing to support both heading and flow parsing mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandasamy, R.; Muhaimin, I.; Bin Saim, Hashim
2010-12-01
A group analysis has been carried out to study heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible Newtonian fluid having a temperature-dependent viscosity over a vertical stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The vertical surface is assumed to be permeable so as to allow for possible wall suction or injection. The governing differential equations are derived and transformed using the Lie group analysis. The transformed equations are solved numerically by applying the Runge—Kutta—Gill scheme with the shooting technique. Favorable comparisons with previously published works on various special cases of the problem are obtained
Mechanical History Dependence in Carbon Black Suspensions for Flow Batteries: A Rheo-Impedance Study
2017-01-01
We studied the effects of shear and its history on suspensions of carbon black (CB) in lithium ion battery electrolyte via simultaneous rheometry and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Ketjen black (KB) suspensions showed shear thinning and rheopexy and exhibited a yield stress. Shear step experiments revealed a two time scale response. The immediate effect of decreasing the shear rate is an increase in both viscosity and electronic conductivity. In a much slower secondary response, both quantities change in the opposite direction, leading to a reversal of the initial change in the conductivity. Stepwise increases in the shear rate lead to similar responses in the opposite direction. This remarkable behavior is consistent with a picture in which agglomerating KB particles can stick directly on contact, forming open structures, and then slowly interpenetrate and densify. The fact that spherical CB particles show the opposite slow response suggests that the fractal structure of the KB primary units plays an important role. A theoretical scheme was used to analyze the shear and time-dependent viscosity and conductivity. Describing the agglomerates as effective hard spheres with a fractal architecture and using an effective medium approximation for the conductivity, we found the changes in the derived suspension structure to be in agreement with our qualitative mechanistic picture. This behavior of KB in flow has consequences for the properties of the gel network that is formed immediately after the cessation of shear: both the yield stress and the electronic conductivity increase with the previously applied shear rate. Our findings thus have clear implications for the operation and filling strategies of semisolid flow batteries. PMID:28122184
Flow dependent performance of microfluidic microbial fuel cells.
Vigolo, Daniele; Al-Housseiny, Talal T; Shen, Yi; Akinlawon, Fiyinfoluwa O; Al-Housseiny, Saif T; Hobson, Ronald K; Sahu, Amaresh; Bedkowski, Katherine I; DiChristina, Thomas J; Stone, Howard A
2014-06-28
The integration of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) in a microfluidic geometry can significantly enhance the power density of these cells, which would have more active bacteria per unit volume. Moreover, microfluidic MFCs can be operated in a continuous mode as opposed to the traditional batch-fed mode. Here we investigate the effect of fluid flow on the performance of microfluidic MFCs. The growth and the structure of the bacterial biofilm depend to a large extent on the shear stress of the flow. We report the existence of a range of flow rates for which MFCs can achieve maximum voltage output. When operated under these optimal conditions, the power density of our microfluidic MFC is about 15 times that of a similar-size batch MFC. Furthermore, this optimum suggests a correlation between the behaviour of bacteria and fluid flow.
Endothelial-dependent vasodilators preferentially increase subendocardial blood flow
Pelc, L.R.; Gross, G.J.; Warltier, D.C.
1986-03-05
Interference with arachidonic acid metabolism on the effect of acetylcholine (Ach) or arachidonic acid (AA) to preferentially increase subendocardial perfusion was investigated in anesthetized dogs. Hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow (MBF (ml/min/g):radioactive microspheres) and the left ventricular transmural distribution of flow (endo/epi) were measured. Intracoronary infusion of Ach (10 ..mu..g/min) and AA (585 ..mu..g/min) significantly (P < .05*) increased myocardial perfusion and selectively redistributed flow to the subendocardium (increased endo/epi) without changes in systemic hemodynamics. Inhibition of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by quinacrine (Q; 600 ..mu..g/min, ic) attenuated the increase in myocardial perfusion produced by Ach but not by AA and inhibited the redistribution of flow to the subendocardium. The present results suggest that endothelium-dependent vasodilators produce a preferential increase in subendocardial perfusion via a product of AA metabolism.
Dependence of advection-diffusion-reaction on flow coherent structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Wenbo; Luna, Christopher
2013-10-01
A study on an advection-diffusion-reaction system is presented. Variability of the reaction process in such a system triggered by a highly localized source is quantified. It is found, for geophysically motivated parameter regimes, that the difference in bulk concentration subject to realizations of different source locations is highly correlated with the local flow topology of the source. Such flow topologies can be highlighted by Lagrangian coherent structures. Reaction is relatively enhanced in regions of strong stretching, and relatively suppressed in regions where vortices are present. In any case, the presence of a divergence-free background flow helps speed up the reaction process, especially when the flow is time-dependent. Probability density of various quantities characterizing the reaction processes is also obtained. This reveals the inherent complexity of the reaction-diffusion process subject to nonlinear background stirring.
Birefringence of Polymer Solutions in Time-Dependent Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geffroy-Aguilar, Enrique
1990-01-01
This is a study of changes of conformation of macromolecules in polymeric solutions which are subjected to time-dependent extensional flows generated by a two -roll mill flow device. The flows produced by the two-roll mill are linear, and two-dimensional. It has a stagnation point at the center of the flow field where the magnitudes of the strain-rates are greater than the vorticity. This study of conformational changes is based on data around the vicinity of the stagnation point, I for steady state flows, and several transient flow histories such as start -up, cessation, and double-step flows. We also present an analytical solution for the creeping flow generated by an infinitely long two-roll mill embedded in an unbounded fluid. This solution is used as a benchmark to compare the behavior of the polymer solutions when subjected to flows with different values for the ratio of rate-of-strain to vorticity. The conformational changes are determined experimentally using the Two-color Flow-Birefringence which provides an instantaneous and point-wise measure of the anisotropy of the fluid, together with the relative orientation of the anisotropy with respect to the principal axes of the flow field. Based on relaxation of the fluid anisotropy the characteristic time-scales of the polymer have been evaluated as a function of the flow field properties and the degree of conformational change of the macromolecules. Data for two polymeric solutions is presented. The first polymer system is the so-called test-fluid M1. This polymeric solution is shown to degrade significantly, even for small values of the velocity gradient, as measured by the changes in the macroscopic relaxation time-scales. The second solution is a concentrated polystyrene solution that presents overshoots and undershoots of the polymer conformation dependent of the ratio of vorticity to rate-of-strain. When subjected to large deformations, this polystyrene solution shows not only the possibility of a
Bulk and shear viscosities of matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Bozek, Piotr
2010-03-15
We study the effects of shear and bulk viscosities in the hadronic phase on the expansion of the fireball and on particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Comparing simulation with versus without viscosity in hadronic matter, we find that elliptic flow observables are strongly dependent on dissipative effects in the late stage. On the contrary, interferometry radii are sensitive, through early transverse flow, to the viscosity value at high temperatures. We present first calculations including the effects of bulk viscosity on the hadronic phase and on hadron emission. We find them to be important in obtaining a low freeze-out temperature consistent with the measured transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of identified particles.
Accounting for flow dependence of respiratory resistance during exercise.
de Bisschop, Claire; Pichon, Aurélien; Guénard, Hervé; Denjean, André
2003-06-12
Studies of airway function during exercise have produced conflicting results both in healthy and diseased subjects. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured using an impulse oscillation technique. A flow/resistance curve was established for each of 16 healthy males during voluntary hyperventilation (VHV) at rest. Then, Rrs and flow were measured immediately (t(0)) and 90 sec (t(90)) after exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60, 70, and 80% of maximal aerobic power. The flow/resistance relationship at rest during VHV was used to assess the flow dependence of Rrs. Rrs at t(0) was higher than at rest (P <0.01) but lower than Rrs obtained at matched flow during VHV (P <0.05). In healthy subjects, the linear increase in Rrs with VHV indicates airflow dependency of Rrs following Rohrer's equation. The relative decrease in Rrs with exercise suggests bronchodilation. The bronchodilating effect disappeared promptly when exercise was stopped suggesting that it may have been related to a reflex mechanism.
Vigorous Mantle Convection with a Very High Mid-mantle Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, G. T.
2015-12-01
Two dimensional numerical models of mantle convection in a cylindrical shell are employed to investigate the impact of the very high viscosities in the lower mantle as proposed by Mitrovica and Forte (2004) and Steinberger and Calderwood (2006). Models are considered with and without mineral phase transitions. Our viscosity profiles are depth dependent with deep mantle viscosities increasing to values of 300 times the viscosity of the upper mantle and then decreasing dramatically on approaching the core-mantle boundary. Although phase transitions produce small secondary effects on the flow structure the main effect is that of the viscosity decrease near the core mantle boundary. Models with a high viscosity structure extending down to the core-mantle boundary are very sluggish with large aspect ratios, whereas models with a low viscosity just above the core mantle boundary overturn rapidly with aspect ratios close to unity. The latter models resemble uniformly low viscosity models despite the high viscosity region at mid-depths of the lower mantle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwack, JaeHyuk; Masud, Arif
2014-04-01
This paper presents a stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent fluids. The nonlinear viscosity field is a function of the shear-rate and varies uniformly in space and in time. The stabilized form is developed via application of Variational Multiscale (VMS) framework to the underlying generalized Navier-Stokes equation. Linear and quadratic tetrahedral and hexahedral elements are employed with equal-order interpolations for the velocity and pressure fields. A variety of benchmark problems are solved to assess the stability and accuracy properties of the resulting method. The method is then applied to non-Newtonian shear-rate dependent flows in bifurcating artery geometry, and significant non-Newtonian fluid effects are observed. A comparative study of the proposed method shows that the additional computational costs due to the nonlinear shear-rate dependent viscosity are only ten percent more than the computational cost for a Newtonian model.
Role of salt sources in density-dependent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hidalgo, Juan J.; Carrera, Jesús; Medina, AgustíN.
2009-05-01
Flow equation expresses mass conservation for a fluid phase. In density-dependent problems, fluid consists of at least two components, termed salt and water here. Salt sources are usually properly accounted for when salt is dissolved in water (i.e., as a solute) but are neglected otherwise. An analysis of the effect of neglecting pure salt sources on flow regime and concentration distribution is performed. Two test cases are used to illustrate the issue. The first one is the saltwater bucket problem, which consists of adding salt to an otherwise isolated domain. The second one is the Elder problem. Discrepancies in concentrations are moderate for reasonably small salt mass fractions. However, currently available codes yield head drops in response to the addition of salt because fluid mass is kept constant while its density increases. Such results contradict basic physical principles and lead to an inversion in the flow direction.
Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies
Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru
2016-04-19
We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.
Shahzadi, Iqra; Sadaf, Hina; Nadeem, Sohail; Saleem, Anber
2017-02-01
The main objective of this paper is to study the Bio-mathematical analysis for the peristaltic flow of single wall carbon nanotubes under the impact of variable viscosity and wall properties. The right and the left walls of the curved channel possess sinusoidal wave that is travelling along the outer boundary. The features of the peristaltic motion are determined by using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. Exact solutions are determined for the axial velocity and for the temperature profile. Graphical results have been presented for velocity profile, temperature and stream function for various physical parameters of interest. Symmetry of the curved channel is disturbed for smaller values of the curvature parameter. It is found that the altitude of the velocity profile increases for larger values of variable viscosity parameter for both the cases (pure blood as well as single wall carbon nanotubes). It is detected that velocity profile increases with increasing values of rigidity parameter. It is due to the fact that an increase in rigidity parameter decreases tension in the walls of the blood vessels which speeds up the blood flow for pure blood as well as single wall carbon nanotubes. Increase in Grashof number decreases the fluid velocity. This is due to the reason that viscous forces play a prominent role that's why increase in Grashof number decreases the velocity profile. It is also found that temperature drops for increasing values of nanoparticle volume fraction. Basically, higher thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles plays a key role for quick heat dissipation, and this justifies the use of the single wall carbon nanotubes in different situations as a coolant. Exact solutions are calculated for the temperature and the velocity profile. Symmetry of the curved channel is destroyed due to the curvedness for velocity, temperature and contour plots. Addition of single wall carbon nanotubes shows a decrease in fluid temperature. Trapping
Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman
2017-05-01
Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.
Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.
2016-05-01
This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decaix, J.; Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.
2015-12-01
1D hydro-electric models are useful to predict dynamic behaviour of hydro-power plants. Regarding vortex rope and cavitation surge in Francis turbines, the 1D models require some inputs that can be provided by numerical simulations. In this paper, a 2D cavitating Venturi is considered. URANS computations are performed to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the cavitation sheet depending on the frequency variation of the outlet pressure. The results are used to calibrate and to assess the reliability of the 1D models.
Zhou, Yang; Li, Yixue; Qian, Wen; He, Bi
2016-09-01
Based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods and experimental data, we used an empirical relationship between the DPD temperature and the real temperature to build a model that describes the viscosity of molten TNT fluids. The errors in the predicted viscosity based on this model were no more than 2.3 %. We also studied the steady-state shear rheological behavior of molten TNT fluids containing nanoparticles ("nanofluids"). The dependence of the nanofluid viscosity on the temperature was found to satisfy an Arrhenius-type equation, η = Ae (B/T) , where B, the flow activation energy, depends on particle content, size, and shape. We modified the Einstein-type viscosity model to account for the effects of nanoparticle solvation in TNT nanofluids. The resulting model was able to correctly predict the viscosities of suspensions containing nano- to microsized particles, and did not require any changes to the physical background of Einstein's viscosity theory. Graphical Abstract The revised Einstein viscosity model that correctly predict the viscosity of TNT suspensions containing nanoparticles.
Impact of the Fibre Bed on Resin Viscosity in Liquid Composite Moulding Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gascons, Marc; Blanco, Norbert; Simacek, Pavel; Peiro, Joaquim; Advani, Suresh; Matthys, Koen
2012-06-01
In the past, simulation of liquid composite moulding processes was often based on the assumption that resin viscosity could be implemented as a constant value. However, viscosity can be subject to changes during the infusion process and now, non-constant and process parameter dependent expressions have become more common in simulation practice. Nevertheless, even with the inclusion of more advanced resin viscosity models, the prediction of flow front propagation in large, thick composite parts or in slow infusion processes is often still inaccurate when compared to the real application. Discrepancies are found to be most pronounced in the final stages of the infusion process, exactly where high accuracy predictions are most valued. A new simulation method based on an infusion time-dependent resin viscosity expression is proposed in this work. The method not only incorporates non-linear viscosity behaviour, but also takes into account the impact of reinforcement fibre sizing and fibre bed architecture on resin viscosity characteristics. Such fibre bed effects are not identifiable in neat resin viscosity characterization tests but are thought to have substantial impact on in-situ viscosity values during infusion, especially for large, thick composite part applications and slow infusion processes. An application case study has been included to demonstrate the prediction capability of the proposed simulation method. The design of an infusion process for a composite pressure vessel was selected for this purpose. Results show high predictive power throughout the infusion process, with most pronounced benefit in the final infusion stages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estrada, Nick Dagoberto
The focus of this study is to validate studies on enzymatic degradation focusing on bulk no, flow conditions in lipase solutions. Enzymes in solution as well as immobilized on resin beads were used, in varying concentration, in order to characterize the degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL. PCL a material which, has a resorption lifetime of 3 years, had weight loss upwards of 60% weight while most samples in solution experienced 30% after just 10 days. It was found that enzymatic degradation is largely a surface limited reaction with the shape of a material playing little role but the volume to surface area playing an important role in the overall weight loss. Samples submerged in a mixture of immobilized lipase resin beads saw only 8% weight loss in a comparable time frame. An additional test of PCL with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) resin embedded within the film had the largest standard deviation in the weight loss percentage and was the only sample in which the control sample had significant weight loss. Weight loss measurements proved to be the most effective method of tracking the extent of degradation in PCL films. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Raman Spectroscopy proved to be inefficient in tracking or characterizing hydrolysis reaction in PCL. There was no significant sign of peak splitting, new peak formation, or peak shift in any Raman Spectra which was attributed to the solubility of the cleaved polymer chains. The melting temperature remained constant at 59C since the bulk of the material did not undergo hydrolysis or transterification reactions. The degradation of PCL is supported by the significant weight loss recorded through various experiments however the exact mechanism was not identified by Raman Spectroscopy. Bioresorbable materials remain an important facet in medical research and the success of synthesizing enzymatically degradable polymers represents a new research opportunity for tissue and scaffold
Concentration Dependence of VO2+ Crossover of Nafion for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Zawodzinski, Thomas A
2013-01-01
The VO2+ crossover, or permeability, through Nafion in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was monitored as a function of sulfuric acid concentration and VO2+ concentration. A vanadium rich solution was flowed on one side of the membrane through a flow field while symmetrically on the other side a blank or vanadium deficit solution was flowed. The blank solution was flowed through an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) cavity and the VO2+ concentration was determined from the intensity of the EPR signal. Concentration values were fit using a solution of Fick s law that allows for the effect of concentration change on the vanadium rich side. The fits resulted in permeability values of VO2+ ions across the membrane. Viscosity measurements of many VO2+ and H2SO4 solutions were made at 30 60 C. These viscosity values were then used to determine the effect of the viscosity of the flowing solution on the permeability of the ion. 2013 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.004306jes] All rights reserved.
Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A; Clarke, Michael T; Mann, Kenneth A; Higham, Paul A
2006-08-01
Limited data exist on the performance of low-viscosity cement in clinically realistic cadaver models. Paired stem/cement/femur constructs were generated with low-viscosity and standard-viscosity cements. The constructs were created and tested under simulated in vivo conditions, for which novel techniques were developed during this study. Mantle function was quantified by stem/cortex micromotions over 105cycles of "stair-climbing". Mantle morphology was determined from transverse sections. Penetration of low-viscosity cement was greater proximally but less distally (p = 0.02). Low-viscosity cement resulted in more stem retroversion (p = 0.04), but there was no difference in subsidence (p = 0.4). Low-viscosity cement mantles had greater fractions of non-apposed interface (p = 0.006). Fraction of non-apposed interface predicted stem retroversion (R2 = 0.64, p = 0.002). Low-viscosity cement resulted in inferior cement mantles. Early micromotion was reduced by better interface apposition. The greater stem retroversion of low-viscosity cement would probably lead to higher revision rates. Early stem migration is due to interface non-apposition. Techniques should be developed to reduce non-apposition of cemented interfaces.
Study of viscosity of mono-, di-, and trialkylamines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oswal, S. L.; Sindhe, R. G.; Patel, A. T.; Dave, J. P.; Patel, S. G.; Patel, B. M.
1992-07-01
Viscosities of several mono-, di-, and trialkylamines have been measured in the temperature range 298 to 333 K. It is observed that viscosities are highly dependent on shape, size, and association through H-bond or through dipole. Following the transition state theory, energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated. The values of expansion energy for these liquids have also been calculated using free volume theory, and subsequently amines have been classified as volume-restrained or energy-restrained liquids. The group contribution method of Van Velzen, Cardozo, and Langenkamp for estimating viscosity has been examined with the present and literature data, and the new group contribution increments ΔN i and ΔB i for amines have been evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.
2001-12-01
The surfaces of basaltic lava channels evolve in both space and time from crust-free to crust-dominated. The presence or absence of stable lava crusts, in turn, dictates the rate of heat loss from the lava core and controls the mechanisms of lava flow advance. For this reason, we extended experimental studies of the cooling and solidification of channel flows to investigate unsteady behavior observed near the transition from `open channel' flow to `tube' flow in both uniform and irregular channels. The experiments used polyethylene glycol wax flowing at moderate Reynolds numbers under cold water down a 3m-long, sloping, rectangular channel. For a straight uniform channel, flows at conditions of 0.4 < U0ts/W < 1 initially developed a strong crust that spanned the entire width of the channel but continued to move downstream. With time, the crust backed up from the downstream end of the channel, and was repeatedly over-run by newly crusted flow from upstream. Hence the flow became progressively deeper in the distal regions, and the effects of the downstream end of the channel (a free fall into a reservoir) propagated towards the source. The result was a complex flow that evolved toward fully developed `tube' flow under a stationary, insulating roof. Up-flow propagation of lava tubes is observed at Mt. Etna, Italy (Calvari and Pinkerton, 1998) and Kilauea, Hawaii (Peterson et al., 1994) when slopes flatten and flows widen, or at channel bends and constrictions. We explored several configurations of channel geometry to examine their effect on time-dependent flow behavior. When a flow encountered an 80% expansion in channel width (at 1.2m from the source), the flow speed decreased at the expansion. This promoted the formation of rigid crust and shifted the onset of tube flow to larger values of U0ts/W. When the flow encountered a decrease in channel width (at 0.6m from the source), acceleration of the flow caused disruption of the surface crust inside the constriction
Botha, Sabine; Nass, Karol; Barends, Thomas R M; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Latz, Beatrice; Dworkowski, Florian; Foucar, Lutz; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Wang, Meitian; Shoeman, Robert L; Schlichting, Ilme; Doak, R Bruce
2015-02-01
Recent advances in synchrotron sources, beamline optics and detectors are driving a renaissance in room-temperature data collection. The underlying impetus is the recognition that conformational differences are observed in functionally important regions of structures determined using crystals kept at ambient as opposed to cryogenic temperature during data collection. In addition, room-temperature measurements enable time-resolved studies and eliminate the need to find suitable cryoprotectants. Since radiation damage limits the high-resolution data that can be obtained from a single crystal, especially at room temperature, data are typically collected in a serial fashion using a number of crystals to spread the total dose over the entire ensemble. Several approaches have been developed over the years to efficiently exchange crystals for room-temperature data collection. These include in situ collection in trays, chips and capillary mounts. Here, the use of a slowly flowing microscopic stream for crystal delivery is demonstrated, resulting in extremely high-throughput delivery of crystals into the X-ray beam. This free-stream technology, which was originally developed for serial femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers, is here adapted to serial crystallography at synchrotrons. By embedding the crystals in a high-viscosity carrier stream, high-resolution room-temperature studies can be conducted at atmospheric pressure using the unattenuated X-ray beam, thus permitting the analysis of small or weakly scattering crystals. The high-viscosity extrusion injector is described, as is its use to collect high-resolution serial data from native and heavy-atom-derivatized lysozyme crystals at the Swiss Light Source using less than half a milligram of protein crystals. The room-temperature serial data allow de novo structure determination. The crystal size used in this proof-of-principle experiment was dictated by the available flux density. However, upcoming
Viscosity test standards for engine oils
Not Available
1990-01-01
This report presents a compilation of 10 ASTM standards that cover both low and high temperature viscosity tests for automotive engine oils, with respect to low temperature flow properties and performance requirements under high temperature, high shear rate conditions. Society of Automotive Engineer's Engine Oil Viscosity Classification SAE J300 is included to provide low temperature high shear rate method.
Surface dilatational viscosity of Langmuir monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Juan; Vogel, Michael; Hirsa, Amir
2003-11-01
With increased interest in microfluidic systems, interfacial phenomena is receiving more attention. As the length scales of fluid problems decrease, the surface to volume ratio increases and the coupling between interfacial flow and bulk flow becomes increasingly dominated by effects due to intrinsic surface viscosities (shear and dilatational), in comparison to elastic effects (due to surface tension gradients). The surface shear viscosity is well-characterized, as cm-scale laboratory experiments are able to isolate its effects from other interfacial processes (e.g., in the deep-channel viscometer). The same is not true for the dilatational viscosity, because it acts in the direction of surface tension gradients. Their relative strength scale with the capillary number, and for cm-scale laboratory flows, surface tension effects tend to dominate. In microfluidic scale flows, the scaling favors viscosity. We have devised an experimental apparatus which is capable of isolating and enhancing the effects of dilatational viscosity at the cm scales by driving the interface harmonically in time, while keeping the interface flat. In this talk, we shall present both the theory for how this works as well as experimental measurements of surface velocity from which we deduce the dilatational viscosity of several monolayers on the air-water interface over a substantial range of surface concentrations. Anomalous behavior over some range of concentration, which superficially indicates negative viscosity, maybe explained in terms of compositional effects due to large spatial and temporal variations in concentration and corresponding viscosity.
Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.
1979-01-01
A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.
HIV and chronic methamphetamine dependence affect cerebral blood flow.
Ances, Beau M; Vaida, Florin; Cherner, Mariana; Yeh, Melinda J; Liang, Christine L; Gardner, Carly; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Buxton, Richard B
2011-09-01
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine (METH) dependence are independently associated with neuronal dysfunction. The coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity is the basis of many task-based functional neuroimaging techniques. We examined the interaction between HIV infection and a previous history of METH dependence on CBF within the lenticular nuclei (LN). Twenty-four HIV-/METH-, eight HIV-/METH+, 24 HIV+/METH-, and 15 HIV+/METH+ participants performed a finger tapping paradigm. A multiple regression analysis of covariance assessed associations and two-way interactions between CBF and HIV serostatus and/or previous history of METH dependence. HIV+ individuals had a trend towards a lower baseline CBF (-10%, p = 0.07) and greater CBF changes for the functional task (+32%, p = 0.01) than HIV- subjects. Individuals with a previous history of METH dependence had a lower baseline CBF (-16%, p = 0.007) and greater CBF changes for a functional task (+33%, p = 0.02). However, no interaction existed between HIV serostatus and previous history of METH dependence for either baseline CBF (p = 0.53) or CBF changes for a functional task (p = 0.10). In addition, CBF and volume in the LN were not correlated. A possible additive relationship could exist between HIV infection and a history of METH dependence on CBF with a previous history of METH dependence having a larger contribution. Abnormalities in CBF could serve as a surrogate measure for assessing the chronic effects of HIV and previous METH dependence on brain function.
Role of artificial viscosity in Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Bliss, Donald B.
1991-01-01
A method is proposed to determine directly the amount of artificial viscosity needed for stability using an eigenvalue analysis for a finite difference representation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The stability and growth of small perturbations about a steady flow over airfoils are analyzed for various amounts of artificial viscosity. The eigenvalues were determined for a small time-dependent perturbation about a steady inviscid flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.8 and angle of attack of 0 deg. The method has been applied to inviscid flows here, but as discussed is also applicable to viscous flows. The movement of the eigenvalue constellation with respect to the amount of artificial viscosity is studied. The stability boundaries as a function of the amount of artificial viscosity from both the eigenvalue analysis and the time-marching scheme are also presented. The eigenvalue procedure not only allows for determining the effect of varying amounts of artificial viscosity, but also for the effects of different forms of artificial viscosity.
Viscosity of liquid undercooled tungsten
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paradis, Paul-François; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Yoda, Shinichi
2005-05-01
Knowledge of the viscosity and its temperature dependence is essential to improve metallurgical processes as well as to validate theoretical and empirical models of liquid metals. However, data for metals with melting points above 2504K could not be determined yet due to contamination and containment problems. Here we report the viscosity of tungsten, the highest melting point metal (3695K), measured by a levitation technique. Over the 3350-3700-K temperature range, which includes the undercooled region by 345K, the viscosity data could be fitted as η(T )=0.108exp[1.28×105/(RT)](mPas). At the melting point, the datum agrees with the proposed theoretical and empirical models of liquid metals but presents atypical temperature dependence, suggesting a basic change in the mechanism of momentum transfer.
Tracking the permeable porous network during strain-dependent magmatic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hess, K.-U.; Heap, M. J.; Gaunt, H. E.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.
2013-06-01
Rheological variations have been postulated as the cause of transitions from effusive to explosive volcanic eruption style. Rheology is integrally linked to the composition and textural state (porosity, crystallinity) of magma as well as the stress, temperature and strain rate operative during flow. This study characterises the rheological behaviour and, importantly, the evolution of physical properties of two magmas (with different crystallinity and porosity) from Volcán de Colima (Mexico) - a volcanic system known for its rapid fluctuations in eruption style. Magma samples deformed in a uniaxial press at a constant stress of 2.8, 12 or 24 MPa, a constant temperature of 940-945 °C (comparable to upper conduit or lava dome conditions) to strains of 20 or 30% displayed different mechanical behaviour and significant differences in measured strain rates (10- 2-10- 5 s- 1). The evolution of porosity, permeability, dynamic Young's modulus and dynamic Poisson's ratio illustrate a complex evolution of the samples manifested as strain-hardening, visco-elastic, constant-rate and strain-weakening deformation. Both magmas behave as shear-thinning non-Newtonian liquids and viscosity decreases as a function of strain. We find that strain localisation during deformation leads to the rearrangement and closure of void space (a combination of pores and cracks) followed by preferentially aligned fracturing (in the direction of the maximum principal stress) to form damage zones as well as densification of other areas. In a dome setting, highly viscous, low permeability magmas carry the potential to block volcanic conduits with a magma plug, resulting in the build-up of pressures in the conduit. Above a certain threshold of strain (dependent upon stress/strain rate), the initiation, propagation and coalescence of fractures leads to mechanical degradation of the magma samples, which then supersedes magmatic flow and crystal rearrangement as the dominant form of deformation. This
Intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of natural and substituted guar gums in seawater.
Wang, Shibin; He, Le; Guo, Jianchun; Zhao, Jinzhou; Tang, Hongbiao
2015-05-01
The intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of guar gum (GG), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) and carboxymethyl guar (CMG) in seawater and the effects of shear rate, concentration, temperature and pH on these properties were investigated. An intrinsic viscosity-increasing effect was observed with GG and HPG in seawater (SW) compared to deionized water (DW), whereas the intrinsic viscosity of CMG in seawater was much lower than that in DW due to a screening effect that reduced the repulsion between the polymer chains. Regardless of the functional groups, all sample solutions was well characterized by a modified Cross model that exhibited the transition from Newtonian to pseudoplastic in the low shear rate range at the concentrations of interest to industries, and their viscosity increased with the increase in their concentration but decreased with the increase in temperature. In contrast to nonionic GG or HPG, anionic CMG had a slightly decreased viscosity property in SW, exhibiting polyelectrolyte viscosity behavior. The α value in the zero-shear rate viscosity vs. concentration power-law equation for the samples gave the order of CMG>HPG>GG while the SW solution of CMG had the lowest viscous flow activation energy and exhibited a strong pH-dependent viscosity by a different shear rate.
Charge-dependent anisotropic flow in Cu + Au collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niida, Takafumi
2016-12-01
We present the first measurements of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. The directed flow has been measured as functions of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity with the STAR detector. The results show a small but finite difference between positively and negatively charged particles. The difference is qualitatively explained by the patron-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) model including the effect of the electric field, but much smaller than the model calculation, which indicates only a small fraction of all final state quarks are created within the lifetime of the initial electric field. Higher-order azimuthal anisotropic flow is also presented up to the fourth-order for unidentified charged particles and up to the third-order for identified charged particles (π, K, and p). For unidentified particles, the results are reasonably described by the event-by-event viscous hydrodynamic model with η / s = 0.08 - 0.16. The trends observed for identified particles in Cu+Au collisions are similar to those observed in symmetric (Au+Au) collisions.
Constructing minimum-cost flow-dependent networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Doreen A.; Weng, Jia F.
2002-09-01
In the construction of a communication network, the length of the network is an important but not unique factor determining the cost of the network. Among many possible network models, Gilbert proposed a flow-dependent model in which flow demands are assigned between each pair of points in a given point set A, and the cost per unit length of a link in the network is a function of the flow through the link. In this paper we first investigate the properties of this Gilbert model: the concavity of the cost function, decomposition, local minimality, the number of Steiner points and the maximum degree of Steiner points. Then we propose three heuristics for constructing minimum cost Gilbert networks. Two of them come from the fact that generally a minimum cost Gilbert network stands between two extremes: the complete network G(A) on A and the edge-weighted Steiner minimal tree W(A) on A. The first heuristic starts with G(A) and reduces the cost by splitting angles; the second one starts with both G(A) and W(A), and reduces the cost by selecting low cost paths. As a generalisation of the second heuristic, the third heuristic constructs a new Gilbert network of less cost by hybridising known Gilbert networks. Finally we discuss some considerations in practical applications.
Redox Viscosity of Iron Rich Silicate Melts - Martian Mantle Analogues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dingwell, D. B.
2004-12-01
The dependence of shear viscosity on the oxidation state of ferrosilicate melts has been measured using the concentric cylinder method and a gas mixing furnace. Two different simple Fe-bearing systems have been studied to date: (i) anorthite-diopside eutectic composition (AnDi) with variable amount of Fe (up to 20 wt%) as a basalt analogue and (ii) sodium disilicate (NS2 up to 30 wt % Fe). In addition, the compositional range has been extended to include the more complex SNC meteorite composition, a composition more relevant to Mars. The measurements were performed under air, CO2 and CO2-CO mixture at 1 atm and in a temperature range of 1300 to 1350 \\ºC. The experimental procedure involve a continuous measurement of viscosity during stepwise reduction state. The melt was reduced by flowing CO2 and then successively reducing mixtures of CO2-CO through the alumina muffle tube. Gas flow rates were electronically controlled using Tylan mass flow controllers and oxygen fugacity was directly measured using a sensor and calculated with Nernst equation. The composition and oxidation state of the melt was monitored by obtaining a melt sample after each redox equilibrium step. The melts were sampled by dipping an alumina rod into the sample and drawing out a drop of liquid, which was then plunged into water for quenching. The resulting glasses were analyzed by electron microprobe, and the volumetric potassium dichromate titration were employed to determine FeO. In addition, the redox dependence of viscosity of our samples have been compared with data from literature (Mysen et al. 1985, Dingwell and Virgo, 1988; Dingwell 1989, Dingwell 1991). The viscosity of all melts investigated herein decreases with melt reduction. The viscosity decrease is, in general, a nonlinear function of oxidation state expressed as Fe2+/Fetot and can be fitted using logarithmic equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cline, M. C.
1981-01-01
A computer program, VNAP2, for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow is presented. It solves the two dimensional, time dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing length model, a one equation model, or the Jones-Launder two equation model. The geometry may be a single or a dual flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.
Cline, M.C.
1981-08-01
VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.
Anomalous - viscosity current drive
Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki
1988-01-01
An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.
Viscosity measurements on clear liquids
Walker, D.D.
1993-02-09
During the ITP cold chemical testing program, the efficiency of the benzene strippers will be measured and evaluated. Since the stripping efficiency is partially dependent upon the dynamic viscosity of the liquid phase, this property must be measured on samples taken during the test program. A procedure to measure the dynamic viscosity of salt solutions was developed from standard American Society of Testing and materials (ASTM) methods. The SRS procedure differs from the ASTM procedure and, therefore, a test program was initiated to determine its accuracy and precision. The results of these statistically designed tests are reported elsewhere, but supporting information on the experimental procedures, standards, and equipment are given in this report.
Predicting human blood viscosity in silico
Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Pan, Wenxiao; Caswell, Bruce; Gompper, Gerhard; Karniadakis, George E.
2011-07-05
Cellular suspensions such as blood are a part of living organisms and their rheological and flow characteristics determine and affect majority of vital functions. The rheological and flow properties of cell suspensions are determined by collective dynamics of cells, their structure or arrangement, cell properties and interactions. We study these relations for blood in silico using a mesoscopic particle-based method and two different models (multi-scale/low-dimensional) of red blood cells. The models yield accurate quantitative predictions of the dependence of blood viscosity on shear rate and hematocrit. We explicitly model cell aggregation interactions and demonstrate the formation of reversible rouleaux structures resulting in a tremendous increase of blood viscosity at low shear rates and yield stress, in agreement with experiments. The non-Newtonian behavior of such cell suspensions (e.g., shear thinning, yield stress) is analyzed and related to the suspension’s microstructure, deformation and dynamics of single cells. We provide the flrst quantitative estimates of normal stress differences and magnitude of aggregation forces in blood. Finally, the flexibility of the cell models allows them to be employed for quantitative analysis of a much wider class of complex fluids including cell, capsule, and vesicle suspensions.
Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.
Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro
2010-04-21
Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.
Scaling laws for implicit viscosities in smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierwisch, Claas; Polfer, Pit
2017-06-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a particle-based method which solves continuum equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations. A periodic fluidic system under homogeneous shear is studied using SPH in the present work. The total pressure of the system and the shear stress contributions from the SPH interaction terms for pressure and viscosity as well as the contribution caused by velocity fluctuations are analyzed. It is found that the pressure and the shear stress contributions obey certain scaling laws depending on physical properties of the system such as compressibility, viscosity and shear rate as well as the spatial resolution. Some of the identified relations resemble scaling laws for the rheology of dense granular flows. These findings render an assessment of the convergence with respect to the spatial resolution of SPH simulations possible. Furthermore, the similarities between numerical SPH particles and physical grains in dense flow provide a deeper understanding of the nature of the SPH method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Mahajan, Amit
2014-06-01
A nonlinear stability threshold for convection in a rotating couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium with temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity using a thermal non-equilibrium model is found to be exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linear theory has completely captured the physics of the onset of convection. The effects of couple-stress fluid parameter F, temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity Γ, interface heat transfer coefficient H, Taylor number TA, Darcy-Brinkman number D˜a, and porosity modified conductivity ratio γ on the onset of convection have been investigated. Asymptotic analysis for both small and large values of interface heat transfer coefficient H is also presented. An excellent agreement is found between the exact solutions and asymptotic solutions.
Rheological Analysis of CNT Suspended Nanofluid with Variable Viscosity: Numerical Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sher Akbar, Noreen; Hayat Khan, Zafar
2017-06-01
In this article, we discuss the two-dimensional stagnation-point flow of carbon nanotubes towards a stretching sheet with water as the base fluid under the influence temperature dependent viscosity. Similarity transformations are used to simplify the governing boundary layer equations for nanofluid. This is the first article on the stagnation point flow of CNTs over a stretching sheet with variable viscosity. A well known Reynold’s model of viscosity is used. Single wall CNTs are used with water as a base fluid. The resulting nonlinear coupled equations with the relevant boundary conditions are solved numerically using shooting method. The influence of the flow parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, and Nusselt numbers are explored and presented in forms of graphs and interpreted physically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltz, R. A.; Garishvili, I.; Cheng, M.; Abelev, B.; Glenn, A.; Newby, J.; Levy, L. A. Linden; Pratt, S.
2013-04-01
A new framework for evaluating hydrodynamic models of relativistic heavy ion collisions has been developed. This framework, a comprehensive heavy ion model evaluation and reporting algorithm (CHIMERA) has been implemented by augmenting UVH 2+1D viscous hydrodynamic model with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, and the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamic (UrQMD) hadronic cascade. A range of initial temperatures and shear viscosity to entropy ratios were evaluated for four initial profiles, Npart and Ncoll scaling with and without pre-equilibrium flow. The model results were compared to pion spectra, elliptic flow, and femtoscopic radii from 200 GeV Au+Au collisions for the 0-20% centrality range. Two sets of initial density profiles, Npart scaling with pre-equilibrium flow and Ncoll scaling without were shown to provide a consistent description of all three measurements.
Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.
1986-01-01
A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.
Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.
1986-01-01
A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.
Effects of lateral viscosity variations on long-wavelength geoid anomalies and topography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richards, Mark A.; Hager, Bradford H.
1989-01-01
The effects of lateral variations in the earth mantle viscosity, due to temperature- or stress-dependent rheology, on the long-wavelength geoid anomalies are examined. Results from simple perturbation theory combined with findings from numerical models for convective flow led to a conclusion that the geoid due to the very longest wavelength convective patterns (l = 2,3) on earth is probably not seriously contaminated by lateral variations due either to temperature or stress dependence. Considerable contamination of the higher-degree geoid (l value of no less than 4) is to be expected due to lateral viscosity variations in phase with the fundamental convection scale length.
Three-dimensional time dependent computation of turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1975-01-01
The three-dimensional, primitive equations of motion are solved numerically for the case of isotropic box turbulence and the distortion of homogeneous turbulence by irrotational plane strain at large Reynolds numbers. A Gaussian filter is applied to governing equations to define the large scale field. This gives rise to additional second order computed scale stresses (Leonard stresses). The residual stresses are simulated through an eddy viscosity. Uniform grids are used, with a fourth order differencing scheme in space and a second order Adams-Bashforth predictor for explicit time stepping. The results are compared to the experiments and statistical information extracted from the computer generated data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kurnchul; Girimaji, Sharath S.; Kerimo, Johannes
2008-08-01
G. I. Taylor’s postulate [Proc. R. Soc. APRLAAZ0080-4630 151, 421 (1935)10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] that dissipation is independent of viscosity at high Reynolds numbers is the foundation of many single-fluid turbulence theories and closure models. The validity of this key postulate in an important class of flows, turbulent mixtures, is not yet clearly established. We devise a simple numerical experiment of decaying turbulence in a mixture of two fluids of vastly different viscosities to examine dissipation scaling. Initially, the two fluids are segregated, and dissipation is directly proportional to viscosity. As turbulence evolves and fluids mix, the velocity gradients rapidly adapt to the viscosity field, and within one-half eddy turnover time, dissipation-viscosity independence is established. Viscosity-weighted velocity-gradient skewness is shown to be constant, leading to the validity of Taylor’s postulate in turbulent mixtures.
Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.
Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko
2014-11-01
The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ≥ 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ≥4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p < 0.001) were significant variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ≥ 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez, JC; Oliet, M.; Alonso, M. V.; Rodriguez, F.; Madsen, B.
2016-07-01
In the present study, the chemorheological behavior of a bio-based polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures for the post-gel curing stage of the resin, using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 wt %). Instead of modeling the evolution of the complex viscosity using a widely used chemorheological model such as the Arrhenius model for each tested temperature, the change of the complex viscosity as a function of the degree-of-cure was predicted using a new exponential type model. In this model, the logarithm of the normalized degree-of-cure is used to predict the behavior of the logarithm of the normalized complex viscosity. The model shows good quality of fitting with the experimental data for 4 and 6 wt % amounts of catalyst. For the 2 wt % amount of catalyst, scattered data leads to a slightly lower quality of fitting. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the new exponential model is a good alternative to conventional chemorheological models due to its simplicity and suitability.
Energy-Dependent Octagonal Lattice Boltzmann Modeling for Compressible Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlo, Pavol; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George
2000-10-01
There has been much interest in thermal lattice Boltzmann modeling (TLBM) for compressible flows because of their inherent parallelizeability. Instead of applying CFD techniques to the nonlinear conservation equations, one instead solves a linear BGK kinetic equation. To reduce storage requirements, the velocity space is discretized and lattice geometries are so chosen to minimize the number of degrees of freedom that must be retained in the Chapman-Enskog recovery of the original macroscopic equations. The simplest (and most efficient) TLBM runs at a CFL=1, so that no numerical diffusion or dissipation is introduced. The algorithm involves Lagrangian streaming (shift operator) and purely local operations. Because of the underlying discrete lattice symmetry, the relaxation distributions cannot be Maxwellian and hence the inherent numerical instability problem in TLBM. We are investigating the use of energy-dependent lattices so as to allow simulation of problems of interest in divertor physics, The appeal of TLBM is that it can provide a unified representation for both strongly collisional (‘fluid’) and weakly collisional (‘Monte Carlo’) regimes. Moreover, our TLBM code is more efficiently solved on mulit-PE platforms than the corresponding CFD codes and is readily extended to 3D. MHD can also be handled by TLBM.
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.
Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-09-08
Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes
Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-01-01
Simulations and measurements have established that water moves through carbon nanotubes with exceptionally high rates due to nearly frictionless interfaces1–4. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications that range from desalination to nano-filtration and energy harvesting5–10, yet the exact water transport mechanisms inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be controversially discussed11,12 because existing theories fail to provide a satisfying explanation for the limited number of experimental results available to date13. This is because even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes8,9,14–7, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube11. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate across individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes (CNT), and no slippage in boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNT) that are crystallographically similar to CNTs but differ electronically. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, strikingly illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier where the continuum picture of fluid mechanics confronts the atomic nature of matter. PMID:27604947
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-09-01
Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.
Flow-Dependent Mass Transfer May Trigger Endothelial Signaling Cascades
Vandrangi, Prashanthi; Sosa, Martha; Shyy, John Y.-J.; Rodgers, Victor G. J.
2012-01-01
It is well known that fluid mechanical forces directly impact endothelial signaling pathways. But while this general observation is clear, less apparent are the underlying mechanisms that initiate these critical signaling processes. This is because fluid mechanical forces can offer a direct mechanical input to possible mechanotransducers as well as alter critical mass transport characteristics (i.e., concentration gradients) of a host of chemical stimuli present in the blood stream. However, it has recently been accepted that mechanotransduction (direct mechanical force input), and not mass transfer, is the fundamental mechanism for many hemodynamic force-modulated endothelial signaling pathways and their downstream gene products. This conclusion has been largely based, indirectly, on accepted criteria that correlate signaling behavior and shear rate and shear stress, relative to changes in viscosity. However, in this work, we investigate the negative control for these criteria. Here we computationally and experimentally subject mass-transfer limited systems, independent of mechanotransduction, to the purported criteria. The results showed that the negative control (mass-transfer limited system) produced the same trends that have been used to identify mechanotransduction-dominant systems. Thus, the widely used viscosity-related shear stress and shear rate criteria are insufficient in determining mechanotransduction-dominant systems. Thus, research should continue to consider the importance of mass transfer in triggering signaling cascades. PMID:22558132
Strak, Paweł; Krukowski, Stanisław
2011-04-21
Determination of shear viscosity of molecular nitrogen (N(2)) by molecular dynamics (MD) in the high density range needs explicit incorporation of the rotational motion and therefore precise knowledge of angular dependence of N(2)-N(2) intermolecular potential. Newly designed Couette flow nonequilibrium molecular dynamic (NEMD) simulation procedure employs corrugated moving boundary, coupling the moving walls to translational and rotational motion exactly. Low density data on nitrogen viscosity show good agreement between MD data and experiment, confirming the radial dependence of the potential derived from quantum mechanical (QM) high precision calculations (coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples corrections [CCSD(T)]). Additionally, the angular dependence of the potential is verified using shear viscosity data for high density region, obtained from newly developed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It was demonstrated that the corrugated wall flow simulations provide results that are independent of the details of wall potential, fulfilling a basic requirement for application of MD simulations. These results are in good agreement with the equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) viscosity, derived from the Green-Kubo formula. Derived analytical dependence of the shear viscosity on the density and temperature shows that the MD data are in good agreement with experiment. Thus, MD simulations indicate that the CCSD(T) potential angular form is sufficiently precise for determination of the viscosity in a wide range of temperature and pressure.
Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru
1995-04-01
Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as a type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature.
Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, R.; Huang, K.
2011-07-01
Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.
Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields.
Tao, R; Huang, K
2011-07-01
Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.
Velocity dependence of biphasic flow structuration: steady-state and oscillating flow effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tore Tallakstad, Ken; Jankov, Mihailo; Løvoll, Grunde; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Mâløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Schäfer, Gerhard; Méheust, Yves; Arendt Knudsen, Henning
2010-05-01
We study various types of biphasic flows in quasi-two-dimensional transparent porous models. These flows imply a viscous wetting fluid, and a lowly viscous one. The models are transparent, allowing the displacement process and structure to be monitored in space and time. Three different aspects will be presented: 1. In stationary biphasic flows, we study the relationship between the macroscopic pressure drop (related to relative permeability) and the average flow rate, and how this arises from the cluster size distribution of the lowly viscous fluid [1]. 2. In drainage situations, we study how the geometry of the invader can be explained, and how it gives rise to apparent dynamic capillary effects. We show how these can be explained by viscous effects on evolving geometries of invading fluid [2]. 3. We study the impact of oscillating pressure fields superimposed to a background flow over the flow regimes patterns [3]. Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Statistics and Transport Properties. First, in stationary flow with a control of the flux of both fluids, we show how the pressure drop depends on the flow rate. We will show that the dynamics is dominated by the interplay between a viscous pressure field from the wetting fluid and bubble transport of a less viscous, nonwetting phase. In contrast with more studied displacement front systems, steady-state flow is in equilibrium, statistically speaking. The corresponding theoretical simplicity allows us to explain a data collapse in the cluster size distribution of lowly viscous fluid in the system, as well as the relation |?P|∞√Ca--. This allows to explain so called relative permeability effects by the morphological changes of the cluster size distribution. Influence of viscous fingering on dynamic saturation-pressure curves in porous media. Next, we study drainage in such models, and investigate the relationship between the pressure field and the morphology of the invading fluid. This allows to model
New constitutive equation for the volume viscosity in fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.
1994-01-01
The traditional volume viscosity, Stokes' hypothesis, and acoustical relaxation are reviewed. The lossy Navier-Stokes Equation is applied to periodic (acoustic) flow, and it is shown that the traditional volume viscosity leads to a result which contradicts that describing acoustical relaxation. It is demonstrated that the addition of a second volume viscosity term to the constitutive equation, to account for pressure relaxation, resolves the conflict, and leads to a direct correspondence between the volume viscosity parameters and the acoustical relaxation parameters. The representation of volume viscosity is formulated for the case of multiple relaxations, as occur in air. Finally, an application of the new constitutive equation to a simple convective compressible flow, namely a linearly accelerating flow, demonstrates the impact of volume viscosity upon the flow and the physical conditions for which it is important.
Comment on "nonlinear viscosity and Grad's method".
Eu, Byang Chan
2002-03-01
In their recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4052 (1999)] Uribe and García-Colín suggest that the stress tensor associated with the nonlinear viscosity formula eta=eta(0)sinh (-1)kappa/kappa (kappa=a Rayleigh dissipation function) vanishes asymptotically as the magnitude of the velocity gradient increases. In this Comment, it is pointed out that their remark is invalid, because the stress tensor asymptotically exhibits a logarithmic kappa dependence. It is also pointed out that their evolution equations for the stress tensor components are missing the terms containing the velocity gradients in the transversal directions and, as a consequence, give rise to a vanishing shear stress, contrary to the experimental evidence of gas flow in a tube.
Comment on ``nonlinear viscosity and Grad's method''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eu, Byang Chan
2002-03-01
In their recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4052 (1999)] Uribe and García-Colín suggest that the stress tensor associated with the nonlinear viscosity formula η=η0sinh -1κ/κ (κ=a Rayleigh dissipation function) vanishes asymptotically as the magnitude of the velocity gradient increases. In this Comment, it is pointed out that their remark is invalid, because the stress tensor asymptotically exhibits a logarithmic κ dependence. It is also pointed out that their evolution equations for the stress tensor components are missing the terms containing the velocity gradients in the transversal directions and, as a consequence, give rise to a vanishing shear stress, contrary to the experimental evidence of gas flow in a tube.
Eddy viscosity measurements in a rectangular jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swan, David H.; Morrison, Gerald L.
1988-01-01
The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at a Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Velocity gradients, Reynolds stress tensor components, and scalar eddy viscosities are presented for the major and minor axis planes of the jet. The eddy viscosity model was found to be applicable only in the direction of maximum mean velocity gradient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, C. T.
1973-01-01
Discusses theories underlying the phenomena of solution viscosities, involving the Jones and Dole equation, B-coefficient determination, and flickering cluster model. Indicates that viscosity measurements provide a basis for the study of the structural effects of ions in aqueous solutions and are applicable in teaching high school chemistry. (CC)
Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers
Oden, Patrick Ian
2001-01-01
A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, C. T.
1973-01-01
Discusses theories underlying the phenomena of solution viscosities, involving the Jones and Dole equation, B-coefficient determination, and flickering cluster model. Indicates that viscosity measurements provide a basis for the study of the structural effects of ions in aqueous solutions and are applicable in teaching high school chemistry. (CC)
DeLaMarre, Michael F; Keyzer, Alec; Shippy, Scott A
2015-05-05
Viscosity is an easily measured macroscopic property that provides molecular information and is widely used across the sciences and engineering. Here we report a microfluidic capillary viscometer that forms droplets from aqueous samples in an immiscible carrier phase and encodes information about sample viscosity in the droplet spacing. The device shows exceptional calibration stability, with only a 0.6% drift in calibration factor from run to run, the ability to handle aqueous and nonaqueous samples, and the ability to operate with sample volumes as low as 38 nL. Operating range for aqueous sample viscosity was characterized, and was found to be 0.96-52 cP. Operating range for aqueous shear rate was found to depend on aqueous viscosity and varied from 1.9 × 10(1)-4.4 × 10(2) s(-1) for high viscosity samples to 4.1 × 10(2)-6.0 × 10(3) s(-1) for low viscosity samples. Accuracy was tested by comparing measured viscosities of several samples including crème de menthe peppermint liquor, human urine, and baby oil to viscosities of the same samples obtained with a U-tube viscometer. The device was found to be very accurate, with differences between methods as low as 0.1%. The viscometer presented requires only a basic T junction and can utilize off-chip fluorescence to measure viscosity, which could allow for easy addition of viscometric measurement capabilities to existing droplet platforms. Furthermore, the device is capable of performing measurements on Newtonian fluids without precise control over pressures or flow rates, which significantly simplifies device operation.
Fröba, Andreas P; Kremer, Heiko; Leipertz, Alfred
2008-10-02
The density, refractive index, interfacial tension, and viscosity of ionic liquids (ILs) [EMIM][EtSO 4] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate), [EMIM][NTf 2] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), [EMIM][N(CN) 2] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanimide), and [OMA][NTf 2] (trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) were studied in dependence on temperature at atmospheric pressure both by conventional techniques and by surface light scattering (SLS). A vibrating tube densimeter was used for the measurement of density at temperatures from (273.15 to 363.15) K and the results have an expanded uncertainty ( k = 2) of +/-0.02%. Using an Abbe refractometer, the refractive index was measured for temperatures between (283.15 and 313.15) K with an expanded uncertainty ( k = 2) of about +/-0.0005. The interfacial tension was obtained from the pendant drop technique at a temperature of 293.15 K with an expanded uncertainty ( k = 2) of +/-1%. For higher and lower temperatures, the interfacial tension was estimated by an adequate prediction scheme based on the datum at 293.15 K and the temperature dependence of density. For the ILs studied within this work, at a first order approximation, the quantity directly accessible by the SLS technique was the ratio of surface tension to dynamic viscosity. By combining the experimental results of the SLS technique with density and interfacial tension from conventional techniques, the dynamic viscosity could be obtained for temperatures between (273.15 and 333.15) K with an estimated expanded uncertainty ( k = 2) of less than +/-3%. The measured density, refractive index, and viscosity are represented by interpolating expressions with differences between the experimental and calculated values that are comparable with but always smaller than the expanded uncertainties ( k = 2). Besides a comparison with the literature, the influence of structural variations on the thermophysical properties of the
Probing the shear viscosity of an active nematic film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamat, Pau; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Shankar, Suraj; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Sagués, Francesc
2016-12-01
In vitro reconstituted active systems, such as the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven microtubule bundle suspension developed by the Dogic group [T. Sanchez, D. T. Chen, S. J. DeCamp, M. Heymann, and Z. Dogic, Nature (London) 491, 431 (2012), 10.1038/nature11591], provide a fertile testing ground for elucidating the phenomenology of active liquid crystalline states. Controlling such novel phases of matter crucially depends on our knowledge of their material and physical properties. In this Rapid Communication, we show that the shear viscosity of an active nematic film can be probed by varying its hydrodynamic coupling to a bounding oil layer. Using the motion of disclinations as intrinsic tracers of the flow field and a hydrodynamic model, we obtain an estimate for the shear viscosity of the nematic film. Knowing this now provides us with an additional handle for robust and precision tunable control of the emergent dynamics of active fluids.
Shalliker, R. Andrew; Guiochon, Georges A
2010-01-01
Understanding the nature of viscosity contrast induced flow instabilities is an important aspect in the design of two-dimensional HPLC separations. When the viscosity contrast between the sample plug and the mobile phase is sufficiently large, the phenomenon known as viscous fingering can be induced. Viscous fingering is a flow instability phenomenon that occurs at the interface between two fluids with different viscosities. In liquid chromatography, viscous fingering results in the solute band undergoing a change in form as it enters into the chromatography column. Moreover, even in the absence of viscous fingering, band shapes change shape at low viscosity contrasts. These changes can result in a noticeable change in separation performance, with the result depending on whether the solvent pushing the solute plug has a higher or lower viscosity than the solute plug. These viscosity induced changes become more important as the solute injection volume increases and hence understanding the process becomes critical in the implementation of multidimensional HPLC techniques, since in these techniques the sample injection plug into the second dimension is an order of magnitude greater than in one-dimensional HPLC. This review article assesses the current understanding of the viscosity contrast induced processes as they relate to liquid chromatographic separation behaviour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Shuxia; Yuen, David A.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the influences of lateral variations of viscosity on the moment of inertia tensor from viscous flows due to the density anomalies in the mantle inferred from seismic tomographic models. The scaling relations between the density and the seismic anomalies is taken as either a constant or a function increasing with depth in accord with the recent high-pressure experimental studies. The viscosity is taken as an exponential function of the 3D density anomaly. In models with an isoviscous background, the effects on the perturbed moment of inertia tensor from the lateral viscosity variations are smaller than those due to variations in the radial viscosity profiles. In mantle models with a background viscosity increasing with depth, the influences of the lateral viscosity variations are significant. The most striking feature in the latter case is that the two off-diagonal elements delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) in the inertia tensor exhibit greatest sensitivity to lateral variations of the viscosity. While the other elements of the inertia change by only about a few tens of percent in the range of lateral viscosity contrast considered (less than 300), delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) can vary up to 40 times even with a change in sign, depending on the radial viscosity stratification and the location of the strongest lateral variations. The increase in the velocity-density scaling relation with depth can reduce the influences of the lateral viscosity variations, but it does not change the overall sensitive nature of delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz). This study demonstrates clearly that the lateral viscosity variations, especially in the upper mantle, must be considered in the determination of long-term polar wander, since the variations in the delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) terms are directly responsible for exciting rotational movements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Shuxia; Yuen, David A.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the influences of lateral variations of viscosity on the moment of inertia tensor from viscous flows due to the density anomalies in the mantle inferred from seismic tomographic models. The scaling relations between the density and the seismic anomalies is taken as either a constant or a function increasing with depth in accord with the recent high-pressure experimental studies. The viscosity is taken as an exponential function of the 3D density anomaly. In models with an isoviscous background, the effects on the perturbed moment of inertia tensor from the lateral viscosity variations are smaller than those due to variations in the radial viscosity profiles. In mantle models with a background viscosity increasing with depth, the influences of the lateral viscosity variations are significant. The most striking feature in the latter case is that the two off-diagonal elements delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) in the inertia tensor exhibit greatest sensitivity to lateral variations of the viscosity. While the other elements of the inertia change by only about a few tens of percent in the range of lateral viscosity contrast considered (less than 300), delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) can vary up to 40 times even with a change in sign, depending on the radial viscosity stratification and the location of the strongest lateral variations. The increase in the velocity-density scaling relation with depth can reduce the influences of the lateral viscosity variations, but it does not change the overall sensitive nature of delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz). This study demonstrates clearly that the lateral viscosity variations, especially in the upper mantle, must be considered in the determination of long-term polar wander, since the variations in the delta I(sub xz) and delta I(sub yz) terms are directly responsible for exciting rotational movements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard
2015-04-01
Many problems in geodynamic applications may be described as viscous flow of chemically heterogeneous materials. Examples include subduction of compositionally stratified lithospheric plates, folding of rheologically layered rocks, and thermochemical convection of the Earth's mantle. The associated time scales are significantly shorter than that of chemical diffusion, which justifies the commonly featured phenomena in geodynamic flow models termed contact discontinuities. These are spatially sharp interfaces separating regions of different material properties. Numerical modelling of advection of fields with sharp interfaces is challenging. Typical errors include numerical diffusion, which arises due to the repeated action of numerical interpolation. Mathematically, a material field can be represented by discrete indicator functions, whose values are interpreted as logical statements (e.g. whether or not the location is occupied by a given material). Interpolation of a discrete function boils down to determining where in the intermediate node-positions one material ends, and the other begins. The numerical diffusion error thus manifests itself as an erroneous location of the material-interface. Lagrangian advection-schemes are known to be less prone to numerical diffusion errors, compared to their Eulerian counterparts. The tracer-ratio method, where Lagrangian markers are used to discretize the bulk of materials filling the entire domain, is a popular example of such methods. The Stokes equation in this case is solved on a separate, static grid, and in order to do it - material properties must be interpolated from the markers to the grid. This involves the difficulty related to interpolation of discrete fields. The material distribution, and thus material-properties like viscosity and density, seen by the grid is polluted by the interpolation error, which enters the solution of the momentum equation. Errors due to the uncertainty of interface-location can be
Flow-Dependent Vascular Heat Transfer during Microwave Thermal Ablation
Chiang, Jason; Hynes, Kieran; Brace, Christopher L.
2012-01-01
Microwave tumor ablation is an attractive option for thermal ablation because of its inherent benefits over radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microwave energy heats tissue to higher temperatures and at a faster rate than RFA, creating larger, more homogenous ablation zones. In this study, we investigate microwave heating near large vasculature using coupled fluid-flow and thermal analysis. Low-flow conditions are predicted to be more likely to cause cytotoxic heating and, therefore, vessel thrombosis and endothelial damage of downstream tissues. Such conditions may be more prevalent in patient with severe cirrhosis or compromised blood flow. High-flow conditions create the more familiar heat-sink effect that can protect perivascular tissues from the intended thermal damage. These results may help guide placement and use of microwave ablation technologies in future studies. PMID:23367194
Flow-dependent vascular heat transfer during microwave thermal ablation.
Chiang, Jason; Hynes, Kieran; Brace, Christopher L
2012-01-01
Microwave tumor ablation is an attractive option for thermal ablation because of its inherent benefits over radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Microwave energy heats tissue to higher temperatures and at a faster rate than RFA, creating larger, more homogenous ablation zones. In this study, we investigate microwave heating near large vasculature using coupled fluid-flow and thermal analysis. Low-flow conditions are predicted to be more likely to cause cytotoxic heating and, therefore, vessel thrombosis and endothelial damage of downstream tissues. Such conditions may be more prevalent in patient with severe cirrhosis or compromised blood flow. High-flow conditions create the more familiar heat-sink effect that can protect perivascular tissues from the intended thermal damage. These results may help guide placement and use of microwave ablation technologies in future studies.
Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter
Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn
2016-05-26
In this work, we demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η/s ≈ 0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η/s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations in three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter.
Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter.
Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn
2016-05-27
We demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η/s≈0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η/s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations in three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter.
Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter
Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn
2016-05-26
In this work, we demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η/s ≈ 0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η/s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations inmore » three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter.« less
Moving Forward to Constrain the Shear Viscosity of QCD Matter
Denicol, Gabriel; Monnai, Akihiko; Schenke, Björn
2016-05-26
In this work, we demonstrate that measurements of rapidity differential anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions can constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s of QCD matter. Comparing results from hydrodynamic calculations with experimental data from the RHIC, we find evidence for a small η/s ≈ 0.04 in the QCD crossover region and a strong temperature dependence in the hadronic phase. A temperature independent η/s is disfavored by the data. We further show that measurements of the event-by-event flow as a function of rapidity can be used to independently constrain the initial state fluctuations in three dimensions and the temperature dependent transport properties of QCD matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perig, Alexander V.; Golodenko, Nikolai N.
2016-11-01
The present article addresses strain unevenness effects during equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) of physical models of polymer workpieces with viscosity flow features through a Segal die with channel intersection angle of 2θ = 90°. Computational viscous flow lines, flow velocity fields, and material dead zone formation in the physical simulation of ECAE have been numerically derived for planar flow of viscous incompressible continua in an angular die with 2θ = 90°. This is accomplished through the introduction of Navier-Stokes equations with the following dimensionless physical variables: polymer model local flow velocities u, v and punching pressure p. Derived experimental results are grounded on the application of the following physical simulation techniques: marker method, based on harder disperse particles partially forcing into the front faces of soft workpieces; layered model production by assembling the workpiece soft model with different layers, and circular gridlines use with viscous flow of the polymer soft model. Good agreement has been found between the computational and observable physical simulation results. Based on the obtained results, recommendations are made for polymer ECAE technology enhancement and angular die design for polymer workpiece pressure forming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyashenko, I. A.; Zaskoka, A. M.
2015-07-01
The tribological system consisting of two blocks with atomically smooth surfaces separated by a boundary lubricant layer is considered. A spring the free end of which is driven is attached to one of the blocks. A thermodynamic model is used to study the influence of the universal relationship between the viscosity of a non-Newtonian lubricant and temperature and strain rate on friction modes. The melting and solidification of the lubricant layer are taken to be second-order phase transformations. The specific features of widely used stop-start experiments, where a system stops for a certain time and then resumes its motion, are analyzed. The influence of the temperature, the shear velocity, and the external load on the behavior of the system is investigated. The conditions of transitions between the fluid (sliding), stick-slip, and dry friction modes are determined for the lubricants consisting of linear alkanes of various lengths.
Viscosity of Sheared Helical filament Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sartucci, Matthew; Urbach, Jeff; Blair, Dan; Schwenger, Walter
The viscosity of suspensions can be dramatically affected by high aspect ratio particles. Understanding these systems provides insight into key biological functions and can be manipulated for many technological applications. In this talk, the viscosity as a function of shear rate of suspensions of helical filaments is compared to that of suspensions of straight rod-like filaments. Our goal is to determine the impact of filament geometry on low volume fraction colloidal suspensions in order to identify strategies for altering viscosity with minimal volume fraction. In this research, the detached flagella of the bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium are used as a model system of helical filaments and compared to mutated straight flagella of the Salmonella. We compare rheological measurements of the suspension viscosity in response to shear flow and use a combination of the rheology and fluorescence microscopy to identify the microstructural changes responsible for the observed rheological response.
Second coefficient of viscosity in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan
1991-01-01
Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.
Effective Viscosity of Microswimmer Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafaï, Salima; Jibuti, Levan; Peyla, Philippe
2010-03-01
The measurement of a quantitative and macroscopic parameter to estimate the global motility of a large population of swimming biological cells is a challenge. Experiments on the rheology of active suspensions have been performed. Effective viscosity of sheared suspensions of live unicellular motile microalgae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii) is far greater than for suspensions containing the same volume fraction of dead cells. In addition, suspensions show shear thinning behavior. We relate these macroscopic measurements to the orientation of individual swimming cells under flow and discuss our results in the light of several existing models.
Effective viscosity of microswimmer suspensions.
Rafaï, Salima; Jibuti, Levan; Peyla, Philippe
2010-03-05
The measurement of a quantitative and macroscopic parameter to estimate the global motility of a large population of swimming biological cells is a challenge. Experiments on the rheology of active suspensions have been performed. Effective viscosity of sheared suspensions of live unicellular motile microalgae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii) is far greater than for suspensions containing the same volume fraction of dead cells. In addition, suspensions show shear thinning behavior. We relate these macroscopic measurements to the orientation of individual swimming cells under flow and discuss our results in the light of several existing models.
Zoller, Harper F.
1921-01-01
1. Viscosity and pH curves of casein dissolved in NaOH, KOH, LiOH, and NH4OH are shown and it is found that a maximum viscosity occurs at about the same pH point with each alkali; i.e., 9.1 to 9.25. The magnitude of the viscosity is largest in ammonia solutions. 2. The maximum viscosity occurs in 8 to 10 per cent solutions of casein in alkalies when about 98 x 10–5 gram equivalents of base are combined with 1 gram of casein. 3. A maximum viscosity occurs in the same region (pH 9.1 to 9.25) when casein is dissolved in Na2CO3, Na3AsO4, Na2SO3, NaF, and Na2PO3. 4. The maximum viscosity obtained with borax solutions of casein occurs at 8.15 to 8.2 pH. It is suggested that casein acts like mannitol, glycerol, etc., in increasing the dissociation of boric acid. 5. The flattening of the viscosity curves of casein solutions, following the decline from maximum, is shown to be due to alkaline hydrolysis whence casein no longer exists as such but is cleaved into a major protein containing no phosphorus or sulfur and less nitrogen. This cleavage commences at pH 10.0 to 10.5. 6. When casein is prepared from solutions that have been subjected to high temperatures (60°C. and above) or has otherwise been heated during its preparation, it yields solutions in alkalies of high viscosity. PMID:19871893
Froude number dependence of the flow separation line on a sphere towed in a stratified fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chomaz, J. M.; Bonneton, P.; Butet, A.; Perrier, M.; Hopfinger, E. J.
1992-02-01
In this paper experimental results on the near field of the flow past a sphere in a linearly stratified medium are presented. Emphasis is placed on the variation of the flow separation line with internal Froude number F=U/NR and also with Reynolds number Re=2RU/ν, where U and R are, respectively, the velocity and the radius of the sphere, N is the Brünt-Väisälä frequency (rad sec-1 ), and ν is the cinematic viscosity. It is shown that in the Reynolds number range 200
System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow
Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.
2007-06-15
This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.
Effect of temperature on rotational viscosity in magnetic nano fluids.
Patel, R
2012-10-01
Flow behavior of magnetic nano fluids with simultaneous effect of magnetic field and temperature is important for its application for cooling devices such as transformer, loud speakers, electronic cooling and for its efficiency in targeted drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment. Using a specially designed horizontal capillary viscometer, temperature-sensitive and non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nano fluids are studied. In both these case the temperature-dependent rotational viscosity decreases, but follows a quite different mechanism. For temperature-sensitive magnetic nano fluids, the reduction in rotational viscosity is due to the temperature dependence of magnetization. Curie temperature ((T)(c)) and pyromagnetic coefficient are extracted from the study. A fluid with low T(c) and high pyromagnetic coefficient is useful for thermo-sensitive cooling devices and magnetic hyperthermia. For non-temperature-sensitive magnetic nano fluids, reduction in rotational viscosity is due to removal of physisorbed secondary surfactant on the particle because of thermal and frictional effects. This can be a good analogy for removal of drug from the magnetic particles in the case of targeted drug delivery.
A modified model for non-newtonian viscosity behavior of Aureobasidium pullulans culture fluid.
Furuse, Hisamoto; Yabe, Isamu; Asakura, Tomoko; Miyawaki, Osato; Toda, Kiyoshi
2003-01-01
The culture fluid of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans and the exopolysaccharide solution obtained by removal of the microbial cells exhibit a marked shear dependence of viscosity. The viscosity in a high shear rate region was a little higher than that predicted by a non-Newtonian viscosity equation derived previously on the basis of the concept of traveling force. In a sample exhibiting such high shear rate dependence, a hydrodynamic effect based on the fluid structure of the binding of contacting polymers and suspended microbial cells on viscosity becomes comparatively significant. A model for the shear rate dependence of the viscosity is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the viscosity behavior. A term concerning the increase in viscosity caused by the binding of polymers and the microbial cells suspended in a medium was added to the previous viscosity equation. The experimental shear dependence of the viscosity was well simulated by the modified viscosity equation.
Scale-Dependence of Natural Variability of Flow Regimes in a Forested Landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanford, S. E.; Creed, I. F.
2005-12-01
The natural flow paradigm states that rivers should be managed to preserve their natural flow regimes. Maintaining natural variability in the flow regime is critical for conserving the structure and function of riverine ecosystems. This research seeks to determine relations between natural variability in the flow regime and basin scale. A distributed hydrologic model was used to characterize the natural flow regime of basins from first to fifth order within tributaries of the Batchawana River in the Algoma Highlands of central Ontario using the Range of Variability Approach (RVA). A thirty-year simulated flow record was used to calculate natural variability in the flow regime, defined as the S80 ((90th percentile - 10th percentile) / median). A scale-dependence in the S80 of these flows, and particularly low-flow parameters, was observed. Basins less than a threshold between ca. 400 and 600 ha had a large range in S80, while basins greater than 600 ha had a smaller range that converged towards a constant with increasing area. This represents the potential for a representative elementary area (REA) to exist with regard to interannual variability of some flow parameters. Below the REA, the mean of the ln (/To tan B) distribution was significantly related to the S80 mean summer flow and 90-day minimum flow (p<0.001). This research demonstrates the scale-dependence of natural variability of flows, important for establishing reference conditions against which impacts of disturbance on flows throughout a drainage basin may be measured.
Seismic attenuation and pore-fluid viscosity in clay-rich reservoir sandstones
Best, A.I.; McCann, C.
1995-09-01
The frequency dependence of seismic attenuation in a suite of clay-rich reservoir sandstones was investigated in the laboratory. Compressional- and shear-wave velocities (V{sub P} and V{sub S}) and quality factors (Q{sub P} and Q{sub S}) were measured as functions of pore-fluid viscosity at an effective pressure of 50 MPa and at an experimental frequency of about 0.8 MHz using the pulse-echo technique. The experimental viscosity ranged from 0.3 to 1,000 centipoise, which gives equivalent frequencies for a water-saturated sandstone of 2.6 MHz to 780 Hz, assuming a global-flow loss mechanism. Two types of behavior were observed: high permeability (greater than 100 millidarcies) sandstones tend to show variable Q{sub P} and Q{sub S} which are similar in magnitude to those predicted by the Biot theory over the viscosity range 0.3 to about 20 centipoise; low permeability sandstones tend to show almost constant Q{sub P} and Q{sub S} over the experimental viscosity range that are not predicted by the Biot theory. High permeability sandstones show small velocity dispersions with changing pore-fluid viscosity that are consistent with the Biot theory. Low permeability sandstones show relatively large increases in velocity with increasing viscosity not explained by the Biot theory, which are consistent with a local flow loss mechanism. The results indicate the presence of two dominant loss mechanisms: global flow (at least down to about 39 kHz in water-saturated rocks) in high permeability sandstones with only small amounts of intrapore clay, and local flow at ultrasonic frequencies in low permeability, clay-rich sandstones.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in time-dependent blood flow past fiber rectangular arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zierenberg, Jennifer R.; Fujioka, Hideki; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Grotberg, James B.
2009-03-01
The influence of time-dependent flows on oxygen and carbon dioxide transport for blood flow past fiber arrays arranged in in-line and staggered configurations was computationally investigated as a model for an artificial lung. Both a pulsatile flow, which mimics the flow leaving the right heart and passing through a compliance chamber before entering the artificial lung, and a right ventricular flow, which mimics flow leaving the right heart and directly entering the artificial lung, were considered in addition to a steady flow. The pulsatile flow was modeled as a sinusoidal perturbation superimposed on a steady flow while the right ventricular flow was modeled to accurately depict the period of flow acceleration (increasing flow) and deceleration (decreasing flow) during systole followed by zero flow during diastole. It was observed that the pulsatile flow yielded similar gas transport as compared to the steady flow, while the right ventricular flow resulted in smaller gas transport, with the decrease increasing with Re. The pressure drop across the fiber array (a measure of the resistance), work (an indicator of the work required of the right heart), and shear stress (a measure of potential blood cell activation and damage) are lowest for steady flow, followed by pulsatile flow, and then right ventricular flow. The pressure drop, work, shear stress, and Sherwood numbers (a measure of the gas transport efficiency) decrease with increasing porosity and are smaller for AR <1 as compared to AR >1 (AR is the distance between fibers in the flow direction/distance between fibers in direction perpendicular to flow), although for small porosities the Sherwood numbers are of similar magnitude. In general, for any fiber array geometry, high pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with high Sherwood numbers, and low pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with low Sherwood numbers creating a need for a compromise between pressure drop/work/shear stresses
Reduction of viscosity in suspension of swimming bacteria.
Aranson, I. S.; Sokolov, A.; Chen, L.; Jin, Q.; Materials Science Division
2009-09-29
Measurements of the shear viscosity in suspensions of swimming Bacillus subtilis in free-standing liquid films have revealed that the viscosity can decrease by up to a factor of 7 compared to the viscosity of the same liquid without bacteria or with nonmotile bacteria. The reduction in viscosity is observed in two complementary experiments: one studying the decay of a large vortex induced by a moving probe and another measuring the viscous torque on a rotating magnetic particle immersed in the film. The viscosity depends on the concentration and swimming speed of the bacteria.
Reduction of viscosity in suspension of swimming bacteria.
Sokolov, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.
2009-01-01
Measurements of the shear viscosity in suspensions of swimming Bacillus subtilis in free-standing liquid films have revealed that the viscosity can decrease by up to a factor of 7 compared to the viscosity of the same liquid without bacteria or with nonmotile bacteria. The reduction in viscosity is observed in two complementary experiments: one studying the decay of a large vortex induced by a moving probe and another measuring the viscous torque on a rotating magnetic particle immersed in the film. The viscosity depends on the concentration and swimming speed of the bacteria.
Shear viscosity of nuclear matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.; Plujko, V. A.
2016-11-01
Shear viscosity η is calculated for the nuclear matter described as a system of interacting nucleons with the van der Waals (VDW) equation of state. The Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation is solved in terms of the plane waves of the collective overdamped motion. In the frequent-collision regime, the shear viscosity depends on the particle-number density n through the mean-field parameter a , which describes attractive forces in the VDW equation. In the temperature region T =15 -40 MeV, a ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density s is smaller than 1 at the nucleon number density n =(0.5 -1.5 ) n0 , where n0=0.16 fm-3 is the particle density of equilibrium nuclear matter at zero temperature. A minimum of the η /s ratio takes place somewhere in a vicinity of the critical point of the VDW system. Large values of η /s ≫1 are, however, found in both the low-density, n ≪n0 , and high-density, n >2 n0 , regions. This makes the ideal hydrodynamic approach inapplicable for these densities.
[Fetal pulmonary artery blood flow depending on fetal lung maturity].
Jastrzebski, Arkadiusz; Lech, Tomasz; Obcowska-Lech, Marta; Sobański, Andrzej; Sipiński, Adam
2004-01-01
The ultrasonographic assessment of fetal lung maturity by evaluating the elasticity of lung tissue, Dynamic Lung Score (DLS) has been being performed since 1986 in ObGyn Department in Tychy (Medical University of Silesia). The lung elasticity is evaluated on the cross sections of fetal thorax, on the level of heart ventricles. The result of the evaluation is given as the three degree scale, in which I degree indicates the lack of elasticity and fetal lung immaturity, II degrees indicates partially expressed elasticity, corresponding with incomplete maturity of lung tissue, and III degrees represents full elasticity and indicates complete maturity of fetal lungs. This study was designed to compare fetal pulmonary artery blood flow with the maturity of fetal lung tissue evaluated during the ultrasonographic assessment of fetal lung tissue elasticity. The examination was performed on pregnant women, beginning on 27th week gestation. During the examination the mean Pulsatility Index was decreased, particularly in fetuses with II degrees lung maturity. The Resistance Index (RI) was found to be stable and independent of gestational age. In the group with I degree lung maturity (DLS I), the mean PI = 2.643 (+/- 0.229), mean RI = 0.879 (+/- 0.036), in DLS II group PI = 2.039 (+/- 0.262), RI = 0.868 (+/- 0.037), and in DLS III group PI = 2,500 (+/- 0.100), RI = 0.900 (+/- 0.100). Comparing the ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal lung maturity with fetal pulmonary artery blood flow allows more accurate assessment of fetal lung maturity. Fetal lung maturity can not be evaluated univocally on the basis of blood flow assessment. Because of the divergence of blood flow parameters further studies including bigger population seem to be necessary for verification of the results and for establishing the reference values.
Activation energy and entropy for viscosity of wormlike micelle solutions.
Chandler, H D
2013-11-01
The viscosities of two surfactant solutions which form wormlike micelles (WLMs) were studied over a range of temperatures and strain rates. WLM solutions appear to differ from many other shear thinning systems in that, as the shear rate increases, stress-shear rate curves tend to converge with temperature rather than diverge and this can sometimes lead to higher temperature curves crossing those at lower. Behaviour was analysed in terms of activation kinetics. It is suggested that two mechanisms are involved: Newtonian flow, following an Arrhenius law superimposed on a non-Newtonian flow described by a stress assisted kinetic law, this being a more general form of the Arrhenius law. Anomalous flow is introduced into the kinetic equation via a stress dependent activation entropy term.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastikhin, Igor; Djurkovic, Borko
2004-05-01
The single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) signal was studied for the case of driving frequency modulated by lower frequency with an offset. In our work, the driving frequency of 28 kHz and the modulation frequencies of 25-1000 Hz were used. The modulation strength of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 was defined as the difference of highest and lowest pressures over modulation period. The measurements were performed for water-glycerol mixtures of various viscosities. The measured SBSL signal appeared as a train of flashes for modulation frequencies below 250 Hz, and as a continuous modulated signal for higher frequencies. At the same frequency, the flashes covered similar phase intervals for different modulation strengths and, accordingly, pressure ranges. At higher glycerol concentrations (up to 24%) both the intensity and the stability of flashes increased, due to damped shape instabilities and reduced dancing; however, the phase interval of flashes remained about the same. Such phase-locked behavior can be explained by translational movements of the bubble due to modulated Bjerknes force and changes in the symmetry of the bubble collapse. The changes in intensities and rise/decay times can serve as a measure of the gas exchange between the bubble and its surroundings during silent and luminescent intervals.
Isogai, Tomohiro; Nakai, Takaaki; Inoue, Hidemi; Nakanishi, Kenta; Kohara, Shinji; Saito, Morihiro; Inaba, Minoru; Tasaka, Akimasa
2011-08-11
To understand the ionic and nonionic species in (CH(3))(4)NF·mHF, (CH(3))(3)N·mHF, (C(2)H(5))(4)NF·mHF, and (C(2)H(5))(3)N·mHF melts, the structures of these melts were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, NMR, and high-energy X-ray diffraction. Infrared spectra revealed that three kinds of fluorohydrogenate anions, (FH)(n)F(-) (n = 1, 2, and 3), and molecular hydrofluoric acid (HF) are present in every melt. Ionic conductivity and viscosity of these melts were measured and correlated with their cationic structure. The ionic conductivity of the R(4)N(+)-systems was higher than that of corresponding R(3)NH(+)-systems because a strong N-H···F(HF)(n) interaction prevents the motion of R(3)NH(+) cations in the R(3)N·mHF melts. (CH(3))(4)N(+) and (CH(3))(3)NH(+) cations gave higher ionic conductivity than (C(2)H(5))(4)N(+) and (C(2)H(5))(3)NH(+) cations, respectively, because the ionic radii of former cations were smaller than those of latter. It was concluded that these effects on ionic conductivity can be explained by the cationic structure and the concentration of molecular HF in the melts.
Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement
Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM
2012-05-01
The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.
Drop spreading with random viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.
2016-10-01
We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated viscosity within the precursor film to hinder spreading. A low-order model provides explicit predictions of the variances in spreading rate and drop location, which are validated against simulations.
Drop spreading with random viscosity
2016-01-01
We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid’s viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop’s motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop’s effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated viscosity within the precursor film to hinder spreading. A low-order model provides explicit predictions of the variances in spreading rate and drop location, which are validated against simulations. PMID:27843398
Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor
Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.
1998-01-01
A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.
Effects of surface roughness on shear viscosity.
Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris
2017-03-01
This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness. We attribute this behavior to the increased momentum transfer at the boundary, a result of the irregular distribution of fluid particles near rough surfaces. Furthermore, although the viscosity in smooth channels has previously been shown to be independent of the strength of the solid-liquid interaction, here we show that in the presence of surface roughness, the boundary viscosity increases with the solid's wettability. The paper concludes with an analytical description of the viscosity as a function of the distance from the channel walls, the walls' surface roughness, and the solid's wetting properties. The relation can potentially be used to adjust the fluid dynamics equations for a more accurate description of microfluidic systems.
Effects of surface roughness on shear viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris
2017-03-01
This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness. We attribute this behavior to the increased momentum transfer at the boundary, a result of the irregular distribution of fluid particles near rough surfaces. Furthermore, although the viscosity in smooth channels has previously been shown to be independent of the strength of the solid-liquid interaction, here we show that in the presence of surface roughness, the boundary viscosity increases with the solid's wettability. The paper concludes with an analytical description of the viscosity as a function of the distance from the channel walls, the walls' surface roughness, and the solid's wetting properties. The relation can potentially be used to adjust the fluid dynamics equations for a more accurate description of microfluidic systems.
Effect of hemodialysis on whole blood viscosity.
Vaisman, S; Kensey, K; Cho, Y I
2009-06-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hemodialysis procedures on the hemoconcentration status of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We measured whole blood viscosity (WBV) of 30 ESRD patients using a scanning-capillary-tube viscometer before and after hemodialysis. The blood sample size required for WBV measurements was approximately 3 mL. Pre-dialysis specimens for viscosity measurements were obtained via the fistula needle or Perma catheter prior to initiating hemodialysis, and post-dialysis specimens were drawn from the arterial sample port of the hemodialysis line 3.5 hours after initiation of dialysis treatment. Changes in WBV were measured at high and low shear rates: 80% of patients showed an increased high shear viscosity, whereas 73% of patients demonstrated an increased low shear viscosity. The actual percentage increase in WBV observed after hemodialysis at high and low shear rate ranges varied broadly in the 30 patients. The observed increase in the WBV of ESRD patients over hemodialysis procedures indicates that a segment of patients experience increased flow resistance, particularly at the microcirculatory level. In addition, for the segment of patients experiencing marked increases in WBV during hemodialysis, the vessel wall at the dialysis fistula is exposed to blood with a higher viscosity than at the beginning of the process. The higher blood viscosity at the dialysis fistula is directly related to increased kinetic force and shear stress on the vessel wall, which may be playing a role in increasing the risk of stenosis.
Gas transport and vesicularity in low-viscosity liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pioli, Laura; Bonadonna, Costanza; Abdulkareem, Lokman; Azzopardi, Barry; Phillips, Jeremy
2010-05-01
Vesicle textures of basaltic scoria preserve information on magma bubble content at fragmentation and are commonly used to constrain degassing, vesiculation and magma permeability. These studies are based on the assumption that microscale textures are representative of the conduit-scale structures and processes. However, the conditions for which this assumption is valid have not been investigated in detail. We have investigated conduit-scale structures by performing a series of experiments of separate two-phase flows in a 6.5-m high cylindrical bubble column using a combination of air with pure glucose syrup, water-syrup mixtures and pure water to reproduce open-system degassing and strombolian activity conditions in the upper volcanic conduit (i.e. at very low or zero liquid fluxes). We have varied gas fluxes, initial liquid height, gas inlet configuration and liquid viscosity and analyzed flow regimes and properties. Temperature and pressure were measured at several heights along the pipe and vesicularity was calculated using pressure data, liquid level measurements and an Electrical Capacitance tomography (ECT) system, which measures instantaneous vesicularity and phase distribution from capacitance measurements between pairs of electrodes placed uniformly around the pipe circumference. The aim of the experiments was to identify the effect of gas-flow rates on the flow regimes (i.e. bubbly, slug, churn and annular), the main degassing structures and the total gas content of the column. The effect of increasing and decreasing gas flow rates was also studied to check hysteresis effects. Results indicate that the vesicularity of the liquid column depends primarily on gas flux, whereas flow regimes exert a minor control. In fact, vesicularity increases with gas flux following a power-law trend whose exponent depends on the viscosity of the liquid. In addition, distributions of instantaneous gas fraction in the column cross section during syrup experiments have shown
Turbulent viscosity. [in accretion disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Chasnov, J.
1988-01-01
A model for fully developed turbulence is proposed whose predictions compare favorably with those of the direct interaction approximation (DIA) model and whose main equations are easy to handle. Four different expressions for the turbulent viscosity are derived which contain no free parameters. Two of the expressions are given in terms of properties of the turbulent fluid itself; the other two are given in terms of the instability that generated the turbulence and of the properties of the mean flow. The numerical coefficients entering these relations are evaluated and found to be in good agreement with previous theoretical estimates based on Kraichnan's DIA, the renormalization group method, and turbulence modeling. In the case of shear in the mean flow, the Shakura-Sunyaev alpha parameter is shown to be less than 0.01. The four expressions can be generalized to include the effect of rotation and/or magnetic fields.
On the viscosity of the amorphizing Co-(Cr,Fe)-Si-B melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lad'yanov, V. I.; L; Sterkhova, I. V.; Kamaeva, L. V.; Maslov, V. V.; Kerel'chuk, V. A.
2009-01-01
The study of the temperature and time viscosity dependences of the amorphizing Co65.5Fe6.5Si18B10, Co65.5Cr6.5Si18B10, Co69Cr3Si18B10 melts has been performed. It has been shown that the temperature and time viscosity dependences for each alloy are of the same nature. The anomaly attended by the changing of the energy activation of the viscous flow has been first determined in the viscosity polytherms under heating conditions in the vicinity of t* (t* is the characteristic temperature for each alloy, i.e. the temperature of the anomaly on the polytherm of the viscosity). This anomaly is caused by the change of the short-ordering type in the liquid phase in this temperature region as well as by the transition of its low-temperature structure into the high-temperature one. The latter being further cooled is retained up to the solidification temperatures and results in the viscosity hysteresis. It has been shown that the decrease of the alloying element concentration results in a substantial displacement of the anomaly temperature, t*, to the lower temperature region (t*=1360°C for Co65.5Fe6.5Si18B10, Co65.5Cr6.5Si18B10 and 1220°C for Co69Cr3Si18B10).
Forchheimer flow to a well considering time-dependent critical radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Q.; Zhan, H.; Tang, Z.
2013-11-01
Previous studies on the non-Darcian flow into a pumping well assumed that critical radius (RCD) was a constant or infinity, where RCD represents the location of the interface between the non-Darcian flow region and Darcian flow region. In this study, a two-region model considering time-dependent RCD was established, where the non-Darcian flow was described by the Forchheimer equation. A new iteration method was proposed to estimate RCD based on the finite-difference method. The results showed that RCD increased with time until reaching the quasi-steady state flow, and the asymptotic value of RCD only depended on the critical specific discharge beyond which flow became non-Darcian. A larger inertial force would reduce the change rate of RCD with time, and resulted in a smaller RCD at a specific time during the transient flow. The difference between the new solution and previous solutions were obvious in the early pumping stage. The new solution agreed very well with the solution of previous two-region model with a constant RCD under quasi-steady flow. It agreed with the solution of the fully Darcian flow model in the Darcian flow region, and with the solution of the fully non-Darcian flow model in the non-Darcian flow region near the well.
Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT
Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.
2006-01-01
SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemia, Z.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.
2009-08-01
The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 10 18-10 19 Pa s. Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously "stationary" anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kropka, Jamie M.; Celina, Mathew
2010-07-01
Liquid organic foams are prepared using a new blowing process based on the chemical generation of carbon dioxide. The foams are volumetrically stable for periods up to hours and can be fabricated with gas volume fractions ranging from 0.10 to 0.95. Bot