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Sample records for depletion width imaging

  1. Modeling of depletion width variation over time in thin film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldosari, Marouf; Grigoriu, Liliana; Sohrabpoor, Hamed; Gorji, Nima E.

    2016-02-01

    The performance degradation of a hybrid solar cell is modelled considering the variation of depletion width over time. The p-i-n structure of a TiO2/perovskite/HTL photovoltaic is investigated. Several different time-dependent approaches are compared and a new model is introduced based on the variation of defect density over time in depletion region. This phenomenon consequently manifests itself in the device degradation. Our approach leads to rather complicated time-dependent equation for the defect density which takes into account also the non-uniformity of electric field in the depletion region. The thickness of TiO2 nano layer is taken 50 nm and perovskite layer is 330 nm. The nanoscale thickness of TiO2 layer warrants the carrier transport through tunneling mechanism.

  2. Importance of Depletion Width on Charge Transport and Interfacial Recombination in Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edley, Michael; Jones, Treavor; Baxter, Jason

    The dynamics of charge carrier transport and recombination and their dependence on physical and electrochemical length scales in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells is vital to cell design. We used J-V characterization, transient photocurrent / photovoltage, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study electron transport and interfacial recombination in ETA cell. ETA cells were composed of ZnO nanowires coated with an ultrathin (5 nm) CdS buffer layer and CdSe absorbers with thicknesses of 10 - 40 nm, with polysulfide electrolyte. In thinner absorbers near short circuit, the depletion region can extend radially into the nanowire, inhibiting interfacial recombination rate. However, depleting the periphery of the nanowire reduces the cross sectional area for charge transport, resulting in longer characteristic collection times. Thicker absorbers suffered more significant bias-dependent collection, and we conclude that slight radial penetration of the depletion region into the nanowires enhances charge collection. This work highlights the importance of considering the impact of depletion width on charge transport and interfacial recombination in the design of liquid junction, semiconductor-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Subdiffraction, Luminescence-Depletion Imaging of Isolated, Giant, CdSe/CdS Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lesoine, Michael D.; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Guo, Yijun; Vela, Javier; Petrich, Jacob W.; Smith, Emily A.

    2013-01-18

    Subdiffraction spatial resolution luminescence depletion imaging was performed with giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) dispersed on a glass slide. Luminescence depletion imaging used a Gaussian shaped excitation laser pulse overlapped with a depletion pulse, shaped into a doughnut profile, with zero intensity in the center. Luminescence from a subdiffraction volume is collected from the central portion of the excitation spot, where no depletion takes place. Up to 92% depletion of the luminescence signal was achieved. An average full width at half-maximum of 40 ± 10 nm was measured in the lateral direction for isolated g-NQDs at an air interface using luminescence depletion imaging, whereas the average full width at half-maximum was 450 ± 90 nm using diffraction-limited, confocal luminescence imaging. Time-gating of the luminescence depletion data was required to achieve the stated spatial resolution. No observable photobleaching of the g-NQDs was present in the measurements, which allowed imaging with a dwell time of 250 ms per pixel to obtain images with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The mechanism for luminescence depletion is likely stimulated emission, stimulated absorption, or a combination of the two. The g-NQDs fulfill a need for versatile, photostable tags for subdiffraction imaging schemes where high laser powers or long exposure times are used.

  4. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W. |; Haydon, P.G.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  5. Beam Width Robustness of a 670 GHz Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. B.; Llombart, N.; Dengler, R. J.; Siegel, P. H.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of a replica bomb belt concealed on a mannequin at 4 m standoff range is achieved using a 670 GHz imaging radar. At a somewhat larger standoff range of 4.6 m, the radar's beam width increases substantially, but the through-shirt image quality remains good. This suggests that a relatively modest increase in aperture size over the current design will be sufficient to detect person-borne concealed weapons at ranges exceeding 25 meters.

  6. Fully depleted and backside biased monolithic CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Clarke, Andrew S.; Holland, Andrew D.

    2016-07-01

    We are presenting a novel concept for a fully depleted, monolithic, pinned photodiode CMOS image sensor using reverse substrate bias. The principle of operation allows the manufacture of backside illuminated CMOS sensors with active thickness in excess of 100 μm. This helps increase the QE at near-IR and soft X-ray wavelengths, while preserving the excellent characteristics associated with the pinned photodiode sensitive elements. Such sensors are relevant to a wide range of applications, including scientific imaging, astronomy, Earth observation and surveillance. A prototype device with 10 μm and 5.4 μm pixels using this concept has been designed and is being manufactured on a 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. Only one additional implantation step has been introduced to the normal manufacturing flow to make this device. The paper discusses the design of the sensor and the challenges that had to be overcome to realise it in practice, and in particular the method of achieving full depletion without parasitic substrate currents. It is expected that this new technology can be competitive with modern backside illuminated thick CCDs for use at visible to near-IR telescopes and synchrotron light sources.

  7. Depth resolution improvement of streak tube imaging lidar using optimal signal width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Guangchao; Fan, Rongwei; Lu, Wei; Dong, Zhiwei; Li, Xudong; He, Ping; Chen, Deying

    2016-10-01

    Streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) is an active imaging system that has a high depth resolution with the use of a pulsed laser transmitter and streak tube receiver to produce three-dimensional (3-D) range images. This work investigates the optimal signal width of the lidar system, which is helpful to improve the depth resolution based on the centroid algorithm. Theoretical analysis indicates that the signal width has a significant effect on the depth resolution and the optimal signal width can be determined for a given STIL system, which is verified by both the simulation and experimental results. An indoor experiment with a planar target was carried out to validate the relation that the range error decreases first and then increases with the signal width, resulting in an optimal signal width of 8.6 pixels. Finer 3-D range images of a cartoon model were acquired by using the optimal signal width and a minimum range error of 5.5 mm was achieved in a daylight environment.

  8. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-07

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells.

  9. Measurement of magnetic domain wall width using energy-filtered Fresnel images.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S J; Loudon, J C; Midgley, P A

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic domain walls in Nd2Fe14B have been examined using a series of energy-filtered Fresnel images in the field emission gun transmission electron microscope (FEGTEM). We describe the changes in the intensity distribution of the convergent wall image as a function of defocus, foil thickness and domain wall width. The effect of tilted domain walls and beam convergence on the fringe pattern is also discussed. A comparison of the experimental intensity profile with that from simulations allows the domain wall width to be determined. Measurement of very narrow walls is made possible only by using a relatively thick foil, which necessitates energy-filtering to allow quantitative comparison with simulations. The magnetic domain wall width in Nd2Fe14B was found to be 3 +/- 2 nm.

  10. Pulse-width considerations for nonlinear Raman brain imaging: whither the optimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, A. A.; Stepanov, E. A.; Tikhonov, R. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We propose simple, yet efficient strategies of pulse-width optimization applicable for nonlinear Raman brain imaging. With the spectral bandwidth of laser pulses accurately matched against the bandwidth of molecular vibrations, the coherent Raman signal is shown to be radically enhanced, enabling higher sensitivities and higher frame rates in nonlinear Raman brain imaging. As a specific example, we show that subpicosecond pulses offer a powerful tool for the detection of brain tumors using stimulated Raman microscopy, as they provide a strong signal without compromising the molecular specificity.

  11. Radio-Tomographic Images of Post-midnight Equatorial Plasma Depletions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, M. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Wilkens, M.; Huba, J. D.; Krall, J.; Valladares, C. E.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Coley, W. R.; Chau, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time, post-midnight equatorial plasma depletions (EPDs) have been imaged in the longitude-altitude plane using radio-tomography. High-resolution (~10 km × 10 km) electron-density reconstructions were created from total electron content (TEC) data using an array of receivers sited in Peru and the Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) inversion algorithm. TEC data were obtained from the 150 and 400 MHz signals transmitted by the CERTO beacon on the C/NOFS satellite. In-situ electron density data from the C/NOFS CINDI instrument and electron density profiles from the UML Jicamarca ionosonde were used to generate an initial guess for the MART inversion, and also to constrain the inversion process. Observed EPDs had widths of 100-1000 km, spacings of 300-900 km, and often appeared 'pinched off' at the bottom. Well-developed EPDs appeared on an evening with a very small (4 m/s) Pre-Reversal-Enhancement (PRE), suggesting that postmidnight enhancements of the vertical plasma drift and/or seeding-induced uplifts (e.g. gravity waves) were responsible for driving the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability into the nonlinear regime on this night. On another night the Jicamarca ISR recorded postmidnight (~0230 LT) Eastward electric fields nearly twice as strong as the PRE fields seven hours earlier. These electric fields lifted the whole ionosphere, including embedded EPDs, over a longitude range ~14° wide. CINDI detected a dawn depletion in exactly the area where the reconstruction showed an uplifted EPD. Strong Equatorial Spread-F observed by the Jicamarca ionosonde during receiver observation times confirmed the presence of ionospheric irregularities.

  12. Depletion of New Neurons by Image Guided Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y.-F.; Rosenzweig, S.; Jaffray, D.; Wojtowicz, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation continues to be a relevant tool in both imaging and the treatment of cancer. Experimental uses of focal irradiation have recently been expanded to studies of new neurons in the adult brain. Such studies have shown cognitive deficits following radiation treatment and raised caution as to possible unintentional effects that may occur in humans. Conflicting outcomes of the effects of irradiation on adult neurogenesis suggest that the effects are either transient or permanent. In this study, we used an irradiation apparatus employed in the treatment of human tumors to assess radiation effects on rat neurogenesis. For subjects we used adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley) under anesthesia. The irradiation beam was directed at the hippocampus, a center for learning and memory, and the site of neurogenic activity in adult brain. The irradiation was applied at a dose-rate 0.6 Gy/min for total single-fraction, doses ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 Gy. The animals were returned to home cages and recovered with no sign of any side effects. The neurogenesis was measured either 1 week or 6 weeks after the irradiation. At 1 week, the number of neuronal progenitors was reduced in a dose-dependent manner with the 50% reduction at 0.78 Gy. The dose–response curve was well fitted by a double exponential suggesting two processes. Examination of the tissue with quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed a dominant low-dose effect on neuronal progenitors resulting in 80% suppression of neurogenesis. This effect was partially reversible, possibly due to compensatory proliferation of the remaining precursors. At higher doses (>5 Gy) there was additional, nearly complete block of neurogenesis without compensatory proliferation. We conclude that notwithstanding the usefulness of irradiation for experimental purposes, the exposure of human subjects to doses often used in radiotherapy treatment could be damaging and cause cognitive impairments. PMID:21541259

  13. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, T A; Yang, C J

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  14. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) in comparison with stimulated emission depletion (STED) and other imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Tam, Johnny; Merino, David

    2015-11-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy are two super-resolution optical microscopy approaches that have rapidly gained popularity in recent years. Both modalities offer super-resolution imaging capabilities with the potential for imaging in multiple colors, three-dimensions, and the possibility to image in live cells. In this review, we focus on the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the context of each other. STORM has been reported to achieve higher spatial resolution when compared to STED, but a lengthy acquisition may be required. STED utilizes relatively higher laser intensities, but is able to generate a super-resolution image immediately after acquisition without the need for any additional data processing. Ultimately, the choice between STORM and STED will depend not only on the specific application, but also on the users' ability to understand and optimize the various parameters ranging from sample preparation to image acquisition, which determine the quality of the final image. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and stimulated emission depletion (STED) are two super-resolution microscopy approaches that have rapidly gained popularity in recent years. STORM is based on the precise localization of a large number of individual molecules that together form a super-resolved image (bottom), whereas STED is based on the scanning of two super-imposed light sources which together allow for a super-resolved spot on the sample to be imaged (top). We discuss the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique and explain the various parameters that affect image quality, which should be taken into consideration when planning experiments.

  15. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  16. The Number of Accumulated Photons and the Quality of Stimulated Emission Depletion Lifetime Images

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Aleem; Lesoine, Michael D; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W; Smith, Emily A

    2014-03-03

    Time binning is used to increase the number of photon counts in the peak channel of stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime decay curves to determine how it affects the resulting lifetime image. The fluorescence lifetime of the fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 594 phalloidin, bound to F-actin is probed in cultured S2 cells at a spatial resolution of ~40 nm. This corresponds to a tenfold smaller probe volume compared to confocal imaging, and a reduced number of photons contributing to the signal. Pixel-by-pixel fluorescence lifetime measurements and error analysis show that an average of 40 ± 30 photon counts in the peak channel with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 is enough to calculate a reliable fluorescence lifetime from a single exponential fluorescence decay. No heterogeneity in the actin cytoskeleton in different regions of the cultured cells was measured in the 40- to 400-nm spatial regime.

  17. Microanalytical X-ray imaging of depleted uranium speciation in environmentally aged munitions residues.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions has resulted in contamination of the near-surface environment with penetrator residues. Uncertainty in the long-term environmental fate of particles produced by impact of DU penetrators with hard targets is a specific concern. In this study DU particles produced in this way and exposed to the surface terrestrial environment for longer than 30 years at a U.K. firing range were characterized using synchrotron X-ray chemical imaging. Two sites were sampled: a surface soil and a disposal area for DU-contaminated wood, and the U speciation was different between the two areas. Surface soil particles showed little extent of alteration, with U speciated as oxides U3O7 and U3O8. Uranium oxidation state and crystalline phase mapping revealed these oxides occur as separate particles, reflecting heterogeneous formation conditions. Particles recovered from the disposal area were substantially weathered, and U(VI) phosphate phases such as meta-ankoleite (K(UO2)(PO4) · 3H2O) were dominant. Chemical imaging revealed domains of contrasting U oxidation state linked to the presence of both U3O7 and meta-ankoleite, indicating growth of a particle alteration layer. This study demonstrates that substantial alteration of DU residues can occur, which directly influences the health and environmental hazards posed by this contamination.

  18. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Bhanu; Jin, Tao; Mellor, Liliana F.; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Ligler, Frances S.; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy provides a new opportunity to study fine sub-cellular structures and highly dynamic cellular processes, which are challenging to observe using conventional optical microscopy. Using actin as an example, we explored the feasibility of using a continuous wave (CW)-STED microscope to study the fine structure and dynamics in fixed and live cells. Actin plays an important role in cellular processes, whose functioning involves dynamic formation and reorganization of fine structures of actin filaments. Frequently used confocal fluorescence and STED microscopy dyes were employed to image fixed PC-12 cells (dyed with phalloidin- fluorescein isothiocyante) and live rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS) transfected with actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, CW-STED microscopy shows improved spatial resolution in both fixed and live cells. We were able to monitor cell morphology changes continuously; however, the number of repetitive analyses were limited primarily by the dyes used in these experiments and could be improved with the use of dyes less susceptible to photobleaching. In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed. PMID:26393614

  19. Short-term repeatability of joint space width measurements using a magnetic resonance imaging compatible knee positioning device.

    PubMed

    Koff, M F; Stanley, D W; Weishaar, P J; Amrami, K K; Kaufman, K R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible knee positioning device to aid in minimizing intratechnologist and intertechnologist differences of minimum joint space width (JSW) measurements. Five subjects were scanned by two separate technologists, with and without an MRI-compatible positioning device. A semi-automated program calculated the minimum JSW of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The scan-to-scan repeatability was evaluated from measurements between serial scans without subject repositioning, and the intratechnologist and intertechnologist repeatabilities were evaluated when the subject was removed from the magnet and repositioned by an individual technologist. The root mean square (RMS) error of the JSW measurements was also calculated. All measures of scan-to-scan repeatability and intratechnologist repeatability were unchanged with the MRI-compatible positioning device. The intertechnologist repeatability decreased from 0.70 to 0.42 mm, and the RMS error was significantly reduced (P = 0.0006) from 0.26 to 0.15 mm for the tibiofemoral joint. The variability of patellofemoral JSW measurements increased when using the positioning device; however, the increases were not statistically significant. The intertechnologist repeatability increased from 1.55 to 1.79 mm, and the RMS error increased from 0.58 to 0.73 mm. The MRI-compatible positioning device was successful at reducing JSW measurement variability at the tibiofemoral joint. The increase in measurement variability at the patellofemoral joint may be due to local incongruities of the articular surfaces. An MRI-compatible positioning device may be beneficial for quantitative longitudinal studies evaluating knee joint health.

  20. The radial width of a Coronal Mass Ejection between 0.1 and 0.4 AU estimated from the Heliospheric Imager on STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davies, J. A.; Owens, M. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Davis, C. J.; Harrison, R. A.

    2009-11-01

    On 15-17 February 2008, a CME with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. Reasoning that an idealised flux rope is cylindrical in shape with a circular cross-section, best fit circles are used to determine the radial width of the CME. As part of the process the radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined by fits to elongation-time maps as 252±5 km/s and 70±5° respectively. With the longitude known, the radial size is calculated from the images, taking projection effects into account. The radial width of the CME, S (AU), obeys a power law with heliocentric distance, R, as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU, such that S=0.26 R0.6±0.1. The exponent value obtained is compared to published studies based on statistical surveys of in situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU, and general agreement is found. This paper demonstrates the new opportunities provided by HI to track the radial width of CMEs through the previously unobservable zone between the LASCO field of view and Helios in situ measurements.

  1. Comparing perceived auditory width to the visual image of a performing ensemble in contrasting bi-modal environmentsa)

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Braasch, Jonas; Myrbeck, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating auditory spatial impressions in rooms, few have addressed the impact of simultaneous visual cues on localization and the perception of spaciousness. The current research presents an immersive audiovisual environment in which participants were instructed to make auditory width judgments in dynamic bi-modal settings. The results of these psychophysical tests suggest the importance of congruent audio visual presentation to the ecological interpretation of an auditory scene. Supporting data were accumulated in five rooms of ascending volumes and varying reverberation times. Participants were given an audiovisual matching test in which they were instructed to pan the auditory width of a performing ensemble to a varying set of audio and visual cues in rooms. Results show that both auditory and visual factors affect the collected responses and that the two sensory modalities coincide in distinct interactions. The greatest differences between the panned audio stimuli given a fixed visual width were found in the physical space with the largest volume and the greatest source distance. These results suggest, in this specific instance, a predominance of auditory cues in the spatial analysis of the bi-modal scene. PMID:22280585

  2. Single-wavelength two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (SW2PE-STED) superresolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Paolo; Harke, Benjamin; Galiani, Silvia; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new class of two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) optical microscope. In this work, we show the opportunity to perform superresolved fluorescence imaging, exciting and stimulating the emission of a fluorophore by means of a single wavelength. We show that a widely used red-emitting fluorophore, ATTO647N, can be two-photon excited at a wavelength allowing both 2PE and STED using the very same laser source. This fact opens the possibility to perform 2PE microscopy at four to five times STED-improved resolution, while exploiting the intrinsic advantages of nonlinear excitation. PMID:22493221

  3. STED microscopy--super-resolution bio-imaging utilizing a stimulated emission depletion.

    PubMed

    Otomo, Kohei; Hibi, Terumasa; Kozawa, Yuichi; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-08-01

    One of the most popular super-resolution microscopies that breaks the diffraction barrier is stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. As the optical set-up of STED microscopy is based on a laser scanning microscopy (LSM) system, it potentially has several merits of LSM like confocal or two-photon excitation LSM. In this article, we first describe the principles of STED microscopy and then describe the features of our newly developed two-photon excitation STED microscopy. On the basis of our recent results and those of other researchers, we conclude by discussing future research and new technologies in this field.

  4. Serotonin 2A Receptors, Citalopram and Tryptophan-Depletion: a Multimodal Imaging Study of their Interactions During Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Hornboll, Bettina; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig; Knudsen, Gitte M; Rowe, James B

    2013-01-01

    Poor behavioral inhibition is a common feature of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Successful inhibition of a prepotent response in ‘NoGo' paradigms requires the integrity of both the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the serotonergic system. We investigated individual differences in serotonergic regulation of response inhibition. In 24 healthy adults, we used 18F-altanserin positron emission tomography to assess cerebral 5-HT2A receptors, which have been related to impulsivity. We then investigated the impact of two acute manipulations of brain serotonin levels on behavioral and neural correlates of inhibition using intravenous citalopram and acute tryptophan depletion during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We adapted the NoGo paradigm to isolate effects on inhibition per se as opposed to other aspects of the NoGo paradigm. Successful NoGo inhibition was associated with greater activation of the right IFG compared to control trials with alternative responses, indicating that the IFG is activated with inhibition in NoGo trials rather than other aspects of invoked cognitive control. Activation of the left IFG during NoGo trials was greater with citalopram than acute tryptophan depletion. Moreover, with the NoGo-type of response inhibition, the right IFG displayed an interaction between the type of serotonergic challenge and neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding. Specifically, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) produced a relatively larger NoGo response in the right IFG in subjects with low 5-HT2A BPP but reduced the NoGo response in those with high 5-HT2A BPP. These links between serotonergic function and response inhibition in healthy subjects may help to interpret serotonergic abnormalities underlying impulsivity in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23303045

  5. The low-resolution imaging spectrograph red channel CCD upgrade: fully depleted, high-resistivity CCDs for Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockosi, C.; Stover, R.; Kibrick, R.; Lockwood, C.; Peck, M.; Cowley, D.; Bolte, M.; Adkins, S.; Alcott, B.; Allen, S. L.; Brown, B.; Cabak, G.; Deich, W.,; Hilyard, D.,; Kassis, M.,; Lanclos, K.,; Lewis, J.,; Pfister, T.,; Phillips, A.,; Robinson, L.,; Saylor, M.,; Thompson, M.,; Ward, J.,; Wei, M.,; Wright, C.,

    2010-07-01

    A mosaic of two 2k x 4k fully depleted, high resistivity CCD detectors was installed in the red channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph for the Keck-I Telescope in June, 2009 replacing a monolithic Tektronix/SITe 2k x 2k CCD. These CCDs were fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and packaged and characterized by UCO/Lick Observatory. Major goals of the detector upgrade were increased throughput and reduced interference fringing at wavelengths beyond 800 nm, as well as improvements in the maintainability and serviceability of the instrument. We report on the main features of the design, the results of optimizing detector performance during integration and testing, as well as the throughput, sensitivity and performance of the instrument as characterized during commissioning.

  6. Cathepsin Activity-Based Probes and Inhibitor for Preclinical Atherosclerosis Imaging and Macrophage Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Kosuge, Hisanori; Wises Sadan, Tommy; Ben-Nun, Yael; Meir, Karen; Rubinstein, Chen; Bogyo, Matthew; McConnell, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, mainly due to an increasing prevalence of atherosclerosis characterized by inflammatory plaques. Plaques with high levels of macrophage infiltration are considered “vulnerable” while those that do not have significant inflammation are considered stable; cathepsin protease activity is highly elevated in macrophages of vulnerable plaques and contributes to plaque instability. Establishing novel tools for non-invasive molecular imaging of macrophages in plaques could aid in preclinical studies and evaluation of therapeutics. Furthermore, compounds that reduce the macrophage content within plaques should ultimately impact care for this disease. Methods We have applied quenched fluorescent cathepsin activity-based probes (ABPs) to a murine atherosclerosis model and evaluated their use for in vivo imaging using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT), as well as ex vivo fluorescence imaging and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, freshly dissected human carotid plaques were treated with our potent cathepsin inhibitor and macrophage apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. Results We demonstrate that our ABPs accurately detect murine atherosclerotic plaques non-invasively, identifying cathepsin activity within plaque macrophages. In addition, our cathepsin inhibitor selectively induced cell apoptosis of 55%±10% of the macrophage within excised human atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions Cathepsin ABPs present a rapid diagnostic tool for macrophage detection in atherosclerotic plaque. Our inhibitor confirms cathepsin-targeting as a promising approach to treat atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. PMID:27532109

  7. Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion imaging of slit diaphragm proteins in optically cleared kidney tissue.

    PubMed

    Unnersjö-Jess, David; Scott, Lena; Blom, Hans; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier, consisting of podocyte foot processes with bridging slit diaphragm, glomerular basement membrane, and endothelium, is a key component for renal function. Previously, the subtlest elements of the filtration barrier have only been visualized using electron microscopy. However, electron microscopy is mostly restricted to ultrathin two-dimensional samples, and the possibility to simultaneously visualize multiple different proteins is limited. Therefore, we sought to implement a super-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy protocol for the study of the filtration barrier in the kidney. Recently, several optical clearing methods have been developed making it possible to image through large volumes of tissue and even whole organs using light microscopy. Here we found that hydrogel-based optical clearing is a beneficial tool to study intact renal tissue at the nanometer scale. When imaging samples using super-resolution STED microscopy, the staining quality was critical in order to assess correct nanoscale information. The signal-to-noise ratio and immunosignal homogeneity were both improved in optically cleared tissue. Thus, STED of slit diaphragms in fluorescently labeled, optically cleared, intact kidney samples is a new tool for studying the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease.

  8. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Ariel Tessler, Nir Einziger, Pinchas D.; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-06-14

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  9. Tracking the stochastic fate of cells of the renin lineage after podocyte depletion using multicolor reporters and intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Diana G.; Rusiniak, Michael E.; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S.; Gomez, R. Ariel; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Gross, Kenneth W.; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8). To monitor the precise migration of a subset of CoRL over a 2w period following podocyte depletion, intravital multiphoton microscopy was used. Our findings demonstrate direct visual support for the migration of single CoRL from the JGC to the parietal Bowman’s capsule, early proximal tubule, mesangium and glomerular tuft. In summary, these results suggest that following podocyte depletion, multi-clonal CoRL migrate to the glomerulus and replace podocyte and PECs in experimental FSGS. PMID:28329012

  10. Tracking the stochastic fate of cells of the renin lineage after podocyte depletion using multicolor reporters and intravital imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaverina, Natalya V; Kadoya, Hiroyuki; Eng, Diana G; Rusiniak, Michael E; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Gross, Kenneth W; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Shankland, Stuart J

    2017-01-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8). To monitor the precise migration of a subset of CoRL over a 2w period following podocyte depletion, intravital multiphoton microscopy was used. Our findings demonstrate direct visual support for the migration of single CoRL from the JGC to the parietal Bowman's capsule, early proximal tubule, mesangium and glomerular tuft. In summary, these results suggest that following podocyte depletion, multi-clonal CoRL migrate to the glomerulus and replace podocyte and PECs in experimental FSGS.

  11. Super-resolution imaging of ciliary microdomains in isolated olfactory sensory neurons using a custom two-color stimulated emission depletion microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Potcoava, Mariana; Salcedo, Ernesto; Restrepo, Diego; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    We performed stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging of isolated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) using a custom-built microscope. The STED microscope uses a single pulsed laser to excite two separate fluorophores, Atto 590 and Atto 647N. A gated timing circuit combined with temporal interleaving of the different color excitation/STED laser pulses filters the two channel detection and greatly minimizes crosstalk. We quantified the instrument resolution to be ˜81 and ˜44 nm, for the Atto 590 and Atto 647N channels. The spatial separation between the two channels was measured to be under 10 nm, well below the resolution limit. The custom-STED microscope is incorporated onto a commercial research microscope allowing brightfield, differential interference contrast, and epifluorescence imaging on the same field of view. We performed immunolabeling of OSNs in mice to image localization of ciliary membrane proteins involved in olfactory transduction. We imaged Ca2+-permeable cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel (Atto 594) and adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) (Atto 647N) in distinct cilia. STED imaging resolved well-separated subdiffraction limited clusters for each protein. We quantified the size of each cluster to have a mean value of 88±48 nm and 124±43 nm, for CNG and ACIII, respectively. STED imaging showed separated clusters that were not resolvable in confocal images.

  12. Estrogen Depletion Results in Nanoscale Morphology Changes in Dermal Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Liroff, Kaitlin G.; Turner, A. Simon; Les, Clifford M.; Orr, Bradford G.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak

    2012-01-01

    Tissue cryo-sectioning combined with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging reveals that the nanoscale morphology of dermis collagen fibrils, quantified using the metric of D-periodic spacing, changes under the condition of estrogen depletion. Specifically, a new subpopulation of fibrils with D-spacings in the region between 56 and 59 nm is present two years following ovariectomy in ovine dermal samples. In addition, the overall width of the distribution, both values above and below the mean, has increased. The change in width due to an increase in lower values of D-spacings was previously reported for ovine bone; however, this report demonstrates that the effect is also present in non-mineralized collagen fibrils. A non-parametric Kolmogrov-Smirnov test of the cumulative density function indicates a statistical difference in the sham and OVX D-spacing distributions (p < 0.01). PMID:22437310

  13. Resonances and resonance widths

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-05-01

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

  14. Diatomic predissociation line widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Predissociation by rotation and curve crossing in diatomic molecules is discussed. The pattern of predissociation line widths is seen as providing a highly sensitive yardstick for the determination of unknown potential curves. In addition, the computation of such a pattern for given potential curves is considered a matter of routine, unless the predissociation happens to occur from an adiabatic potential curve. Analytic formulas are used to provide physical insight into the details of the predissociation pattern, to the extent that a direct inversion procedure is developed for determination of the repulsive potential curves for Type 1 predissociations.

  15. Imaging Lung Clearance of Radiolabeled Tumor Cells to Study Mice with Normal, Activated or Depleted Natural Killer (NK) Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P. V.; Bennett, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Arora, V.; Viguet, M.; Antich, P.; Parkey, R. W.; Mathews, D.; Mason, R. P.; Oz, O. K.

    2003-08-01

    Lung clearance of 51CR and 125I iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) labeled cancer cells assess NK cell activity. It is desirable to develop noninvasive imaging technique to assess NK activity in mice. We labeled target YAC-1 tumor cells with 125I, 111In, 99mTc, or 67Ga and injected I.V. into three groups of BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with medium (group I), 300mg/kg cyclophosmamide (CY) to kill NK cell (group II), or anti-LY49C/1) (ab')2 mAb to augment NK function (group III). Lungs were removed 15 min or 2 h later for tissue counting. Control and treated mice were imaged every 5 min with a scintillating camera for 1 h after 15 min of infusion of the 111In labeled cells. Lung clearance increased after 15 min (lodging: 60-80%) and (2 h retention: 3-7%). Similar results were obtained with all the isotopes studied. Images distinguished the control and treated mice for lung activity. Cells labeled with 111In, 99mTc or 67Ga are cleared similar to those labeled with 51Cr or 125I. NK cell destruction of tumor cells may be assessed by noninvasive imaging method either by SPECT (99mTc, 111In, 67Ga) or by PET (68Ga).

  16. Imaging Lung Clearance of Radiolabeled Tumor Cells to Study Mice with Normal, Activated or Depleted Natural Killer (NK) Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Bennett, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Arora, V.; Viguet, M.; Antich, P.; Parkey, R.W.; Mathews, D.; Mason, R.P.; Oz, O.K.

    2003-08-26

    Lung clearance of 51CR and 125I iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) labeled cancer cells assess NK cell activity. It is desirable to develop noninvasive imaging technique to assess NK activity in mice. We labeled target YAC-1 tumor cells with 125I, 111In, 99mTc, or 67Ga and injected I.V. into three groups of BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with medium (group I), 300mg/kg cyclophosmamide (CY) to kill NK cell (group II), or anti-LY49C/1) (ab')2 mAb to augment NK function (group III). Lungs were removed 15 min or 2 h later for tissue counting. Control and treated mice were imaged every 5 min with a scintillating camera for 1 h after 15 min of infusion of the 111In labeled cells. Lung clearance increased after 15 min (lodging: 60-80%) and (2 h retention: 3-7%). Similar results were obtained with all the isotopes studied. Images distinguished the control and treated mice for lung activity. Cells labeled with 111In, 99mTc or 67Ga are cleared similar to those labeled with 51Cr or 125I. NK cell destruction of tumor cells may be assessed by noninvasive imaging method either by SPECT (99mTc, 111In, 67Ga) or by PET (68Ga)

  17. Development for Germanium Blocked Impurity Band Far-Infrared Image Sensors with Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator CMOS Readout Integrated Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Arai, Y.; Baba, S.; Hanaoka, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kaneda, H.; Kochi, C.; Miyachi, A.; Nagase, K.; Nakaya, H.; Ohno, M.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Ukai, S.; Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2016-07-01

    We are developing far-infrared (FIR) imaging sensors for low-background and high-sensitivity applications such as infrared astronomy. Previous FIR monolithic imaging sensors, such as an extrinsic germanium photo-conductor (Ge PC) with a PMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) hybridized by indium pixel-to-pixel interconnection, had three difficulties: (1) short cut-off wavelength (120 \\upmu m), (2) large power consumption (10 \\upmu W/pixel), and (3) large mismatch in thermal expansion between the Ge PC and the Si ROIC. In order to overcome these difficulties, we developed (1) a blocked impurity band detector fabricated by a surface- activated bond technology, whose cut-off wavelength is longer than 160 \\upmu m, (2) a fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS ROIC which works below 4 K with 1 \\upmu W/pixel operating power, and (3) a new concept, Si-supported Ge detector, which shows tolerance to thermal cycling down to 3 K. With these new techniques, we are now developing a 32 × 32 FIR imaging sensor.

  18. The Width of a Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gila

    2014-01-01

    This paper's aim is to discuss the concept of width of a proof put forward by Timothy Gowers. It explains what this concept means and attempts to show how it relates to other concepts discussed in the existing literature on proof and proving. It also explores how the concept of width of a proof might be used productively in the mathematics…

  19. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  20. Phase width reduction project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.; Xie, Z.Q.; McMahan, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the phase width reduction project, 1993--96, was to reduce the phase width of the 88-Inch Cyclotron beam on target from 5--10 ns to 1--2 ns for certain experiments, such as Gammasphere, which use time-of-flight identification. Since reducing the phase width also reduces beam intensity, tuning should be done to also optimize the transmission. The Multi-turn Collimator slits in the cyclotron center region were used to collimate the early turns radially, thus reducing the phase width from about 5 ns to 1--2 ns FWHM for a Gammasphere beam. The effect of the slits on phase width was verified with a Fast Faraday Cup and with particle and gamma-ray detectors in the external beamline.

  1. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  2. Masses, widths, and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, D. M.; Horstkotte, J. E.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Romero, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Youssef, S.; Franzini, P.; Son, D.; Tuts, P. M.; Zhao, T.; Herb, S.; Dietl, H.; Eigen, G.; Fonseca, V.; Lorenz, E.; Mageras, G.; Han, K.; Imlay, R.; Metcalf, W.; Sreedhar, V.

    1985-02-01

    The masses, total widths, and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb¯ states Υ(4S), Υ(5S), and Υ(6S) are determined from measurements of the e+e- annihilation cross section into hadrons for 10.55

  3. Relation between index finger width and hand width anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Komandur, Sashidharan; Johnson, Peter W; Storch, Richard L; Yost, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Measures of hand and finger anthropometry are very important for designing many hand held devices as well as understanding anthropometric effects on the operation of such devices. Many historical datasets have measured and recorded gross hand dimensions but do not often record the finer dimensions of the hand such as finger anthropometry. Knowing the size and mass of fingers across genders can be critical to the design and operation of hand held devices. In this paper we compare two empirical linear models that predicts index finger width at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (a finger anthropometric measure) based on hand-width (hand anthropometric measure). This will be especially useful for deriving population measures of finger anthropometry from large historical data sets where only gross hand dimensions are available.

  4. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  5. Live-cell imaging reveals sequential oligomerization and local plasma membrane targeting of stromal interaction molecule 1 after Ca2+ store depletion

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Jen; Fivaz, Marc; Inoue, Takanari; Meyer, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) has recently been identified by our group and others as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor that responds to ER Ca2+ store depletion and activates Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane (PM). The molecular mechanism by which STIM1 transduces signals from the ER lumen to the PM is not yet understood. Here we developed a live-cell FRET approach and show that STIM1 forms oligomers within 5 s after Ca2+ store depletion. These oligomers rapidly dissociated when ER Ca2+ stores were refilled. We further show that STIM1 formed oligomers before its translocation within the ER network to ER–PM junctions. A mutant STIM1 lacking the C-terminal polybasic PM-targeting motif oligomerized after Ca2+ store depletion but failed to form puncta at ER–PM junctions. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements to monitor STIM1 mobility, we show that STIM1 oligomers translocate on average only 2 μm to reach ER–PM junctions, arguing that STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling is a local process that is suitable for generating cytosolic Ca2+ gradients. Together, our live-cell measurements dissect the STIM1 ER-to-PM signaling relay into four sequential steps: (i) dissociation of Ca2+, (ii) rapid oligomerization, (iii) spatially restricted translocation to nearby ER–PM junctions, and (iv) activation of PM Ca2+ channels. PMID:17517596

  6. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Depleted Uranium: Technical Brief

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical brief provides accepted data and references to additional sources for radiological and chemical characteristics, health risks and references for both the monitoring and measurement, and applicable treatment techniques for depleted uranium.

  9. Testing fully depleted CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  10. 23 CFR 658.15 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Width. 658.15 Section 658.15 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.15 Width. (a) No State shall impose a width...

  11. Accurate vessel width measurement from fundus photographs: a new concept.

    PubMed Central

    Rassam, S M; Patel, V; Brinchmann-Hansen, O; Engvold, O; Kohner, E M

    1994-01-01

    Accurate determination of retinal vessel width measurement is important in the study of the haemodynamic changes that accompany various physiological and pathological states. Currently the width at the half height of the transmittance and densitometry profiles are used as a measure of retinal vessel width. A consistent phenomenon of two 'kick points' on the slopes of the transmittance and densitometry profiles near the base, has been observed. In this study, mathematical models have been formulated to describe the characteristic curves of the transmittance and the densitometry profiles. They demonstrate the kick points being coincident with the edges of the blood column. The horizontal distance across the kick points would therefore indicate the actual blood column width. To evaluate this hypothesis, blood was infused through two lengths of plastic tubing of known diameters, and photographed. In comparison with the known diameters, the half height underestimated the blood column width by 7.33% and 6.46%, while the kick point method slightly overestimated it by 1.40% and 0.34%. These techniques were applied to monochromatic fundus photographs. In comparison with the kick point method, the half height underestimated the blood column width in veins by 16.67% and in arteries by 15.86%. The characteristics of the kick points and their practicality have been discussed. The kick point method may provide the most accurate measurement of vessel width possible from these profiles. Images PMID:8110693

  12. Automated width measurements of Martian dust devil tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2016-03-01

    Studying dust devils is important to better understand Mars climate and resurfacing phenomena. This paper presents an automated approach to calculate the width of tracks in orbital images. The method is based on Mathematical Morphology and was applied to a set of 200 HiRISE and MOC images of five Mars quadrangles, which were Aeolis, Argyre, Noachis, Hellas and Eridania. Information obtained by our method was compared with results of manual analysis performed by other authors. In addition, we show that track widths do not follow a normal distribution.

  13. Variation in the Width of Transition Region Network Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    The transition region network seen in solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines is the extension of the chromospheric network. The network appears as an irregular web-like pattern over the solar surface outside active regions. The average width of transition region network boundaries is obtained from the two-dimensional autocorrelation function of SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) synoptic images of the Sun in two emission lines, He i 586 Å and O v 630 Å during 1996 - 2012. The width of the network boundaries is found to be roughly correlated with the solar cycle variation with a lag of about ten months. A comparison of the widths in the two emission lines shows that they are larger for the He i line. The SOHO/CDS data also show large asymmetry in boundary widths in the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) image directions, which is shown to be caused by image distortions that are due to instrumental effects. Since the network boundary widths are related to the magnetic flux concentration along the boundaries, the results are expected to have implications on the flux transport on the solar surface, solar cycle, and the mass and energy budget of network loops and jets.

  14. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  15. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Width, as an element of quality, does not apply to tobacco in strip form. (See Elements of Quality Chart... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep. Width... quality...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Width, as an element of quality, does not apply to tobacco in strip form. (See Elements of Quality Chart... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep. Width... quality...

  17. 23 CFR 658.15 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.15 Width. (a) No State shall impose a width limitation of more or less than 102 inches, or its approximate metric equivalent, 2.6 meters (102.36 inches)...

  18. A closer look at the `characteristic' width of molecular cloud filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panopoulou, G. V.; Psaradaki, I.; Skalidis, R.; Tassis, K.; Andrews, J. J.

    2017-04-01

    Filaments in Herschel molecular cloud images are found to exhibit a 'characteristic width'. This finding is in tension with spatial power spectra of the data, which show no indication of this characteristic scale. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is a result of the methodology adopted for measuring filament widths. First, we perform the previously used analysis technique on artificial scale-free data, and obtain a peaked width distribution of filament-like structures. Next, we repeat the analysis on three Herschel maps and reproduce the narrow distribution of widths found in previous studies - when considering the average width of each filament. However, the distribution of widths measured at all points along a filament spine is broader than the distribution of mean filament widths, indicating that the narrow spread (interpreted as a 'characteristic' width) results from averaging. Furthermore, the width is found to vary significantly from one end of a filament to the other. Therefore, the previously identified peak at 0.1 pc cannot be understood as representing the typical width of filaments. We find an alternative explanation by modelling the observed width distribution as a truncated power-law distribution, sampled with uncertainties. The position of the peak is connected to the lower truncation scale and is likely set by the choice of parameters used in measuring filament widths. We conclude that a 'characteristic' width of filaments is not supported by the available data.

  19. Energy-discrimination X-ray computed tomography system utilizing a silicon-PIN detector and its application to 2.0-keV-width K-edge imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Osahiko; Watanabe, Manabu; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Demonstration of narrow-energy-width computed tomography (CT) was carried out by means of energy-discrimination. An X-ray CT system is of a first-generation type and consists of an X-ray generator, a turntable, a translation stage, a two-stage controller, a silicon-PIN detector system with amplifiers, a multi-channel analyzer (MCA), a counter card (CC), and a personal computer (PC). CT is accomplished by repeating the translation and the rotation of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the translation of the moving object. Both photon-energy level and energy width are determined by the MCA, and the pulses of the discriminated event signal from the MCA are counted by CC in conjunction with PC. The maximum count rate was approximately 300 cps (counts per second) with energy widths of 2.0 keV, and energy-discrimination CT was carried out with a photon-energy resolution of 0.15 keV. To perform iodine K-edge CT, X-ray photons with an energy range from 33.2 to 35.2 keV were used. Next, to carry out cerium K-edge CT, an energy range from 40.3 to 42.3 keV was selected.

  20. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  1. Width Criterion For Weld-Seam-Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincir, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Image-processing algorithm in "through-torch-vision" (T3V) system developed to guide gas/tungsten arc welding robot along weld seam modified, according to proposal, reducing incidence of inaccurate tracking of weld seam. Developmental system intended to provide closed-loop control of motion of welding robot along weld seam on basis of lines in T3V image identified by use of image-processing algorithm and assumed to coincide with edges of weld seam. Use of width criterion prevents tracking of many false pairs of lines, with consequent decrease in incidence of inaccurate tracking and increase in confidence in weld-tracking capability of robotic welding system.

  2. Depletion of intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Seipt, D.; Heinzl, T.; Marklund, M.

    2017-03-01

    The problem of backreaction of quantum processes on the properties of the background field still remains on the list of outstanding questions of high intensity particle physics. Usually, photon emission by an electron or positron, photon decay into electron-positron pairs in strong electromagnetic fields, or electron-positron pair production by such fields are described in the framework of the external field approximation. It is assumed that the external field has infinite energy and is not affected by these processes. However, the above-mentioned processes have a multi-photon nature, i.e., they occur with the absorption of a significant number of field photons. As a result, the interaction of an intense electromagnetic field with either a highly charged electron bunch or a fast growing population of electrons, positrons, and gamma photons (as in the case of an electromagnetic cascade) may lead to a depletion of the field energy, thus making the external field approximation invalid. Taking the multi-photon Compton process as an example, we estimate the threshold of depletion and find it to become significant at field strengths (a0˜103) and electron bunch charge of about tens of nC.

  3. 12. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLDS. DEPLETED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLDS. DEPLETED URANIUM CASTING OPERATIONS CEASED IN 1988. (11/14/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Terrace width variations in complex lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Steven J.; Melosh, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The widths of terrace structures in complex craters on the moon are compared to existing theoretical models of their origin. Terrace widths in an individual crater increase monotonically outward toward the crater rim. Similarly, the width W of the terraces lying closest to the rim of a crater of diameter D increases monotonically, obeying a least-squares power-law relation WS (km) = 0.09D exp 0.87 km). A simple model of slumping that ignores inertial forces and assumes a constant bedrock yield strength is in good agreement with the observations.

  5. Depleted Uranium in Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Croff, A.G.

    1997-12-31

    For uranium to be useful in most fission nuclear reactors, it must be enriched (i.e. the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased). Therefore, depleted uranium (DU)-uranium which has less than naturally occurring concentrations of 235U-is a co-product of the enrichment process. Four to six tons of DU exist for every ton of fresh light water reactor fuel. There were 407,006 MgU 407,000 metric tons (t) of DU stored on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as of July 1993. If this DU were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and emplaced in a near surface disposal facility, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that near surface disposal of large quantities of DU tails is not appropriate. Thus, there is the possibility that disposition via disposal will be in a deep geological repository. One alternative that may significantly reduce the cost of DU disposition is to use it beneficially. In fact, DOE has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large scale uses of DU and to encourage its reuse. Several beneficial uses, many of which involve applications in the repository per se or in managing the wastes to go into the repository, are discussed in this report.

  6. Bipartite Graphs of Large Clique-Width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpelainen, Nicholas; Lozin, Vadim V.

    Recently, several constructions of bipartite graphs of large clique-width have been discovered in the literature. In the present paper, we propose a general framework for developing such constructions and use it to obtain new results on this topic.

  7. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed. PMID:20195447

  8. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  9. Comparison of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements from standing CT and fixed flexion radiography.

    PubMed

    Segal, Neil A; Frick, Eric; Duryea, Jeffrey; Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C; Felson, David T; Anderson, Donald D

    2016-08-09

    The objective of this project was to determine the relationship between medial tibiofemoral joint space width measured on fixed-flexion radiographs and the three-dimensional joint space width distribution on low-dose, standing CT (SCT) imaging. At the 84-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, 20 participants were recruited. A commercial SCT scanner for the foot and ankle was modified to image knees while standing. Medial tibiofemoral joint space width was assessed on radiographs at fixed locations from 15-30% of compartment width using validated software and on SCT by mapping the distances between three-dimensional subchondral bone surfaces. Individual joint space width values from radiographs were compared with three-dimensional joint space width values from corresponding sagittal plane locations using paired t-tests and correlation coefficients. For the 4 medial-most tibiofemoral locations, radiographic joint space width values exceeded the minimal joint space width on SCT by a mean of 2.0mm and were approximately equal to the 61st percentile value of the joint space width distribution at each respective sagittal-plane location. Correlation coefficients at these locations were 0.91-0.97 and the offsets between joint space width values from radiographs and SCT measurements were consistent. There were greater offsets and variability in the offsets between modalities closer to the tibial spine. Joint space width measurements on fixed-flexion radiographs are highly correlated with three-dimensional joint space width from SCT. In addition to avoiding bony overlap obscuring the joint, a limitation of radiographs, the current study supports a role for SCT in the evaluation of tibiofemoral OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Lithium Depletion in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Jennifer C.; Jensen, E. L.; Reaser, B. E.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of lithium depletion in twelve late-type pre-main-sequence stars in the coeval Beta Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG). The age of this group ( 12 Myr) is well constrained because all of the stars in the sample have Hipparcos distances. We have determined Li abundances for these K and M stars using equivalent width measurements of the 6707.8 Angstrom Li I line from new high-resolution, high-S/N echelle spectra, and we compare these abundances to models of pre-main-sequence Li depletion by Baraffe et al. (1998), D'Antona & Mazzitelli (1997, 1998), and Siess, Dufour, & Forestini (2000). Significantly more lithium depletion is observed in the sample than is predicted for a group of this age. In particular, the discrepancy between the predicted and the observed lithium abundances increases with decreasing effective temperature, suggesting a problem with theories describing pre-main-sequence lithium depletion. Our data indicate that M stars deplete lithium more rapidly than predicted, which could make M-type post-T-Tauri stars difficult to identify. In addition, we compare our results to the work of Song, Bessell, & Zuckerman (2002) on HIP 112312. In contrast to that work, we did not observe the lithium depletion boundary of the BPMG; none of the three M4.5 stars in the sample showed evidence of lithium (log N(Li) < -0.5), indicating a lithium depletion boundary later than M4.5, further underscoring the gap between age estimates from lithium depletion and those from theoretical evolutionary tracks. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0307830.

  11. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2006-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290–320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime—the ‘Antarctic ozone hole’. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules. PMID:16627294

  12. Stratospheric ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Rowland, F Sherwood

    2006-05-29

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the chemical species HO, HO2, NO, NO2, Cl and ClO. The NOX and ClOX chains involve the emission at Earth's surface of stable molecules in very low concentration (N2O, CCl2F2, CCl3F, etc.) which wander in the atmosphere for as long as a century before absorbing ultraviolet radiation and decomposing to create NO and Cl in the middle of the stratospheric ozone layer. The growing emissions of synthetic chlorofluorocarbon molecules cause a significant diminution in the ozone content of the stratosphere, with the result that more solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290-320 nm wavelength) reaches the surface. This ozone loss occurs in the temperate zone latitudes in all seasons, and especially drastically since the early 1980s in the south polar springtime-the 'Antarctic ozone hole'. The chemical reactions causing this ozone depletion are primarily based on atomic Cl and ClO, the product of its reaction with ozone. The further manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons has been banned by the 1992 revisions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol of the United Nations. Atmospheric measurements have confirmed that the Protocol has been very successful in reducing further emissions of these molecules. Recovery of the stratosphere to the ozone conditions of the 1950s will occur slowly over the rest of the twenty-first century because of the long lifetime of the precursor molecules.

  13. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  14. Background suppression in fluorescence nanoscopy with stimulated emission double depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Prunsche, Benedikt; Zhou, Lu; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence nanoscopy is a powerful super-resolution imaging technique based on the confinement of fluorescence emission to the central subregion of an observation volume through de-excitation of fluorophores in the periphery via stimulated emission. Here, we introduce stimulated emission double depletion (STEDD) as a method to selectively remove artificial background intensity. In this approach, a first, conventional STED pulse is followed by a second, delayed Gaussian STED pulse that specifically depletes the central region, thus leaving only background. Thanks to time-resolved detection we can remove this background intensity voxel by voxel by taking the weighted difference of photons collected before and after the second STED pulse. STEDD thus yields background-suppressed super-resolved images as well as STED-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data. Furthermore, the proposed method is also beneficial when considering lower-power, less redshifted depletion pulses.

  15. [Internal contamination with depleted uranium and health disorders].

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Karamehić, Jasenko; Ljuca, Farid; Zigić, Zlata; Ascerić, Mensura

    2002-01-01

    In this review we used the published data on depleted uranium (experimental and epidemiological) from the current literature. Depleted uranium is a toxic heavy metal that in high dose may cause poisoning and health effects as those caused by lead, mercury, and chromium. It is slightly radioactive. The aim of this review was to select, to arrange, to present references of scientific papers, and to summarise the data in order to give a comprehensive image of the results of toxicological studies on depleted uranium that have been done on animals (including carcinogenic activity). We have also used epidemiological posted study results related to occupational and environmental exposure to depleted uranium. The toxicity of uranium has been studied extensively. The results of the studies indicated primarily its chemical toxicity, particularly renal effects, but depleted uranium is not radiological hazard. Uranium is not metal determined to be carcinogenic (the International Agency of Research on Cancer). The military use of depleted uranium will give additional insight into the toxicology of depleted uranium. The present controversy over the radiological and chemical toxicity of depleted uranium used in the Gulf War requests further experimental and clinical investigations of its effects on the biosphere and human beings.

  16. Transequatorial Propagation and Depletion Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. S.; Bust, G. S.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Frissell, N. A.; Paxton, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The bottomside equatorial ionosphere in the afternoon and evening sector frequently evolves rapidly from smoothly stratified to violently unstable with large wedges of depleted plasma growing through to the topside on timescales of a few tens of minutes. These depletions have numerous practical impacts on radio propagation, including amplitude scintillation, field-aligned irregularity scatter, HF blackouts, and long-distance transequatorial propagation at frequencies above the MUF. Practical impacts notwithstanding, the pathways and conditions under which depletions form remain a topic of vigorous inquiry some 80 years after their first report. Structuring of the pre-sunset ionosphere---morphology of the equatorial anomalies and long-wavelength undulations of the isodensity contours on the bottomside---are likely to hold some clues to conditions that are conducive to depletion formation. The Conjugate Depletion Experiment is an upcoming transequatorial forward-scatter HF/VHF experiment to investigate pre-sunset undulations and their connection with depletion formation. We will present initial results from the Conjugate Depletion Experiment, as well as a companion analysis of a massive HF propagation data set.

  17. The Variable Line Width of Achernar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, Th.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Baade, D.; Carciofi, A. C.; Leister, N.; Štefl, S.

    2016-11-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Achernar over the past decades, have shown the photospheric line width, as measured by the rotational parameter v sin i, to vary in correlation with the emission activity. Here we present new observations, covering the most recent activity phase, and further archival data collected from the archives. The v sin i variation is confirmed. On the basis of the available data it cannot be decided with certainty whether the increased line width precedes the emission activity, i.e. is a signature of the ejection mechanism, or postdates it, which would make it a signature of re-accretion of some of the disk-material. However, the observed evidence leans towards the re-accretion hypothesis. Two further stars showing the effect of variable line width in correlation with emission activity, namely 66 Oph and π Aqr, are presented as well.

  18. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    PubMed

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2017-02-28

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly.

  19. Equivalent Widths in the Spectrum of Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Qiu, H. M.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Z. W.

    2000-02-01

    The equivalent widths of total 546 lines (26 elements are included) in the spectrum of the bright Am star Sirius from 380 to 930 nm are tabulated. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum was obtained with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph attached to the 2.16 m telescope at Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Xinglong, China). Here we also give the results of the equivalent widths comparison between our measurements and those of Strom et al. and Sadakane & Ueta.

  20. Commercialisation of full depletion scientific CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorden, Paul; Ball, Kevin; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Guyatt, Neil; Hadfield, Kevin; Jerram, Paul; Pool, Peter; Pike, Andrew; Holland, Andrew; Murray, Neil

    2006-06-01

    Following successful manufacture of small-format trial devices we have now designed and manufactured large-format scientific CCDs in high resistivity silicon ('high-rho'). These devices are intended for 'full depletion' operation as backside illuminated sensors for very high red wavelength sensitivity and X-ray imaging spectroscopy at extended energies. Devices of 2k*512 and 2k*4k format, with both single and dual stage output circuits have been manufactured and tested. Design considerations, test results, and commercial manufacturing considerations will be addressed.

  1. Characterizing Fluoroscopy Based Kinematic Accuracy as a Function of Pulse Width and Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Arin M.; Mozingo, Joseph D.; Magnuson, Dixon J.; Pagnano, Mark W.; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroscopic imaging has become increasingly popular to investigate total knee arthroplasty kinematics non-invasively - 3D implant models are aligned with 2D image projections, and optimized via an edge-contour alignment technique. Previous studies have quantified the accuracy of this approach, however they do not adequately address the impact of image collection parameters. A particularly sensitive parameter is the pulse width, or exposure time per frame At longer pulse widths, a more motion is captured in a single frame; this can lead to image blur and subsequent degradation to image edge quality. Therefore, the comparative accuracy of relative joint kinematics as a function of pulse width and joint velocity needs to be defined. A limits of agreement approach was taken to define the mean differences between optoelectric kinematic measures (gold standard) and fluoroscopic methods at various pulse widths (1, 8, 16ms) and knee velocities (50, 100, 225°/s). The mean absolute differences between the optoelectric and fluoroscopic methods for 1ms pulse width was less than 1.5° and 0.9mm. Comparable rotational differences (1.3°) were observed for the 8ms pulse width but had larger translational differences (1.4mm). The 16ms pulse width yielded the greatest mean differences (2.0° and 1.6mm), which increased with knee flexion velocity. The importance of pulse width and velocity should not be overlooked for future studies - this parameter has proven to be a sensitive metric in the quantification of joint motion via fluoroscopy and must be identified and reported in future studies. PMID:27769514

  2. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Areas and Routes for Supplemental Operations §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route...

  4. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  5. Depleting depletion: Polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    A polymer collapses in a solvent when the solvent particles dislike monomers more than the repulsion between monomers. This leads to an effective attraction between monomers, also referred to as depletion induced attraction. This attraction is the key factor behind standard polymer collapse in poor solvents. Strikingly, even if a polymer exhibits poor solvent condition in two different solvents, it can also swell in mixtures of these two poor solvents. This collapse-swelling-collapse scenario is displayed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in aqueous alcohol. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a thermodynamically consistent generic model and theoretical arguments, we unveil the microscopic origin of this phenomenon. Our analysis suggests that a subtle interplay of the bulk solution properties and the local depletion forces reduces depletion effects, thus dictating polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

  6. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of a depleted CMOS sensor using an edge Transient Current Technique based on the Two Photon Absorption process (TPA-eTCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Marcos Fernández; Sánchez, Javier González; Echeverría, Richard Jaramillo; Moll, Michael; Santos, Raúl Montero; Moya, David; Pinto, Rogelio Palomo; Vila, Iván

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, the deep n-well (DNW) depletion space of a High Voltage CMOS sensor has been characterized using a Transient Current Technique based on the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This novel approach has allowed to resolve the DNW implant boundaries and therefore to accurately determine the real depleted volume and the effective doping concentration of the substrate. The unprecedented spatial resolution of this new method comes from the fact that measurable free carrier generation in two photon mode only occurs in a micrometric scale voxel around the focus of the beam. Real three-dimensional spatial resolution is achieved by scanning the beam focus within the sample.

  7. Testing Computability by Width Two OBDDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, Dana; Tsur, Gilad

    Property testing is concerned with deciding whether an object (e.g. a graph or a function) has a certain property or is “far” (for some definition of far) from every object with that property. In this paper we give lower and upper bounds for testing functions for the property of being computable by a read-once width-2 Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD), also known as a branching program, where the order of the variables is known. Width-2 OBDDs generalize two classes of functions that have been studied in the context of property testing - linear functions (over GF(2)) and monomials. In both these cases membership can be tested in time that is linear in 1/ɛ. Interestingly, unlike either of these classes, in which the query complexity of the testing algorithm does not depend on the number, n, of variables in the tested function, we show that (one-sided error) testing for computability by a width-2 OBDD requires Ω(log(n)) queries, and give an algorithm (with one-sided error) that tests for this property and performs tilde{O}(log(n)/ɛ) queries.

  8. Effect of pump depletion and cross-focusing on twisted terahertz radiation generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, Hassan; Dehghan, Mehdi; Dadar, Elham

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the pump depletion and cross-focusing effects on the generation of twisted terahertz radiation are investigated. Based on the beating of two Laguerre-Gaussian lasers in a radial plasma channel, a twisted terahertz radiation can be produced. In the presence of pump depletion, the lasers power is consumed. So, the ponderomotive force nonlinearity decreases and the output terahertz field approaches to a saturation value. Under competition between the diffraction and nonlinearity effects, the amplitude of laser beam width oscillation grows. When the incident laser beams have non-similar topological charge numbers, the normalized generated terahertz amplitude is low and the pump depletion effect on the laser beam width evolution is ignorable.

  9. LADAR Range Image Interpolation Exploiting Pulse Width Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    33 3.2. The Gaussian beam upon exiting the laser cavity of the LADAR. 35 3.3. Two Gaussian beams with different beam waists ...g(x, y), is normalized so that the double summation of the squared field is equal to one. The variable ωo is the beam waist , which is described next...Beam waist is a characteristic that is essential in describing a Gaussian beam. The beam waist , represented by ωo in Equation (2.3), describes the

  10. IMAGE EUV Observations and Modeling of the Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated with the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M.L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. At EUV wavelengths, this density trough appeared as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1800 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images. Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) [Gallagher et al., 20001 and the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.

  11. Artifacts for Calibration of Submicron Width Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank; Grunthaner, Paula; Bryson, Charles, III

    2003-01-01

    Artifacts that are fabricated with the help of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are undergoing development for use as dimensional calibration standards with submicron widths. Such standards are needed for calibrating instruments (principally, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes) for measuring the widths of features in advanced integrated circuits. Dimensional calibration standards fabricated by an older process that involves lithography and etching of trenches in (110) surfaces of single-crystal silicon are generally reproducible to within dimensional tolerances of about 15 nm. It is anticipated that when the artifacts of the present type are fully developed, their critical dimensions will be reproducible to within 1 nm. These artifacts are expected to find increasing use in the semiconductor-device and integrated- circuit industries as the width tolerances on semiconductor devices shrink to a few nanometers during the next few years. Unlike in the older process, one does not rely on lithography and etching to define the critical dimensions. Instead, one relies on the inherent smoothness and flatness of MBE layers deposited under controlled conditions and defines the critical dimensions as the thicknesses of such layers. An artifact of the present type is fabricated in two stages (see figure): In the first stage, a multilayer epitaxial wafer is grown on a very flat substrate. In the second stage, the wafer is cleaved to expose the layers, then the exposed layers are differentially etched (taking advantage of large differences between the etch rates of the different epitaxial layer materials). The resulting structure includes narrow and well-defined trenches and a shelf with thicknesses determined by the thicknesses of the epitaxial layers from which they were etched. Eventually, it should be possible to add a third fabrication stage in which durable, electronically inert artifacts could be replicated in diamondlike carbon from a master made by

  12. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  13. Swath width study. A simulation assessment of costs and benefits of a sensor system for agricultural application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Satellites provide an excellent platform from which to observe crops on the scale and frequency required to provide accurate crop production estimates on a worldwide basis. Multispectral imaging sensors aboard these platforms are capable of providing data from which to derive acreage and production estimates. The issue of sensor swath width was examined. The quantitative trade trade necessary to resolve the combined issue of sensor swath width, number of platforms, and their orbits was generated and are included. Problems with different swath width sensors were analyzed and an assessment of system trade-offs of swath width versus number of satellites was made for achieving Global Crop Production Forecasting.

  14. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  15. Optical antennas with sinusoidal modulation in width.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Dirk Jan; Segerink, Frans B; Korterik, Jeroen P; Pfaff, Stefan S; Prangsma, Jord C; Herek, Jennifer L

    2016-08-08

    Small metal structures sustaining plasmon resonances in the optical regime are of great interest due to their large scattering cross sections and ability to concentrate light to subwavelength volumes. In this paper, we study the dipolar plasmon resonances of optical antennas with a constant volume and a sinusoidal modulation in width. We experimentally show that by changing the phase of the width-modulation, with a small 10 nm modulation amplitude, the resonance shifts over 160 nm. Using simulations we show how this simple design can create resonance shifts greater than 600 nm. The versatility of this design is further shown by creating asymmetric structures with two different modulation amplitudes, which we experimentally and numerically show to give rise to two resonances. Our results on both the symmetric and asymmetric antennas show the capability to control the localization of the fields outside the antenna, while still maintaining the freedom to change the antenna resonance wavelength. The antenna design we tested combines a large spectral tunability with a small footprint: all the antenna dimensions are factor 7 to 13 smaller than the wavelength, and hold potential as a design element in meta-surfaces for beam shaping.

  16. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  17. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  18. Ozone depletion, paradigms, and politics

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    The destruction of the Earth`s protective ozone layer is a prime environmental concern. Industry has responded to this environmental problem by: implementing conservation techniques to reduce the emission of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs); using alternative cleaning solvents that have lower ozone depletion potentials (ODPs); developing new, non-ozone-depleting solvents, such as terpenes; and developing low-residue soldering processes. This paper presents an overview of a joint testing program at Sandia and Motorola to evaluate a low-residue (no-clean) soldering process for printed wiring boards (PWBs). Such processes are in widespread use in commercial applications because they eliminate the cleaning operation. The goal of this testing program was to develop a data base that could be used to support changes in the mil-specs. In addition, a joint task force involving industry and the military has been formed to conduct a follow-up evaluation of low-residue processes that encompass the concerns of the tri-services. The goal of the task force is to gain final approval of the low-residue technology for use in military applications.

  19. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; Chen, Wan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made also in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, and of the spatial distribution of progenitors to core-collapse supernovae. We report here the results of two-dimensional atmospheric model calculations that take as input the spectral energy distribution of a supernova, adopting various distances from Earth and various latitude impact angles. In separate simulations we calculate the ozone depletion due to both gamma rays and cosmic rays. We find that for the combined ozone depletion from these effects roughly to double the 'biologically active' UV flux received at the surface of the Earth, the supernova must occur at approximately or less than 8 parsecs.

  20. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiayu; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hu, Qiao; Bakall, Benjamin; Tlucek, Paul S; Bertelsen, Geir; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  1. Device-width dependence of plateau width in quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaji, S.; Hirakawa, K.; Nagata, M.

    1993-02-01

    Hall bar type devices having a total length of 2900 μm, a source and drain electrode width of 400 μm and different widths w ranging from 10 to 120 μm in its central 600 μm long part are fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs wafer with electron mobility of 21 m 2V -1s -1. The current at which the quantum Hall plateau for i=2 at B=9.7T at T=1.2K disappears is proportional to w. The average critical current density is Jcr=(1.6±0.2) A m -1

  2. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  3. Red cell distribution width and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is an index which primarily reflects impaired erythropoiesis and abnormal red blood cell survival. In last years the interest in this marker has considerably grown and now a lot of data are available indicating that this simple and inexpensive parameter is a strong and independent risk factor for death in the general population. Moreover, several investigations have been performed to investigate the role of RDW in cardiovascular and thrombotic disorders. Contrarily, there are relatively few reports focusing on RDW in the area of oncology and to date none review have been performed in this specific field. As such, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize some interesting results obtained in studies performed in patients affected by solid and hematological tumors. Even if larger studies are needed before these preliminary findings can be generalized, it seems plausible to affirm that RDW can be useful by adding prognostic information in patients with oncologic disease. PMID:27867951

  4. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  5. Direct measurement of the W boson width.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-12-04

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W --> enu candidate events. Data from approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded at square root of s = 1.96 TeV by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider are analyzed. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 +/- 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model.

  6. In vivo diffusion analysis with quantum dots and dextrans predicts the width of brain extracellular space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Robert G.; Nicholson, Charles

    2006-04-01

    Diffusion within the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is necessary for chemical signaling and for neurons and glia to access nutrients and therapeutics; however, the width of the ECS in living tissue remains unknown. We used integrative optical imaging to show that dextrans and water-soluble quantum dots with Stokes-Einstein diameters as large as 35 nm diffuse within the ECS of adult rat neocortex in vivo. Modeling the ECS as fluid-filled "pores" predicts a normal width of 38-64 nm, at least 2-fold greater than estimates from EM of fixed tissue. ECS width falls below 10 nm after terminal ischemia, a likely explanation for the small ECS visualized in electron micrographs. Our results will improve modeling of neurotransmitter spread after spillover and ectopic release and establish size limits for diffusion of drug delivery vectors such as viruses, liposomes, and nanoparticles in brain ECS. drug delivery | integrative optical imaging | nanoparticles | restricted diffusion | somatosensory cortex

  7. Magnetic flux pileup and plasma depletion in Mercury's subsolar magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Baker, Daniel N.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2013-11-01

    from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) and Magnetometer (MAG) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft during 40 orbits about Mercury are used to characterize the plasma depletion layer just exterior to the planet's dayside magnetopause. A plasma depletion layer forms at Mercury as a result of piled-up magnetic flux that is draped around the magnetosphere. The low average upstream Alfvénic Mach number (MA ~3-5) in the solar wind at Mercury often results in large-scale plasma depletion in the magnetosheath between the subsolar magnetopause and the bow shock. Flux pileup is observed to occur downstream under both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shock geometries for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Furthermore, little to no plasma depletion is seen during some periods with stable northward IMF. The consistently low value of plasma β, the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure, at the magnetopause associated with the low average upstream MA is believed to be the cause for the high average reconnection rate at Mercury, reported to be nearly 3 times that observed at Earth. Finally, a characteristic depletion length outward from the subsolar magnetopause of ~300 km is found for Mercury. This value scales among planetary bodies as the average standoff distance of the magnetopause.

  8. The Case of Ozone Depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambright, W. Henry

    2005-01-01

    While the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is widely perceived as a space agency, since its inception NASA has had a mission dedicated to the home planet. Initially, this mission involved using space to better observe and predict weather and to enable worldwide communication. Meteorological and communication satellites showed the value of space for earthly endeavors in the 1960s. In 1972, NASA launched Landsat, and the era of earth-resource monitoring began. At the same time, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the environmental movement swept throughout the United States and most industrialized countries. The first Earth Day event took place in 1970, and the government generally began to pay much more attention to issues of environmental quality. Mitigating pollution became an overriding objective for many agencies. NASA's existing mission to observe planet Earth was augmented in these years and directed more toward environmental quality. In the 1980s, NASA sought to plan and establish a new environmental effort that eventuated in the 1990s with the Earth Observing System (EOS). The Agency was able to make its initial mark via atmospheric monitoring, specifically ozone depletion. An important policy stimulus in many respects, ozone depletion spawned the Montreal Protocol of 1987 (the most significant international environmental treaty then in existence). It also was an issue critical to NASA's history that served as a bridge linking NASA's weather and land-resource satellites to NASA s concern for the global changes affecting the home planet. Significantly, as a global environmental problem, ozone depletion underscored the importance of NASA's ability to observe Earth from space. Moreover, the NASA management team's ability to apply large-scale research efforts and mobilize the talents of other agencies and the private sector illuminated its role as a lead agency capable of crossing organizational boundaries as well as the science-policy divide.

  9. The Large-Scale Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated With the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm: IMAGE EUV Observations and Global Core Plasma Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density, trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. In EUV, this density, trough appears as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1900 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images, Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) and the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density, depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.

  10. Real time pulse width monitor for Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) electro-optic shutters

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method is described or controlling and measuring the pulse width of electrical gate pulses used for optical shuttering of image intensifier. The intensifiers are coupled to high frame rate Charge-Coupled-Devices (CCD) or Focus-Projection Scan (FPS) vidicon TV cameras for readout and telemetry of time resolved image sequences. The shutter duration or gate width of individual shutters is measured in real time and encoded in the video frame corresponding to a given shutter interval. The shutter information is updated once catch video frame by strobing new data with each TV camera vertical sync pulse. This circuitry is used in conjunction with commercial video insertion/annotation equipment to provide die shutter width information in alpha numeric text form along with the time resolved video image on a frame-by-frame basis. The measurement technique and circuitry involving a combination of high speed digital counters and analog integrators for measurements in the Ins to 1024 ns range are described. The accuracy obtained is compared with measurements obtained using batch speed DSOs. The measured data are provided in 10-bit Binary (Bi) and four decades of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) and also displayed on four digit seven segment displays. The control circuitry including digital and analog input means for gate width selection are described. The implementation of both measurement and control circuitry into an Intensified Shuttered CCD (ISCCD) radiometric system for recording fast shuttered images at RS-170 to 4 KHz frame rates is presented.

  11. Changing step width alters lower extremity biomechanics during running.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Richard A; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2014-01-01

    Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them male, were collected during running in three step width conditions: preferred, wide, and narrow. Dependent variables and step width were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA and pairwise t-tests for post hoc comparisons. Step width was successfully altered in the wide and narrow conditions. Generally, frontal plane peak values decreased as step width increased from narrow to preferred to wide. Peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Peak knee abduction moment and knee abduction impulse also decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Although men and women ran differently, gender only influenced the effect of step width on peak rearfoot inversion moment. In conclusion, step width influences lower extremity biomechanics in healthy runners. When step width increased from narrow to wide, peak values of frontal plane variables decreased. In addition to previously reported changes at the rearfoot, the hip and knee joint biomechanics were also influenced by changes in step width.

  12. Depletion kinetics in the photobleaching trapping reaction inside a flat microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Hyun; Peng, Hailin; Kopelman, Raoul; Argyrakis, Panos; Taitelbaum, Haim

    2005-03-01

    The diffusion-limited kinetics of the growth of a depletion zone around a static point trap in a thin, long channel geometry was studied using a laser photobleaching experiment of fluorescein dye inside a flat rectangular capillary. The dynamics of the depletion zone was monitored by the θ distance, defined as the distance from the trap to the point where the reactant concentration has been locally depleted to the specified survival fraction (θ) of its initial bulk value. A dimensional crossover from two dimensions to one dimension, due to the finite width of the reaction zone, was observed. We define a “parallel” and a “perpendicular” θ distance, along the slab long and short dimensions, respectively, and study their time development as a means to study the asymmetrical nature of the slab geometry. For all θ values, the crossover occurs concurrently for both θ distances when the depletion zone touches the boundary for the first time. We derive theoretical expressions for this geometry and compare them with the experimental data. We also obtain important insight from the ratio of the reactant concentration profiles in the parallel and perpendicular directions. Exact enumeration and Monte Carlo simulations support the anomalous depletion scaling results. Nevertheless, the crossover time (τc) is still found to scale with the width (W) of the rectangular reaction zone as τc˜W2 , as expected from the basic Einstein diffusion law.

  13. Action orientation overcomes the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai; Mao, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that initial exertion of self-control had negative influence on people's performance on subsequent self-control tasks. This phenomenon is referred to as the ego depletion effect. Based on action control theory, the current research investigated whether the ego depletion effect could be moderated by individuals' action versus state orientation. Our results showed that only state-oriented individuals exhibited ego depletion. For individuals with action orientation, however, their performance was not influenced by initial exertion of self-control. The beneficial effect of action orientation against ego depletion in our experiment results from its facilitation for adapting to the depleting task.

  14. Biomedical consequences of ozone depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coohill, Thomas P.

    1994-07-01

    It is widely agreed that a portion of the earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted. The major effect of this ozone loss will be an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV reaching the biosphere. This increase will be completely contained within the UVB (290nm - 320nm). It is imperative that assessments be made of the effects of this additional UVB on living organisms. This requires a detailed knowledge of the UVB photobiology of these life forms. One analytical technique to aid in the approximations is the construction of UV action spectra for such important biological end-points as human skin cancer, cataracts, immune suppression; plant photosynthesis and crop yields; and aquatic organism responses to UVB, especially the phytoplankton. Combining these action spectra with the known solar spectrum (and estimates for various ozone depletion scenarios) can give rise to a series of effectiveness spectra for these parameters. This manuscript gives a first approximation, rough estimate, for the effectiveness spectra for some of these bioresponses, and a series of crude temporary values for how a 10% ozone loss would affect the above end-points. These are not intended to masquerade as final answers, but rather, to serve as beginning attempts for a process which should be continually refined. It is hoped that these estimates will be of some limited use to agencies, such as government and industry, that have to plan now for changes in human activities that might alter future atmospheric chemistry in a beneficial manner.

  15. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  16. Thread Graphs, Linear Rank-Width and Their Algorithmic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganian, Robert

    The introduction of tree-width by Robertson and Seymour [7] was a breakthrough in the design of graph algorithms. A lot of research since then has focused on obtaining a width measure which would be more general and still allowed efficient algorithms for a wide range of NP-hard problems on graphs of bounded width. To this end, Oum and Seymour have proposed rank-width, which allows the solution of many such hard problems on a less restricted graph classes (see e.g. [3,4]). But what about problems which are NP-hard even on graphs of bounded tree-width or even on trees? The parameter used most often for these exceptionally hard problems is path-width, however it is extremely restrictive - for example the graphs of path-width 1 are exactly paths.

  17. STELLAR LOCI. I. METALLICITY DEPENDENCE AND INTRINSIC WIDTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu E-mail: x.liu@pku.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    Stellar loci are widely used for selection of interesting outliers, reddening determinations, and calibrations. However, until now, the dependence of stellar loci on metallicity has not been fully explored, and their intrinsic widths are unclear. In this paper, by combining the spectroscopic and recalibrated imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, we have built a large, clean sample of dwarf stars with accurate colors and well-determined metallicities to investigate the metallicity dependence and intrinsic widths of the SDSS stellar loci. Typically, 1 dex decrease in metallicity causes 0.20 and 0.02 mag decrease in colors u – g and g – r and 0.02 and 0.02 mag increase in colors r – i and i – z, respectively. The variations are larger for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor ones, and larger for F/G/K stars than for A/M ones. Using the sample, we have performed two-dimensional polynomial fitting to the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors as a function of color g – i and metallicity [Fe/H]. The residuals, at the level of 0.029, 0.008, 0.008, and 0.011 mag for the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors, respectively, can be fully accounted for by the photometric errors and metallicity uncertainties, suggesting that the intrinsic widths of the loci are at maximum a few millimagnitudes. The residual distributions are asymmetric, revealing that a significant fraction of stars are binaries. In a companion paper, we will present an unbiased estimate of the binary fraction for field stars. Other potential applications of the metallicity-dependent stellar loci are briefly discussed.

  18. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (P<.00005). In addition, mean (SD) ratio of trochanter widths to iliac wing widths was 1.09 (.06) in the bursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (P<.0005) in this regard as well. Having trochanters wider in relation to iliac wings was associated with the diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis.

  19. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  20. Accurate quantification of width and density of bone structures by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hangartner, Thomas N.; Short, David F.

    2007-10-15

    In computed tomography (CT), the representation of edges between objects of different densities is influenced by the limited spatial resolution of the scanner. This results in the misrepresentation of density of narrow objects, leading to errors of up to 70% and more. Our interest is in the imaging and measurement of narrow bone structures, and the issues are the same for imaging with clinical CT scanners, peripheral quantitative CT scanners or micro CT scanners. Mathematical models, phantoms and tests with patient data led to the following procedures: (i) extract density profiles at one-degree increments from the CT images at right angles to the bone boundary; (ii) consider the outer and inner edge of each profile separately due to different adjacent soft tissues; (iii) measure the width of each profile based on a threshold at fixed percentage of the difference between the soft-tissue value and a first approximated bone value; (iv) correct the underlying material density of bone for each profile based on the measured width with the help of the density-versus-width curve obtained from computer simulations and phantom measurements. This latter curve is specific to a certain scanner and is not dependent on the densities of the tissues within the range seen in patients. This procedure allows the calculation of the material density of bone. Based on phantom measurements, we estimate the density error to be below 2% relative to the density of normal bone and the bone-width error about one tenth of a pixel size.

  1. Development of the Global Width Database for Large Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Dai; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Trigg, Mark A.; Miller, Zachary F.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Bates, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    River width is a fundamental parameter of river hydrodynamic simulations, but no global-scale river width database based on observed water bodies has yet been developed. Here we present a new algorithm that automatically calculates river width from satellite-based water masks and flow direction maps. The Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR) is developed by applying the algorithm to the SRTM Water Body Database and the HydroSHEDS flow direction map. Both bank-to-bank river width and effective river width excluding islands are calculated for river channels between 60S and 60N. The effective river width of GWD-LR is compared with existing river width databases for the Congo and Mississippi Rivers. The effective river width of the GWD-LR is slightly narrower compared to the existing databases, but the relative difference is within ±20% for most river channels. As the river width of the GWD-LR is calculated along the river channels of the HydroSHEDS flow direction map, it is relatively straightforward to apply the GWD-LR to global and continental-scale river modeling.

  2. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

    2006-05-15

    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  3. Implications of Satellite Swath Width on Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; Kahn, Ralph; Remer, Lorraine; Levy, Robert; Welton, Ellsworth

    2012-01-01

    We assess the impact of swath width on the statistics of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieved by satellite as inferred from observations made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We sub-sample the year 2009 MODIS data from both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft along several candidate swaths of various widths. We find that due to spatial sampling there is an uncertainty of approximately 0.01 in the global, annual mean AOT. The sub-sampled monthly mean gridded AOT are within +/- 0.01 of the full swath AOT about 20% of the time for the narrow swath sub-samples, about 30% of the time for the moderate width sub-samples, and about 45% of the time for the widest swath considered. These results suggest that future aerosol satellite missions with only a narrow swath view may not sample the true AOT distribution sufficiently to reduce significantly the uncertainty in aerosol direct forcing of climate.

  4. Low frequency nonlinear waves in electron depleted magnetized nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak Hossen, Md.; Sahadat Alam, Md.; Sultana, Sharmin; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical study on the ultra-low frequency small but finite amplitude solitary waves has been carried out in an electron depleted magnetized nonthermal dusty plasma consisting of both polarity (positively charged as well as negatively charged) inertial massive dust particles and nonextensive q distributed ions. The reductive perturbation technique is employed to derive the ZakharovKuznetsov (ZK) equation. The basic features of low frequency solitary wave are analyzed via the solution of ZK equation. It is observed that the intrinsic properties (e.g., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) are significantly influenced by the effects external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonextensivity of ions, and the ratio of ion number density to the product of electron and negative dust number density. The findings of our results may be useful to explain the low frequency nonlinear wave propagation in some plasma environments like cometary tails, the earth polar mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, etc.

  5. Measured depletion of ions at the biomembrane interface.

    PubMed

    Petrache, Horia I; Kimchi, Itamar; Harries, Daniel; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2005-08-24

    Expected from theory and simulations, depletion of ions at fuzzy biomembrane interfaces has long eluded experiments. Here, we show how salt exclusion can be accurately measured by surprisingly simple yet accurate benchtop measurements. Multilamellar aggregates of common phospholipids sink in low salt but float in salt solutions that are much less dense than the lipid itself. By manipulating bath and lipid densities, using heavy water and varied lipid chain length, we obtain accurate exclusion curves over a wide range of KCl and KBr concentrations. While maintaining a constant width at low salt, the exclusion layer decreases in high salt, following the Debye screening length. Consistent with interfacial accumulation of polarizable ions, bromide salts are less excluded than chloride, with an attraction of approximately 2kBT per Br- ion. So far neglected in theoretical descriptions, the competition between salt exclusion and binding is critical to understanding membrane interactions and specific ionic effects.

  6. Ego depletion increases risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  7. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  8. Some geometric constraints on ring-width trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of tree rings from trees of undisturbed forest sites are used to describe natural, long-term width trends. Ring-width trends of canopy-sized white oak are simulated from regressions of BAI (ring area) data of real trees. Examples are given of a tree from a typical re-growth forest in Illinois and of a more slowly growing tree from an old-growth forest in Kentucky. The long-term width trend was simulated as being toward constant ring width regardless of growth rate of the tree. Conditions by which either increasing or decreasing ring-width trends could be simulated from the same linear BAI trend are examined. I conclude that curvilinear width trends, either increasing or decreasing, represent width adjustments to changes in growth rate (BAI trend) after which the width trend stabilizes to a near-constant value. Interpretation of ring-width trends of trees from undisturbed stands may be useful in assessing stand disturbance history. Copyright ?? 2005 by the Tree-Ring Society.

  9. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  10. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  11. a Measurement of the Mass, Full Width, and Radiative Width of the Positive B(1237) Meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collick, Bruce David

    An experiment was performed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to investigate the coherent production of mesons on nuclear targets (lead and copper). The experiment used and 200 GeV/c incident meson beam and a high resolution forward spectrometer consisting of proportional and drift chambers plus a liquid argon photon calorimeter. This thesis reports the results of the process (pi)('+) + A (--->) (pi)('+) (omega) + A. The (pi)('+)(omega) spectrum was found to be dominated by the B('+)(1237) meson. A fit was performed on the line shape of the (pi)('+)(omega) mass spectrum and values of 1.271 (+OR-) 0.011 GeV and 0.232 (+OR-) 0.029 GeV were found for the mass and total width. The helicity zero decay probability of the (omega), (VBAR)F(,0)(VBAR)('2), was measured to be (VBAR)F(,0)(VBAR)('2) = 0.15 (+OR-) 0.035. The t distributions were analyzed allowing the electromagnetic and hadronic production processes to interfer. From these distributions a radiative width of 230 (+OR-) 61 was extracted.

  12. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  13. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  14. Effect of finite detector-element width on the spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ian A.; Westmore, Michael S.; Fenster, Aaron

    1995-05-01

    Image blur in digital imaging systems results from both the spatial spreading of quanta representing the image in the detector system and from the integration of quanta over the finite detector element width. Linear-systems theory has often been used to describe these blurring mechanisms as a convolution, implying the existence of a corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) in the spatial-frequency domain. This also implies that the resulting noise- power spectrum (NPS) is modified by the square of the blurring MTF. This deterministic approach correctly describes the effect of each blurring mechanism on the overall system MTF, but does not correctly describe image noise characteristics. This is because the convolution is a deterministic calculation, and neglects the statistical properties of the image quanta. Rabbani et al. developed an expression for the NPS following a stochastic spreading mechanism that correctly accounts for these statistical properties. Use of their results requires a modification in how we should interpret the convolution theorem. We suggest the use of a `stochastic' convolution operator, that uses the Rabbani equation for the NPS rather than the deterministic result. This approach unifies the description of both image blur and image noise into a single linear-systems framework. This method is then used to develop expressions for the signal, NPS, DQE, and pixel SNR for a hypothetical digital detector design that includes the effects of conversion to secondary quanta, stochastic spreading of the secondary quanta, and a finite detector-element width.

  15. Depleted uranium--the growing concern.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, Aqel W; Abou-Donia, Mohamed B

    2002-01-01

    Recently, several studies have reported on the health and environmental consequences of the use of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is a heavy metal that is also radioactive. It is commonly used in missiles as a counterweight because of its very high density (1.6 times more than lead). Immediate health risks associated with exposure to depleted uranium include kidney and respiratory problems, with conditions such as kidney stones, chronic cough and severe dermatitis. Long-term risks include lung and bone cancer. Several published reports implicated exposure to depleted uranium in kidney damage, mutagenicity, cancer, inhibition of bone, neurological deficits, significant decrease in the pregnancy rate in mice and adverse effects on the reproductive and central nervous systems. Acute poisoning with depleted uranium elicited renal failure that could lead to death. The environmental consequences of its residue will be felt for thousands of years. It is inhaled and passed through the skin and eyes, transferred through the placenta into the fetus, distributed into tissues and eliminated in urine. The use of depleted uranium during the Gulf and Kosovo Wars and the crash of a Boeing airplane carrying depleted uranium in Amsterdam in 1992 were implicated in a health concern related to exposure to depleted uranium.

  16. Observations and Simulations of Formation of Broad Plasma Depletions Through Merging Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chao-Song; Retterer, J. M.; Beaujardiere, O. De La; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D.E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Broad plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere near dawn are region in which the plasma density is reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude over thousands of kilometers in longitude. This phenomenon is observed repeatedly by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during deep solar minimum. The plasma flow inside the depletion region can be strongly upward. The possible causal mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions is that the broad depletions result from merging of multiple equatorial plasma bubbles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the merging mechanism with new observations and simulations. We present C/NOFS observations for two cases. A series of plasma bubbles is first detected by C/NOFS over a longitudinal range of 3300-3800 km around midnight. Each of the individual bubbles has a typical width of approx 100 km in longitude, and the upward ion drift velocity inside the bubbles is 200-400 m/s. The plasma bubbles rotate with the Earth to the dawn sector and become broad plasma depletions. The observations clearly show the evolution from multiple plasma bubbles to broad depletions. Large upward plasma flow occurs inside the depletion region over 3800 km in longitude and exists for approx 5 h. We also present the numerical simulations of bubble merging with the physics-based low-latitude ionospheric model. It is found that two separate plasma bubbles join together and form a single, wider bubble. The simulations show that the merging process of plasma bubbles can indeed occur in incompressible ionospheric plasma. The simulation results support the merging mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions.

  17. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion

    PubMed Central

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI—LC–MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte. PMID:26182429

  18. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  19. High homocysteine induces betaine depletion.

    PubMed

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Esse, Ruben; Gupta, Sapna; Lebon, Sophie; de Vriese, An S; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; Kruger, Warren; Schiff, Manuel; Blom, Henk J

    2015-04-28

    Betaine is the substrate of the liver- and kidney-specific betaine-homocysteine (Hcy) methyltransferase (BHMT), an alternate pathway for Hcy remethylation. We hypothesized that BHMT is a major pathway for homocysteine removal in cases of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Therefore, we measured betaine in plasma and tissues from patients and animal models of HHcy of genetic and acquired cause. Plasma was collected from patients presenting HHcy without any Hcy interfering treatment. Plasma and tissues were collected from rat models of HHcy induced by diet and from a mouse model of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet), S-adenosyl-homocysteine (AdoHcy), methionine, betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by ESI-LC-MS/MS. mRNA expression was quantified using quantitative real-time (QRT)-PCR. For all patients with diverse causes of HHcy, plasma betaine concentrations were below the normal values of our laboratory. In the diet-induced HHcy rat model, betaine was decreased in all tissues analysed (liver, brain, heart). In the mouse CBS deficiency model, betaine was decreased in plasma, liver, heart and brain, but was conserved in kidney. Surprisingly, BHMT expression and activity was decreased in liver. However, in kidney, BHMT and SLC6A12 expression was increased in CBS-deficient mice. Chronic HHcy, irrespective of its cause, induces betaine depletion in plasma and tissues (liver, brain and heart), indicating a global decrease in the body betaine pool. In kidney, betaine concentrations were not affected, possibly due to overexpression of the betaine transporter SLC6A12 where betaine may be conserved because of its crucial role as an osmolyte.

  20. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Seog

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  1. Measuring Slit Width and Separation in a Diffraction Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, K. K.; Law, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a procedure for measuring slit width and separation in single- and double-slit diffraction experiments. Intensity spectra of diffracted laser light are measured with an optical sensor (PIN diode). Slit widths and separations are extracted by fitting to the measured spectra. We present a simple fitting procedure to account for the…

  2. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style.

  3. Turner syndrome isochromosome karyotype correlates with decreased dental crown width.

    PubMed

    Rizell, S; Barrenäs, M-L; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Kjellberg, H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this project was to study possible influences of Turner syndrome (TS) karyotype and the number of X chromosomes with intact short arm (p-arm) on dental crown width. Primary and permanent mesio-distal crown width was measured on plaster casts from 112 TS females. The influence on crown width of four karyotypes: 1. monosomy (45,X), 2. mosaic (45,X/46,XX), 3. isochromosome, and 4. other, and the number of intact X chromosomal p-arms were investigated. In comparisons between karyotypes, statistically significant differences were found for isochromosome karyotype maxillary second premolars, canines, laterals, mandibular first premolars, and canines, indicating that this karyotype was the most divergent as shown by the most reduced crown width. When each karyotype group were compared versus controls, all teeth in the isochromosome group were significantly smaller than controls (P < 0.01-0.001). The 45,X/46,XX karyotype expressed fewer and smaller differences from controls, while 45,X individuals seemed to display an intermediate tooth width compared with 45,X/46,XX and isochromosomes. No significant difference in crown width was found comparing the groups with one or two intact X chromosomal p-arms. Both primary and permanent teeth proved to have a significantly smaller crown width in the entire group of TS females compared to healthy females. We conclude that the isochromosome group deviates most from other karyotypes and controls, exhibiting the smallest dental crown width, while individuals with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism seemed to have a less affected crown width. An influence of the number of intact p-arms on crown width could not be demonstrated in this study.

  4. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i-color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  5. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-05-15

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs thatbuild upon earlier research and development efforts directed towardstechnology development of silicon-strip detectors used inhigh-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same typeof high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for stripdetectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thickdepletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding highdetection efficiency for near-infrared andsoft x-ray photons. We comparethe fully depleted CCD to thep-i-n diode upon which it is based, anddescribe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imagingapplications.

  6. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  7. Bank stability and channel width adjustment, East Fork River, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Frequent surveys of eight cross sections located in self-formed reaches of the East Fork River, Wyoming, during the 1974 snowmelt flood showed a close relation between channel morphology and scour and fill. Those cross sections narrower than the mean reach width filled at discharges less than bankfull and scoured at discharges greater than bankfull. Those cross sections wider than the mean reach width scoured at discharges less than bankfull and filled at discharges greater than bankfull. Bank stability, and to some extent the adjustment of stream channel width, in the East Fork River study reach appears to be controlled by the processes of scour and fill. -from Author

  8. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between the CSF and GM (Thielscher et al. 2011; Bijsterbosch et al. 2012), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al. 2008). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. PMID:23787706

  9. The perception of apparent auditory source width in hearing-impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Whitmer, William M.; Seeber, Bernhard U.; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study [W. Whitmer, B. Seeber and M. Akeroyd, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 369-379 (2012)], it was demonstrated that older hearing-impaired (HI) listeners produced visual sketches of headphone-presented noises that were insensitive to changes in interaural coherence. The current study further explores this insensitivity by comparing (a) binaural temporal fine-stucture (TFS) resolution and (b) sound localization precision to (c) auditory source width judgments. Thirty-five participants aged 26-81 years with normal to moderately impaired hearing (a) discriminated interaurally phase-shifted tones from diotic tones presented over headphones, (b) located 500-ms speech-spectrum filtered click trains presented over loudspeakers between ±30° in quiet, and (c) sketched the perceived width of low-pass, high-pass and speech-spectrum noise stimuli presented over loudspeakers from 0° and simultaneously from ±45° at attenuations of 0-20 dB to generate partially coherent stimuli. The results showed a decreasing sensitivity to width with age and impairment which was related to binaural TFS threshold: the worse one’s threshold – which was correlated with age – the less the perceived width increased with decreasing interaural coherence. These results suggest that senescent changes to the auditory system do not necessarily lead to perceptions of broader, more diffuse sound images based on interaural coherence. PMID:24907818

  10. Exhaustible Resource Depletion: A Modified Graphical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisato, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Presents a graphical analysis of the exhaustible resource depletion problem. Applies Hotelling's "r percent rule" as a new approach that operates in an "N"-period context. Includes two figures illustrating the approach. (CFR)

  11. Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of investigations into the correlation between the depletion of ozone and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Satellite measurements from Nimbus 7 showed that over the years the depletion from austral spring to austral spring has generally worsened. Approximately 70 percent of the ozone above Antarctica, which equals about 3 percent of the earth's ozone, is lost during September and October. Various hypotheses for ozone depletion are discussed including the theory suggesting that chlorine compounds might be responsible for the ozone hole, whereby chlorine enters the atmosphere as a component of chlorofluorocarbons produced by humans. The three types of PSCs, nitric acid trihydrate, slowly cooling water-ice, and rapidly cooling water-ice clouds act as important components of the Antarctic ozone depletion. It is indicated that destruction of the ozone will be more severe each year for the next few decades, leading to a doubling in area of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  12. A definition of depletion of fish stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John

    1949-01-01

    Attention was focused on the need of a common and better understanding of the term depletion as applied to the fisheries in order to eliminate if possible the existing inexactness of thought on the subject. Depletion has been confused at various times with at least ten different ideas associated with it but which, as has has heen pointed out, are not synonymous at all. In defining depletion we must recognize that the term represents a condition and must not he confounded with the cause (overfishing) that leads to this condition or with the symptoms that identify it. Depletion was defined as a reduction, through overfishing, in the level of abundance of the exploitable segment of a stock that prevents the realization of the maximum productive capacity.

  13. Predicting the backside width of weld pool during pulsed GTAW process based on a neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangjun; Chen, Shanben; Liu, Xiaodong; Wu, Lin

    2001-10-01

    Modeling of welding process is the base of process control. Because welding process is a multivariable, strong coupling, time-varying and nonlinear system, traditional modeling methods are not suitable. In this paper, the dynamic neural network model for predicting backside width of pulsed GTAW weld pool by welding parameters and topside shape parameters was constructed. Orthogonal method was applied to design the sampling experiments. Experiments were carried on low carbon steel with 2mm thickness during pulsed gas tungsten arc butt-welding with gap. Based on self-developed vision sensor, double-side images of weld pool were captured simultaneously in a frame. By image processing the topside dimension and shape of weld pool, such as length, maximum width, gap width and the half-length ratio, and the backside dimension such as area, length and maximum width were calculated. Artificial neural network was applied to establish the model for predicting backside width of weld pool. The inputs of the model were the topside dimension, shape of weld pool and welding parameters such as pulse current, pulse duty ratio, and welding speed. The output of the model was the backside width of weld pool. The algorithm was the extended delta-bar-delta (EDD), and the learning ratio automatically determined by the algorithm. Threshold function was sigmoid function. The training cycle was selected to be 50000. The final EMS error of backside width was 5.2 percent. The simulation experiments were carried out to test the accuracy of the ANN model. From the results of the test, the output of ANN model can predict the backside width precisely.

  14. Woody debris volume depletion through decay: implications for biomass and carbon accounting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; Milo, Amy M.; Bradford, John B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Kenefic, Laura; Palik, Brian J.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Brissette, John

    2013-01-01

    Woody debris decay rates have recently received much attention because of the need to quantify temporal changes in forest carbon stocks. Published decay rates, available for many species, are commonly used to characterize deadwood biomass and carbon depletion. However, decay rates are often derived from reductions in wood density through time, which when used to model biomass and carbon depletion are known to underestimate rate loss because they fail to account for volume reduction (changes in log shape) as decay progresses. We present a method for estimating changes in log volume through time and illustrate the method using a chronosequence approach. The method is based on the observation, confirmed herein, that decaying logs have a collapse ratio (cross-sectional height/width) that can serve as a surrogate for the volume remaining. Combining the resulting volume loss with concurrent changes in wood density from the same logs then allowed us to quantify biomass and carbon depletion for three study species. Results show that volume, density, and biomass follow distinct depletion curves during decomposition. Volume showed an initial lag period (log dimensions remained unchanged), even while wood density was being reduced. However, once volume depletion began, biomass loss (the product of density and volume depletion) occurred much more rapidly than density alone. At the temporal limit of our data, the proportion of the biomass remaining was roughly half that of the density remaining. Accounting for log volume depletion, as demonstrated in this study, provides a comprehensive characterization of deadwood decomposition, thereby improving biomass-loss and carbon-accounting models.

  15. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  16. Meta-analysis of depleted uranium levels in the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Besic, Larisa; Muhovic, Imer; Asic, Adna; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina

    2017-04-07

    In recent years, contradicting data has been published on the connection between the presence of depleted uranium and an increased cancer incidence among military personnel deployed in the Balkans during the 1992-1999 wars. This has led to numerous research articles investigating possible depleted uranium contamination of the afflicted regions of the Balkan Peninsula, namely Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The aim of this study was to collect data from previously published reports investigating the levels of depleted uranium in the Balkans and to present the data in the form of a meta-analysis. This would provide a clear image of the extent of depleted uranium contamination after the Balkan conflict. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the levels of depleted uranium and the assumed depleted uranium-related health effects. Our results suggest that the majority of the examined sites contain natural uranium, while the area of Kosovo appears to be most heavily afflicted by depleted uranium pollution, followed by Bosnia & Herzegovina. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is not possible to make a valid correlation between the health effects and depleted uranium-contaminated areas. We therefore suggest a structured collaborative plan of action where long-term monitoring of the residents of depleted uranium-afflicted areas would be performed. In conclusion, while the possibility of depleted uranium toxicity in post-conflict regions appears to exist, there currently exists no definitive proof of such effects, due to insufficient studies of potentially afflicted populations, in addition to the lack of a common epidemiological approach in the reviewed literature.

  17. On the computations of decay widths of Fano resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miteva, T.; Kazandjian, S.; Sisourat, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present an ab initio approach to the computation of decay widths of Fano resonances. The method relies on Fano theory, in which a resonance is described as a bound state embedded in and interacting with a continuum of states. In our approach, we use the Configuration Interaction (CI) method to describe the bound-like and continuum-like parts of the resonance wave function. The aim of this Fano-CI method is to provide decay widths of resonances at a low computational cost such that large systems can be treated. Along with the implementation of the method, we present benchmark calculations of decay widths of Auger and ICD processes in Ne atom, and Ne2 and NeAr dimers. Our results are in good agreement with the decay widths from other theoretical and experimental works. This makes the Fano-CI approach a promising method for the treatment of Fano resonances.

  18. Widths of some classes of convex functions and bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V. N.; Maiorov, Vitalii E.

    2010-02-01

    We consider classes of uniformly bounded convex functions defined on convex compact bodies in \\mathbb{R}^d and satisfying a Lipschitz condition and establish the exact orders of their Kolmogorov, entropy, and pseudo-dimension widths in the L_1-metric. We also introduce the notions of pseudo-dimension and pseudo-dimension widths for classes of sets and determine the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of some classes of convex bodies in \\mathbb{R}^drelative to the pseudo-metric defined as the d-dimensional Lebesgue volume of the symmetric difference of two sets. We also find the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of the corresponding classes of characteristic functions in L_p-spaces, 1\\le p\\le\\infty.

  19. Stark Widths Of Ionized Xenon UV Lines Of Low Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Cirisan, M.; Djurovic, S.; Pelaez, R. J.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar, S.

    2007-04-23

    Stark width measurements of several low intensity Xe II spectral lines (5d - 4f transitions) in UV region, are presented here for the first time. These measurements were obtained from helium - xenon pulsed arc plasma.

  20. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  1. Anatomy of Depleted Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zhao, L.; Manchester, W. B., IV

    2017-01-01

    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE/SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C6+/C5+ and O7+/O6+ depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property of significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.

  2. Peak width issues with generalised 2D correlation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Gemma M.; Adams, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional spectral correlation analysis is shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in spectral peak width as a function of perturbation variable. This is particularly significant where peak width fluctuations are of similar order of magnitude as the peak width values themselves and where changes in peak width are not random but are, for example, proportional to intensity. In such cases these trends appear in the asynchronous matrix as false peaks that serve to interfere with interpretation of the data. Complex, narrow band spectra such as provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy are demonstrated to be prone to such interference. 2D correlation analysis was applied to a series of NMR spectra corresponding to a commercial wine fermentation, in which the samples collected over a period of several days exhibit dramatic changes in concentration of minor and major components. The interference due to changing peak width effects is eliminated by synthesizing the recorded spectra using a constant peak width value prior to performing 2D correlation analysis.

  3. Crack width monitoring of concrete structures based on smart film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng

    2014-04-01

    Due to its direct link to structural security, crack width is thought to be one of the most important parameters reflecting damage conditions of concrete structures. However, the width problem is difficult to solve with the existing structural health monitoring methods. In this paper, crack width monitoring by means of adhering enameled copper wires with different ultimate strains on the surface of structures is proposed, based on smart film crack monitoring put forward by the present authors. The basic idea of the proposed method is related to a proportional relationship between the crack width and ultimate strain of the broken wire. Namely, when a certain width of crack passes through the wire, some low ultimate strain wires will be broken and higher ultimate strain wires may stay non-broken until the crack extends to a larger scale. Detection of the copper wire condition as broken or non-broken may indicate the width of the structural crack. Thereafter, a multi-layered stress transfer model and specimen experiment are performed to quantify the relationship. A practical smart film is then redesigned with this idea and applied to Chongqing Jiangjin Yangtze River Bridge.

  4. Determining the average annual ring width on the front side of lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanning, Tobias; Kickingereder, Reiner; Casasent, David

    2003-05-01

    Visual features of lumber can be used to assure its quality in stiffness and strength. Specifically, the average annual ring distance of the planks and the position of the center of the annual rings of the front side supply a close relation to some quality parameters of planks. Unfortunately, it turns out to be difficult to detect the average annual ring width by simple image vision methods due to distortions in the front side image of a plank caused by the cutting process. In this paper we propose two integrating methods which are capable of being used in an industrial application. One is based on quantizations of color images, the other on local Fourier transformations to detect the main wave in an image.

  5. Precision targeted ruthenium(ii) luminophores; highly effective probes for cell imaging by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis and characterisation of metal complexes and peptides. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02588a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Aisling; Burke, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past two decades with development of super-resolution far-field microscopy methods that break the light diffraction limited resolution of conventional microscopy, offering unprecedented opportunity to interrogate cellular processes at the nanoscale. However, these methods make special demands of the luminescent agents used for contrast and development of probes suited to super-resolution fluorescent methods is still relatively in its infancy. In spite of their many photophysical advantages, metal complex luminophores have not yet been considered as probes in this regard, where to date, only organic fluorophores have been applied. Here, we report the first examples of metal complex luminophores applied as probes for use in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Exemplified with endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear targeting complexes we demonstrate that luminescent Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes can, through signal peptide targeting, be precisely and selectively delivered to key cell organelles without the need for membrane permeabilization, to give high quality STED images of these organelles. Detailed features of the tubular ER structure are revealed and in the case of the nuclear targeting probe we exploit the molecular light switch properties of a dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine containing complex which emits only on DNA/RNA binding to give outstanding STED contrast and resolution of the chromosomes within the nucleus. Comparing performance with a member of the AlexaFluor family commonly recommended for STED, we find that the performance of the ruthenium complexes is superior across both CW and gated STED microscopy methods in terms of image resolution and photostability. The large Stokes shifts of the Ru probes permit excellent matching of the stimulating depletion laser with their emission whilst avoiding anti-Stokes excitation. Their long lifetimes make them particularly amenable to

  6. Measurement of annual ring width of log ends in forest machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanen, Kalle; Ojala, Petteri; Ihalainen, Heimo

    2008-02-01

    The quality of wood is of increasing importance in wood industry. One important quality aspect is the average annual ring width and its standard deviation that is related to the wood strength and stiffness. We present a camera based measurement system for annual ring measurements. The camera system is designed for outdoor use in forest harvesters. Several challenges arise, such as the quality of cutting process, camera positioning and the light variations. In the freshly cut surface of log end the annual rings are somewhat unclear due to small splinters and saw marks. In the harvester the optical axis of camera cannot be set orthogonally to the log end causing non-constant resolution of the image. The amount of natural light in forest varies from total winter darkness to midsummer brightness. In our approach the image is first geometrically transformed to orthogonal geometry. The annual ring width is measured with two-dimensional power spectra. The two-dimensional power spectra combined with the transformation provide a robust method for estimating the mean and the standard deviation of annual ring width. With laser lighting the variability due to natural lighting can be minimized.

  7. A detection algorithm for scale analysis of post-sunset low-latitude plasma depletions as observed by the Swarm constellation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Stolle, Claudia; Xiong, Chao

    2016-04-01

    ESA's constellation mission Swarm was successfully launched on 22 November 2013. The three satellites achieved their final constellation on 17 April 2014 and since then Swarm-A and Swarm-C orbiting the Earth at about 470 km (flying side-by-side) and Swarm-B at about 520 km altitude. The satellites carry instruments to monitor the F-region electron density with a sampling frequency of 2 Hz. This paper will present a detection algorithm for low-latitude post-sunset plasma bubbles (depletions), which uses local minima and maxima to detect depletions directly from electron density readings from Swarm. Our analyses were performed in the magnetic latitude (MLat) and local time (MLT) coordinate system. The detection procedure also captures the amplitude of depletion, which is called depth in the following. The width of a bubble corresponds to the length the satellite is located inside a depletion. We discuss the global distribution of depth and width of plasma bubbles and its seasonal and local time dependence for all three Swarm satellites from April 2015 through September 2015. As expected, on global average the bubble occurrence rate is highest for combined equinoxes (Mar, Apr, Sep, and Oct) and smallest for June solstice (May, Jun, Jul, and Aug). MLT distribution of the bubble occurrence number shows a sharp increase at about 19 MLT and decreases towards post-midnight hours. Interestingly, there is an inverse relation between depth and width of bubbles as function of MLT. This is true for all seasons and for all Swarm satellites. The bubble depth (width) is decreasing (increasing) from post-sunset to post-midnight for December solstice (Jan, Feb, Nov, and Dec) and combined equinoxes with about the same amplitude values for bubbles depth (width). Therefore we suggest that at post midnight when the depletions are less steep the structures of the depletions is broader than early after sunset. However for June solstice the depletions are less deep and the bubble depth and

  8. New Approach For Prediction Groundwater Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to quantify groundwater depletion involve water balance and satellite gravity. However, the water balance technique includes uncertain estimation of parameters such as evapotranspiration and runoff. The satellite method consumes time and effort. The work reported in this paper proposes using failure theory in a novel way to predict groundwater saturated thickness depletion. An important issue in the failure theory proposed is to determine the failure point (depletion case). The proposed technique uses depth of water as the net result of recharge/discharge processes in the aquifer to calculate remaining saturated thickness resulting from the applied pumping rates in an area to evaluate the groundwater depletion. Two parameters, the Weibull function and Bayes analysis were used to model and analyze collected data from 1962 to 2009. The proposed methodology was tested in a nonrenewable aquifer, with no recharge. Consequently, the continuous decline in water depth has been the main criterion used to estimate the depletion. The value of the proposed approach is to predict the probable effect of the current applied pumping rates on the saturated thickness based on the remaining saturated thickness data. The limitation of the suggested approach is that it assumes the applied management practices are constant during the prediction period. The study predicted that after 300 years there would be an 80% probability of the saturated aquifer which would be expected to be depleted. Lifetime or failure theory can give a simple alternative way to predict the remaining saturated thickness depletion with no time-consuming processes such as the sophisticated software required.

  9. Cartilage Space Width in Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: The Relationship to Cartilage Necrosis 1

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, John A.; Simon, Theodore R.; Southwick, Wayne O.

    1977-01-01

    The radiolucent cartilage space of eighty-three patients with unilateral or bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis was measured by a standardized technique. In the majority of patients, whether unilateral or bilateral involvement, there was bilateral narrowing of the cartilage space. In the unaffected hip of unilaterally involved patients, there was a progressive narrowing as skeletal maturity was attained. A concomitant anatomical study of cadaver hips, removed at autopsy from adolescent patients, showed a progressive narrowing of the cartilage as the proximal femur matured. Black females showed most narrowing (minimum cartilage space width), had the narrowest final cartilage space widths, and took the longest to attain this final width. While other racial, sexual and therapeutic groups failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences, the general trend was for females, Blacks, and patients treated by osteotomy to have more joint space narrowing. However, rewidening occurred in most of these affected joint spaces, in contrast to the progressive linear decrease observed in unaffected hips and anatomical specimens. On the basis of this study, we feel that cartilage space narrowing may be anticipated in the post-operative period in most patients treated for slipped capital femoral epiphysis. This narrowing appears to improve with time. Narrowing of greater than one-half the original width, in association with pain and limitation of joint function, probably represents “cartilage necrosis,” or pathologic joint space narrowing. Unless the narrowing remains less than one-half to two-thirds of the initial cartilage space for more than twenty-four to thirty-six months, probably no specific surgical treatment should be undertaken, other than observation and protected weight bearing during any painful phase. Plotting the roentgenographic cartilage space width during the three month to thirty-six month phase may be useful in monitoring and predicting the

  10. Tree-ring width reveals the preparation of the 1974 Mt. Etna eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Ruedi; Houlié, Nicolas; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Reduced near-infrared reflectance observed in September 1973 in Skylab images of the western flank of Mt. Etna has been interpreted as an eruption precursor of the January 1974 eruption. Until now, it has been unclear when this signal started, whether it was sustained and which process(es) could have caused it. By analyzing tree-ring width time-series, we show that the reduced near-infrared precursory signal cannot be linked to a reduction in annual tree growth in the area. However, comparing the tree-ring width time-series with both remote sensing observations and volcano-seismic activity enables us to discuss the starting date of the pre-eruptive period of the 1974 eruption.

  11. Tree-ring width reveals the preparation of the 1974 Mt. Etna eruption

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Ruedi; Houlié, Nicolas; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Reduced near-infrared reflectance observed in September 1973 in Skylab images of the western flank of Mt. Etna has been interpreted as an eruption precursor of the January 1974 eruption. Until now, it has been unclear when this signal started, whether it was sustained and which process(es) could have caused it. By analyzing tree-ring width time-series, we show that the reduced near-infrared precursory signal cannot be linked to a reduction in annual tree growth in the area. However, comparing the tree-ring width time-series with both remote sensing observations and volcano-seismic activity enables us to discuss the starting date of the pre-eruptive period of the 1974 eruption. PMID:28266610

  12. Mechanism of depletion of T lymphocytes from the spleen of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Y Y; Cheers, C

    1982-01-01

    Marked changes in the splenic lymphocyte populations during murine infection with Listeria monocytogenes were observed histologically and quantitated by the immunofluorescence of Thy-1+ immunoglobulin (Ig-) (T) and Ig+ (B) cells. Cells were depleted from the T-dependent areas of the spleen, and the number of T cells in suspensions prepared from spleens of mice 1 to 3 days after primary or secondary infection were less than 1/10 of normal. High numbers of alcohol-killed Listeria sp. did not cause any depletion. Depletion was not prevented by adrenalectomy. Although injected radiolabeled T cells distributed normally between spleen, liver, lymph node, and gut in infected mice, there appeared to be a barrier to their entry into depleted T-dependent areas of the spleen. Evidence for the destruction of T cells, but not of B cells, in the infected mouse spleen was obtained. Images PMID:6982869

  13. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; James, Michael R.; Hendricks, John S.; Goorley, John T.

    2012-06-19

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  14. The new MCNP6 depletion capability

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, M. L.; James, M. R.; Hendricks, J. S.; Goorley, J. T.

    2012-07-01

    The first MCNP based in-line Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of dental arch width and form changes after orthodontic treatment and retention with a new computerized method.

    PubMed

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Ciger, Semra; El, Hakan; Germeç, Derya; Es, Alphan

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal arch width and form changes and to define arch form types with a new computerized method. Maxillary and mandibular models of 21 Class II Division 1 patients were examined before treatment (T(0)), after treatment (T(1)), and an average of 3 years after retention (T(2)). Arch width measurements were made directly on scanned images of maxillary and mandibular models. Arch form changes at T(0)-T(1) and T(1)-T(2) were evaluated by superimposing the computer-generated Bezier arch curves with a computer program. Types of dental arch forms were defined by superimposing them with the pentamorphic arch system, which included 5 different types of arch forms: normal, ovoid, tapered, narrow ovoid, and narrow tapered. Maxillary arch widths were increased during orthodontic treatment. Mandibular posterior arch widths were also increased. The expansion of the mandibular arch forms was less than in the maxillary arch forms. Arch width changes were generally stable, except for reduction in maxillary and mandibular interlateral, inter-first premolar, and mandibular intercanine widths. Pretreatment maxillary arch forms were mostly tapered; mandibular arch forms were tapered and narrow tapered. In maxillary arch forms, 76% of the treatment changes were maintained. Mandibular arch form was maintained in 67% of the sample, both during treatment and after retention. In mandibular arches, 71% of orthodontically induced arch form changes were maintained.

  16. Depletion in the Star-Forming Core IRAM04191

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.; Mangum, J. G.; Wiseman, J.; Fuller, G. A.

    2002-12-01

    IRAM 04191+1522 numbers among the least evolved low mass protostars known. Belloche, André, Despois, and Blinder (Astronomy and Astrophysics, v393, 927, 2002) found the envelope to lie in a transition stage, with one portion showing constant rotational velocity mediated by magnetic braking and another inner region showing conserved angular momentum suggestive of protostellar collapse. Imaging of the interior 10000 AU in the ammonia lines (Wootten, Wiseman, and Fuller 2001, BAAS v33, 1394) revealed a 2100 AU region devoid of ammonia emission centered on the star. Here we present images made on similar scales with the OVRO Millimeter Array in the 1->0 lines of the molecular ions N2H+ and H13CO+. The former shows a ringlike structure coincident with the hole in the ammonia distribution. The latter shows only amorphous structure more distant from the central protostar. A sufficient explanation of these morphologies is that the nitrogen-bearing molecules vanish owing to depletion onto grains in the cold (13K) central region of high (n>1.5 x 106 cm-3) density. We expected that N2H+ should survive depletion to higher densities. If N2 is also depleted, as seems likely, kinematics of the central portion of this young protostar will be extremely difficult to measure. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Observations at the OVRO Millimeter Array are supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.9981546

  17. Deciduous neonatal line: Width is associated with duration of delivery.

    PubMed

    Hurnanen, Jaana; Visnapuu, Vivian; Sillanpää, Matti; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Rautava, Jaana

    2017-02-01

    The delivery-related neonatal line (NNL) appears into the enamel of primary teeth and first permanent molars at birth and is a marker of live birth process. It varies in width and its location, is different in each deciduous tooth type, and is indicative of gestation time. It is unclear which triggers determine NNL at birth. Our objective was to investigate the effect of the duration and mode of delivery on NNL width. NNL of 129 teeth, a collection derived from a long-term, prospectively followed population cohort, was measured under light microscope. Altogether, 54 sections with most optimal plane of sectioning were analysed for the duration and mode of delivery. NNL was detected in 98% of the deciduous teeth with the median width of 9.63μm (min 3.16μm, max 27.58μm). A prolonged duration of vaginal delivery was highly significantly associated with a narrower NNL (r=-0.41, p=0.0097). No significant association was found between the width of NNL and mode of delivery (p=0.36). NNL is demonstrable in virtually all deciduous teeth. The width seems to be inversely proportional to the duration of delivery. Causes of the inverse proportion are speculated to result from altered amelogenesis induced by prolonged and intensified delivery-associated stress. Further research is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  18. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  19. The width of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus; Borgonovo, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper, we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the EFE spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability <10-6). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes - synchrotron and blackbody radiation - the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78 per cent of long GRBs and 85 per cent of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.

  20. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalka, A. M.

    1986-04-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the dc input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  1. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-02-22

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  2. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  3. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  4. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it.

  5. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 μs. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  6. Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas

    2015-12-14

    We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.

  7. Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in

  8. Fast and Robust Nanocellulose Width Estimation Using Turbidimetry.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Michiko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Shinichiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The dimensions of nanocelluloses are important factors in controlling their material properties. The present study reports a fast and robust method for estimating the widths of individual nanocellulose particles based on the turbidities of their water dispersions. Seven types of nanocellulose, including short and rigid cellulose nanocrystals and long and flexible cellulose nanofibers, are prepared via different processes. Their widths are calculated from the respective turbidity plots of their water dispersions, based on the theory of light scattering by thin and long particles. The turbidity-derived widths of the seven nanocelluloses range from 2 to 10 nm, and show good correlations with the thicknesses of nanocellulose particles spread on flat mica surfaces determined using atomic force microscopy.

  9. Why momentum width matters for atom interferometry with Bragg pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szigeti, S. S.; Debs, J. E.; Hope, J. J.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    We theoretically consider the effect of the atomic source's momentum width on the efficiency of Bragg mirrors and beamsplitters and, more generally, on the phase sensitivity of Bragg pulse atom interferometers. By numerical optimization, we show that an atomic cloud's momentum width places a fundamental upper bound on the maximum transfer efficiency of a Bragg mirror pulse, and furthermore limits the phase sensitivity of a Bragg pulse atom interferometer. We quantify these momentum width effects, and precisely compute how mirror efficiencies and interferometer phase sensitivities vary as functions of Bragg order and source type. Our results and methodology allow for an efficient optimization of Bragg pulses and the comparison of different atomic sources, and will help in the design of large momentum transfer Bragg mirrors and beamsplitters for use in atom-based inertial sensors.

  10. New parameter in diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Platelet distribution width

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Bulent; Oskay, Alten; Dinc, Selcan Enver; Bas, Bilge; Tekin, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in acute appendicitis. METHODS: This retrospective, case-controlled study compared 295 patients with acute appendicitis (Group I), 100 patients with other intra-abdominal infections (Group II), and 100 healthy individuals (Group III) between January 2012 and January 2013. The age, gender, and white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width values from blood samples were compared among the groups. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows 21.0 software. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients were 29.9 ± 12.0 years for Group I, 31.5 ± 14.0 years for Group II, and 30.4 ± 13.0 years for Group III. Demographic features such as age and gender were not significantly different among the groups. White blood cell count, neutrophil percentage and platelet distribution width were significantly higher in Group I compared to groups II and III (P < 0.05). Diagnostically, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 73.1%, 94.0%, and 78% for white blood cell count, 70.0%, 96.0%, and 76.0% for neutrophil percentage, 29.5%, 49.0%, and 34.0% for mean platelet volume, and 97.1%, 93.0%, and 96.0% for platelet distribution width, respectively. The highest diagnostic accuracy detected was for platelet distribution width between Group I and Group III (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Platelet distribution width analysis can be used for diagnosis of acute appendicitis without requiring additional tests, thus reducing the cost and loss of time. PMID:25684947

  11. On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.

  12. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Ristroph, Leif; Thrasher, Matthew; Swinney, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  13. Experimental Stark widths and shifts of Ti II spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, J.; Aguilera, J. A.; Aragón, C.

    2016-10-01

    Stark widths and shifts of Ti II lines with wavelengths in the range 2500-4600 Å have been determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The temperature and electron density of the plasma vary in the ranges 11 970-15 520 K and (2.0-7.2) × 1017 cm-3, respectively, for the different measurement instants from 0.6 to 1.8 μs. The samples used are fused glass discs with different titanium concentrations, selected to control the self-absorption of the lines. The Stark widths and shifts are compared with the experimental and theoretical data available in the literature.

  14. Characteristics of pulse width for an enhanced second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Hyodo, Masaharu; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chuangtian; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Temporal characteristics of a cavity enhancement second harmonic (SH) generation for picosecond laser pulse are investigated. We experimentally measured pulse width changes that were indued by group velocity mismatching (GVM), SH process, and enhancement cavity. It indicates that the generated pulse width is a combined effect of the GVM and SH process. Meanwhile, the effect of the enhancement cavity can be avoided by controlling its free spectrum range. A interferometric autocorrelator with a KBBF-PCD as nonlinear crystal is also composed and this extends the measurement light wavelength below 410 nm.

  15. Width effects in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Henfling, John F.; ...

    2015-07-24

    A previous experiment by the present authors studied the flow over a finite-width rectangular cavity at freestream Mach numbers 1.5–2.5. In addition, this investigation considered the influence of three-dimensional geometry that is not replicated by simplified cavities that extend across the entire wind-tunnel test section. The latter configurations have the attraction of easy optical access into the depths of the cavity, but they do not reproduce effects upon the turbulent structures and acoustic modes due to the length-to-width ratio, which is becoming recognized as an important parameter describing the nature of the flow within narrower cavities.

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  20. 48 CFR 52.223-11 - Ozone-Depleting Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...

  1. Pixels, Imagers and Related Fabrication Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Pixels, imagers and related fabrication methods are described. The described methods result in cross-talk reduction in imagers and related devices by generating depletion regions. The devices can also be used with electronic circuits for imaging applications.

  2. Pixels, Imagers and Related Fabrication Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Pixels, imagers and related fabrication methods are described. The described methods result in cross-talk reduction in imagers and related devices by generating depletion regions. The devices can also be used with electronic circuits for imaging applications.

  3. Note: Broadly tunable all-fiber ytterbium laser with 0.05 nm spectral width based on multimode interference filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K. Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M.

    2014-05-15

    A multimode interference filter with narrow transmission bandwidth and large self-imaging wavelength interval is constructed and implemented in an ytterbium doped fiber laser in all-fiber format for broad wavelength tunability as well as narrow spectral width of the output beam. The peak transmission wavelength of the multimode interference filter was tuned with the help of a standard in-fiber polarization controller. With this simple mechanism more than 30 nm (1038 nm–1070 nm) tuning range is demonstrated. The spectral width of the output beam from the laser was measured to be 0.05 nm.

  4. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Park, S. H.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this allows the drift velocities of each depletion to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude as well as local time. Previous ground-based airglow observations from a small number of locations have indicated that the drift velocities of depletions may vary rapidly with magnetic latitude. Here we shall present the first results from TOAD of this shear in drift velocities from our global sample of depletion drift velocities.

  5. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Lopera, Jesús Emilio; S. T. Motta, José Mauricio; Absi Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo

    2016-01-01

    Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system. PMID:27649198

  6. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Lopera, Jesús Emilio; S T Motta, José Mauricio; Absi Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo

    2016-09-15

    Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch's t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system.

  7. Dissolution Treatment of Depleted Uranium Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates-Anderson, D D; Laue, C A; Fitch, T E

    2004-02-09

    Researchers at LLNL have developed a 3-stage process that converts pyrophoric depleted uranium metal turnings to a solidified final product that can be transported to and buried at a permitted land disposal site. The three process stages are: (1) pretreatment; (2) dissolution; and (3) solidification. Each stage was developed following extensive experimentation. This report presents the results of their experimental studies.

  8. Demonstration of jackhammer incorporating depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L E; Hoard, R W; Carter, D L; Saculla, M D; Wilson, G V

    2000-04-01

    The United States Government currently has an abundance of depleted uranium (DU). This surplus of about 1 billion pounds is the result of an enrichment process using gaseous diffusion to produce enriched and depleted uranium. The enriched uranium has been used primarily for either nuclear weapons for the military or nuclear fuel for the commercial power industry. Most of the depleted uranium remains at the enrichment process plants in the form of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}). The Department of Energy (DOE) recently began a study to identify possible commercial applications for the surplus material. One of these potential applications is to use the DU in high-density strikers/hammers in pneumatically driven tools, such as jack hammers and piledrivers to improve their impulse performance. The use of DU could potentially increase tunneling velocity and excavation into target materials with improved efficiency. This report describes the efforts undertaken to analyze the particulars of using DU in two specific striking applications: the jackhammer and chipper tool.

  9. Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Thompson, David W J

    2007-01-09

    This work surveys the depth and character of ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic using available long balloon-borne and ground-based records that cover multiple decades from ground-based sites. Such data reveal changes in the range of ozone values including the extremes observed as polar air passes over the stations. Antarctic ozone observations reveal widespread and massive local depletion in the heart of the ozone "hole" region near 18 km, frequently exceeding 90%. Although some ozone losses are apparent in the Arctic during particular years, the depth of the ozone losses in the Arctic are considerably smaller, and their occurrence is far less frequent. Many Antarctic total integrated column ozone observations in spring since approximately the 1980s show values considerably below those ever observed in earlier decades. For the Arctic, there is evidence of some spring season depletion of total ozone at particular stations, but the changes are much less pronounced compared with the range of past data. Thus, the observations demonstrate that the widespread and deep ozone depletion that characterizes the Antarctic ozone hole is a unique feature on the planet.

  10. Neutral depletion versus repletion due to ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchtman, A.; Makrinich, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Liard, L.; Rax, J.-M.; Chabert, P.

    2008-05-15

    Recent theoretical analyses which predicted unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless plasmas are reviewed. We focus on the depletion of collisionless neutrals induced by strong ionization of a collisionless plasma and contrast this depletion with the effect of strong ionization on thermalized neutrals. The collisionless plasma is analyzed employing a kinetic description. The collisionless neutrals and the plasma are coupled through volume ionization and wall recombination only. The profiles of density and pressure both of the plasma and of the neutral-gas and the profile of the ionization rate are calculated. It is shown that for collisionless neutrals the ionization results in neutral depletion, while when neutrals are thermalized the ionization induces a maximal neutral-density at the discharge center, which we call neutral repletion. The difference between the two cases stems from the relation between the neutral density and pressure. The pressure of the collisionless neutral-gas turns out to be maximal where its density is minimal, in contrast to the case of a thermalized neutral gas.

  11. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  12. Direct Visualization of an Impurity Depletion Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Ma; Thomas, Bill R.

    2000-01-01

    When a crystal incorporates more impurity per unit of its volume than the impurity concentration in solution, the solution in vicinity of the growing crystal is depleted with respect to the impurity I,2. With a stagnant solution, e. g. in microgravity or gels, an impurity depletion zone expands as the crystal grows and results in greater purity in most of the outer portion of the crystal than in the core. Crystallization in gel provides an opportunity to mimic microgravity conditions and visualize the impurity depletion zone. Colorless, transparent apoferritin (M congruent to 450 KDa) crystals were grown in the presence of red holoferritin dimer as a microheterogeneous impurity (M congruent to 900 KDa) within agarose gel by counterdiffusion with Cd(2+) precipitant. Preferential trapping of dimers, (distribution coefficient K = 4 (exp 1,2)) results in weaker red color around the crystals grown in the left tube in the figure as compared to the control middle tube without crystals. The left and the middle tubes contain colored ferritin dimers, the right tube contains colored trimers. The meniscus in the left tube separate gel (below) and liquid solution containing Cd(2+) (above). Similar solutions, though without precipitants, were present on top of the middle and right tube allowing diffusion of dimers and trimers. The area of weaker color intensity around crystals directly demonstrates overlapped impurity depletion zones.

  13. Interatomic Coulombic decay in a He dimer: Ab initio potential-energy curves and decay widths

    SciTech Connect

    Kolorenc, Premysl; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Sisourat, Nicolas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2010-07-15

    The energy gained by either of the two helium atoms in a helium dimer through simultaneous ionization and excitation can be efficiently transferred to the other helium atom, which then ionizes. The respective relaxation process called interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) is the subject of the present paper. Specifically, we are interested in ICD of the lowest of the ionized excited states, namely, the He{sup +}(n=2)He states, for which we calculated the relevant potential-energy curves and the interatomic decay widths. The full-configuration interaction method was used to obtain the potential-energy curves. The decay widths were computed by utilizing the Fano ansatz, Green's-function methods, and the Stieltjes imaging technique. The behavior of the decay widths with the interatomic distance is examined and is elucidated, whereby special emphasis is given to the asymptotically large interatomic separations. Our calculations show that the electronic ICD processes dominate over the radiative decay mechanisms over a wide range of interatomic distances. The ICD in the helium dimer has recently been measured by Havermeier et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 133401 (2010)]. The impact of nuclear dynamics on the ICD process is extremely important and is discussed by Sisourat et al. [Nat. Phys. 6, 508 (2010)] based on the ab initio data computed in the present paper.

  14. Beam width estimation of microwave antennas using lock-in infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzaffar, Khalid; Tuli, Suneet; Koul, Shiban

    2015-09-01

    The beam width of microwave antennas can be easily determined using infrared thermography. A thin absorption screen made up of some carbon loaded polymer is placed in front of a microwave antenna. The electromagnetic waves impinging the screen are partially absorbed by it, resulting in temperature rise of this screen. This temperature rise is monitored by an infrared camera. These infra red images of the temperature distribution are identical to the power distribution of the incident electromagnetic field at the screen location. The distance between half power points on the main lobe of the radiation pattern at the screen location in two orthogonal directions (E- and H-planes) can be easily found. From these distances the half power beam widths in both E- and H-planes can be calculated. Further from these beam widths, directivity is also calculated. The experiments were carried with a patch antenna radiating at 2.45 GHz. In order to show the repeatability of the results, experiments were carried for different distances between patch antenna and absorption screen. A great agreement is seen between simulation, measurement and experimental (thermographic) results. The microwave source is modulated at a low frequency so as to avoid the lateral spread of heat on the absorption screen and to permit lock-in detection of temperature distribution.

  15. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J.

    1997-04-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.

  16. Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Graf C. P.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; La Cruz I. Heredia-De; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; et al.

    2012-05-04

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Gamma}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Gamma}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top-quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Gamma}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb}| < 0.59 for a high-mass fourth-generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth-generation quark-mixing matrix.

  17. Shifts and widths of Feshbach resonances in atomic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidian, Shahpoor; Melezhik, Vladimir S.; Schmelcher, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We develop and analyze a theoretical model which yields the shifts and widths of Feshbach resonances in an atomic waveguide. It is based on a multichannel approach for confinement-induced resonances (CIRs) and atomic transitions in the waveguides in the multimode regime. In this scheme we replace the single-channel scalar interatomic interaction by the four-channel tensorial potential modeling resonances of broad, narrow, and overlapping character according to the two-channel parametrization of Lange [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.79.013622 79, 013622 (2009)]. As an input the experimentally known parameters of Feshbach resonances in the absence of the waveguide are used. We calculate the shifts and widths of s-, d-, and g-wave magnetic Feshbach resonances of Cs atoms emerging in harmonic waveguides as CIRs and resonant enhancement of the transmission at zeros of the free space scattering length. We have found the linear dependence of the width of the resonance on the longitudinal atomic momentum and quadratic dependence on the waveguide width. Our model opens possibilities for quantitative studies of the scattering processes in ultracold atomic gases in waveguides beyond the framework of s-wave resonant scattering.

  18. An Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Lambda}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Lambda}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the CKM matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb'}| < 0.59 for a high mass fourth generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth generation quark mixing matrix.

  19. 13. DETAIL: A CLOSEUP VIEW OF TWO UNEQUAL WIDTH CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL: A CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TWO UNEQUAL WIDTH CONCRETE BRACKETS AND THE LARGE CAST ANCONE WHICH SUPPORTS A QUIRK IN THE CONCRETE BALUSTRADE. - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  20. Width of the {phi} meson in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Polyanskiy, A. Yu.; Hartmann, M.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Buescher, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S. N.; Dzyuba, A. A.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kaempfer, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koptev, V. P.; Lorentz, B.; Maeda, Y.; Merzliakov, S. I.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The ratios of the cross sections for {phi}-meson production induced by 2.83-GeV protons on Cu, Ag, and Au nuclei to the respective cross section for C nuclei were measured at the ANKE-COSY facility in the momentum range of 0.6-1.6 GeV/c and the angular range of 0 Degree-Sign -8 Degree-Sign . The product {phi} mesons were identified by their decay {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The procedure used to separate kaon pairs was described in detail, and all sources of the background and their contribution to the resulting error in the values found for the above cross-section ratios were analyzed. The A dependence of the cross section for {phi}-meson production was shown to obey the A{sup 0.56{+-}0.03} law. The total width of the {phi} meson at a normal nuclear density was extracted from a comparison of the measured cross-section ratios with the results of calculations based on two theoretical models. The resulting width value exceeds substantially both the vacuum width and the width expected in the absence of the nuclear-matter effect on the properties of the {phi} meson.

  1. An Empirical Expression for the Line Widths of Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Linda R.; Peterson, Dean B.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogen-broadened line widths of 116 (sup 14)NH(sub 3) ground state transitions have been measured at 0.006 cm(sup -1) resolution using a Bruker spectrometer in the 24 to 210 cm(sup -1) region. The rotational variation of the experimental widths with J(sup '),K(sup ') = 1,0 to 10,10 has been reproduced to 2.4 % using an heuristically derived expression of the form

    gamma = a(sub 0) + a(sub 1) J(sup ') + a (sub 2) K(sup ') + a(sub 3) J(sup ')(sup 2) + a(sub 4) J(sup ') K(sup ')

    where J(sup ') and K(sup ') are the lower state symmetric top quantum numbers. This function has also been applied to the measured widths of the 58 transitions of nu(sub 1) at 3 (micro)m, each broadened by N(sub 2), O(sub 2), Ar, H(sub 2), and He. The rms of the observed minus calculated widths are 5% or better for the five foreign broadeners. The values of the fitted constants suggest that for some broadeners the expression might also be written as

    gamma = a(sub 0) + b(sub 1) J(sup ') + b(sub 2)(J(sup ' )- K(sup ')) + b(sub 3) J(sup ')(J(sup ') - K(sup '))

    .

  2. Width adjustment: relative dominance in unstable alluvial streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the relative dominance of width adjustment in unstable streams are described. Specifically, the role of the following factors affecting the fluvial environment were investigated: vertical processes and fluvial action, bed-material particle, cohesive strength of bank material, and riparian vegetation.

  3. 14 CFR 29.815 - Main aisle width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main aisle width. 29.815 Section 29.815 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations §...

  4. How Depleted is the MORB mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Hart, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the degree of mantle depletion of highly incompatible elements is critically important for assessing Earth's internal heat production and Urey number. Current views of the degree of MORB source depletion are dominated by Salters and Stracke (2004), and Workman and Hart (2005). The first is based on an assessment of average MORB compositions, whereas the second considers trace element data of oceanic peridotites. Both require an independent determination of one absolute concentration, Lu (Salters & Stracke), or Nd (Workman & Hart). Both use parent-daughter ratios Lu/Hf, Sm/Nd, and Rb/Sr calculated from MORB isotopes combined with continental-crust extraction models, as well as "canonical" trace element ratios, to boot-strap the full range of trace element abundances. We show that the single most important factor in determining the ultimate degree of incompatible element depletion in the MORB source lies in the assumptions about the timing of continent extraction, exemplified by continuous extraction versus simple two-stage models. Continued crust extraction generates additional, recent mantle depletion, without affecting the isotopic composition of the residual mantle significantly. Previous emphasis on chemical compositions of MORB and/or peridotites has tended to obscure this. We will explore the effect of different continent extraction models on the degree of U, Th, and K depletion in the MORB source. Given the uncertainties of the two most popular models, the uncertainties of U and Th in DMM are at least ±50%, and this impacts the constraints on the terrestrial Urey ratio. Salters, F.J.M. and Stracke, A., 2004, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 5, Q05004. Workman, R.K. and Hart, S.R., 2005, EPSL 231, 53-72.

  5. Vitamin D Intoxication, with Hypernatraemia, Potassium and Water Depletion, and Mental Depression

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. C.; Cooper, A. F.; Naylor, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Two elderly patients suffering from manic-depressive psychosis/depressive reaction had concurrently hypercalcaemia from vitamin D intoxication. They developed hypernatraemia with severe potassium and water depletion. Hypercalcaemia was pronounced, but both patients recovered quickly and their depressive symptoms resolved following water and potassium repletion and corticosteroid therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5723727

  6. Assessment of Gate Width Size on Lifetime-Based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Parameter Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sez-Jade; Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Intes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) enables the observation of interactions at the nanoscale level through the use of fluorescence optical imaging techniques. In FRET, fluorescence lifetime imaging can be used to quantify the fluorescence lifetime changes of the donor molecule, which are associated with proximity between acceptor and donor molecules. Among the FRET parameters derived from fluorescence lifetime imaging, the percentage of donor that interacts with the acceptor (in proximity) can be estimated via model-based fitting. However, estimation of the lifetime parameters can be affected by the acquisition parameters such as the temporal characteristics of the imaging system. Herein, we investigate the effect of various gate widths on the accuracy of estimation of FRET parameters with focus on the near-infrared spectral window. Experiments were performed in silico, in vitro, and in vivo with gate width sizes ranging from 300 ps to 1000 ps in intervals of 100 ps. For all cases, the FRET parameters were retrieved accurately and the imaging acquisition time was decreased three-fold. These results indicate that increasing the gate width up to 1000 ps still allows for accurate quantification of FRET interactions even in the case of short lifetimes such as those encountered with near-infrared FRET pairs. PMID:26557647

  7. Utilizing a constant peak width transform for isothermal gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Jeremy S; Wilson, Ryan B; Fitz, Brian D; Reed, Jason T; Synovec, Robert E

    2011-06-10

    A computational approach to partially address the general elution problem (GEP), and better visualize, isothermal gas chromatograms is reported. The theoretical computational approach is developed and applied experimentally. We report a high speed temporally increasing boxcar summation (TIBS) transform that, when applied to the raw isothermal GC data, converts the chromatographic data from the initial time domain (in which the peak widths in isothermal GC increase as a function of their retention factors, k), to a data point based domain in which all peaks have the same peak width in terms of number of points in the final data vector, which aides in preprocessing and data analysis, while minimizing data storage size. By applying the TIBS transform, the resulting GC chromatogram (initially collected isothermally), appears with an x-axis point scale as if it were instrumentally collected using a suitable temperature program. A high speed GC isothermal separation with a test mixture containing 10 compounds had a run time of ∼25 s. The peak at a retention factor k ∼0.7 had a peak width of ∼55 ms, while the last eluting peak at k ∼89 (i.e., retention time of ∼22 s) had a peak width of ∼2000 ms. Application of the TIBS transform increased the peak height of the last eluting peak 45-fold, and S/N ∼20-fold. All peaks in the transformed test mixture chromatogram had the width of an unretained peak, in terms of number of data points. A simulated chromatogram at unit resolution, studied using the TIBS transform, provided additional insight into the benefits of the algorithm.

  8. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  9. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF PULSE WIDTH FOR 150 RADIO NORMAL PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J. L.; Wang, H. G.

    2014-11-01

    The frequency dependence of the pulse width is studied for 150 normal pulsars, mostly selected from the European Pulsar Network, for which the 10% multifrequency pulse widths can be well fit with the Thorsett relationship W {sub 10} = Aν{sup μ} + W {sub 10,} {sub min}. The relative fraction of pulse width change between 0.4 GHz and 4.85 GHz, η = (W {sub 4.85} – W {sub 0.4})/W {sub 0.4}, is calculated in terms of the best-fit relationship for each pulsar. It is found that 81 pulsars (54%) have η < –10% (group A), showing considerable profile narrowing at high frequencies, 40 pulsars (27%) have –10% ≤η ≤ 10% (group B), meaning a marginal change in pulse width, and 29 pulsars (19%) have η > 10% (group C), showing a remarkable profile broadening at high frequencies. The fractions of the group-A and group-C pulsars suggest that the profile narrowing phenomenon at high frequencies is more common than the profile broadening phenomenon, but a large fraction of the group-B and group-C pulsars (a total of 46%) is also revealed. The group-C pulsars, together with a portion of group-B pulsars with slight pulse broadening, can hardly be explained using the conventional radius-to-frequency mapping, which only applies to the profile narrowing phenomenon. Based on a recent version of the fan beam model, a type of broadband emission model, we propose that the diverse frequency dependence of pulse width is a consequence of different types of distribution of emission spectra across the emission region. The geometrical effect predicting a link between the emission beam shrinkage and spectrum steepening is tested but disfavored.

  10. Comparator threshold settings and the effective pixel width of the PICASSO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F. C. M.; Rigon, L.; Fardin, L.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, M.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, R.

    2014-05-01

    Charge sharing plays an important role in the performance of single-photon counting microstrip detectors, since the comparator threshold defines the effective pixel width. In this contribution, the PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) single-photon counting microstrip detector oriented in edge-on configuration has been used to study its spatial resolution as a function of the comparator threshold. The experiment was carried out with monochromatic x-rays at the SYRMEP beamline of the Elettra synchrotron radiation facility in Trieste (Italy). The Edge Spread Function (i.e. the integral of the Line spread Function, LSF) was measured by horizontally translating vertical slits from a bar-pattern test-object in front of the detector, at four different photon energies (19, 20, 22, and 25 keV) and for several different values of the comparator threshold. The effect of charge sharing between strips on the spatial resolution has been quantified by calculating the horizontal Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). Moreover, the composite LSF from neighboring pixels was obtained: this allowed estimating the optimal threshold for each photon energy by selecting the threshold at which the composite LSF would approach unity along the entire width of the pixel. The results show that at thresholds lower than half of the photon energy, charge sharing increases the effective pixel width, causing a drop of the MTF, and it is responsible for the appearance of peaks in the composite LSF. Conversely, at thresholds higher than half of the photon energy, the effective pixel width is reduced and the spatial resolution is increased, but the collection efficiency is compromised, as demonstrated by the presence of valleys in the composite LSF.

  11. Calsequestrin depolymerizes when calcium is depleted in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of working muscle

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Carlo; Figueroa, Lourdes C.; Gillespie, Dirk; Fitts, Robert; Kang, ChulHee; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Rios, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Calsequestrin, the only known protein with cyclical storage and supply of calcium as main role, is proposed to have other functions, which remain unproven. Voluntary movement and the heart beat require this calcium flow to be massive and fast. How does calsequestrin do it? To bind large amounts of calcium in vitro, calsequestrin must polymerize and then depolymerize to release it. Does this rule apply inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of a working cell? We answered using fluorescently tagged calsequestrin expressed in muscles of mice. By FRAP and imaging we monitored mobility of calsequestrin as [Ca2+] in the SR--measured with a calsequestrin-fused biosensor--was lowered. We found that calsequestrin is polymerized within the SR at rest and that it depolymerized as [Ca2+] went down: fully when calcium depletion was maximal (a condition achieved with an SR calcium channel opening drug) and partially when depletion was limited (a condition imposed by fatiguing stimulation, long-lasting depolarization, or low drug concentrations). With fluorescence and electron microscopic imaging we demonstrated massive movements of calsequestrin accompanied by drastic morphological SR changes in fully depleted cells. When cells were partially depleted no remodeling was found. The present results support the proposed role of calsequestrin in termination of calcium release by conformationally inducing closure of SR channels. A channel closing switch operated by calsequestrin depolymerization will limit depletion, thereby preventing full disassembly of the polymeric calsequestrin network and catastrophic structural changes in the SR. PMID:28069951

  12. Generation of large-scale equatorial F-region plasma depletions during geomagnetic storms: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P.; Bittencourt, J.; Pimenta, A.

    All-sky imaging observations of the F-region OI 630 nm nightglow emission allow us to visualize large - scale equatorial plasma depletions, generally known as transequatorial plasma bubbles. These quasi north south direction aligned- ionospheric plasma depletions are o tical signatures of strong range type equatorialp spread-F. An extensive data base of the OI 630 nm emission all-sky imaging- observations has been obtained at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7o S, 45.0 o W; dip latitude ~16o S), Brazil, between the years 1987 and 2000. An analysis of these observations revealed that normally large-scale ionospheric plasma depletions do not occur during the months of May to August (southern winter) in the Brazilian sector. However, large-scale ionospheric plasma depletions during thes e months have been observed on several occasions in association with geomagnetic storms. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the events when large - scale ionospheric plasma depletions were initiated and evolved during magnetic disturbances will be present ed and discussed.

  13. MESSENGER observations of the plasma depletion layer in Mercury's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements made with the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) and Magnetometer (MAG) are used to determine the properties of the plasma depletion layer (PDL) that is found just exterior to Mercury's dayside magnetopause. PDLs form when interplanetary magnetic flux tubes drape around and are compressed against an obstacle to the solar wind. Such obstacles include not only planetary magnetic fields such as that of Mercury, but also the ionospheres of comets and planets without internal fields such as Venus. It is this compression of the draped flux tubes against the magnetopause that causes the solar wind plasma to flow away from the subsolar region and deplete the flux tubes of plasma. Observations of the PDL at Earth have shown that such properties of this layer as its thickness and its reduction in density are strong functions of the solar wind Alfvénic Mach number and the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The MESSENGER measurements show that a PDL is indeed present at Mercury and confirm the theoretical prediction that the thickness and degree of depletion is enhanced for the very low Alfvénic Mach numbers in the inner Solar System, on average a factor of ~2 smaller than those at Earth. For several transits of the spacecraft through the magnetosheath near local noon, each lasting only a few minutes, the plasma and magnetic field of the PDL have been sampled, capturing a snapshot of the shocked solar wind near the stagnation point. The relative density reduction and thickness of the PDL are examined for each magnetospheric pass and placed into context with the set of available solar wind forcing conditions and IMF orientations in order to study the formation of these layers at Mercury with and without the presence of dayside magnetic reconnection.

  14. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-11-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this automation allows the drift velocities of each bubble to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude, which will give us the capability of retrieving geophysically important parameters such as the electric field, which are believed to vary rapidly with magnetic latitude.

  15. Iron isotope composition of depleted MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Sio, C. K. I.; Shahar, A.

    2015-12-01

    In terrestrial basalts, iron isotope ratios are observed to weakly fractionate as a function of olivine and pyroxene crystallization. However, a ~0.1‰ difference between chondrites and MORB had been reported (Dauphas et al. 2009, Teng et al. 2013 and ref. therein). This observation could illustrate an isotope fractionation occurring during partial melting, as a function of the Fe valence in melt versus crystals. Here, we present high-precision Fe isotopic data measured by MC-ICP-MS on well-characterized samples from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR, n=9) and from the Garrett Transform Fault (n=8). These samples allow exploring the Fe isotope fractionation between melt and magnetite, and the role of partial melting on Fe isotope fractionation. Our average δ56Fe value is +0.095±0.013‰ (95% confidence, n=17), indistinguishable from a previous estimate of +0.105±0.006‰ (95% confidence, n=43, see ref. 2). Our δ56Fe values correlate weakly with MgO contents, and correlate positively with K/Ti ratios. PAC1 DR10 shows the largest Ti and Fe depletion after titanomagnetite fractionation, with a δ56Fe value of +0.076±0.036‰. This is ~0.05‰ below other samples at a given MgO. This may illustrate a significant Fe isotope fractionation between the melt and titanomagnetite, in agreement with experimental determination (Shahar et al. 2008). GN09-02, the most incompatible-element depleted sample, has a δ56Fe value of 0.037±0.020‰. This is the lowest high-precision δ56Fe value recorded for a MORB worldwide. This basalt displays an incompatible-element depletion consistent with re-melting beneath the transform fault of mantle source that was depleted during a first melting event, beneath the ridge axis (Wendt et al. 1999). The Fe isotope observation could indicate that its mantle source underwent 56Fe depletion after a first melting event. It could alternatively indicate a lower Fe isotope fractionation during re-melting, if the source was depleted of its Fe3

  16. Evolution of valleys width : A Mars-Earth comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochat, Stéphane; Loget, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The analyses of the valleys on Mars are used to reconstruct the climate on Early Mars (~ 3.5 Gy). Thus, many studies indicate a strong analogy between earth and mars networks (dendritic organization, drainage density Strahler ordering) which is compatible with a widespread rain (today Mars is arid, cold and the water can only be vapor/snow). But, many features are too different with the Earth classic valleys networks to conclude definitively on the Early climate of Mars. Here, we study the evolution of the width of valleys with drainage area. This method lies on the relationship between the evolution of the channel width (W) versus the discharge of the river or the upstream drainage area (A) such as Wc= bA0.5 (e.g Leopold and Maddock, 1953; Montgomery and Gran, 2001). On Mars, one of the difficulties is to plot the width of the channel but recent studies on Mars and on Earth indicate that the valley bottom width Wv strictly follows the same evolution than the channel width (e.g. Mattheus and Rodriguez 2011, Phillips, 2011). Thereby, we analyzed 366 basins on Earth from 4.10-02 to 6.1006 km2 and 355 basins on Mars from 7.10-02 to 2.8.1006 km2. For Earth Wv= bA0.46 with 0.005< b< 0.047. For Mars Wv= bA0.27 with 0.046< b< 0.19. Martian valleys are ten times wider for small tributaries (< 100 km2) but ten times smaller for large tributaries >100.000 km2). Our observations are compatible with an inefficient system with strong supply of water, on small systems, which is less and less transmitted at the outlet, on large systems. The origins of this inefficiency will be discussed. Leopold, L. B. and T. Maddock (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper. Montgomery, D. R. and K. B. Gran (2001). "Downstream Variations in the Width of Bedrock Channels." Water Resour. Res. Jonathan D. Phillips (2011): Drainage area and incised valley fills in Texas rivers: A potential explanation

  17. The rotation-lithium depletion correlation in the β Pictoris association and the LDB age determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Feiden, G. A.; Millward, M.; Desidera, S.; Buccino, A.; Curtis, I.; Jofré, E.; Kehusmaa, P.; Medhi, B. J.; Monard, B.; Petrucci, R.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Evidence exists in the 125-Myr Pleiades cluster, and more recently in the 5-Myr NGC 2264 cluster, to show that rotation plays a key role in lithium (Li) depletion processes among low-mass stars. Fast rotators appear to be less Li-depleted than equal-mass slow rotators. Aims: We intend to explore the existence of a Li depletion-rotation connection among the β Pictoris members at an age of about 24 Myr, and to use this correlation either to confirm or to improve age estimates based on the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) modeling. Methods: We photometrically monitored all the known members of the β Pictoris association with at least one lithium equivalent width (Li EW) measurement from the literature. Results: We measured the rotation periods of 30 members for the first time and retrieved the rotation periods for another 36 members from the literature, building a catalogue of 66 members with a measured rotation period and Li EW. Conclusions: We find that in the 0.3 < M < 0.8M⊙ range, there is a strong correlation between rotation and Li EW. For higher mass stars, no significant correlation is found. For very low-mass stars in the Li depletion onset, at about 0.1 M⊙, there are too few data to infer a significant correlation. The observed Li EWs are compared with those predicted by the Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models that incorporate the effects of magnetic fields. After decorrelating the Li EW from the rotation period, we find that the hot side of the LDB is well fitted by Li EW values that correspond to an age of 25 ± 3 Myr, which is in good agreement with independent estimates from the literature.

  18. Copenhagen delegates advance phaseout of ozone depleters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-12-09

    As expected, delegates at the United Nations Ozone Layer Conference in Copenhagen sped up ozone depleter phaseouts from the 1987 Montreal Protocol and the 1990 London amendments. The changes bring the worldwide production phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleters in developed countries in line with U.S. and European plans announced earlier this year. Adjustments to the protocol, which are binding on the signatories, change the phaseout for CFC, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform production and consumption to January 1, 1996 from 2000. The 75% reduction of 1986 levels from CFCs by January 1, 1994 is a compromise between European pressure for an 85% cut and the US goal of 70%. Halon production is to end January 1, 1994, as anticipated. Developing countries continue to have a 10-year grace period. Friends of the Earth ozone campaign director Liz Cook counters that the phaseout dates were scheduled with concern for the chemical industry, not for the ozone layer.

  19. Endoplasmic-Reticulum Calcium Depletion and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Missiaen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca2+ store not only sets up cytosolic Ca2+ signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca2+ depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca2+ may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca2+ causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca2+ depletion. PMID:21441595

  20. Ozone depletion in tropospheric volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Alan; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Turnbull, Kate; von Glasow, Roland

    2010-11-01

    We measured ozone (O3) concentrations in the atmospheric plumes of the volcanoes St. Augustine (1976), Mt. Etna (2004, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and found O3 to be strongly depleted compared to the background at each volcano. At Mt. Etna O3 was depleted within tens of seconds from the crater, the age of the St. Augustine plumes was on the order of hours, whereas the O3 destruction in the plume of Eyjafjallajökull was maintained in 1-9 day old plumes. The most likely cause for this O3 destruction are catalytic bromine reactions as suggested by a model that manages to reproduce the very early destruction of O3 but also shows that O3 destruction is ongoing for several days. Given the observed rapid and sustained destruction of O3, heterogeneous loss of O3 on ash is unlikely to be important.

  1. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  2. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  3. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  4. Alternatives for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    originating activity by DTIC. Address your request for additional copies to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 0...LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1 Specific Activity of Depleted Uranium Sand Mixture ......... .................. 8 2 Disposal at Department of Energy...exceed the allowable limits for on-site disposal. This material must be disposed of at a commercial low-level radio- active waste disposal site. Because

  5. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  6. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  7. Depletion modeling of liquid dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, G.

    1984-06-01

    Depletion models for liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs are derived and presented. The depletion models are divided into two categories: confined and unconfined. For both cases depletion models with no recharge (or influx), and depletion models including recharge, are used to match field data from the Svartsengi high temperature geothermal field in Iceland. The influx models included with the mass and energy balances are adopted from the petroleum engineering literature. The match to production data from Svartsengi is improved when influx was included. The Schilthuis steady-state influx gives a satisfactory match. The finite aquifer method of Fetkovitch, and the unsteady state method of Hurst gave reasonable answers, but not as good. The best match is obtained using Hurst simplified solution when lambda = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} m{sup -1}. From the match the cross-sectional area of the aquifer was calculated as 3.6 km{sup 2}. The drawdown was predicted using the Hurst simplified method, and compared with predicted drawdown from a boiling model and an empirical log-log model. A large difference between the models was obtained. The predicted drawdown using the Hurst simplified method falls between the other two. Injection has been considered by defining the net rate as being the production rate minus the injection rate. No thermal of transient effects were taken into account. Prediction using three different net rates shows that the pressure can be maintained using the Hurst simplified method if there is significant fluid reinjection. 32 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S

    2011-01-14

    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.

  10. Lattice QCD calculation of the {rho} meson decay width

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kanaya, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    2007-11-01

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of the {rho} meson decay width via the P-wave scattering phase shift for the I=1 two-pion system. Our calculation uses full QCD gauge configurations for N{sub f}=2 flavors generated using a renormalization group improved gauge action and an improved Wilson fermion action on a 12{sup 3}x24 lattice at m{sub {pi}}/m{sub {rho}}=0.41 and the lattice spacing 1/a=0.92 GeV. The phase shift calculated with the use of the finite size formula for the two-pion system in the moving frame shows a behavior consistent with the existence of a resonance at a mass close to the vector meson mass obtained in spectroscopy. The decay width estimated from the phase shift is consistent with the experiment, when the quark mass is scaled to the realistic value.

  11. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Troy

    2008-08-01

    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  12. Renal cortical pyruvate depletion during AKI.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Becker, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediary in energy metabolism and can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the fate of pyruvate during AKI remains unknown. Here, we assessed renal cortical pyruvate and its major determinants (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH], and H2O2 levels) in mice subjected to unilateral ischemia (15-60 minutes; 0-18 hours of vascular reflow) or glycerol-induced ARF. The fate of postischemic lactate, which can be converted back to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, was also addressed. Ischemia and glycerol each induced persistent pyruvate depletion. During ischemia, decreasing pyruvate levels correlated with increasing lactate levels. During early reperfusion, pyruvate levels remained depressed, but lactate levels fell below control levels, likely as a result of rapid renal lactate efflux. During late reperfusion and glycerol-induced AKI, pyruvate depletion corresponded with increased gluconeogenesis (pyruvate consumption). This finding was underscored by observations that pyruvate injection increased renal cortical glucose content in AKI but not normal kidneys. AKI decreased PDH levels, potentially limiting pyruvate to acetyl CoA conversion. Notably, pyruvate therapy mitigated the severity of AKI. This renoprotection corresponded with increases in cytoprotective heme oxygenase 1 and IL-10 mRNAs, selective reductions in proinflammatory mRNAs (e.g., MCP-1 and TNF-α), and improved tissue ATP levels. Paradoxically, pyruvate increased cortical H2O2 levels. We conclude that AKI induces a profound and persistent depletion of renal cortical pyruvate, which may induce additional injury.

  13. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2016-01-14

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  14. Pumping test evaluation of stream depletion parameters.

    PubMed

    Lough, Hilary K; Hunt, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions are given of a pumping test and a corresponding analysis that permit calculation of all five hydrogeological parameters appearing in the Hunt (2003) solution for stream depletion caused by ground water abstraction from a well beside a stream. This solution assumes that flow in the pumped aquifer is horizontal, flow in the overlying aquitard or system of aquitards is vertical, and the free surface in the top aquitard is allowed to draw down. The definition of an aquitard in this paper is any layer with a vertical hydraulic conductivity much lower than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the pumped aquifer. These "aquitards" may be reasonably permeable layers but are distinguished from the pumped aquifer by their hydraulic conductivity contrast. The pumping test requires a complete set of drawdown measurements from at least one observation well. This well must be deep enough to penetrate the pumped aquifer, and pumping must continue for a sufficient time to ensure that depleted streamflow becomes a significant portion of the well abstraction rate. Furthermore, two of the five parameters characterize an aquitard that overlies the pumped aquifer, and values for these parameters are seen to be dependent upon the initial water table elevation in the aquitard. The field test analyzed herein used a total of eight observation wells screened in the pumped aquifer, and measurements from these wells gave eight sets of parameters that are used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of each parameter in the stream depletion calculations.

  15. Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration.

    PubMed

    Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ≤13 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ≤17 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤ 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages.

  16. A Spectral Method for the Equal Width Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Archilla, Bosco

    1996-05-01

    A spectral discretization of the equal width equation (EWE) is presented. The method is shown to be convergent and nonlinearly stable. Time-stepping is performed with high-order Adams methods. The spectral accuracy of the scheme reveals some features of the EWE that the methods previously used could not bare out properly. For instance, we may now study the changes in amplitude and velocity of solitary waves after collisions.

  17. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  18. Pulse-Width Dependent Radiation Effects on Electronic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    d’un accelerateur lineaire ( LINAC ) a et6 realisee par le CRDO et d’autres groupes. Par contre, l’emploi du LINAC donne normalement des impulsions plus... LINAC ) has been performed by DREO and other groups. However, the use of a LINAC normally entails wider pulses than those expected on the battlefield...nuclear weapon on electronics, an electron linear accelerator ( LINAC ) is often used. The pulse widths available from most LINACs are longer than the

  19. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.

    PubMed

    Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

    2007-03-15

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges.

  20. First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's

    SciTech Connect

    Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.

    1987-01-01

    We have fabricated 280 ..mu..m thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon ()rho) approx. 2.5 k..cap omega..cm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10)sup)minus)3). The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  2. A New Measurement of the Pi0 Radiative Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Larin, I; Clinton, E; Ambrozewicz, P; Lawrence, D; Nakagawa, I; Prok, Y; Teymurazyan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A M; Burkert, V; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagoulian, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Ent, R; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Gevorkyan, S; Glamazdin, A; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; He, J; Ito, M; Jiang, L; Kashy, D; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovsky, V; Li, X; Martel, P; Mecking, B; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Miskimen, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Ritchie, B; Rodrigues, T E; Salgado, C; Shahinyan, A; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stepanyan, S; Stephens, W; Underwood, J; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M

    2011-04-01

    High precision measurements of the differential cross sections for $\\pi^0$ photoproduction at forward angles for two nuclei, $^{12}$C and $^{208}$Pb, have been performed for incident photon energies of 4.9 - 5.5 GeV to extract the ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width. The experiment was done at Jefferson Lab using the Hall~B photon tagger and a high-resolution multichannel calorimeter. The ${\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma}$ decay width was extracted by fitting the measured cross sections using recently updated theoretical models for the process. The resulting value for the decay width is $\\Gamma{(\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma\\gamma)} = 7.82 \\pm 0.14 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.17 ~({\\rm syst.}) ~{\\rm eV}$. With the 2.8\\% total uncertainty, this result is a factor of 2.5 more precise than the current PDG average of this fundamental quantity and it is consistent with current theoretical predictions.

  3. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan

    2012-04-27

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeVwidths with experimental data for Σ(c)(*) decays, we obtain Γ[Σ(b)(*)→Λ(b)π(±)]=4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the Σ(b)(+), Σ(b)(-), Σ(b)(*+), Σ(b)(*-) initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the Ξ(b)(I(*)) baryons.

  4. Quantum corral resonance widths: lossy scattering as acoustics.

    PubMed

    Barr, Matthew C; Zaletel, Michael P; Heller, Eric J

    2010-09-08

    We present an approach to predicting extrinsic electron resonance widths within quantum corral nanostructures based on analogies with acoustics. Established quantum mechanical methods for calculating resonance widths, such as multiple scattering theory, build up the scattering atom by atom, ignoring the structure formed by the atoms, such as walls or enclosures. Conversely, particle-in-a-box models, assuming continuous walls, have long been successful in predicting quantum corral energy levels, but not resonance widths. In acoustics, partial reflection from walls and various enclosures has long been incorporated for determining reverberation times. Pursuing an exact analogy between the local density of states of a quantum corral and the acoustic impedance of a concert hall, we show electron lifetimes in nanoscopic structures of arbitrary convex shape are well accounted for by the Sabine formula for acoustic reverberation times. This provides a particularly compact and intuitive prescription for extrinsic finite lifetimes in a particle-in-a-box with leaky walls, including quantum corral atomic walls, given single particle scattering properties.

  5. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M.

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  6. The TESS camera: modeling and measurements with deep depletion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Deborah F.; Vanderspek, Roland; MacDonald, Robert; Morgan, Edward; Villasenor, Joel; Thayer, Carolyn; Burke, Barry; Chesbrough, Christian; Chrisp, Michael; Clark, Kristin; Furesz, Gabor; Gonzales, Alexandria; Nguyen, Tam; Prigozhin, Gregory; Primeau, Brian; Ricker, George; Sauerwein, Timothy; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2016-07-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, a NASA Explorer-class mission in development, will discover planets around nearby stars, most notably Earth-like planets with potential for follow up characterization. The all-sky survey requires a suite of four wide field-of-view cameras with sensitivity across a broad spectrum. Deep depletion CCDs with a silicon layer of 100 μm thickness serve as the camera detectors, providing enhanced performance in the red wavelengths for sensitivity to cooler stars. The performance of the camera is critical for the mission objectives, with both the optical system and the CCD detectors contributing to the realized image quality. Expectations for image quality are studied using a combination of optical ray tracing in Zemax and simulations in Matlab to account for the interaction of the incoming photons with the 100 μm silicon layer. The simulations include a probabilistic model to determine the depth of travel in the silicon before the photons are converted to photo-electrons, and a Monte Carlo approach to charge diffusion. The charge diffusion model varies with the remaining depth for the photo-electron to traverse and the strength of the intermediate electric field. The simulations are compared with laboratory measurements acquired by an engineering unit camera with the TESS optical design and deep depletion CCDs. In this paper we describe the performance simulations and the corresponding measurements taken with the engineering unit camera, and discuss where the models agree well in predicted trends and where there are differences compared to observations.

  7. Maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width groups

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups. Materials and Methods: The calculated sample size was 128 subjects. The crown width/height, arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width of the maxilla and mandible were obtained via digital calliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). A total of 4325 variables were measured. The sex differences in the crown width and height were evaluated. Analysis of variance was applied to evaluate the differences between arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups. Results: Males had significantly larger mean values for crown width and height than females (P ≤ 0.05) for maxillary and mandibular arches, both. There were no significant differences observed for the crown width/height ratio in various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups (P ≤ 0.05) in maxilla and mandible, both. Conclusions: Our results indicate sexual disparities in the crown width and height. Crown width and height has no significant relation to various arch length, arch perimeter, and arch width groups of maxilla and mandible. Thus, it may be helpful for orthodontic and prosthodontic case investigations and comprehensive management. PMID:26929686

  8. Involvement of Zn Depletion in Cd-Induced Toxicity on Prenatal Bone Formation in Rat.

    PubMed

    Boughammoura, Sana; Chemek, Marouane; Mimouna, Safa Ben; Banni, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Imed

    2017-03-06

    This study explored the potential toxicity of Cd on the Zn bone depletion in prenatal bone formation. Female rats received either tap water, Cd, Zn, or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation, and some markers of bone formation were studied in their fetuses removed at the 20th day of pregnancy (GD20). Cd exposure induced maternal hypozincemia and Zn depletion in the femur of the fetuses. A striking inhibition of bone formation in fetuses, expressed by decreases in femur length, width, and area, by the shortening of diaphysis, and by a decrease in length and area of distal and proximal proliferative zones, was observed in fetuses from Cd-exposed mothers. At the molecular level, Cd caused upregulation of MT-1 and ZIP2 genes and significantly depressed the expression of the ZnT5, colα1, osteocalcin, and ALP genes in the femur. Interestingly, Zn treatment ameliorated the Cd-induced maternal hypozincemia and femoral changes and partially restored the normal histomorphometry of the femur. These results suggest that the observed toxic effects of Cd are, at least in part, mediated by the disruption of maternal Zn metabolism during pregnancy leading to Zn depletion and thus to perturbation of prenatal bone formation.

  9. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule....

  10. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Percentage depletion; general rule....

  11. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule....

  12. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Percentage depletion; general rule....

  13. 26 CFR 52.4682-1 - Ozone-depleting chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozone-depleting chemicals. 52.4682-1 Section 52... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-1 Ozone-depleting chemicals. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) under section...

  14. 26 CFR 52.4682-1 - Ozone-depleting chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozone-depleting chemicals. 52.4682-1 Section 52... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-1 Ozone-depleting chemicals. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) under section...

  15. 26 CFR 52.4682-1 - Ozone-depleting chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozone-depleting chemicals. 52.4682-1 Section 52... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-1 Ozone-depleting chemicals. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) under section...

  16. 26 CFR 52.4682-1 - Ozone-depleting chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozone-depleting chemicals. 52.4682-1 Section 52... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-1 Ozone-depleting chemicals. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) under section...

  17. Children's Models of the Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    1996-01-01

    The views of 40 primary students on ozone and its depletion were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The data analysis resulted in the formation of a limited number of models concerning the distribution and role of ozone in the atmosphere, the depletion process, and the consequences of ozone depletion. Identifies five target…

  18. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent...

  19. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980`s, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality.

  20. Correlation between cosmic rays and ozone depletion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Q-B

    2009-03-20

    This Letter reports reliable satellite data in the period of 1980-2007 covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles, clearly showing the correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone loss (hole) over Antarctica. The results provide strong evidence of the physical mechanism that the CR-driven electron-induced reaction of halogenated molecules plays the dominant role in causing the ozone hole. Moreover, this mechanism predicts one of the severest ozone losses in 2008-2009 and probably another large hole around 2019-2020, according to the 11-yr CR cycle.

  1. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  2. Ozone depletion: implications for the veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, K E

    1978-09-15

    Man has inadvertently modified the stratosphere. There is a good possibility that the ozone layer is being depleted by the use of jet aircraft (SST), chlorofluoromethane propellants, and nitrogen fertilizers. Under unpolluted conditions, the production of ozone equals its destruction. By man's intervention, however, the destruction may exceed the production. The potential outcome is increased intensity of solar ultraviolet (280-400 nm) radiation and penetration to the earth's surface of previously absorbed wavelengths below about 280 nm. The increased ultraviolet radiation would increase the likelihood of skin cancer in man and ocular squamous cell carcinoma in cattle. The climate also might be modified, possibly in an undesirable way.

  3. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  4. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past few years, there have been highly significant advances in the understanding of the impact of human activities on the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer and the influence of changes in chemical composition of the radiative balance of the climate system. Specifically, since the last international scientific review (1989), there have been five major advances: (1) global ozone decreases; (2) polar ozone; (3) ozone and industrial halocarbons; (4) ozone and climate relations; and (5) ozone depletion potentials (ODP's) and global warming potentials (GWP's). These topics and others are discussed.

  5. Within-person variability in men’s facial width-to-height ratio

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, researchers have investigated the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) and a variety of threat and dominance behaviours. The majority of methods involved measuring FWHR from 2D photographs of faces. However, individuals can vary dramatically in their appearance across images, which poses an obvious problem for reliable FWHR measurement. Methods. I compared the effect sizes due to the differences between images taken with unconstrained camera parameters (Studies 1 and 2) or varied facial expressions (Study 3) to the effect size due to identity, i.e., the differences between people. In Study 1, images of Hollywood actors were collected from film screenshots, providing the least amount of experimental control. In Study 2, controlled photographs, which only varied in focal length and distance to camera, were analysed. In Study 3, images of different facial expressions, taken in controlled conditions, were measured. Results. Analyses revealed that simply varying the focal length and distance between the camera and face had a relatively small effect on FWHR, and therefore may prove less of a problem if uncontrolled in study designs. In contrast, when all camera parameters (including the camera itself) are allowed to vary, the effect size due to identity was greater than the effect of image selection, but the ranking of the identities was significantly altered by the particular image used. Finally, I found significant changes to FWHR when people posed with four of seven emotional expressions in comparison with neutral, and the effect size due to expression was larger than differences due to identity. Discussion. The results of these three studies demonstrate that even when head pose is limited to forward facing, changes to the camera parameters and a person’s facial expression have sizable effects on FWHR measurement. Therefore, analysing images that fail to constrain some of these variables can lead to noisy and

  6. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Stefan Meinel

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light-quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeV < m{sub {pi}} < 352 MeV, two lattice spacings, a = 0.085, 0.112 fm, and a volume of (2.7 fm){sup 3}. Our results for the axial couplings are g{sub 1} = 0.449(51), g{sub 2} = 0.84(20), and g{sub 3} = 0.71(13), where g{sub 1} governs the interaction between heavy-light mesons and pions and g{sub 2,3} are similar couplings between heavy-light baryons and pions. Using our lattice result for g{sub 3}, and constraining 1/m{sub Q} corrections in the strong decay widths with experimental data for {Sigma}{sub c}{sup (*)} decays, we obtain {Gamma}[{Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)} {yields} {Lambda}{sub b} {pi}{sup {+-}}] = 4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the {Sigma}{sub b}{sup +}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *+}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *-} initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the {Xi}{sub b}{sup prime(*)} baryons.

  7. Importance of Mean Red Cell Distribution Width in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Ahmed; Farooq, Junaid H; Assad, Salman; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ahmed, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Red cell distribution width (RDW), expressed in femtoliters (fl), is a measure of the variation in the size of circulating erythrocytes and is often expressed as a direct measurement of the width of the distribution. We aim to observe the mean value of red cell distribution width (RDW) in hypertensive patients. Increased RDW can be used as a tool for early diagnosis, as an inflammatory marker, and a mortality indicator in hypertensive patients due to its close relation to inflammation. Materials and methodology Hypertensive patients who had the condition for more than one year duration, diagnosed according to the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) criteria were subjected to complete blood count and RDW measurement. One hundred patients, aged between 12 years and 65 years were enrolled from the outpatient department of medicine at the Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Results The mean age (± SD) of the patients was 51.48 ± 10.08 years. Out of 100 patients 69% were males whereas 31% were females. The overall frequency of hypertension more than five years was 55% subjects whereas 45% individuals had duration of hypertension less than five years. Mean RDW in females was found to be 49.35±8.42 fl while mean RDW in males was 44.78±7.11 fl. An independent sample t-test was applied to assess if there was any significant difference between age and gender. No significant difference between age and gender was found (p<0.05). The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess any association of RDW with gender. RDW values in females was found to be statistically significantly higher than in males (U=603, p=0.01). Linear regression showed that mean RDW value increased with increasing age (P <0.001). Conclusions A significant number of patients with hypertension have increased levels of RDW. Therefore, it is recommended that serum RDW should be checked regularly in patients with hypertension. PMID:28070471

  8. Mesiodistal width and proximal enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Macha, Aurélio de Carvalho; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating measurements relative to the mesiodistal crown width and enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids. The sample consisted of 40 extracted sound bicuspids (20 right and 20 left), selected from white patients (mean age: 23.7 +/- 4.2 years), who were treated orthodontically with tooth extraction at a private clinic in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axis through the proximal surfaces, parallel to the buccal side, to obtain 0.6-mm central sections. The mesiodistal crown width and proximal enamel thickness were measured using a stereoscopic microscope connected to a computer. Measurements for right and left teeth, as well as the mesial and distal enamel thicknesses in the total sample, were compared by the Wilcoxon test (alpha = 0.05). The mesiodistal crown width mean values found were 7.51 mm (+/- 0.54) on the right side and 7.53 mm (+/- 0.35) on the left side. The mean enamel thickness on the distal surfaces for both sides was 1.29 mm (right: s.d. = 0.12 and left: s.d. = 0.18). The mean values for the mesial surfaces were 1.08 mm (+/- 0.14) and 1.19 mm (+/- 0.25), on the right and the left sides, respectively. No significant differences were found between the crown measurements and enamel thicknesses on the left and right sides. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces. Reliable measurements of enamel thickness are useful to guide stripping, which may be an attractive alternative to tooth extraction because it allows the transverse arch dimension to be maintained.

  9. Polar Dunes Resolved by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Gridded Topography and Pulse Widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) polar data have been refined to the extent that many features poorly imaged by Viking Orbiters are now resolved in densely gridded altimetry. Individual linear polar dunes with spacings of 0.5 km or more can be seen as well as sparsely distributed and partially mantled dunes. The refined altimetry will enable measurements of the extent and possibly volume of the north polar ergs. MOLA pulse widths have been recalibrated using inflight data, and a robust algorithm applied to solve for the surface optical impulse response. It shows the surface root-mean-square (RMS) roughness at the 75-m-diameter MOLA footprint scale, together with a geological map. While the roughness is of vital interest for landing site safety studies, a variety of geomorphological studies may also be performed. Pulse widths corrected for regional slope clearly delineate the extent of the polar dunes. The MOLA PEDR profile data have now been re-released in their entirety (Version L). The final Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records (MEGDR's) are now provided at up to 128 pixels per degree globally. Densities as high as 512 pixels per degree are available in a polar stereographic projection. A large computational effort has been expended in improving the accuracy of the MOLA altimetry themselves, both in improved orbital modeling and in after-the-fact adjustment of tracks to improve their registration at crossovers. The current release adopts the IAU2000 rotation model and cartographic frame recommended by the Mars Cartography Working Group. Adoption of the current standard will allow registration of images and profiles globally with an uncertainty of less than 100 m. The MOLA detector is still operational and is currently collecting radiometric data at 1064 nm. Seasonal images of the reflectivity of the polar caps can be generated with a resolution of about 300 m per pixel.

  10. The width of the plateaus of the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groshev, Atanas; Scho¨n, Gerd

    1994-02-01

    We suggest that in high quality samples in the quantum Hall regime the interaction between localized states dominates over disorder effects. It leads to the formation of a Wigner crystal, which melts at a critical value ν c≈0.2 of the filling factor of the localized states. This leads to a finite width of the plateaus of the integer quantum Hall effect Δν=2ν c. This result describes well recent experimental data on single AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunctions (electron and hole gases) and double 2DEG systems.

  11. Leptonic partial widths of the excited {psi} states

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, X. H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Wang, P.

    2010-10-01

    The resonance parameters of the excited {psi}-family resonances, namely, the {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160), and {psi}(4415), were determined by fitting the R values measured by experiments. It is found that the previously reported leptonic partial widths of these states were merely one possible solution among a four-fold ambiguity. By fitting the most precise experimental data on the R values measured by the BES collaboration, this work presents all four sets of solutions. These results may affect the interpretation of the charmonium and charmonium-like states above 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  12. On the width of Σ hypernuclei and Σ- atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, R.; Oset, E.

    1982-12-01

    The self-energy of a Σ particle in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated by using a boson exchange model for the ΣN interaction. The imaginary part of the self-energy is shown to be strongly density dependent and has saturation properties around ϱ ≌ 0.7 ϱo. This peculiar feature allows our results to be in good agreement with the Σ atom data while simultaneously providing a width of about 5 Mev or smaller for all nuclei and different states. Permanent address: Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

  13. What sets the line widths in tidal disruption events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The optical and UV spectra of flares from the tidal disruption of stars by massive black holes (TDEs) vary greatly between individual events. In particular, the line widths can differ by at least a factor of five even for events with similar values inferred for the black hole mass. Additionally, the lines narrow over time in some events, and this detail has proven difficult to explain based on hydrodynamical modeling. We present radiative transfer calculations to help understand these aspects of line formation from TDEs, with a focus on the role of electron scattering in both static and outflowing reprocessing envelopes.

  14. Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, G.; Berg, F. D.; Hagel, K.; Kühn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O.; Charity, R. J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R. S.; Simon, R. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.

    1992-07-01

    High-energy γ rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of 136Xe+48Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width Γ is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy E*. A saturation at about Γ=10 MeV is observed for E*/A>=1.0 MeV/nucleon.

  15. Effect of stance width on multidirectional postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, S. M.; Fung, J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of stance width on postural responses to 12 different directions of surface translations was examined. Postural responses were characterized by recording 11 lower limb and trunk muscles, body kinematics, and forces exerted under each foot of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. A quasi-static approach of force analysis was done, examining force integrals in three different epochs (background, passive, and active periods). The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were quantified for each direction, and muscle tuning curves were used to determine the spatial activation patterns for each muscle. The results demonstrate that the horizontal force constraint exerted at the ground was lessened in the wide, compared with narrow, stance for humans, a similar finding to that reported by Macpherson for cats. Despite more trunk displacement in narrow stance, there were no significant changes in body center of mass (CoM) displacement due to large changes in center of pressure (CoP), especially in response to lateral translations. Electromyographic (EMG) magnitude decreased for all directions in wide stance, particularly for the more proximal muscles, whereas latencies remained the same from narrow to wide stance. Equilibrium control in narrow stance was more of an active postural strategy that included regulating the loading/unloading of the limbs and the direction of horizontal force vectors. In wide stance, equilibrium control relied more on an increase in passive stiffness resulting from changes in limb geometry. The selective latency modulation of the proximal muscles with translation direction suggests that the trunk was being actively controlled in all directions. The similar EMG latencies for both narrow and wide stance, with modulation of only the muscle activation magnitude as stance width changed, suggest that the same postural synergy was only slightly modified

  16. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  17. Microsecond pulse width, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rej, D. J.; Bartsch, R. R.; Davis, H. A.; Faehl, R. J.; Greenly, J. B.; Waganaar, W. J.

    1993-10-01

    A relatively long-pulse width (0.1-1 μs) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied Br, magnetically insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. The diode is designed with the aid of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse shaping. The effect of a plasma opening switch on diode behavior is considered.

  18. Total width of 125 GeV Higgs boson.

    PubMed

    Barger, Vernon; Ishida, Muneyuki; Keung, Wai-Yee

    2012-06-29

    By using the LHC and Tevatron measurements of the cross sections to various decay channels relative to the standard model Higgs boson, the total width of the putative 125 GeV Higgs boson is determined as 6.1(-2.9)(+7.7) MeV. We describe a way to estimate the branching fraction for the Higgs-boson decay to dark matter. We also discuss a no-go theorem for the γγ signal of the Higgs boson at the LHC.

  19. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.; Harris, F. R.; Gattinger, R. L.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of plasma depletion, ion composition modification, and airglow emissions in the Waterhole experiments are presented. The detailed ion chemistry and airglow emission processes related to the ionospheric hole formation in the experiment are examined, and observations are compared with computer simulation results. The latter indicate that the overall depletion rates in different parts of the depletion region are governed by different parameters.

  20. Ego depletion results in an increase in spontaneous false memories.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Alberts, Hugo; Cuppens, Lesly

    2012-12-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether depleted cognitive resources might have ramifications for the formation of neutral and negative spontaneous false memories. To examine this, participants received neutral and negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory wordlists. Also, for half of the participants, cognitive resources were depleted by use of an ego depletion manipulation (solving difficult calculations while being interfered with auditory noise). Our chief finding was that depleted cognitive resources made participants more vulnerable for the production of false memories. Our results shed light on how depleted cognitive resources affect neutral and negative correct and errant memories.

  1. Decline and depletion rates of oil production: a comprehensive investigation.

    PubMed

    Höök, Mikael; Davidsson, Simon; Johansson, Sheshti; Tang, Xu

    2014-01-13

    Two of the most fundamental concepts in the current debate about future oil supply are oilfield decline rates and depletion rates. These concepts are related, but not identical. This paper clarifies the definitions of these concepts, summarizes the underlying theory and empirically estimates decline and depletion rates for different categories of oilfield. A database of 880 post-peak fields is analysed to determine typical depletion levels, depletion rates and decline rates. This demonstrates that the size of oilfields has a significant influence on decline and depletion rates, with generally high values for small fields and comparatively low values for larger fields. These empirical findings have important implications for oil supply forecasting.

  2. Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

  3. Stratospheric ozone depletion and animal health.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S J

    1992-08-08

    There is an increasing concern over ozone depletion and its effects on the environment and human health. However, the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) that would result from significant losses of ozone is also potentially harmful to animals. Any increase in disease in domestic species would not only have serious animal welfare implications but may also be economically important. The diseases which are likely to increase if ozone depletion continues include the squamous cell carcinomas of the exposed, non-pigmented areas of cats, cattle, sheep and horses. Uberreiter's syndrome in dogs is also associated with exposure to UV-B and may be expected to increase, as may the severity of conditions such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis (New Forest eye) in cattle. Aquaculture systems in which fish often have little or no protection by shading may also be at risk. Cataracts and skin lesions have been associated with the exposure of farmed fish to ultraviolet radiation and have resulted in significant losses.

  4. Optical study of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different well widths grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, T. S.; Lu, T. C.; Wang, T. C.; Chen, J. R.; Gao, R. C.; Lo, M. H.; Kuo, H. C.; Wang, S. C.; Shen, J. L.

    2008-11-01

    a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells of different widths ranging from 3 to 12 nm grown on r-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were investigated. The peak emission intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) reveals a decreasing trend as the well width increases from 3 to 12 nm. Low temperature (9 K) time-resolved PL (TRPL) study shows that the sample with 3-nm-thick wells has the best optical property with a fastest exciton decay time of 0.57 ns. The results of cathodoluminescence and micro-PL scanning images for samples of different well widths further verify that the more uniform and stronger luminescence intensity distribution are observed for the samples of thinner quantum wells. In addition, more effective capturing of excitons due to larger localization energy Eloc and shorter radiative lifetime of localized excitons are observed in thinner well width samples in the temperature dependent TRPL.

  5. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T

    2010-12-03

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) <7.6 GeV and a two-sided 68% CL interval of 0.3 GeV <Γ(t) <4.4  GeV for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  6. Origin of multiple band gap values in single width nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Deepika; Kumar, Shailesh; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-11-01

    Deterministic band gap in quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons is prerequisite for their integrated functionalities in high performance molecular-electronics based devices. However, multiple band gaps commonly observed in graphene nanoribbons of the same width, fabricated in same slot of experiments, remain unresolved, and raise a critical concern over scalable production of pristine and/or hetero-structure nanoribbons with deterministic properties and functionalities for plethora of applications. Here, we show that a modification in the depth of potential wells in the periodic direction of a supercell on relative shifting of passivating atoms at the edges is the origin of multiple band gap values in nanoribbons of the same width in a crystallographic orientation, although they carry practically the same ground state energy. The results are similar when calculations are extended from planar graphene to buckled silicene nanoribbons. Thus, the findings facilitate tuning of the electronic properties of quasi-one-dimensional materials such as bio-molecular chains, organic and inorganic nanoribbons by performing edge engineering.

  7. Origin of multiple band gap values in single width nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Deepika; Kumar, Shailesh; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic band gap in quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons is prerequisite for their integrated functionalities in high performance molecular-electronics based devices. However, multiple band gaps commonly observed in graphene nanoribbons of the same width, fabricated in same slot of experiments, remain unresolved, and raise a critical concern over scalable production of pristine and/or hetero-structure nanoribbons with deterministic properties and functionalities for plethora of applications. Here, we show that a modification in the depth of potential wells in the periodic direction of a supercell on relative shifting of passivating atoms at the edges is the origin of multiple band gap values in nanoribbons of the same width in a crystallographic orientation, although they carry practically the same ground state energy. The results are similar when calculations are extended from planar graphene to buckled silicene nanoribbons. Thus, the findings facilitate tuning of the electronic properties of quasi-one-dimensional materials such as bio-molecular chains, organic and inorganic nanoribbons by performing edge engineering. PMID:27808172

  8. Multifractal diffusion entropy analysis: Optimal bin width of probability histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of Multifractal Diffusion Entropy Analysis we propose a method for choosing an optimal bin-width in histograms generated from underlying probability distributions of interest. The method presented uses techniques of Rényi’s entropy and the mean squared error analysis to discuss the conditions under which the error in the multifractal spectrum estimation is minimal. We illustrate the utility of our approach by focusing on a scaling behavior of financial time series. In particular, we analyze the S&P500 stock index as sampled at a daily rate in the time period 1950-2013. In order to demonstrate a strength of the method proposed we compare the multifractal δ-spectrum for various bin-widths and show the robustness of the method, especially for large values of q. For such values, other methods in use, e.g., those based on moment estimation, tend to fail for heavy-tailed data or data with long correlations. Connection between the δ-spectrum and Rényi’s q parameter is also discussed and elucidated on a simple example of multiscale time series.

  9. Determination of the width of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Abolins, Maris A.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.

    2010-09-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  10. Zero-width resonances in intense-field molecular photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Atabek, Osman; Lefebvre, Roland; Gadea, Florent Xavier

    2006-12-15

    We provide additional evidence for the existence of zero-width resonances in the intense-field photodissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +}. In a previous investigation [Atabek, Chrysos, and Lefebvre, Phys. Rev. A 49, R8 (1994)] the situation, in a two-channel dressed picture, corresponded to a diabatic crossing point classically reachable in both adiabatic potentials. A semiclassical explanation could be modeled after that developed for predissociation in the intermediate-coupling regime. At higher frequencies the crossing point lies between the two turning points. A numerical study shows that zero-width resonances exist also in such a case. An extension of the semiclassical approach provides an explanation for the occurrence of these resonances. It is shown that they survive even when going to a multichannel description. The associated wave functions and probability densities are studied: they are very similar to those of the upper adiabatic potential, with a minor component in the lower adiabatic channel. Some conditions for the production of such long-lived dressed molecular species are stated.

  11. Baryon Masses and Hadronic Decay Widths with Explicit Pionic Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. A.; Canton, L.; Plessas, W.; Schweiger, W.

    2017-03-01

    We report results from studies of baryon ground and resonant states by taking explicit mesonic degrees of freedom into account. We are following a relativistic coupled-channels approach relying on a Poincaré-invariant mass operator in matrix form. Generally, it corresponds to a bare particle that is coupled to a number of further mesonic channels. Here we present results, where the bare particle is either a bare nucleon or a bare Delta coupled to pion-nucleon and pion-Delta channels, respectively. For the pion-baryon vertices we employ coupling constants and form factors from different models in the literature. From the mass-operator eigenvalue equation we obtain the pion-dressing effects on the nucleon mass as well as the mass and pion-decay width of the Delta. The dressed masses become smaller than the bare ones, and a finite width of the Delta is naturally generated. The results are relevant for the construction of constituent-quark models for baryons, which have so far not included explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, but have rather relied on three-quark configurations only.

  12. A New Method for Line Width Roughness Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, K. Subramanya; Yool, Kang; Kim, Hochul; Cho, Han-Ku

    2011-06-01

    Demands of the continuous downscaling of device size impose stringent requirements on the RLS trade-off (R: resolution, L: line width roughness and S: sensitivity). Among the above, line width roughness (LWR) has to be controlled below 10% of critical dimensions (CD). While significant improvement in R&S was achieved, LWR has been relatively high for extreme ultra-violet lithography resists. Herein, we provide a new method for LWR mitigation that overcomes several shortcomings of previously known methods. Our new method is based on a double development method wherein, a polymeric solution in developer is coated on to the patterned surface. The wafer is then subjected to the standard development step during which LWR improvement is affected. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis of our method and provide relevant data to understand the conditions under which LWR improvement is observed. Effect of polymer/developer concentration ratio, solid content and bake temperatures will be discussed. Also, our method will be compared with currently available methods for LWR improvement on pattern transfer.

  13. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  14. Neutron decay widths of excited states of {sup 11}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, P. J.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Bloxham, T.; Curtis, N.; McEwan, P.; Bohlen, H. G.; Dorsch, T.; Kokalova, Tz.; Schulz, Ch.; Wheldon, C.

    2009-01-15

    The two-neutron transfer reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 16}O, {sup 14}O){sup 11}Be[{sup 10}Be +n] has been used to measure the branching ratios for the neutron decay of excited states of {sup 11}Be. The {sup 14}O ejectile was detected by a Q3D spectrometer at forward angles. The energies and angles of the {sup 10}Be fragments of the decaying {sup 11}Be* recoil were measured in coincidence with the {sup 14}O ejectile using a double-sided silicon strip detector array at backward angles. This enabled a kinematic reconstruction of the reaction to be performed. Theoretical decay branch ratios were calculated using barrier penetrability factors and were compared to the measured ratios to provide information on the relative reduced widths of the states. The decay widths have been used to link states in {sup 11}Be with a common structure and structurally to states in the daughter nucleus {sup 10}Be. The 3/2{sup -} 8.82-MeV state was identified as a candidate for a molecular band head.

  15. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen

    2005-01-01

    A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

  16. Bang Time and Burn Width Analysis at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafil, E.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Kim, Y.; Hoffman, N. M.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Church, J.; Bernstein, L.; Liebman, J.; Rubery, M.; Horsefield, C. J.; Miller, E. K.

    2011-10-01

    The time of peak fusion reactivity with respect to the impingement of laser light on an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule is known as Nuclear Bang Time (BT). The width of this peak is the Nuclear Burn Width (BW). Accurately measuring BT & BW is essential for constraining hydrodynamic simulations as it is a measure of energy coupling to the target. BT & BW measurements have been performed using a variety of instruments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is designed to measure fusion gamma-rays in determining BT & BW to within 30 ps precision and accuracy. The GRH consists of four Gas Cherenkov Detectors having variable energy-thresholding capability. For BT measurements, the threshold is typically set >8 MeV so as to isolate DT fusion gamma-rays at 16.75 MeV while thresholding out the lower energy (n,n') gammas. The GRH experimental setup, data and comparison to BT & BW from other diagnostics methods are presented. U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-480419.

  17. The precursory fault width formation of large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Fumihide; Takeo, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    We collect earthquake (EQ) events for a region of about 5 degree mesh from a focus catalog of Japan with a regionally dependent magnitude window of M >= 3-3.5. The time history of the events draws a zigzagged trajectory in a five dimensional space of EQ epicenter, focal depth (DEP), inter-event interval (INT), and magnitude (MAG). Its components are the time series of the EQ source parameters for which time is the chronological event index. Each series has long-term memory and evidence of deterministic chaos. We thus use physical wavelets (P-Ws) to find the process producing large EQs. The P-Ws convert the moving-average of each series, its first and second order differences at any interval into the displacement, velocity and acceleration (A) in selective frequency region, respectively. The process starts with two unique different triple phase couplings of A on source parameters DEP, INT, and MAG, precursory to every large EQ's (M > about 6) throughout Japan. Each coupling then creates a linear DEP variation (W) on its series, which becomes comparable to the fault width of large EQ's. It suggests that the variation exerts the corresponding shear stress on a local plane in Earth's crust to form the fault plane of width W, rupturing a large EQ.

  18. An investigation into factors affecting the precision of CT radiation dose profile width measurements using radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baojun Behrman, Richard H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of x-ray beam energy, exposure intensity, and flat-bed scanner uniformity and spatial resolution on the precision of computed tomography (CT) beam width measurements using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film and an off-the-shelf document scanner. Methods: Small strips of Gafchromic film were placed at isocenter in a CT scanner and exposed at various x-ray beam energies (80–140 kVp), exposure levels (50–400 mA s), and nominal beam widths (1.25, 5, and 10 mm). The films were scanned in reflection mode on a Ricoh MP3501 flat-bed document scanner using several spatial resolution settings (100 to 400 dpi) and at different locations on the scanner bed. Reflection measurements were captured in digital image files and radiation dose profiles generated by converting the image pixel values to air kerma through film calibration. Beam widths were characterized by full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) of dose profiles. Dependences of these parameters on the above factors were quantified in percentage change from the baselines. Results: The uncertainties in both FWHM and FWTM caused by varying beam energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity were all within 4.5% and 7.6%, respectively. Increasing scanner spatial resolution significantly increased the uncertainty in both FWHM and FWTM, with FWTM affected by almost 8 times more than FWHM (48.7% vs 6.5%). When uncalibrated dose profiles were used, FWHM and FWTM were over-estimated by 11.6% and 7.6%, respectively. Narrower beam width appeared more sensitive to the film calibration than the wider ones (R{sup 2} = 0.68 and 0.85 for FWHM and FWTM, respectively). The global and maximum local background variations of the document scanner were 1.2%. The intrinsic film nonuniformity for an unexposed film was 0.3%. Conclusions: Measurement of CT beam widths using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films is robust against x-ray energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity. With proper film

  19. Magnitude and frequency analysis on river width widening caused by Typhoon Morakot in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Jan, C. D.; Wang, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    Active evolving rivers are some of the most dynamic and sensitive parts of landscapes. From geologic and geomorphic perspectives, a stable river channel can adjust its width, depth, and slope to prevent significant aggradation or degradation caused by external triggers, e.g., hydrologic events caused by typhoon storms. In particular, the processes of lateral riverbank erosion play a majorly important role in forming horizontal river geomorphology, dominating incised river widens and meanders. Sediment materials produced and mobilized from riverbanks can also be substantial sediment supplying into river channel networks, affecting watershed sediment yield. In Taiwan, the geological and climatic regimes usually combine to generate severely lateral erosion and/or riverbed deposition along river channels, causing the significant change in river width. In the August of 2009, Typhoon Morakot brought severe rainfall of about 2000 mmin Southern Taiwan during three days at the beginning of Aug. 5, leading to significant changes in geomorphic system. Here we characterized river width widening (including Cishan, Laonong, and Ilao Rivers) in the Kaoping River watershed after Typhoon Morakot disturbance interpreted through a power law. On the basis of a temporal pair (2008 and 2009) of Formosat-II (Formosa satellite II) images analysis, the river channels were digitalized within geographic information system (GIS), and river widths were extracted per 100 m along the rivers, then differentiating the adjustment of river width before and after Typhoon Morkot. The river width adjusted from -83 m (contracting) to 1985 m (widening), with an average of 170 m. The noncumulative frequency-magnitude distribution for river width adjustment caused by Typhoon Morakot in the study area satisfies a power-law relation with a determined coefficient (r2) of 0.95, over the range from 65 m to 2373m in the study area. Moreover, the value of the power-law exponent is equal to -2.09. This pattern

  20. Measurements of Non-thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1-4 MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.3 km s-1, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfvén wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small, such measurements are difficult and susceptible to systematic effects.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF NON-THERMAL LINE WIDTHS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2016-03-20

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1–4 MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.3 km s{sup −1}, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfvén wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small, such measurements are difficult and susceptible to systematic effects.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Bankfull Width and Its Relationship to Drainage Area and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, D. R.; Wilkerson, G. V.; Dietrich, W. E.; Wilcock, P.

    2009-12-01

    Bankfull width (Wbf) is a fundamental measure of stream size and a key parameter for many applications in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology. Towards developing a universal relationship for predicting Wbf, we evaluated how Wbf is affected by Ada and mean annual precipitation (P). For our analysis we used a dataset that represents over 350 stream locations, 12 states across the continental U.S., and a broad range of geologic and climatic environments. Represented streams have widths from 1 m to 102 m; drainage areas between 0.26 km2 to 22,000 km2, and mean annual precipitation depths of 38 cm to 280 cm. After grouping the data into precipitation classes, Wbf vs. Ada trendlines were plotted for each class. The results of our analyses revealed that Wbf vs. Ada trendlines for different precipitation classes are parallel. More, the trendline intercept values (b0) were proportional to P for P less than about 85 cm and constant for P greater than 85 cm. We hypothesize that b0 stops increasing for reasons having to do with vegetation. In particular we hypothesize that when P is greater than 85 cm, the bank strengthening effect of vegetation outpaces the channel widening capacity of increased stream discharges. We will attempt to test our hypothesis using aerial photographs and satellite imagery showing streambank vegetation. Near-bank vegetation observed in the photographs and images will be used as a proxy for streambank root density.

  3. Extraction and analysis of the width, gray scale and radian in Chinese signature handwriting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Forensic handwriting examination is a relevant identification process in forensic science. This research obtained ideas from the process of features detection and analysis in forensic handwriting examination. A Chinese signature database was developed and comprised original signatures, freehand imitation forgeries, random forgeries and tracing imitation forgeries. The features of width, gray scale and radian combined with stroke orders were automatically extracted after image processing. A correlation coefficient was used to precisely characterize and express the similarities between signatures. To validate the differences between writers, a multivariate analysis of the variance was employed. The canonical discriminant analysis was performed between the original and non-original signatures; the cross-validation estimated the discriminating power of the width, gray scale and radian data. It is suggested that the extraction and analysis of these properties in Chinese signatures is reasonable. Meanwhile, forensic handwriting examination using the quantitative feature extraction and statistical analysis methods in this research could be performed with a satisfactory result in the discriminant analysis.

  4. Measuring the apparent width of auditory sources in normal and impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, William M; Seeber, Bernhard U; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that single sources of sound are perceived as being punctate, but this cannot be guaranteed, especially for hearing-impaired listeners. Any impairment that gives a reduction at the periphery in the accuracy of coding fine-scale temporal information must give a slight interaural jitter in the temporal information passed to higher centres, and so would be expected to lead to an effective reduction in the interaural coherence (IC) of any stimulus. This would lead to deficits in locating sounds, but deficits of imprecision, not inaccuracy. In turn, this implies that older hearing-impaired individuals should have a diminished perception of auditory space, affecting their abilities to perceive clear, concise, punctate spatial impressions or to separate sounds by location. The current work tested this hypothesis by using two separate visual-analogy methods to measure auditory source width for broadband sounds. In one method, the listener sketched the auditory image, a visual-description task, and for the other, the listener selected the closest one of a set of pre-drawn visual sketches (note that the first is an open-set experiment, whereas the second is a closed-set experiment). We found that older hearing-impaired listeners had increased difficulty in judging changes in interaural coherence, showing a corresponding insensitivity to auditory source width in the visual-analogy tasks.

  5. Gate-width impact on NIR FRET lifetime fitting using gated ICCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sez-Jade; Intes, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is widely used to sense molecular interactions occurring at the nanoscale. In vitro and ex vivo protocols for visualizing FRET are already well-established, but in vivo studies have proven to be more challenging. One issue that hinders in vivo visualization of FRET is the higher absorption and scattering of visible light within tissues. In this case, light in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral window is required for increased depth sensing. Moreover, due to spectral variation in optical properties as well as heterogeneous spatial distribution, lifetime-based FRET imaging is preferred. Herein, we investigate the effect of temporal acquisition settings on the lifetime-based estimation of the fraction of quenched donor molecules (A1) as well as the quenched donor lifetime (τ1). We performed in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments under gate widths of 300ps to 1000ps in 100ps intervals to determine the effect on quantification of A1 and τ1. Even though the NIR fluorescent dyes have shorter lifetimes then visible fluorophores, we were still able to accurately quantify FRET under all tested system gate widths and experimental conditions.

  6. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S

    2015-07-01

    The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.

  7. Relaxation Times and Line Widths of Isotopically-Substituted Nitroxides in Aqueous Solution at X-band

    PubMed Central

    Biller, Joshua R.; Meyer, Virginia; Elajaili, Hanan; Rosen, Gerald M.; Kao, Joseph P.Y.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eatona, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of nitroxides as probes for EPR imaging requires detailed understanding of spectral properties. Spin lattice relaxation times, spin packet line widths, nuclear hyperfine splitting, and overall lineshapes were characterized for six low molecular weight nitroxides in dilute deoxygenated aqueous solution at X-band. The nitroxides included 6-member, unsaturated 5-member, or saturated 5-member rings, most of which were isotopically labeled. The spectra are near the fast tumbling limit with T1 ~ T2 in the range of 0.50 to 1.1 μs at ambient temperature. Both spin-lattice relaxation T1 and spin-spin relaxation T2 are longer for 15N- than for 14N-nitroxides. The dominant contributions to T1 are modulation of nitrogen hyperfine anisotropy and spin rotation. Dependence of T1 on nitrogen nuclear spin state mI was observed for both 14N and 15N. Unresolved hydrogen/deuterium hyperfine couplings dominate overall line widths. Lineshapes were simulated by including all nuclear hyperfine couplings and spin packet line widths that agreed with values obtained by electron spin echo. Line widths and relaxation times are predicted to be about the same at 250 MHz as at X-band. PMID:21843961

  8. Teasing Foggy Memories out of Pines on the California Channel Islands Using Tree-Ring Width and Stable Isotope Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C. J.; Fischer, D. T.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    The coast of California is home to many rare, endemic conifers and other plants that are not well adapted to the Mediterranean climate that prevails across most of the state. It has long been suggested that coastal pines survived the early-Pleistocene transition to a warmer and drier environment because they benefit from frequent fog and low stratus clouds that provide much needed water inputs and shading during the rainless summer. Here, we report evidence for the importance of this summer cloudiness to Torrey pines (Pinus torreyana) growing on Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Park. We developed a tree-ring width chronology and quantified the relative importance of winter/spring precipitation and summer fog by comparing ring widths to nearby rainfall records and airport cloud-ceiling height data. While winter/spring precipitation explains most of the variation in annual tree-ring width (R2 = 0.592), the frequency of summertime fog correlated significantly and positively with annual ring width for 52 years of available fog data when the effect of winter/spring precipitation was removed (R2 = 0.118). The correlation between fog frequency and ring width decreased sharply when the range of possible cloud-ceiling heights deviated from the habitat range of the Torrey pine stand, emphasizing the importance of direct cloud immersion to these pines. In addition, the relationship between fog frequency and ring width was strongest in the 26 years that had enough winter/spring rainfall to maintain above-average soil moisture throughout the dry summer months (R2 = 0.312). This suggests that Torrey pines have an adaptive growing season length and that summer fog-water inputs are supplemental but not substantial enough to sustain tree growth independently. It may also be suggested that when summer growth does occur, the frequency of summer fog and stratus may govern growing season length. This made a "fog signal" difficult to detect in the stable isotope (carbon and

  9. Correlation of Density Pedestal Width and Neutral Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Nevins, W. M.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pedestal studies in DIII-D and C-Mod find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length.[1][2] These results suggest that the width may be set by the combined effects of neutral and plasma transport. This paper is a report on fluid simulations of boundary plasma using BOUT code [3] with neutral source added. Thus both neutral and plasma physics are treated. The plasma transport is self-consistently driven by boundary turbulence due to the resistive X-point mode, while neutral is described by a simple fluid diffusive model. The plasma profiles are evolved on the same time scale as the turbulence for the given heat source from the core plasma and particle source from the neutrals. For prescribed neutral profiles, we find the formation of a density pedestal inside the separatrix in the L-mode even though the calculated plasma diffusion coefficients are almost radially constant and without the formation of a temperature pedestal. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling can provide the dominant control for the size of the H-mode density barrier. The width of the density barrier, and its relationship to pedestal height and neutral penetration length at the midplane, will be given by using hyperbolic-tangent fit to the simulation data. [1] R.J.Groebner, M.A.Mahdavi, A.W.Leonard, 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference(Lyon, France, 14 to 19 October 2002), IAEA-CN-94/EX/C2-3. [2] D.Mossessian, J.W.Hughes, M.Greenwald, et al., ``Local dimensionless identity method as a tool for studying H-mode pedestal'', The 9th Joint US-European TTF workshop (Madison, Wisconsin, April 2nd - 5th, 2003). [3] X.Q.Xu, R.H.Cohen, T.D.Rognlien and J.R.Myra, Physics of Plasma, Vol. 7, 1951-1958 (2000).

  10. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  11. Changes in the width of the tropical belt due to simple radiative forcing changes in the GeoMIP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Nicholas A.; Seidel, Dian J.; Birner, Thomas; Davis, Sean M.; Tilmes, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Model simulations of future climates predict a poleward expansion of subtropical arid climates at the edges of Earth's tropical belt, which would have significant environmental and societal impacts. This expansion may be related to the poleward shift of the Hadley cell edges, where subsidence stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses precipitation. Understanding the primary drivers of tropical expansion is hampered by the myriad forcing agents in most model projections of future climate. While many previous studies have examined the response of idealized models to simplified climate forcings and the response of comprehensive climate models to more complex climate forcings, few have examined how comprehensive climate models respond to simplified climate forcings. To shed light on robust processes associated with tropical expansion, here we examine how the tropical belt width, as measured by the Hadley cell edges, responds to simplified forcings in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The tropical belt expands in response to a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and contracts in response to a reduction in the solar constant, with a range of a factor of 3 in the response among nine models. Models with more surface warming and an overall stronger temperature response to quadrupled carbon dioxide exhibit greater tropical expansion, a robust result in spite of inter-model differences in the mean Hadley cell width, parameterizations, and numerical schemes. Under a scenario where the solar constant is reduced to offset an instantaneous quadrupling of carbon dioxide, the Hadley cells remain at their preindustrial width, despite the residual stratospheric cooling associated with elevated carbon dioxide levels. Quadrupled carbon dioxide produces greater tropical belt expansion in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. This expansion is strongest in austral summer and autumn. Ozone depletion has been argued to cause

  12. Policies on global warming and ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B.

    1987-04-01

    The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global warming from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although numerous uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global warming, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.

  13. Arctic Ozone Depletion from UARS MLS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of ozone during four Arctic winters are compared. The evolution of ozone in the lower stratosphere is related to temperature, chlorine monoxide (also measured by MLS), and the evolution of the polar vortex. Lagrangian transport calculations using winds from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation system are used to estimate to what extent the evolution of lower stratospheric ozone is controlled by dynamics. Observations, along with calculations of the expected dynamical behavior, show evidence for chemical ozone depletion throughout most of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex during the 1992-93 middle and late winter, and during all of the 1994-95 winter that was observed by MLS. Both of these winters were unusually cold and had unusually cold and had unusually strong Arctic polar vortices compared to meteorological data over the past 17 years.

  14. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  15. Processing depleted uranium quad alloy penetrator rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bokan, S.L.

    1987-02-19

    Two depleted uranium (DU) quad alloys were cast, extruded and rolled to produce penetrator rods. The two alloy combinations were (1) 1 wt % molybdenum (Mo), 1 wt % niobium (Nb), and 0.75 wt % titanium (Ti); and (2) 1 wt % tantalum (Ta), 1 wt % Nb, and 0.75 wt % Ti. This report covers the processing and results with limited metallographic information available. The two alloys were each vacuum induction melted (VIM) into an 8-in. log, extruded into a 3-in. log, then cut into 4 logs and extruded at 4 different temperatures into 0.8-in. bars. From the 8 conditions (2 alloys, 4 extrusion temperatures each), 10 to 13 16-in. rods were cut for rolling and swaging. Due to cracking problems, the final processing changed from rolling and swaging to limited rolling and heat treating. The contracted work was completed with the delivery of 88 rods to Dr. Zabielski. 28 figs.

  16. Chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Otten, Edward J

    2004-03-01

    A by-product of the uranium enrichment process, depleted uranium (DU) contains approximately 40% of the radioactivity of natural uranium yet retains all of its chemical properties. After its use in the 1991 Gulf War, public concern increased regarding its potential radiotoxicant properties. Whereas in vitro and rodent data have suggested the potential for uranium-induced carcinogenesis, human cohort studies assessing the health effects of natural and DU have failed to validate these findings. Heavy-metal nephrotoxicity has not been noted in either animal studies or Gulf War veteran cohort studies despite markedly elevated urinary uranium excretion. No significant residual environmental contamination has been found in geographical areas exposed to DU. As such, although continued surveillance of exposed cohorts and environments (particularly water sources) are recommended, current data would support the position that DU poses neither a radiological nor chemical threat.

  17. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  18. Modelling chemical depletion profiles in regolith

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.L.; Bandstra, J.; Moore, J.; White, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical or mineralogical profiles in regolith display reaction fronts that document depletion of leachable elements or minerals. A generalized equation employing lumped parameters was derived to model such ubiquitously observed patterns:C = frac(C0, frac(C0 - Cx = 0, Cx = 0) exp (??ini ?? over(k, ??) ?? x) + 1)Here C, Cx = 0, and Co are the concentrations of an element at a given depth x, at the top of the reaction front, or in parent respectively. ??ini is the roughness of the dissolving mineral in the parent and k???? is a lumped kinetic parameter. This kinetic parameter is an inverse function of the porefluid advective velocity and a direct function of the dissolution rate constant times mineral surface area per unit volume regolith. This model equation fits profiles of concentration versus depth for albite in seven weathering systems and is consistent with the interpretation that the surface area (m2 mineral m- 3 bulk regolith) varies linearly with the concentration of the dissolving mineral across the front. Dissolution rate constants can be calculated from the lumped fit parameters for these profiles using observed values of weathering advance rate, the proton driving force, the geometric surface area per unit volume regolith and parent concentration of albite. These calculated values of the dissolution rate constant compare favorably to literature values. The model equation, useful for reaction fronts in both steady-state erosional and quasi-stationary non-erosional systems, incorporates the variation of reaction affinity using pH as a master variable. Use of this model equation to fit depletion fronts for soils highlights the importance of buffering of pH in the soil system. Furthermore, the equation should allow better understanding of the effects of important environmental variables on weathering rates. ?? 2008.

  19. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease.

  20. Systematics of S- and P-wave radiation widths

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.

    1980-09-22

    The question of calculating differences in s- and p-wave radiation widths as a valid evaluation tool is explored. A purely statistical approach such as that provided by the Brink-Axel formula depends upon two factors: 1) an adequate description of the giant dipole resonance shape at energies well below the resonance, and 2) an adequate description of the level densities between the ground state and the excitation of the compound nucleus near the neutron separation energy. Some success has been obtained in certain regions of the periodic table with this simple approach, e.g., in the actinides where all nuclei exhibit similar rigid permanent deformations. However, if the method is to be used as a general evaluation procedure throughout the periodic table and particularly in regions where the radiative transition probabilities are enhanced by direct processes, it appears that much more nuclear structure information needs to be incorporated into the calculations.

  1. Determination of the total width of the η' meson.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, E; Moskal, P; Grzonka, D; Czyzykiewicz, R; Gil, D; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Klaja, J; Klaja, P; Krzemień, W; Oelert, W; Ritman, J; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Silarski, M; Smyrski, J; Täschner, A; Wolke, M; Wüstner, P; Zdebik, J; Zieliński, M; Zipper, W

    2010-09-17

    Taking advantage of both the low-emittance proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY and the high momentum precision of the COSY-11 detector system, the mass distribution of the η' meson was measured with a resolution of 0.33  MeV/c2 (FWHM), improving the experimental mass resolution by almost an order of magnitude with respect to previous results. Based on the sample of more than 2300 reconstructed pp → ppη' events, the total width of the η' meson was determined to be Γ(η') = 0.226 ± 0.017(stat) ± 0.014(syst)  MeV/c2.

  2. On the two-photon width of the δ(980)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narison, S.

    1986-07-01

    The two-photon width of the δ(980) is evaluated using three-point function sum rules which are able to predict accurately the anomalous π0 --> γ and non-anomalous δ --> ηπ decay rates. The prediction, though smaller than previous results based on vector meson dominance, is still higher than the present Crystal Ball data. An analysis of the three-point function with one-gluon exchange cannot support the previous successful explanation of the data within the four-quark scheme. On leave of absence from Laboratoire de Physique Mathématique, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, Place Eugène Batailon, F-34100 Montpellier Cedez, France.

  3. Three-Level 48-Pulse STATCOM with Pulse Width Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Srinivas, Kadagala Venkata

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new control strategy of a three-level 48-pulse static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is proposed with a constant dc link voltage and pulse width modulation at fundamental frequency switching. The proposed STATCOM is realized using eight units of three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) to form a three-level 48-pulse STATCOM. The conduction angle of each three-level VSC is modulated to control the ac converter output voltage, which controls the reactive power of the STATCOM. A fuzzy logic controller is used to control the STATCOM. The dynamic performance of the STATCOM is studied for the control of the reference reactive power, the reference terminal voltage and under the switching of inductive and capacitive loads.

  4. Geographical Variablity of the Width of the Tropical Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currey, B.

    2014-12-01

    A number of recent studies have found evidence for a widening of the earth's tropical belt (Seidel et al). Most studies focus on the annual mean zonal mean tropical belt width. The purpose of this research, however, is to determine the longitudinal variability of the width of the tropical belt. We study how well defined the boundaries of the tropical belt are in both hemispheres as a function of longitude as well as season. The sharpness of the tropical boundaries as a function of longitude can provide information, which is otherwise hidden in the more commonly studied zonal averages. Localized widening of the tropical belt is expected to have a bigger climatic impact for a very sharp tropical boundary encompassing a drastic distinction between the climates of the tropics versus the subtropics. An improved understanding of the morphology of the tropical belt can help us determine any changes regarding these regions surrounding the edges of the tropics. By locating the subtropical tropopause break, a region where the tropopauses' altitude drastically shifts, the boundaries of the tropical belt can be observed. By finding the gradient of the tropopause break, we can determine the sharpness of the tropical boundaries. It was found that during each hemisphere's respective summer season the tropical belt edge over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans can display a tendency to be very fickle and thus poorly defined. For all times of the year, however, it is shown that the tropopause break in each hemisphere's respective winter and over land has the tendency to create a well-defined and sharp tropical edge.

  5. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  6. Observations of the auroral width spectrum at kilometre-scale size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partamies, N.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Donovan, E.; Connors, M.; Charrois, D.; Knudsen, D.; Kryzanowsky, Z.

    2010-03-01

    This study examines auroral colour camera data from the Canadian Dense Array Imaging SYstem (DAISY). The Dense Array consists of three imagers with different narrow (compared to all-sky view) field-of-view optics. The main scientific motivation arises from an earlier study by Knudsen et al. (2001) who used All-Sky Imager (ASI) combined with even earlier TV camera observations (Maggs and Davis, 1968) to suggest that there is a gap in the distribution of auroral arc widths at around 1 km. With DAISY observations we are able to show that the gap is an instrument artifact and due to limited spatial resolution and coverage of commonly used instrumentation, namely ASIs and TV cameras. If the auroral scale size spectrum is indeed continuous, the mechanisms forming these structures should be able to produce all of the different scale sizes. So far, such a single process has not been proposed in the literature and very few models are designed to interact with each other even though the range of their favourable conditions do overlap. All scale-sizes should be considered in the future studies of auroral forms and electron acceleration regions, both in observational and theoretical approaches.

  7. Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression.

  8. Using Frons Width to Differentiate Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy).

    PubMed

    Langer, Sarah V; Kyle, Christopher J; Beresford, David V

    2017-03-01

    Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species. Both sexes were distinguishable to species, with the greatest difference between males: 12.34% P. terraenovae versus 1.62% P. regina, less so for females: 40.25% P. terraenovae, versus 33.65% P. regina. Incorporating this feature into future blow fly keys would help with distinguishing field-caught specimens when other features are obstructed.

  9. Role of intrinsic width in fragment momentum distributions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Khan, F.

    1994-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the intrinsic widths incorporating correlations in conjunction with dynamical contributions give better agreement with experiments for collisions in the energy range of 200 A MeV to 2.4 GeV than using only intrinsic widths without correlations. The sensitivity of the intrinsic width decreases with increasing projectile mass. A simple recipe for calculating intrinsic width correlations is presented.

  10. Safe Operation and Alignment of the Variable Pulse Width Laser at the US Army Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    pulse at pulse widths between 50 µs to 10 ms. Maximum energy output is only achieved by proper alignment and laser operation. This report provides...not included in the operator’s manual. 15. SUBJECT TERMS pulse width, laser energy , laser alignment, peak power, laser operation 16. SECURITY...Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Energy Output of the Variable Pulse Width Laser 1 3. Operation of the Variable Pulse Width Laser 2 4

  11. ELEMENTAL DEPLETIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS AND THE EVOLUTION OF DEPLETIONS WITH METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan; Fox, Andrew; Friedman, Scott D.; Dwek, Eli; Galliano, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the composition of gas and dust in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) using UV absorption spectroscopy. We measure P ii and Fe ii along 84 spatially distributed sightlines toward the MCs using archival Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations. For 16 of those sightlines, we also measure Si ii, Cr ii, and Zn ii from new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations. We analyze these spectra using a new spectral line analysis technique based on a semi-parametric Voigt profile model. We have combined these measurements with H i and H{sub 2} column densities and reference stellar abundances from the literature to derive gas-phase abundances, depletions, and gas-to-dust ratios (GDRs). Of our 84 P and 16 Zn measurements, 80 and 13, respectively, are depleted by more than 0.1 dex, suggesting that P and Zn abundances are not accurate metallicity indicators at and above the metallicity of the SMC. Si, Cr, and Fe are systematically less depleted in the SMC than in the Milky Way (MW) or LMC. The minimum Si depletion in the SMC is consistent with zero. We find GDR ranges of 190–565 in the LMC and 480–2100 in the SMC, which is broadly consistent with GDRs from the literature. These ranges represent actual location to location variation and are evidence of dust destruction and/or growth in the diffuse neutral phase of the interstellar medium. Where they overlap in metallicity, the gas-phase abundances of the MW, LMC, and SMC and damped Lyα systems evolve similarly with metallicity.

  12. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  13. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  14. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  15. If ego depletion cannot be studied using identical tasks, it is not ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that human self-control capacities are fueled by glucose has been challenged on multiple grounds. A recent study by Lange and Eggert adds to this criticism by presenting two powerful but unsuccessful attempts to replicate the effect of sugar drinks on ego depletion. The dual-task paradigms employed in these experiments have been criticized for involving identical self-control tasks, a methodology that has been argued to reduce participants' willingness to exert self-control. The present article addresses this criticism by demonstrating that there is no indication to believe that the study of glucose effects on ego depletion should be restricted to paradigms using dissimilar acts of self-control. Failures to observe such effects in paradigms involving identical tasks pose a serious problem to the proposal that self-control exhaustion might be reversed by rinsing or ingesting glucose. In combination with analyses of statistical credibility, the experiments by Lange and Eggert suggest that the influence of sugar on ego depletion has been systematically overestimated.

  16. Fluid transition layer between rigid solute and liquid solvent: is there depletion or enrichment?

    PubMed

    Djikaev, Yuri S; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2016-03-21

    The fluid layer between solute and liquid solvent is studied by combining the density functional theory with the probabilistic hydrogen bond model. This combination allows one to obtain the equilibrium distribution of fluid molecules, taking into account the hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential whereto they are subjected near the solute. One can find the effective width of the fluid solvent-solute transition layer and fluid average density in that layer, and determine their dependence on temperature, solvent-solute affinity, vicinal hydrogen bond (hb) energy alteration ratio, and solute radius. Numerical calculations are performed for the solvation of a plate and spherical solutes of four different radii in two model solvents (associated liquid and non-associated one) in the temperature range from 293 K to 333 K for various solvent-solute affinities and hydrogen bond energy alteration ratios. The predictions of our model for the effective width and average density of the transition layer are consistent with experiments and simulations. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale for hydrophobic hydration is expected to be about 3-5 nm. Remarkably, characterizing the transition layer with the average density, one can observe that for small hydrophobes, the transition layer becomes enriched with rather than depleted of fluid when the solvent-solute affinity and hb-energy alteration ratio become large enough. The boundary values of solvent-solute affinity and hb-energy alteration ratio, needed for the "depletion-to-enrichment" crossover (in the smoothed density sense), are predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  17. Response inhibition and serotonin in autism: a functional MRI study using acute tryptophan depletion.

    PubMed

    Daly, Eileen; Ecker, Christine; Hallahan, Brian; Deeley, Quinton; Craig, Michael; Murphy, Clodagh; Johnston, Patrick; Spain, Debbie; Gillan, Nicola; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent; Lamar, Melissa; Page, Lisa; Toal, Fiona; Schmitz, Nicole; Cleare, Anthony; Robertson, Dene; Rubia, Katya; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the restricted, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours typically found in autism are underpinned by deficits of inhibitory control. The biological basis of this is unknown but may include differences in the modulatory role of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which are implicated in the condition. However, this has never been tested directly. We therefore assessed the modifying role of serotonin on inhibitory brain function during a Go/No-Go task in 14 adults with autism and normal intelligence and 14 control subjects that did not differ in gender, age and intelligence. We undertook a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of acute tryptophan depletion using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Following sham, adults with autism relative to controls had reduced activation in key inhibitory regions of inferior frontal cortex and thalamus, but increased activation of caudate and cerebellum. However, brain activation was modulated in opposite ways by depletion in each group. Within autistic individuals depletion upregulated fronto-thalamic activations and downregulated striato-cerebellar activations toward control sham levels, completely 'normalizing' the fronto-cerebellar dysfunctions. The opposite pattern occurred in controls. Moreover, the severity of autism was related to the degree of differential modulation by depletion within frontal, striatal and thalamic regions. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with autism have abnormal inhibitory networks, and that serotonin has a differential, opposite, effect on them in adults with and without autism. Together these factors may partially explain the severity of autistic behaviours and/or provide a novel (tractable) treatment target.

  18. Thermal stress depletes energy reserves in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Klepsatel, Peter; Gáliková, Martina; Xu, Yanjun; Kühnlein, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental temperature affects metabolic and physiological functions is of crucial importance to assess the impacts of climate change on organisms. Here, we used different laboratory strains and a wild-caught population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to examine the effect of temperature on the body energy reserves of an ectothermic organism. We found that permanent ambient temperature elevation or transient thermal stress causes significant depletion of body fat stores. Surprisingly, transient thermal stress induces a lasting “memory effect” on body fat storage, which also reduces survivorship of the flies upon food deprivation later after stress exposure. Functional analyses revealed that an intact heat-shock response is essential to protect flies from temperature-dependent body fat decline. Moreover, we found that the temperature-dependent body fat reduction is caused at least in part by apoptosis of fat body cells, which might irreversibly compromise the fat storage capacity of the flies. Altogether, our results provide evidence that thermal stress has a significant negative impact on organismal energy reserves, which in turn might affect individual fitness. PMID:27641694

  19. Ozone depletion: 20 Years after the alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    Scientific curiosity in 1973 led to the challenge of determining the ultimate atmospheric fate of the chlorofluoromethanes, CFC-11 (CCl[sub 3]F) and CFC-12 (CCl[sub 2]F[sub 2]), whose presence at measurable levels in surface air had been detected only two years earlier. In retrospect, the decision to pursue the chemistry of CFC molecules to their final destruction and beyond foreordained an unusual outcome because CFCs are chemically inert and easily survive under almost all natural conditions. By midsummer 1994, the world is well on its way in transition to a CFC-free economy, although not yet to a CFC-free atmosphere. The rates of increase in atmospheric concentration for the three major CFCs (CFC-11, -12, and -113) have all slowed markedly in response to the restrictions of the revised Montreal protocol. Because of their long lifetimes, however, significant but gradually diminishing quantities of CFCs will remain in the atmosphere throughout the 21st century. Atomic chlorine will continue to be released into the stratosphere as long as CFCs persist, and ozone depletion will follow. The existence of the Montreal protocol and the agreement among industrial, governmental, and university scientists on its wisdom offers considerable promise for the handling of future global environmental problems.

  20. Ichnologic signature of oxygen-depleted deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdale, A.A.; Mason, T.R.

    1987-05-01

    The sedimentologic record of oxygen-poor depositional environments commonly includes trace fossils, especially those produced by deposit-feeding organisms that must have had broad oxygen tolerances. Endostratal fodinichnial and pascichnial traces indicate lack of oxygen within the substrate. Complex fodinichnia, such as Chondrites and Zoophycos, may form in anoxic sediment some distance below the water-sediment interface. The deposit-feeding animals can circulate oxygenated bottom water from the sea floor down through semipermanent shafts to permit respiration while they feed on unoxidized organic matter in the subsurface. Endostratal pascichnia, such as Helminthoida and Spirophycus, typically lack a continuous connection with the water-sediment interface, so interstitial water cannot be totally devoid of oxygen or else the animals cannot respire. However, endostratal pascichnia normally do not occur in oxidized sediment where digestible organic detritus has decomposed completely. In totally oxidized substrates, which typify higher energy depositional environments, permanent dwellings (domichnia) of filter-feeding organisms predominate. The ichnologic signature of oxygen-depleted deposits is a very high-density, very low-diversity association of deposit-feeding trace fossils. They suggest an oxygen-controlled trace fossil model in which increasing oxygen concentration of the interstitial water parallels a transition from fodinichnia-dominated through pascichnia-dominated to domichnia-dominated trace fossil associations. This model provides an alternative to the more traditional depth-controlled trace fossil distribution model in certain situations.

  1. Levels of depleted uranium in Kosovo soils.

    PubMed

    Sansone, U; Stellato, L; Jia, G; Rosamilia, S; Gaudino, S; Barbizzi, S; Belli, M

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has performed a field survey at 11 sites located in Kosovo, where depleted uranium (DU) ammunitions were used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) during the last Balkans conflict (1999). Soil sampling was performed to assess the spread of DU ground contamination around and within the NATO target sites and the migration of DU along the soil profile. The 234U/238U and 235U/238U activity concentration ratios have been used as an indicator of natural against anthropogenic sources of uranium. The results show that levels of 238U activity concentrations in soils above 100 Bq x kg(-1) can be considered a 'tracer' of the presence of DU in soils. The results also indicate that detectable ground surface contamination by DU is limited to areas within a few metres from localised points of concentrated contamination caused by penetrator impacts. Vertical distribution of DU along the soil profile is measurable up to a depth of 10-20 cm. This latter aspect is of particular relevance for the potential risk of future contamination of groundwater.

  2. Thermal stress depletes energy reserves in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Klepsatel, Peter; Gáliková, Martina; Xu, Yanjun; Kühnlein, Ronald P

    2016-09-19

    Understanding how environmental temperature affects metabolic and physiological functions is of crucial importance to assess the impacts of climate change on organisms. Here, we used different laboratory strains and a wild-caught population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to examine the effect of temperature on the body energy reserves of an ectothermic organism. We found that permanent ambient temperature elevation or transient thermal stress causes significant depletion of body fat stores. Surprisingly, transient thermal stress induces a lasting "memory effect" on body fat storage, which also reduces survivorship of the flies upon food deprivation later after stress exposure. Functional analyses revealed that an intact heat-shock response is essential to protect flies from temperature-dependent body fat decline. Moreover, we found that the temperature-dependent body fat reduction is caused at least in part by apoptosis of fat body cells, which might irreversibly compromise the fat storage capacity of the flies. Altogether, our results provide evidence that thermal stress has a significant negative impact on organismal energy reserves, which in turn might affect individual fitness.

  3. Preventing NAD+ Depletion Protects Neurons against Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Pitta, Michael; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Neurons are excitable cells that require large amounts of energy to support their survival and functions and are therefore prone to excitotoxicity, which involves energy depletion. By examining bioenergetic changes induced by glutamate, we found that the cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) level is a critical determinant of neuronal survival. The bioenergetic effects of mitochondrial uncoupling and caloric restriction were also examined in cultured neurons and rodent brain. 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler that stimulates glucose uptake and oxygen consumption on cultured neurons, which accelerates oxidation of NAD(P)H to NAD+ in mitochondria. The NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase sirtulin 1 (SIRT1) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) mRNA are upregulated mouse brain under caloric restriction. To examine whether NAD+ mediates neuroprotective effects, nicotinamide, a precursor of NAD+ and inhibitor of SIRT1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) (two NAD+-dependent enzymes), was employed. Nicotinamide attenuated excitotoxic death and preserved cellular NAD+ levels to support SIRT1 and PARP 1 activities. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling and caloric restriction exert hormetic effects by stimulating bioenergetics in neurons thereby increasing tolerance of neurons to metabolic stress. PMID:19076449

  4. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R.; Miller, M.L.

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  5. Drift effects on the tokamak power scrape-off width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, E. T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Mordijck, S.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Senichenkov, I. Yu.; Voskoboynikov, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental analysis suggests that the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width (λq) for ITER will be near 1 mm, sharply narrowing the planned operating window. In this work, motivated by the heuristic drift (HD) model, which predicts the observed inverse plasma current scaling, SOLPS-ITER is used to explore drift effects on λq. Modeling focuses on an H-mode DIII-D discharge. In initial results, target recycling is set to 90%, resulting in sheath-limited SOL conditions. SOL particle diffusivity (DSOL) is varied from 0.1 to 1 m2/s. When drifts are included, λq is insensitive to DSOL, consistent with the HD model, with λq near 3 mm; in no-drift cases, λq varies from 2 to 5 mm. Drift effects depress near-separatrix potential, generating a channel of strong electron heat convection that is insensitive to DSOL. Sensitivities to thermal diffusivities, plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, and device size are also assessed. These initial results will be discussed in detail, and progress toward modeling experimentally relevant high-recycling conditions will be reported. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract DE-SC0010434.

  6. Surface effect on domain wall width in ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Eugene A.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Li, Yulan; Shen, Jie; Glinchuk, Maya D.; Chen , L.Q.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2009-10-15

    We study the effect of the depolarization field on a domain wall structure near the surface of a ferroelectric. Since in real situation bound and screening charges form an electric double layer, the breaking of this layer by the domain wall induces stray depolarization field, which in turn changes the domain wall structure. Power law decay of the stray field results in the power law of polarization saturation near the surface, as compared to exponential saturation in the bulk. Obtained results predict that the surface broadening of ferroelectric domain walls appeared near Curie temperature as well as describe domain wall depth profile in weak ferroelectrics. We qualitatively describe extra-broad domain walls near LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 surfaces observed experimentally at room temperature, which probably originate at high temperatures but did not fully relax their width with temperature decrease allowing for lattice pinning and defect centers. Thus results have broad implication for fundamental issues such as maximal information storage density in ferroelectric data storage, domain wall pinning mechanisms at surfaces and interfaces, and nucleation dynamics.

  7. Podocyte Depletion in Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su Q.; Afshinnia, Farsad; Kershaw, David; Wiggins, Roger C.

    2016-01-01

    The proximate genetic cause of both Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome (AS) is abnormal α3, 4 and 5 collagen IV chains resulting in abnormal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structure/function. We previously reported that podocyte detachment rate measured in urine is increased in AS, suggesting that podocyte depletion could play a role in causing progressive loss of kidney function. To test this hypothesis podometric parameters were measured in 26 kidney biopsies from 21 patients aged 2–17 years with a clinic-pathologic diagnosis including both classic Alport Syndrome with thin and thick GBM segments and lamellated lamina densa [n = 15] and Thin GBM cases [n = 6]. Protocol biopsies from deceased donor kidneys were used as age-matched controls. Podocyte depletion was present in AS biopsies prior to detectable histologic abnormalities. No abnormality was detected by light microscopy at <30% podocyte depletion, minor pathologic changes (mesangial expansion and adhesions to Bowman’s capsule) were present at 30–50% podocyte depletion, and FSGS was progressively present above 50% podocyte depletion. eGFR did not change measurably until >70% podocyte depletion. Low level proteinuria was an early event at about 25% podocyte depletion and increased in proportion to podocyte depletion. These quantitative data parallel those from model systems where podocyte depletion is the causative event. This result supports a hypothesis that in AS podocyte adherence to the GBM is defective resulting in accelerated podocyte detachment causing progressive podocyte depletion leading to FSGS-like pathologic changes and eventual End Stage Kidney Disease. Early intervention to reduce podocyte depletion is projected to prolong kidney survival in AS. PMID:27192434

  8. Podocyte Depletion in Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Larysa; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Wang, Su Q; Afshinnia, Farsad; Kershaw, David; Wiggins, Roger C

    2016-01-01

    The proximate genetic cause of both Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome (AS) is abnormal α3, 4 and 5 collagen IV chains resulting in abnormal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structure/function. We previously reported that podocyte detachment rate measured in urine is increased in AS, suggesting that podocyte depletion could play a role in causing progressive loss of kidney function. To test this hypothesis podometric parameters were measured in 26 kidney biopsies from 21 patients aged 2-17 years with a clinic-pathologic diagnosis including both classic Alport Syndrome with thin and thick GBM segments and lamellated lamina densa [n = 15] and Thin GBM cases [n = 6]. Protocol biopsies from deceased donor kidneys were used as age-matched controls. Podocyte depletion was present in AS biopsies prior to detectable histologic abnormalities. No abnormality was detected by light microscopy at <30% podocyte depletion, minor pathologic changes (mesangial expansion and adhesions to Bowman's capsule) were present at 30-50% podocyte depletion, and FSGS was progressively present above 50% podocyte depletion. eGFR did not change measurably until >70% podocyte depletion. Low level proteinuria was an early event at about 25% podocyte depletion and increased in proportion to podocyte depletion. These quantitative data parallel those from model systems where podocyte depletion is the causative event. This result supports a hypothesis that in AS podocyte adherence to the GBM is defective resulting in accelerated podocyte detachment causing progressive podocyte depletion leading to FSGS-like pathologic changes and eventual End Stage Kidney Disease. Early intervention to reduce podocyte depletion is projected to prolong kidney survival in AS.

  9. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  10. Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2010-11-15

    A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.

  11. Measurement of effective sheath width around cutoff probe in low-pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y.; You, S. J. Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2014-05-15

    Previous studies indicated that the measurement results of microwave probes can be improved by applying the adequate sheath width to their measurement models, and consequently the sheath width around the microwave probe tips has become very important information for microwave probe diagnostics. In this paper, we propose a method for measuring the argon plasma sheath width around the cutoff probe tips by applying the circuit model to the cutoff probe phase spectrum. The measured sheath width of the cutoff probe was found to be in good agreement with the floated sheath width calculated from the Child-Langmuir sheath law. The physical reasons for a discrepancy between the two measurements are also discussed.

  12. Automatic Quantification of Radiographic Finger Joint Space Width of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yinghe; Vincken, Koen L; van der Heijde, Desiree; De Hair, Maria J H; Lafeber, Floris P; Viergever, Max A

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of joint space width (JSW) on hand X-ray images of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a time-consuming task. Manual assessment is semiquantitative and is observer dependent which hinders an accurate evaluation of joint damage, particularly in the early stages. Automated analysis of the JSW is an important step forward since it is observer independent and might improve the assessment sensitivity in the early RA stage. This study proposes a fully automatic method for both joint location and margin detection in RA hand radiographs. The location detection procedure is based on image features of the joint region and is aided by geometric relationship of finger joints. More than 99% of joint locations are detected with an error smaller than 3 mm with respect to the manually indicated gold standard. The joint margins are detected by combining intensity values and spatially constrained intensity derivatives, refined by an active contour model. More than 96% of the joints are successfully delineated. The JSW is calculated over the middle 60% of a landmark-defined joint span. The overall JSW error compared with the ground truth is 6.8%. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to automatically locate the finger joints in RA hand radiographs, and to quantify the JSW of these joints.

  13. Whistler waves guided by density depletion ducts in a magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bakharev, P. V.; Zaboronkova, T. M.; Kudrin, A. V.; Krafft, C.

    2010-11-15

    The guided propagation of whistler waves along cylindrical density depletion ducts in a magneto-plasma is studied. It is shown that, under certain conditions, such ducts can support volume and surface eigenmodes. The dispersion properties and field structure of whistler modes guided by density depletion ducts are analyzed. The effect of collisional losses in the plasma on the properties of modes is discussed.

  14. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    EPA Science Inventory

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  15. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1 Section 1.613-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion;...

  16. Red cell distribution width in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Verde, Pablo E; Veulemanns, Verena; Kahlstadt, Lisa; Wolff, Georg; Erkens, Ralf; Westenfeld, Ralf; Navarese, Eliano P; Merx, Marc W; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of red blood cell distribution width on outcome in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a retrospective single center cohort study we determined the impact of baseline red cell distribution width (RDW) and anemia on outcome in 376 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI. All patients were discussed in the institutional heart team and declined for surgical aortic valve replacement due to high operative risk. Collected data included patient characteristics, imaging findings, periprocedural in hospital data, laboratory results and follow up data. Blood samples for hematology and biochemistry analysis were taken from every patient before and at fixed intervals up to 72 h after TAVI including blood count and creatinine. Descriptive statistics were used for patient’s characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for time to event outcomes. A recursive partitioning regression and classification was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: Mean age in our study population was 81 ± 6.1 years. Anemia was prevalent in 63.6% (n = 239) of our patients. Age and creatinine were identified as risk factors for anemia. In our study population, anemia per se did influence 30-d mortality but did not predict longterm mortality. In contrast, a RDW > 14% showed to be highly predictable for a reduced short- and longterm survival in patients with aortic valve disease after TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Age and kidney function determine the degree of anemia. The anisocytosis of red blood cells in anemic patients supplements prognostic information in addition to that derived from the WHO-based definition of anemia. PMID:26981217

  17. Biochemical and Cellular Changes in Leukocyte-Depleted Red Blood Cells Stored for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Diana; Rocha, Susana; Abreu, Estela; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate biochemical and cellular changes associated with the storage of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells (RBCs). Methods We investigated 10 leukocyte-depleted RBC units, randomly chosen from volunteer donors. Every week an aliquot was collected for laboratorial evaluation, which included complete cell blood count, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, extracellular sodium, potassium and pH, membrane-bound hemoglobin (MBH), band 3 profile, and quantification of RBC membrane proteins composition. Results We observed an increase in mean cell volume (from 91.86 ± 4.65 fl to 98.10 ± 5.80 fl, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05), red cell distribution width, percentage of macrocytic RBCs, reticulocyte hemoglobin content and a decreased percentage of microcytic RBCs, mean cell volume concentration and G6PD activity. The extracellular concentration of sodium decreased, and that of potassium increased significantly over time. RBC membrane composition revealed an increase in spectrin/ankyrin ratio after 21 days (from 4.84 ± 0.99 to 5.27 ± 0.94, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05). At day 35, a decrease in ankyrin (from 6.44 ± 1.70% to 5.49 ± 1.96%, day 0 vs. day 35; p < 0.05), in protein 4.1/band 3, protein 4.2/band 3, and ankyrin/band 3 ratios and in band 5 was observed. Conclusions Our data show that leukocyte-depleted RBCs present changes in the RBC morphology, membrane protein composition, enzymatic activity, and extracellular electrolyte concentration and pH. PMID:25960715

  18. Depletion of Appalachian coal reserves - how soon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Much of the coal consumed in the US since the end of the last century has been produced from the Pennsylvanian strata of the Appalachian basin. Even though quantities mined in the past are less than they are today, this basin yielded from 70% to 80% of the nation's annual coal production from the end of the last century until the early 1970s. During the last 25 years, the proportion of the nation's coal that was produced annually from the Appalachian basin has declined markedly, and today it is only about 40% of the total. The amount of coal produced annually in the Appalachian basin, however, has been rising slowly over the last several decades, and has ranged generally from 400 to 500 million tons (Mt) per year. A large proportion of Appalachian historical production has come from relatively few counties in southwestern Pennsylvania, northern and southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Virginia and Alabama. Many of these counties are decades past their years of peak production and several are almost depleted of economic deposits of coal. Because the current major consumer of Appalachian coal is the electric power industry, coal quality, especially sulfur content, has a great impact on its marketability. High-sulfur coal deposits in western Pennsylvania and Ohio are in low demand when compared with the lower sulfur coals of Virginia and southern West Virginia. Only five counties in the basin that have produced 500 Mt or more exhibit increasing rates of production at relatively high levels. Of these, six are in the central part of the basin and only one, Greene County, Pennsylvania, is in the northern part of the basin. Decline rate models, based on production decline rates and the decline rate of the estimated, 'potential' reserve, indicate that Appalachian basin annual coal production will be 200 Mt or less by the middle of the next century. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.Much of the coal consumed in the US since the end of the last century has been produced

  19. Ozone Depletion Potential of CH3Br

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Scott, Courtney; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1998-01-01

    The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of methyl bromide (CH3Br) can be determined by combining the model-calculated bromine efficiency factor (BEF) for CH3Br and its atmospheric lifetime. This paper examines how changes in several key kinetic data affect BEF. The key reactions highlighted in this study include the reaction of BrO + H02, the absorption cross section of HOBr, the absorption cross section and the photolysis products of BrON02, and the heterogeneous conversion of BrON02 to HOBR and HN03 on aerosol particles. By combining the calculated BEF with the latest estimate of 0.7 year for the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br, the likely value of ODP for CH3Br is 0.39. The model-calculated concentration of HBr (approximately 0.3 pptv) in the lower stratosphere is substantially smaller than the reported measured value of about I pptv. Recent publications suggested models can reproduce the measured value if one assumes a yield for HBr from the reaction of BrO + OH or from the reaction of BrO + H02. Although the DeAlore et al. evaluation concluded any substantial yield of HBr from BrO + HO2 is unlikely, for completeness, we calculate the effects of these assumed yields on BEF for CH3Br. Our calculations show that the effects are minimal: practically no impact for an assumed 1.3% yield of HBr from BrO + OH and 10% smaller for an assumed 0.6% yield from BrO + H02.

  20. Removal of depleted uranium from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Choy, Christine Chin; Korfiatis, George P; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2006-08-10

    Contamination of soil and water with depleted uranium (DU) has increased public health concerns due to the chemical toxicity of DU at elevated dosages. For this reason, there is great interest in developing methods for DU removal from contaminated sources. Two DU laden soils, taken from U.S. Army sites, were characterized for particle size distribution, total uranium concentration and removable uranium. Soil A was found to be a well graded sand containing a total of 3210 mg/kg DU (3.99 x 10(4) Bq/kg, where a Becquerel (Bq) is a unit of radiation). About 83% of the DU in the fines fraction (particle diameter <0.075 mm, total DU 7732 mg/kg (9.61 x 10(4) Bq/kg)) was associated with the carbonate, iron and manganese oxide and organic matter fractions of the material. Soil B was classified as a sandy silt with total DU of 1560 mg/kg (1.94 x 10(4) Bq/kg). The DU content in the fines fraction was 5171 mg/kg (6.43 x 10(4) Bq/kg). Sequential extraction of the Soil B fines fraction indicated that 64% of the DU was present either as soluble U(VI) minerals or as insoluble U(IV). Citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide were used in batch experiments to extract DU from the fines fraction of both soils. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were relatively successful for Soil A (50-60% DU removal), but not for Soil B (20-35% DU removal). Hydrogen peroxide was found to significantly increase DU extraction from both soils, attaining removals up to 60-80%.

  1. Impact of ozone depletion on immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevan, A.; Kripke, M.L. . Dept. of Immunology)

    1993-06-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to lead to an increase in the amount of UV-B radiation present in sunlight. In addition to its well known ability to cause skin cancer, UV-B radiation has been shown to alter the immune system. The immune system is the body's primary defense mechanism against infectious diseases and protects against the development of certain types of cancer. Any impairment of immune function may jeopardize health by increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases, increasing the severity of infections, or delaying recovery for infections. In addition, impaired immune function can increase the incidence of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the skin. Research carried out with laboratory animals over the past 15 years has demonstrated that exposure of the skin to UV-B radiation can suppress certain types of immune responses. These include rejection of UV-induced skin cancers and melanomas, contact allergy reactions to chemicals, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to microbial and other antigens, and phagocytosis and elimination of certain bacteria from lymphoid tissues. Recent studies with mycobacterial infection of mice demonstrated that exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens and increased the severity of infection. In humans, UV-B radiation has also been shown to impair the contact allergy response. These studies demonstrate that UV radiation can decrease immune responses in humans and laboratory and raise the possibility that increased exposure to UV-B radiation could adversely affect human health by increasing the incidence or severity of certain infectious diseases.

  2. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  3. Recovery of depleted uranium fragments from soil.

    PubMed

    Farr, C P; Alecksen, T J; Heronimus, R S; Simonds, M H; Farrar, D R; Miller, M L; Baker, K R

    2010-02-01

    A "proof of concept" was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a survey method for cost-effective recovery of depleted uranium (DU) fragments from contaminated soil piles at Sandia National Laboratories. First, DU fragments ranging from less than a gram up to 48 g were covered by various thicknesses of soil and used for detector efficiency measurements. The efficiencies were measured for three different sodium iodide detectors: a 5.1-cm by 5.1-cm (2-inch by 2-inch) detector, a 7.6-cm by 7.6-cm (3-inch by 3-inch) detector, and a Field Instrument for the Detection of Low Energy Radiation (FIDLER) detector. The FIDLER detector was found to be superior to the other detectors in each measurement. Next, multiple 7.6-cm (3-inch) layers of soil, taken from the contaminated piles, were applied to a clean pad of soil. Each layer was scanned by an array of eight FIDLER detectors pulled by a tractor. The array, moving 10.2 to 12.7 cm s(-1) (4 to 5 inches per second), automatically recorded radiation count data along with associated detector coordinates at 3-s intervals. The DU fragments were located and identified with a handheld system consisting of a FIDLER detector and a positioning system and then removed. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and a new lift of contaminated soil was applied. The detection capability of the system as a function of DU fragment mass and burial depth was modeled and determined to be sufficient to ensure that the dose-based site concentration goals would be met. Finally, confirmation soil samples were taken from random locations and from decontaminated soil areas. All samples had concentrations of U that met the goal of 400-500 pCi g(-1).

  4. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul E-mail: paul@astr.as.utexas.edu E-mail: lorenza.levy@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    Broadband B and R and H{alpha} images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of H{alpha} flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the H{alpha} disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the H{alpha} disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both

  5. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    PubMed

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  6. The timing and mechanism of depletion in Lewisian granulites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, A. S.; Onions, R. K.; Ohara, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Large Ion Lithophile (LIL) depletion in Lewisian granulites is discussed. Severe depletions in U, Th, and other LIL have been well documented in Lewisan mafic and felsic gneisses, but new Pb isotopic analyses show little or no depletion in lithologies with high solidus temperatures, such as peridotite. This suggests that LIL transport in this terrane took place by removal of partial melts rather than by pervasive flooding with externally derived CO2. The Pb and Nd isotopic data gathered on these rocks show that the depletion and granulite metamorphism are distinct events about 250 Ma apart. Both fluid inclusions and cation exchange geothermometers date from the later metamorphic event and therefore have little bearing on the depletion event, suggesting a note of caution for interpretations of other granulite terranes.

  7. Extreme Vulnerability of IDH1 Mutant Cancers to NAD+ Depletion.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Kensuke; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Iafrate, A John; Tanaka, Shota; Loebel, Franziska; Lelic, Nina; Wiederschain, Dmitri; Bedel, Olivier; Deng, Gejing; Zhang, Bailin; He, Timothy; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E; Zhang, Yiyun; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J; Curry, William T; Zhao, Dan; Sundaram, Sudhandra; Nigim, Fares; Koerner, Mara V A; Ho, Quan; Fisher, David E; Roider, Elisabeth M; Kemeny, Lajos V; Samuels, Yardena; Flaherty, Keith T; Batchelor, Tracy T; Chi, Andrew S; Cahill, Daniel P

    2015-12-14

    Heterozygous mutation of IDH1 in cancers modifies IDH1 enzymatic activity, reprogramming metabolite flux and markedly elevating 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we found that 2-HG depletion did not inhibit growth of several IDH1 mutant solid cancer types. To identify other metabolic therapeutic targets, we systematically profiled metabolites in endogenous IDH1 mutant cancer cells after mutant IDH1 inhibition and discovered a profound vulnerability to depletion of the coenzyme NAD+. Mutant IDH1 lowered NAD+ levels by downregulating the NAD+ salvage pathway enzyme nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (Naprt1), sensitizing to NAD+ depletion via concomitant nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibition. NAD+ depletion activated the intracellular energy sensor AMPK, triggered autophagy, and resulted in cytotoxicity. Thus, we identify NAD+ depletion as a metabolic susceptibility of IDH1 mutant cancers.

  8. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Patrice; Billot, Pierre-Édouard; Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors.

  9. Influence of sound source width on human sound localization.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Paige, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Free-field sound localization experiments generally assume that a loudspeaker can be approximated by a point-source; however, a large loudspeaker may extend beyond the width that two sources can be discriminated. Humans can accurately discriminate sound source locations within a few degrees, thus one might expect localization precision to decrease as a function of sound source diameter, much as precision is lower for localizing the center of a wide, blurry light source. In order to test the degree to which humans differentially localize small and large sound sources, auditory targets were presented using a single 25.4 cm by 10.2 cm elliptical loudspeaker with the primary axis oriented both horizontally and vertically in different sessions. Subjects were seated with their heads fixed by a bite bar in a darkened, echo-attenuating room facing a cylindrical, acoustically transparent screen at a distance of 2 meters. Auditory targets consisted of repeating bursts (5 Hz) of low frequency band-pass noise (0.2 - 1 kHz, 75 dB SPL). Subjects were instructed to quickly and accurately guide a laser pointer mounted on a cylindrical joystick towards targets, presented randomly within a field ± 40° in azimuth by ± 10° in elevation, with oversampled points located every ten degrees along the primary meridians. Localization accuracy and precision (mean and standard deviation of localization error at oversampled locations) were not significantly different between speaker orientations, and were comparable to baseline measurements recorded using a 7.6 cm circular speaker. We conclude that low frequency sound localization performance is not dependent upon the size of the sound source as predicted theoretically, and is well approximated by a point source.

  10. Stark widths and shifts for spectral lines of Sn IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrés-García, I.; Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated corresponding to 66 spectral lines of Sn IV. We use the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN computer code. For the intermediate coupling calculations, the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels was used. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 1.1-5.0 (104 K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 34 configurations of Sn IV: 4d10ns(n = 5-10), 4d10nd(n = 5-8), 4d95s2, 4d95p2, 4d95s5d, 4d85s5p2 and 4d105g for even parity and 4d10np(n = 5-8), 4d10nf (n = 4-6), 4d95snp(n = 5-8), 4d85s25p and 4d95snf (n = 4-10) for odd parity. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of radiative lifetimes of 14 levels of Sn IV. There is good agreement between our calculations and the experimental radiative lifetimes obtained from the bibliography. The spectral lines of Sn IV are observed in UV spectra of HD 149499 B obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. Also our values of Stark broadening parameters have been compared with the data available in the bibliography.

  11. On the Assimilation of Tree-Ring-Width Chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Walter; Reich, Sebastian; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation (DA) of climate proxy records is currently acknowledged as a promising approach to the paleoclimate reconstruction problem, with the potential to bring physical consistency to reconstructed fields. Previous paleo-DA studies have typically assumed a linear relationship between climate forcing and the resulting proxy data, whereas there exist growing evidence of complex, potentially non-linear, proxy formation processes. Accordingly, it appears natural to simulate the proxy response to climate in a more realistic fashion, by way of proxy-specific forward models. Following this train of thought, we investigate the assimilation of the most traditional climate proxy type, Tree-Ring-Width (TRW) chronologies, using the process-based tree-ring growth forward model Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite (VSL) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) techniques. Used as observation operator, VSL's formulation implies three compounding, challenging features: (i) time averaging, (ii) "switching recording" of 2 variables and (iii) bounded response windows leading to "thresholded response". DA experiments involving VSL-based pseudo-TRW observations are performed first for a chaotic 2-scale dynamical system, used as a cartoon of the atmosphere-land system, and then for an atmospheric general circulation model of intermediate complexity. Our results reveal that VSL's nonlinearities may considerable deteriorate the performance of EnKF for Time-Averaged (TA) estimation, as compared to the utilization of a TA linear observation operator. Moreover, we show that this assimilation skill loss can be considerably reduced by embedding VSL's formulation into fuzzy logic theory, which fosters new interpretations of tree-ring growth limitation processes.

  12. Perception of length to width relations of city squares.

    PubMed

    Nefs, Harold T; van Bilsen, Arthur; Pont, Sylvia C; de Ridder, Huib; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; van Doorn, Andrea J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on how people perceive the aspect ratio of city squares. Earlier research has focused on distance perception but not so much on the perceived aspect ratio of the surrounding space. Furthermore, those studies have focused on "open" spaces rather than urban areas enclosed by walls, houses and filled with people, cars, etc. In two experiments, we therefore measured, using a direct and an indirect method, the perceived aspect ratio of five city squares in the historic city center of Delft, the Netherlands. We also evaluated whether the perceived aspect ratio of city squares was affected by the position of the observer on the square. In the first experiment, participants were asked to set the aspect ratio of a small rectangle such that it matched the perceived aspect ratio of the city square. In the second experiment, participants were asked to estimate the length and width of the city square separately. In the first experiment, we found that the perceived aspect ratio was in general lower than the physical aspect ratio. However, in the second experiment, we found that the calculated ratios were close to veridical except for the most elongated city square. We conclude therefore that the outcome depends on how the measurements are performed. Furthermore, although indirect measurements are nearly veridical, the perceived aspect ratio is an underestimation of the physical aspect ratio when measured in a direct way. Moreover, the perceived aspect ratio also depends on the location of the observer. These results may be beneficial to the design of large open urban environments, and in particular to rectangular city squares.

  13. Plasma Depletion in a Low-Alfvénic-Mach-Number Magnetosheath: Observations at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A plasma depletion layer (PDL) forms in a planet's magnetosheath as a result of magnetic flux that is piled-up and draped around a magnetosphere. These layers are typically composed of plasmas with low values of β, the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure, which can affect reconnection rates at the magnetopause. In contrast to the average behavior at Earth, the low average upstream Alfvénic Mach number (MA ~3-5) in the solar wind at Mercury often results in large-scale plasma depletion in the magnetosheath between the subsolar magnetopause and the bow shock. Measurements from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer and Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during ~40 orbits about Mercury are used to characterize the PDL just exterior to the planet's dayside magnetopause. Some amount of flux pile-up is observed to occur downstream of both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel bow-shock geometries for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Substantial variability in the observed depletion can occur during times with low shear at the magnetopause, implying that PDL formation can be suppressed for strongly northward IMF. The consistently low value of plasma β at Mercury's magnetopause associated with the low average upstream MA is believed to be the cause for the high average reconnection rate at Mercury, reported to be nearly 3 times that observed at Earth. We find a characteristic plasma depletion length, i.e., the size of depletion region required to reduce the plasma β by a factor of 1/e, of ~300 km for Mercury. This value scales among planetary bodies with the average stand-off distance of the magnetopause.

  14. Depletion of Cultivatable Gut Microbiota by Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Pretreatment Worsens Outcome After Murine Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Winek, Katarzyna; Engel, Odilo; Koduah, Priscilla; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Fischer, André; Bereswill, Stefan; Dames, Claudia; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D.; Curato, Caterina; Oyama, Naoki; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Antibiotics disturbing microbiota are often used in treatment of poststroke infections. A bidirectional brain–gut microbiota axis was recently suggested as a modulator of nervous system diseases. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be an important player in the course of stroke. Methods— We investigated the outcome of focal cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6J mice after an 8-week decontamination with quintuple broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail. These microbiota-depleted animals were subjected to 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operation. Infarct volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and mice were monitored clinically throughout the whole experiment. At the end point, tissues were preserved for further analysis, comprising histology and immunologic investigations using flow cytometry. Results— We found significantly decreased survival in the middle cerebral artery occlusion microbiota-depleted mice when the antibiotic cocktail was stopped 3 days before surgery (compared with middle cerebral artery occlusion specific pathogen-free and sham-operated microbiota-depleted mice). Moreover, all microbiota-depleted animals in which antibiotic treatment was terminated developed severe acute colitis. This phenotype was rescued by continuous antibiotic treatment or colonization with specific pathogen-free microbiota before surgery. Further, infarct volumes on day one did not differ between any of the experimental groups. Conclusions— Conventional microbiota ensures intestinal protection in the mouse model of experimental stroke and prevents development of acute and severe colitis in microbiota-depleted mice not given antibiotic protection after cerebral ischemia. Our experiments raise the clinically important question as to whether microbial colonization or specific microbiota are crucial for stroke outcome. PMID:27056982

  15. Dopamine Depletion Reduces Food-Related Reward Activity Independent of BMI.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sabine; Veit, Ralf; Sauer, Helene; Enck, Paul; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Unholzer, Theresa; Bauer, Ute-Maria; Linder, Katarzyna; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and possible alterations in the dopaminergic-reward system are associated with obesity. We therefore aimed to investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on food-reward processing. We investigated 34 female subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled, within-subject design (body mass index (BMI)=27.0 kg/m(2) ±4.79 SD; age=28 years ±4.97 SD) using an acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion drink representing dopamine depletion and a balanced amino acid drink as the control condition. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a 'wanting' and 'liking' rating of food items. Eating behavior-related traits and states were assessed on the basis of questionnaires. Dopamine depletion resulted in reduced activation in the striatum and higher activation in the superior frontal gyrus independent of BMI. Brain activity during the wanting task activated a more distributed network than during the liking task. This network included gustatory, memory, visual, reward, and frontal regions. An interaction effect of dopamine depletion and the wanting/liking task was observed in the hippocampus. The interaction with the covariate BMI was significant in motor and control regions but not in the striatum. Our results support the notion of altered brain activity in the reward and prefrontal network with blunted dopaminergic action during food-reward processing. This effect is, however, independent of BMI, which contradicts the reward-deficiency hypothesis. This hints to the hypothesis suggesting a different or more complex mechanism underlying the dopaminergic reward function in obesity.

  16. Dust depletion, chemical uniformity and environment of CaII H&K quasar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Berkeley J.; Murphy, Michael T.; Hewett, Paul C.; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2009-02-01

    CaIIλλ3934, 3969 absorbers, which are likely to be a subset of damped Lyman α systems (DLAs), are the most dusty quasar absorbers known with an order of magnitude more extinction in E(B - V) than other absorption systems. There is also evidence that CaII absorbers trace galaxies with more ongoing star formation than the average quasar absorber. Despite this, relatively little is known in detail about these unusual absorption systems. Here, we present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study of 19 CaII quasar absorbers, in the range 0.6 <= zabs <= 1.2, with CaIIλ3934 equivalent widths, W39340 >= 0.2Å. Their general elemental depletion patterns are found to be similar to measurements in the warm halo phase of the Milky Way (MW) and Magellanic Clouds interstellar medium. Dust depletions and α-enrichments profiles of subsamples of seven and three absorbers, respectively, are measured using a combination of Voigt profile fitting and apparent optical depth techniques. Deviations in [Cr/Zn] ~ 0.3 +/- 0.1 and [Si/Fe] >~ 0.8 +/- 0.1dex are detected across the profile of one absorber, which we attribute to differential dust depletion. The remaining absorbers have <0.3dex (3σ limit) variation in [Cr/Zn], much like the general DLA population, though the dustiest CaII absorbers, those with W39340 > 0.7Å, remain relatively unprobed in our sample. A limit on electron densities in CaII absorbers, ne < 0.1cm-3, is derived using the ratio of neutral and singly ionized species and assuming a MW-like radiation field. These electron densities may imply hydrogen densities sufficient for the presence of molecular hydrogen in the absorbers. The CaII absorber sample comprises a wide range of velocity widths, Δv90 = 50-470kms-1, and velocity structures, thus a range of physical models for their origin, from simple discs to galactic outflows and mergers, would be required to explain the observations.

  17. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  18. TH-C-18A-04: Validation of Dosimetric Measurement of CT Radiation Profile Width

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, D; Al-Senan, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The ACR now requires that the CT radiation profile width be measured at all clinically used collimations. We developed a method for measuring the profile width using dosimetry alone to allow a faster and simpler measurement of beam widths. Methods: A pencil ionization chamber is used to take two dose-length product measurements in air for a wide collimation. One of these is taken with a 1cm tungsten mask on the pencil chamber. The difference between these measurements is the calibration factor, or the DLP in air per unit length. By dividing the doselength product for any given collimation by this factor, we can rapidly determine the beam profile width.We measured the beam width for all available detector configurations and focal spot sizes on three different CT scanners from two different manufacturers. The measurements were done using film, CR cassette, and the present dosimetric method. Results: The beam widths measured dosimetrically are approximately 2% wider than those measured using film or computed radiography; this difference is believed due to off-focus or scattered radiation. After correcting for this, the dosimetric beam widths match the film and CR widths with an RMS difference of approximately 0.2mm. The measured beam widths are largely insensitive to errors in positioning of the mask, or to tilt errors in the pencil chamber. Conclusion: Using the present method, radiation profile widths can be measured quickly, with an accuracy better than 1mm.

  19. GWD-LR: a satellite-based global database of river channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Dai; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Trigg, Mark; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    River width is a fundamental parameter of river hydrodynamic simulations, but no global-scale river width database based on observed water bodies has yet been developed. Here we present a new algorithm that automatically calculates river width from satellite-based water masks and flow direction maps. The Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR) is developed by applying the algorithm to the SRTM Water Body Database and the HydroSHEDS flow direction map. Both bank-to-bank river width and effective river width excluding islands are calculated for river channels between 60S and 60N. The effective river width of GWD-LR is compared with existing river width databases for the Congo and Mississippi Rivers. The effective river width of the GWD-LR is slightly narrower compared to the existing databases, but the relative difference is within +/-20% for most river channels. As the river width of the GWD-LR is calculated along the river channels of the HydroSHEDS flow direction map, it is relatively straightforward to apply the GWD-LR to global- and continental-scale river modeling.

  20. Serotonin and social norms: tryptophan depletion impairs social comparison and leads to resource depletion in a multiplayer harvesting game.

    PubMed

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Brown, Gordon D A; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J; Behrens, Tim E J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players' harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms.

  1. Relationships between quencher diffusion constant and exposure dose dependences of line width, line edge roughness, and stochastic defect generation in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Control of the acid catalytic chain reaction is essential in the pattern formation of chemically amplified resists used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. In this study, the relationships between the quencher diffusion constant and the exposure dose dependences of the line width, line edge roughness (LER), and stochastic defect generation were investigated assuming extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The dependence of the latent images of line-and-space patterns with 16 nm half-pitch on the quencher diffusion constant was calculated on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EUV resists. The exposure latitude of the line width increased with the quencher diffusion constant. The dependences of LER and stochastic defect (bridges and pinching) generation on the deviation of the exposure dose became weak by increasing the quencher diffusion constant, similarly to the case for the dependence of the line width.

  2. The Pulse Width Modulator ASIC for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gregory A.; Wester, Gene W.; Lam, Barbara; Bennett, Johnny; Franco, Lauro; Woo, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has started the development of a Pulse Width Modulator Application Specific Integrated Circuit (PWMA). This development is leveraging the previous development of the Switch Control ASIC (SCA). The purpose of the development is to provide the control for a selected range of power converter topologies and to meet the stringent environmental requirements of deep space missions. The PWMA will include several power control functions that are not normally included on the off-the-shelf components available today. One key functional requirement is the ability to implement an N + K redundant power converter with the ability to control the charging of a battery. Other applications will be the typical point of load isolated and non-isolated power converters. The purpose the development is not only to provide a much needed flight part, but also to accelerate the engineering process by using a standard cell library from previous ASIC developments. Under previous developments with Boeing and Lockheed Martin, JPL has produced three ASICs. Each ASIC has been implemented by using an analog standard cell library. One such development was the SCA, which is design to provide a floating power switch control. The functional verification of this ASIC has been completed and the cells used have been targeted for the new development of the PWMA. The primary function of the PWMA is to provide the control function of a point of load power converter. The design is an isolated 60 W converter with a 33 V output. In architecting the design, several functions were left up to the power converter design in order to make the ASIC more generic. The ASIC can be used for several power converter topologies and power levels. Some additional features have been added to the ASIC to provide the interfaces for multi-phase topologies and battery control functions. An N+K fault tolerant strategy has been implemented in order to provide the battery control functions. The PWMA has

  3. Long-term groundwater depletion in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of groundwater stored in the subsurface in the United States decreased by almost 1000 km3 during 1900–2008. The aquifer systems with the three largest volumes of storage depletion include the High Plains aquifer, the Mississippi Embayment section of the Gulf Coastal Plain aquifer system, and the Central Valley of California. Depletion rates accelerated during 1945–1960, averaging 13.6 km3/year during the last half of the century, and after 2000 increased again to about 24 km3/year. Depletion intensity is a new parameter, introduced here, to provide a more consistent basis for comparing storage depletion problems among various aquifers by factoring in time and areal extent of the aquifer. During 2001–2008, the Central Valley of California had the largest depletion intensity. Groundwater depletion in the United States can explain 1.4% of observed sea-level rise during the 108-year study period and 2.1% during 2001–2008. Groundwater depletion must be confronted on local and regional scales to help reduce demand (primarily in irrigated agriculture) and/or increase supply.

  4. Adjoint simulation of stream depletion due to aquifer pumping.

    PubMed

    Neupauer, Roseanna M; Griebling, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    If an aquifer is hydraulically connected to an adjacent stream, a pumping well operating in the aquifer will draw some water from aquifer storage and some water from the stream, causing stream depletion. Several analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical approaches have been developed to estimate stream depletion due to pumping. These approaches are effective if the well location is known. If a new well is to be installed, it may be desirable to install the well at a location where stream depletion is minimal. If several possible locations are considered for the location of a new well, stream depletion would have to be estimated for all possible well locations, which can be computationally inefficient. The adjoint approach for estimating stream depletion is a more efficient alternative because with one simulation of the adjoint model, stream depletion can be estimated for pumping at a well at any location. We derive the adjoint equations for a coupled system with a confined aquifer, an overlying unconfined aquifer, and a river that is hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. We assume that the stage in the river is known, and is independent of the stream depletion, consistent with the assumptions of the MODFLOW river package. We describe how the adjoint equations can be solved using MODFLOW. In an illustrative example, we show that for this scenario, the adjoint approach is as accurate as standard forward numerical simulation methods, and requires substantially less computational effort.

  5. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    PubMed

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  6. Long-term groundwater depletion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Konikow, Leonard F

    2015-01-01

    The volume of groundwater stored in the subsurface in the United States decreased by almost 1000 km3 during 1900-2008. The aquifer systems with the three largest volumes of storage depletion include the High Plains aquifer, the Mississippi Embayment section of the Gulf Coastal Plain aquifer system, and the Central Valley of California. Depletion rates accelerated during 1945-1960, averaging 13.6 km3/year during the last half of the century, and after 2000 increased again to about 24 km3/year. Depletion intensity is a new parameter, introduced here, to provide a more consistent basis for comparing storage depletion problems among various aquifers by factoring in time and areal extent of the aquifer. During 2001-2008, the Central Valley of California had the largest depletion intensity. Groundwater depletion in the United States can explain 1.4% of observed sea-level rise during the 108-year study period and 2.1% during 2001-2008. Groundwater depletion must be confronted on local and regional scales to help reduce demand (primarily in irrigated agriculture) and/or increase supply.

  7. A Multilab Preregistered Replication of the Ego-Depletion Effect.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Alberts, Hugo; Anggono, Calvin Octavianus; Batailler, Cédric; Birt, Angela R; Brand, Ralf; Brandt, Mark J; Brewer, Gene; Bruyneel, Sabrina; Calvillo, Dustin P; Campbell, W Keith; Cannon, Peter R; Carlucci, Marianna; Carruth, Nicholas P; Cheung, Tracy; Crowell, Adrienne; De Ridder, Denise T D; Dewitte, Siegfried; Elson, Malte; Evans, Jacqueline R; Fay, Benjamin A; Fennis, Bob M; Finley, Anna; Francis, Zoë; Heise, Elke; Hoemann, Henrik; Inzlicht, Michael; Koole, Sander L; Koppel, Lina; Kroese, Floor; Lange, Florian; Lau, Kevin; Lynch, Bridget P; Martijn, Carolien; Merckelbach, Harald; Mills, Nicole V; Michirev, Alexej; Miyake, Akira; Mosser, Alexandra E; Muise, Megan; Muller, Dominique; Muzi, Milena; Nalis, Dario; Nurwanti, Ratri; Otgaar, Henry; Philipp, Michael C; Primoceri, Pierpaolo; Rentzsch, Katrin; Ringos, Lara; Schlinkert, Caroline; Schmeichel, Brandon J; Schoch, Sarah F; Schrama, Michel; Schütz, Astrid; Stamos, Angelos; Tinghög, Gustav; Ullrich, Johannes; Dellen, Michelle van; Wimbarti, Supra; Wolff, Wanja; Yusainy, Cleoputri; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Zwienenberg, Maria; Howe, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control.

  8. Depletion of mesospheric sodium during extended period of pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Hosokawa, K.; Nozawa, S.; Tsuda, T. T.; Ogawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Hiraki, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Kawahara, T. D.; Saito, N.; Wada, S.; Kawabata, T.; Hall, C.

    2017-01-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the Na density depletion due to charge transfer reactions between Na atoms and molecular ions produced by high-energy electron precipitation during a pulsating aurora (PsA). An extended period of PsA was captured by an all-sky camera at the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar Tromsø site (69.6°N, 19.2°E) during a 2 h interval from 00:00 to 02:00 UT on 25 January 2012. During this period, using the EISCAT very high frequency (VHF) radar, we detected three intervals of intense ionization below 100 km that were probably caused by precipitation of high-energy electrons during the PsA. In these intervals, the sodium lidar at Tromsø observed characteristic depletion of Na density at altitudes between 97 and 100 km. These Na density depletions lasted for 8 min and represented 5-8% of the background Na layer. To examine the cause of this depletion, we modeled the depletion rate based on charge transfer reactions with NO+ and O2+ while changing the R value which is defined as the ratio of NO+ to O2+ densities, from 1 to 10. The correlation coefficients between observed and modeled Na density depletion calculated with typical value R = 3 for time intervals T1, T2, and T3 were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.67, respectively. The observed Na density depletion rates fall within the range of modeled depletion rate calculated with R from 1 to 10. This suggests that the charge transfer reactions triggered by the auroral impact ionization at low altitudes are the predominant process responsible for Na density depletion during PsA intervals.

  9. The width of clinically-defined keratinized gingiva in the mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Andrija; Jorgić-Srdjak, Ksenija; Maricević, Tomislav; Plancak, Darije

    2002-01-01

    Some authors have noticed a clear decrease of the width of keratinized gingiva when they compared the width over deciduous and newly erupted permanent teeth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the width of keratinized gingiva over permanent and deciduous teeth present in 6 to 11-year old children in an urban environment. The greatest width of keratinized gingiva was found over deciduous canines and permanent incisors. When comparing the width of keratinized gingiva over deciduous canines and molars and permanent first incisors and first molars, statistically significant differences were found only between 6- and 11-year-old groups. The findings do not seem to support previously published data, but do suggest that periodontal mucogingival surgery is not needed before the patient reaches the adult age, since there is a tendency of an increase of the width of keratinized gingiva.

  10. Responsive Image Inline Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Ian

    2016-10-20

    RIIF is a contributed module for the Drupal php web application framework (drupal.org). It is written as a helper or sub-module of other code which is part of version 8 "core Drupal" and is intended to extend its functionality. It allows Drupal to resize images uploaded through the user-facing text editor within the Drupal GUI (a.k.a. "inline images") for various browser widths. This resizing is already done foe other images through the parent "Responsive Image" core module. This code extends that functionality to inline images.

  11. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete

  12. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Determining Roof Widths

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determining Roof Widths A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part..., Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 1926—Determining Roof Widths Non-mandatory Guidelines... on low-sloped roofs 50 feet (15.25 m) or less in width. Each example in the appendix shows a...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Determining Roof Widths

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determining Roof Widths A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part..., Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 1926—Determining Roof Widths Non-mandatory Guidelines... on low-sloped roofs 50 feet (15.25 m) or less in width. Each example in the appendix shows a...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Determining Roof Widths

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determining Roof Widths A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part..., Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 1926—Determining Roof Widths Non-mandatory Guidelines... on low-sloped roofs 50 feet (15.25 m) or less in width. Each example in the appendix shows a...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Determining Roof Widths

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determining Roof Widths A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part..., Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 1926—Determining Roof Widths Non-mandatory Guidelines... on low-sloped roofs 50 feet (15.25 m) or less in width. Each example in the appendix shows a...

  16. Neotropical migratory breeding bird communities in riparian forests of different widths along the Altamaha River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, M.F.; Krementz, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    -We surveyed riparian forest corridors of different widths along the lower Altamaha River in Georgia in 1993 and 1994 to investigate the relationship between forest corridor width and Neotropical breeding bird community diversity and abundance. Species richness and abundance of three of six focal species increased with increasing forest corridor width. We suggest if Neotropical breeding bird communities are a target group, that land managers should consider leaving a 100 m buffer strip along riparian zones.

  17. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  18. 10. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLD IN FOUNDRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF DEPLETED URANIUM INGOT AND MOLD IN FOUNDRY. (11/11/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  20. Stimulated Emission Depletion Lithography with Mercapto-Functional Polymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Surface reactive nanostructures were fabricated using stimulated emission depletion (STED) lithography. The functionalization of the nanostructures was realized by copolymerization of a bifunctional metal oxo cluster in the presence of a triacrylate monomer. Ligands of the cluster surface cross-link to the monomer during the lithographic process, whereas unreacted mercapto functionalized ligands are transferred to the polymer and remain reactive after polymer formation of the surface of the nanostructure. The depletion efficiency in dependence of the cluster loading was investigated and full depletion of the STED effect was observed with a cluster loading exceeding 4 wt %. A feature size by λ/11 was achieved by using a donut-shaped depletion beam. The reactivity of the mercapto groups on the surface of the nanostructure was tested by incubation with mercapto-reactive fluorophores. PMID:26816204

  1. Depletion in Antarctic Ozone and Associated Climatic Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTARCTIC REGIONS, *CLIMATE, *DEPLETION, *OZONE, AGREEMENTS, ATMOSPHERES, ATMOSPHERICS, CARBON, CARBON DIOXIDE, COMPUTATIONS, DIOXIDES, GREENHOUSE ... EFFECT , GREENHOUSES, HIGH LATITUDES, LATITUDE, LOSSES, MEAN, METHANE, MODELS, NETS, NITROUS OXIDE, OBSERVATION, OXIDES, PERTURBATIONS, REGIONS, STEADY

  2. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION: A FOCUS ON EPA'S RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September of 1987 the United States, along with 26 other countries, signed a landmark treaty to limit and subsequently, through revisions, phase out the production of all significant ozone depleting substances. Many researchers suspected that these chemicals, especially chl...

  3. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  4. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1997-11-18

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  5. A mathematical model incorporating the effects of detector width in 2D PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, B. A.

    2000-02-01

    For decades, the Radon transform has been used as an approximate model for two-dimensional (2D) positron emission tomography (PET). Since this model assumes that detector tubes are represented by lines (hence have no area), PET reconstruction algorithms need to be modified to account for the nonzero width of detectors. To date, these modifications have been obtained by computational methods, so fail to exhibit any inherent mathematical structure of the PET transform which takes emission intensity to detector tube means. This paper contains a precise mathematical representation of this PET transform and exploits this representation to propose a new method for reconstructing PET images. This representation is achieved by expressing the probability that an emission at a point is detected in a detector tube, in terms of the Green function and Poisson kernel for Laplace's equation on the unit disc. This new PET transform involves four weighted line integrals of the emission intensity function, instead of the single unweighted line integral defining the 2D Radon transform. Despite the complexity of this model, a reconstruction method is obtained by using classical orthogonal series representations of the emission intensity and detection means in terms of circular harmonics, Bessel functions and Chebyshev polynomials.

  6. Narrow-line-width UV Bursts in the Transition Region above Sunspots Observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Madjarska, Maria S.; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou; Xie, Haixia

    2016-10-01

    Various small-scale structures abound in the solar atmosphere above active regions, playing an important role in the dynamics and evolution therein. We report on a new class of small-scale transition region structures in active regions, characterized by strong emissions but extremely narrow Si iv line profiles as found in observations taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Tentatively named as narrow-line-width UV bursts (NUBs), these structures are located above sunspots and comprise one or multiple compact bright cores at sub-arcsecond scales. We found six NUBs in two data sets (a raster and a sit-and-stare data set). Among these, four events are short-lived with a duration of ˜10 minutes, while two last for more than 36 minutes. All NUBs have Doppler shifts of 15-18 km s-1, while the NUB found in sit-and-stare data possesses an additional component at ˜50 km s-1 found only in the C ii and Mg ii lines. Given that these events are found to play a role in the local dynamics, it is important to further investigate the physical mechanisms that generate these phenomena and their role in the mass transport in sunspots.

  7. Microscopic Study of Dendritic Avalanches in MgB2 Thin Films of Various Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Yeap; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hu-Jong; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kang, Won-Nam; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2010-04-01

    To understand the features of a dendritic avalanche, we prepared the eight sets of MgB2 thin films with rectangular shapes of 3 mm [length L] × w [width], where w = 0.2 to 1.6 mm; the samples were in the long-length limit of w < L. Magneto-optical images (MOIs) of the first few dendrite patterns, which were distributed sparsely, were taken at applied fields below 35 mT at a temperature of 4 K. The key features of the present measurements are as follows: (1) the number of branches and the area of the dendrites increase with increasing w; (2) the change in the flux density (CFD) from before to after the jump at the edge of the samples increased with increasing w; (3) the applied magnetic flux density of the first few appearances of dendrites decreased with increasing of the w; (4) the real initial penetration flux density at the sample’s edge was about 20 mT, regardless of w; (5) the critical current densities obtained from the MOI were almost the same for all samples, which implies that Bean’s critical model works quite well.

  8. Atmosphere Assisted Machining of Depleted Uranium (DU) Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    tooling should be approximately $75,000 each. Lessons learned in the Vacuum Induction Remelt MM&T and the chip melts made on this program point out the...AD-E-401 528 Cutwator Report ARCCD-CR-6600S (V) ATMOSPHERE ASSISTED MACMINING DEPLETED URANIUM (DU) PENETRATORS DTic Charles E. Lathe"rOwn ELECTE...E-401 528 Contractor Report ARCCD-CR-86008 ATMOSPHERE ASSISTED MACHINING OF DEPLETED URANIUM (DU) PENETRATORS Charles E. Latham-Brown Frank Porter

  9. Observed and Simulated Depletion Layers with Southward IMF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    characteristics of an event on 12 March 2001, in ionosphere , follow magnetic field lines to near the mag- which a depletion layer was observed just...depletion layers 2153 region. The second type inhibits dayside merging and is a ionosphere /thermosphere. The simulations discussed here possible...mechanism for understanding the saturation of the contain specifically selected parameters and simplifying ap- ionospheric potential under strongly driven

  10. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  11. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

  12. New prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary mandibular canine and premolar widths from mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths: A digital model study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to generate new prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths based on mandibular incisors and first permanent molar widths. Methods A total of 2,340 calculations (768 based on the sum of mandibular incisor and first permanent molar widths, and 1,572 based on the maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths) were performed, and a digital stereomicroscope was used to derive the the digital models and measurements. Mesiodistal widths of maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured via scanned digital models. Results There was a strong positive correlation between the estimation of maxillary (r = 0.85994, r2 = 0.7395) and mandibular (r = 0.8708, r2 = 0.7582) canine and premolar widths. The intraclass correlation coefficients were statistically significant, and the coefficients were in the strong correlation range, with an average of 0.9. Linear regression analysis was used to establish prediction equations. Prediction equations were developed to estimate maxillary arches based on Y = 15.746 + 0.602 × sum of mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths (sum of mandibular incisors [SMI] + molars), Y = 18.224 + 0.540 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 16.186 + 0.586 × (SMI + molars) for both genders, and to estimate mandibular arches the parameters used were Y = 16.391 + 0.564 × (SMI + molars), Y = 14.444 + 0.609 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 19.915 + 0.481 × (SMI + molars). Conclusions These formulas will be helpful for orthodontic diagnosis and clinical treatment planning during the mixed dentition stage. PMID:27226963

  13. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells in culture contract upon Ca2+ repletion after depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S.; Kanaide, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Ca2+-repletion following depletion on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the rat aorta. With Ca2+-repletion, the cells in primary cultures contracted, as indicated by a decrease in cell area. The process was slow (30 min to maximum effect) and reversible (relaxation completed by 120 min). Contraction during Ca2+-repletion was never observed in subcultured cells. The SMCs in primary culture after treatment maintained the ability to grow and to exclude dye, with a normal plating efficiency. There was no treatment-related additional leakage of intracellular enzymes, LDH and CPK, into the medium. Ca2+-repletion at first accelerated the 45Ca uptake by SMCs (1-5 min after repletion) and then increased Ca2+ efflux after about 10 min of Ca2+-repletion. We conclude that Ca2+-repletion after depletion induces a transient and reversible contraction of vascular SMCs in primary culture, without cell injury and in association with a transient increase in Ca2+ influx and then efflux. This phenomenon may relate to the decrease in perfusion flow in hearts and kidneys during Ca2+-repletion after depletion (Ca2+-paradox). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4084451

  14. REEXAMINING THE LITHIUM DEPLETION BOUNDARY IN THE PLEIADES AND THE INFERRED AGE OF THE CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Dahm, S. E.

    2015-11-10

    Moderate-dispersion (R ∼ 5400), optical spectroscopy of seven brown dwarf candidate members of the Pleiades was obtained using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager on the Keck II telescope. The proper motion and photometrically selected sample lies on the single-star main sequence of the cluster and effectively brackets the established lithium depletion boundary. The brown dwarf candidates range in spectral type from M6 to M7, implying effective temperatures between ∼2800 and 2650 K. All sources exhibit Hα emission, consistent with enhanced chromospheric activity that is expected for young, very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Li i λ6708 absorption is confidently detected in the photospheres of two of the seven sources. A revised lithium depletion boundary is established in the near-infrared where the effects of extinction and variability are minimized. This lithium depletion edge occurs near K{sub o} = 14.45 or M{sub K} = 8.78 mag (UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey), assuming the most accurate and precise distance estimate for the cluster of 136.2 pc. From recent theoretical evolutionary models, a revised age of τ = 112 ± 5 Myr is determined for the Pleiades. Accounting for the effects of magnetic activity on the photospheres of these very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, however, would imply an even younger age for the cluster of ∼100 Myr.

  15. Indication of Local Laser Pump Depletion via Transmitted Self-Guided Laser Light

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Lu, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.

    2009-01-22

    In recent experiments it has been shown that an ultra-intense, ultra-short laser pulse can be self-guided over tens of Rayleigh lengths in an underdense plasma where {tau}(FWHM of the laser pulse) is on the order of the plasma wavelength ({lambda}{sub p}). Using an imaging spectrograph, the frequency of the transmitted laser pulse was spatially and spectrally resolved at the exit of 3, 5, and 8 mm long plasmas. The mechanism of laser pump depletion was studied by observing the amount that the transmitted laser pulse's spectrum was red shifted in wavelength through the interaction with the self-guiding plasma wave.

  16. TH-C-18A-05: Characteristics and Accuracy of CT Radiation Profile Width Measurements Using Radiochromic Films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B; Behrman, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of several acquisition and image analysis factors on the accuracy of CT beam width measurement using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film and an off the shelf document scanner. Methods: The film was carefully placed at the iso-center and exposed at various x-ray beam energies (80–140 kVp), exposure levels (50–400 mAs), and nominal beam widths (1.25, 5, and 10 mm). Films were scanned on a RICOH MP3501 flat-bed document scanner using reflection mode and various spatial resolutions (100 to 600 dpi) and locations within the scanner bed. Radiation dose profiles were derived by converting the net reflection measurements to dose values (in mGy) through film calibration (which is also described here). The beam widths were characterized by the FWHM and FWTM of the dose profiles and the deviations from the hybrid reference standards were quantified. The impact of x-ray beam energy, exposure intensity, film calibration, and the uniformity and spatial resolution of the document scanner were investigated. Results: The uncertainties in both FWHM and FWTM caused by varying beam energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity were all within approximately 5%. Increasing scanner spatial resolution increased the uncertainty in both FWHM and FWTM (R2 = 0.35–0.71), with the FWTM affected by more than five times than the FWHM (28% vs. 4.9%). When uncalibrated dose profiles were used, the FWHM and FWTM were over-estimated by as much as 11.6% and 7.6%, respectively. Narrower beam width was more sensitive to the film calibration than the wider one (R2 = 0.68 and 0.85 for the FWHM and FWTM, respectively). Conclusion: Measurement of CT beam width using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films is robust against x-ray energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity. It can provide adequate accuracy for all practical purposes with appropriate film calibration and scanner spatial resolution (100 dpi or less)

  17. Reduced upper limits on the equivalent width of interstellar Li I 670.8 towards SN 1987 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, D.; Cristiani, S.; Lanz, T.; Malaney, R. A.; Sahu, K. S.; Vladilo, G.

    1991-11-01

    A new search for interstellar Li I 670.8 along the line of sight to SN 1987 A has been carried out using all 34 known high-resolution Reticon spectra obtained at the European Southern Observatory. The most probably 3-sigma detection limit in equivalent width is 7.3 x 10 exp -6 nm. For the cloud at radial velocity +286 km/s, standard relations then imply a maximum abundance, Li/H, of 1.7 x 10 exp -11 in the gaseous interstellar medium of the LMC. If depletion to dust grains is the same for both lithium and potassium, this figure has to be increased by 1.1 dex. Accordingly, conventional present-day reasoning suggests that the elemental abundance of lithium does not exceed 2.7 x 10 exp -10. However, the cumulative uncertainties are such that a primordial abundance which is an order of magnitude higher is not firmly ruled out. Constraints on primordial nucleosynthesis models are, therefore, only weak.

  18. In vitro detection of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neurodegeneration and pharmacological neuroprotection based on hippocampal stratum pyramidale width.

    PubMed

    Öz, Pınar; Saybaşılı, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the most prominent risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The effects of oxygen and glucose depletion in hippocampal tissue due to ischemia can be mimicked in vitro using the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In this study, we applied OGD on acute rat hippocampal slices in order to design an elementary yet quantitative histological technique that compares the neuroprotective effects of (l)-carnitine to known neuroprotectors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen. The level of neurodegeneration and the efficiency of pharmacological applications were estimated via stratum pyramidale width measurements in CA1 and CA3 regions of Nissl-stained 200-μm thick hippocampal slices. We demonstrated that (l)-carnitine is an effective pharmacological target against the neurodegeneration induced by in vitro ischemia in a narrow range of concentrations. Even though the effect of chemical neuroprotection was significant, full recovery was not achieved in the dose interval of 5-100μM. In addition to chemical applications, hypothermia was used as a physical neuroprotection against ischemia-related neurodegeneration. Our results showed that incubation of slices for 60min at 4°C provided the same level of neuroprotection as the most effective doses of memantine, baclofen, and (l)-carnitine.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: TK2-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form TK2-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form Enable Javascript to view ... Open All Close All Description TK2 -related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form ( TK2 -MDS) is an ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... All Close All Description MPV17 -related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an inherited disorder that can ...

  1. Downstream variation in bankfull width of wadeable streams across the conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bankfull channel width is a fundamental measure of stream size and a key parameter of interest for many applications in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology. We developed downstream hydraulic geometry relationships for bankfull channel width w as a function of dra...

  2. On the Stark Widths and Shifts of Ar II 472.68 nm Spectral Line

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, Z.; Gajo, T.; Vujicic, B.; Djurovic, S.; Kobilarov, R.

    2008-10-22

    Stark widths and shifts of Ar II 472.68 nm spectral line were measured from T-tube plasmas. Plasma electron density ranged 1.8-2.210{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, while temperature ranged 20000-43000 K. Obtained results of widths and shifts were compared with measured results of other authors.

  3. Dynamical Calculation of Θ+ Mass and Decay width in the Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostampour, M.; Saadat, H.; Farahani, H.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the mass splitting and the decay width of pentaquark (Θ+) at the ground states in the framework of flux tube, quark delocalization and color screening model. We consider the pentaquark as diquark-triquark configuration and obtained closer values of mass splitting and the decay width of Θ+ to the experimental data.

  4. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  5. Lithologic Heterogeneity and Variable Valley Width in the Buffalo River Watershed, AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. L.; Keen-Zebert, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lithologic heterogeneity across catchments is thought to be a key control on the style of incision, whether dominated by vertical or lateral processes, but little field evidence is available to support the claims. Map and field observations from the Buffalo National River (BNR) indicate that valley width is related to variation in lithology along the length of the river. The BNR is a gravel-mantled, ingrown meandering, bedrock river that incises through a sequence of Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, and Ordovician carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks. Using GIS, valley width was measured at 250 m intervals along the entire length of the river through two sequences of limestone and sandstone reaches that represent the dominant lithologies of the catchment. Preliminary results show measurable and statistically significant differences in valley width between limestone and sandstone reaches. Where limestone strata is exposed at river level the mean width is ~ 360 m and is highly variable with a standard deviation of 227 m. The mean width in sandstone strata is ~240 m with a standard deviation of 88 m. At each transition from limestone to sandstone there is a greater than 20% decrease in valley width downstream, with no visible change in channel width at map scales. It is possible the atypical pattern in valley width in the BNR is due to variation in lithologic resistance. These results support the assumption that lithologic heterogeneity exerts control on stream valley evolution.

  6. 23 CFR 658.16 - Exclusions from length and width determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from length and width determinations. 658.16 Section 658.16 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS §...

  7. 16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in square inches with length and width expressed in the largest whole unit (yard or foot) with any... expressed in square feet with the length and width expressed in the largest whole units (yards or feet) with... statement of the linear dimensions of the largest unit of measurement, a parenthetical declaration of...

  8. 16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in square inches with length and width expressed in the largest whole unit (yard or foot) with any... expressed in square feet with the length and width expressed in the largest whole units (yards or feet) with... statement of the linear dimensions of the largest unit of measurement, a parenthetical declaration of...

  9. Fixed-Width Confidence Intervals in Linear Regression with Applications to the Johnson-Neyman Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitkin, Murray A.

    Fixed-width confidence intervals for a population regression line over a finite interval of x have recently been derived by Gafarian. The method is extended to provide fixed-width confidence intervals for the difference between two population regression lines, resulting in a simple procedure analogous to the Johnson-Neyman technique. (Author)

  10. The widths of the α decaying states of 12C within the three-cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.

    2003-05-01

    We estimate the widths of the alpha decaying states of 12C (1+, 1-, 1-1, 2+, 2-, 3-, and 4+) within the three-alpha cluster model. We solve the Faddeev equations using the hyperspheric approach and calculate the decisive effective hyper-radial barriers. We calculate the widths in the WKB approximation and compare with experimental data.

  11. Effect of the push-up exercise at different palmar width on muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Sin; Kim, Do-Yeon; Ha, Min-Seong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of changes in palmar width on the muscle activities of the shoulder and truncus muscles during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twelve healthy adult males participated in this study as subjects. [Methods] Push-up exercises were performed with three different palmar width in narrow (50%), neutral (100%), and wide positions (150%). We measured the muscle activities of the deltoideus p. acromialis, pectoralis minor, pectoralis major, serratus anterior, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, and infraspinatus. [Results] Pectoralis minor, triceps brachii, and infraspinatus muscle activities were greater during push-ups performed with the 50% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. Pectoralis major muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 50% and 100% palmar widths compared with the 150% palmar width. Serratus anterior muscle activity was greater during push-ups performed with the 150% palmar width compared with the other palmar widths. [Conclusion] These results are expected to serve as reference materials for push-up exercise applications in training programs for truncus muscle strengthening or rehabilitation programs for scapula patients.

  12. Correlation of the depletion layer with the Helmholtz layer in the anatase TiO2-H2O interface via molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sang, Lixia; Zhang, Yudong; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yangbo; Chen, Yi-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to study the interaction between anatase TiO2(001), (100), and (101) surfaces and water at room temperature. The dynamic interfacial structure and properties of water on anatase TiO2 surfaces are obtained by analyzing the water density, the diffusion coefficient of water, the surface charge distribution, electric fields and the electrostatic potential distribution. The simulation results have revealed that a highly-ordered water layer structure can be formed near to the anatase TiO2 surface and have also given the Helmholtz layer width and potential drop at the water-TiO2 interface. By correlating the Helmholtz layer with the depletion layer, the depletion layer widths of three surfaces (001), (100), and (101) have been calculated as 474 Å, 237 Å and 99 Å, respectively. The resulting order of the photoelectrochemical activity of the anatase TiO2 surfaces is (001) > (100) > (101), which is consistent with the experimental results. This study may provide a useful correlation of the depletion layer with the Helmholtz layer based on simulations results for the prediction of the behavior and the control of photon-energy conversion devices.

  13. Width of Injection/Dispersion Events in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, T. W.

    2008-05-01

    Longitudinally localized injection and drift dispersion of hot plasma are frequently observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) in Saturn's magnetosphere. These signatures provide direct evidence for the major convective process in the inner magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet, in which the radial transport of plasma is expected to comprise hot, tenuous plasma moving inward and cooler, denser plasma moving outward. Previous analyses of Cassini plasma observations are consistent with this scenario, but suggest further that the hot inflow sectors are significantly narrower than the adjacent cooler outflow sectors, a property that was not anticipated theoretically. Here we quantify this property by calculating the fraction of the available time that is occupied by injection structures in a two-year data set containing 429 such structures. This fraction is found to be small, typically ~ 3 - 7%, with no obvious dependence on SKR longitude. We will expand our data set by including the very young injection events discussed by Burch et al. [2005 GRL], which were excluded by the selection criteria in our previous study.

  14. Lignin Depletion Enhances the Digestibility of Cellulose in Cultured Xylem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lacayo, Catherine I.; Hwang, Mona S.; Ding, Shi-You; Thelen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis, but realistic enough

  15. Using an r-dependent Gaussian width in calculations of the globally uniform semiclassical wave function.

    PubMed

    Herman, Michael F; Sergeev, Alexey

    2007-01-21

    The globally uniform semiclassical wave function expresses the solution to the time independent Schrodinger equation in terms of fixed width Gaussian wave packets traveling along a set of trajectories. There is a globally uniform wave function (GUWF) for each value of the Gaussian width parameter gamma. Numerical data show that a small Gaussian width is needed in some regions to obtain accurate results, while a broad Gaussian width provides better results in other regions. Since there is a semiclassically valid GUWF for every positive value of gamma, it is reasonable to employ the GUWF corresponding to a Gaussian width that provides good results at each value of r. A criterion for the r dependent choice of gamma is proposed and tested on one and two dimensional model problems. The results show that the use of an r dependent gamma in the GUWF results in improved accuracy for the model problems considered.

  16. Channel width dependence of electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs under bending stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the electrical characteristics of bendable a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel widths as a function of bending stress. Compared with a narrower channel TFT, a wider channel TFT exhibits a stable performance even at a bending strain of 1.3%. Our stress and strain distribution analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the channel width and the channel stress. As the channel width widens from 8 to 50 μm, the stress experienced by the middle channel region decreases from 545 to 277 MPa. Moreover, a 50 μm-channel-width TFT operates stably even after a 15 000 bending cycle while the 8 μm-channel-width TFT fails to operate after a 2000 bending cycle.

  17. Effects of pacing magnitudes and forms on bistability width in a modeled ventricular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Xuemei; Zheng, Lixian; Mi, Yuanyuan; Qian, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Bistability in periodically paced cardiac tissue is relevant to cardiac arrhythmias and its control. In the present paper, one-dimensional tissue of the phase I Luo-Rudy model is numerically investigated. The effects of various parameters of pacing signals on bistability width are studied. The following conclusions are obtained: (i) Pacing can be classified into two types: pulsatile and sinusoidal types. Pulsatile pacing reduces bistability width as its magnitude is increased. Sinusoidal pacing increases the width as its amplitude is increased. (ii) In a pacing period the hyperpolarizing part plays a more important role than the depolarizing part. Variations of the hyperpolarizing ratio in a period evidently change the width of bistability and its variation tendency. (iii) A dynamical mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the phenomena, which reveals the reason for the different effects of pulsatile and sinusoidal pacing on bistability. The methods for changing bistability width by external pacing may help control arrhythmias in cardiology.

  18. Radiocarbon to calendar date conversion: Calendrical band widths as a function of radiocarbon precision

    SciTech Connect

    McCormac, F.G.; Baillie, M.G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Accurate high-precision [sup 14]C dating (i.e., [plus minus] 20 yr precision or less on the [sup 14]C date) provides the narrowest calendrical band width and, hence, the best age range determination possible. However, because of the structure in the [sup 14]C calibration curve, the calendar age range for a given [sup 14]C precision is not constant throughout the calibration range. In this study, they quantify the calendar band widths for a range of [sup 14]C precisions throughout the calibration range. They show that an estimate of the likely calendar band width in years can be obtained from the expression: Band width (yr) = 2.12 x [sup 14]C precision (1 [sigma]) + 54.6. They also show that calendar band widths are widest around 4000 Bp at the start of the Bronze Age, and become narrow through the later Bronze Age and Iron Age and back into the Neolithic.

  19. AB214. Application of ultrasonic measurement of epididymal width in differential diagnosis of azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the of epididymal width in identifying non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA). Methods Using scrotal ultrasound to compare difference of epididymal width between OA (n=18) and NOA (n=10) patients. Results In the patients with OA average bilateral epididymal width is 0.7+0.1 cm, which is higher than the NOA patients (P<0.05) by ultrasonic measurement. The average width of bilateral epididymis increased with the increase of Johnsen score (P<0.05). In ROC analysis, when 0.78, 0.33, 0.53 cm are used as the cut point for bilateral caput epididymis, corpus epididymis, cauda epididymis, respectively, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis is higher. Conclusions There is obvious difference in epididymal width under ultrasound between NOA and OA, which is helpful for differential diagnosis of azoospermia.

  20. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  1. Relating shortening, erosion, and exhumation to orogen width during Alpine collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Claudio; Berger, Alfons; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bousquet, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The width of orogens may change through time depending on the amount of shortening, on the efficiency of erosion, on the strength and thickness of the plates, or on the occurrence of pre-existing and newly formed weaknesses within the plates. The effect of erosion rates on the width of the Alps was controversially discussed, based on estimates of paleo-erosion rates and paleo-widths of the orogen. However, both parameters are difficult to reconstruct. In this contribution we investigate the causes of present-day, along-strike changes of width of the Eastern and the Central Alps to understand its width changes through time. Based on a series of 6 orogen-scale cross-sections and their retro-deformation we set the width of the thickened accreted lower plate in relation to the amount of collisional shortening and exhumation. We conclude that higher amounts of shortening systematically coincide with smaller widths of the thickened, accreted lower plate, i.e. the width of the mountain chain north of the South-Alpine indenters. Changes of width by a factor 2 along orogen segments of less than 200 km length cannot result from long-term climatic differences and sedimentary or paleontological evidences suggesting such differences are lacking. Therefore, erosional processes did not directly control the width of the orogen, which did not behave as a critical taper. Higher amounts of shortening coincide with larger amplitudes of orogen-scale, upright folds, with larger amounts of exhumation, and with higher exhumation rates. Hence, erosion did play a major role in reducing by up to 35 km the vertical crustal thickness in order to accommodate and allow shortening by folding, but along-strike changes of erosion rates were governed by different amounts of shortening, not by different climate.

  2. A robust TEC depletion detector algorithm for satellite based navigation in Indian zone and depletion analysis for GAGAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashora, Nirvikar

    2012-07-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) and associated plasma irregularities are known to cause severe scintillation for the satellite signals and produce range errors, which eventually result either in loss of lock of the signal or in random fluctuation in TEC, respectively, affecting precise positioning and navigation solutions. The EPBs manifest as sudden reduction in line of sight TEC, which are more often called TEC depletions, and are spread over thousands of km in meridional direction and a few hundred km in zonal direction. They change shape and size while drifting from one longitude to another in nighttime ionosphere. For a satellite based navigation system, like GAGAN in India that depends upon (i) multiple satellites (i.e. GPS) (ii) multiple ground reference stations and (iii) a near real time data processing, such EPBs are of grave concern. A TEC model generally provides a near real-time grid based ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) over hypothetically spread 5x5 degree latitude-longitude grid points. But, on night when a TEC depletion occurs in a given longitude sector, it is almost impossible for any system to give a forecast of GIVEs. If loss-of-lock events occur due to scintillation, there is no way to improve the situation. But, when large and random depletions in TEC occur with scintillations and without loss-of-lock, it affects low latitude TEC in two ways. (a) Multiple satellites show depleted TEC which may be very different from model-TEC values and hence the GIVE would be incorrect over various grid points (ii) the user may be affected by depletions which are not sampled by reference stations and hence interpolated GIVE within one square would be grossly erroneous. The most general solution (and the far most difficult as well) is having advance knowledge of spatio-temporal occurrence and precise magnitude of such depletions. While forecasting TEC depletions in spatio-temporal domain are a scientific challenge (as we show below), operational systems

  3. Precision Astronomy with Imperfect Deep Depletion CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Christopher; LSST Sensor Team; PanSTARRS Team

    2014-01-01

    While thick CCDs do provide definite advantages in terms of increased quantum efficiency at wavelengths 700 nm<λ < 1.1 microns and reduced fringing from atmospheric emission lines, these devices also exhibit undesirable features that pose a challenge to precision determination of the positions, fluxes, and shapes of astronomical objects, and for the precision extraction of features in astronomical spectra. For example, the assumptions of a perfectly rectilinear pixel grid and of an intensity-independent point spread function become increasingly invalid as we push to higher precision measurements. Many of the effects seen in these devices arise from lateral electrical fields within the detector, that produce charge transport anomalies that have been previously misinterpreted as quantum efficiency variations. Performing simplistic flat-fielding therefore introduces systematic errors in the image processing pipeline. One measurement challenge we face is devising a combination of calibration methods and algorithms that can distinguish genuine quantum efficiency variations from charge transport effects. These device imperfections also confront spectroscopic applications, such as line centroid determination for precision radial velocity studies. Given the scientific benefits of improving both the precision and accuracy of astronomical measurements, we need to identify, characterize, and overcome these various detector artifacts. In retrospect, many of the detector features first identified in thick CCDs also afflict measurements made with more traditional CCD detectors, albeit often at a reduced level since the photocharge is subject to the perturbing influence of lateral electric fields for a shorter time interval. I provide a qualitative overview of the physical effects we think are responsible for the observed device properties, and provide some perspective for the work that lies ahead.

  4. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  5. Visualization of the immunological synapse by dual color time-gated stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S

    2014-03-24

    Natural killer cells form tightly regulated, finely tuned immunological synapses (IS) in order to lyse virally infected or tumorigenic cells. Dynamic actin reorganization is critical to the function of NK cells and the formation of the IS. Imaging of F-actin at the synapse has traditionally utilized confocal microscopy, however the diffraction limit of light restricts resolution of fluorescence microscopy, including confocal, to approximately 200 nm. Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled the development of subdiffraction limited super-resolution imaging. In order to visualize F-actin architecture at the IS we recapitulate the NK cell cytotoxic synapse by adhering NK cells to activating receptor on glass. We then image proteins of interest using two-color stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). This results in <80 nm resolution at the synapse. Herein we describe the steps of sample preparation and the acquisition of images using dual color STED nanoscopy to visualize F-actin at the NK IS. We also illustrate optimization of sample acquisition using Leica SP8 software and time-gated STED. Finally, we utilize Huygens software for post-processing deconvolution of images.

  6. Visualization of the Immunological Synapse by Dual Color Time-gated Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Nanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer cells form tightly regulated, finely tuned immunological synapses (IS) in order to lyse virally infected or tumorigenic cells. Dynamic actin reorganization is critical to the function of NK cells and the formation of the IS. Imaging of F-actin at the synapse has traditionally utilized confocal microscopy, however the diffraction limit of light restricts resolution of fluorescence microscopy, including confocal, to approximately 200 nm. Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled the development of subdiffraction limited super-resolution imaging. In order to visualize F-actin architecture at the IS we recapitulate the NK cell cytotoxic synapse by adhering NK cells to activating receptor on glass. We then image proteins of interest using two-color stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). This results in <80 nm resolution at the synapse. Herein we describe the steps of sample preparation and the acquisition of images using dual color STED nanoscopy to visualize F-actin at the NK IS. We also illustrate optimization of sample acquisition using Leica SP8 software and time-gated STED. Finally, we utilize Huygens software for post-processing deconvolution of images. PMID:24686478

  7. Relative importance of breakage and decay as processes depleting large wood from streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Eric C.; Vaz, Pedro G.; Decker-Fritz, Jo A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2013-05-01

    Large wood pieces affect virtually every physical, chemical, and biological process in fluvial systems, including hydraulics, transport of materials, algal biomass accrual, nutrient uptake, and trophic interactions. The processes that deplete wood are thus of broad importance to stream ecosystems. We assessed the relative contributions for breakage-induced mobilization (where pieces are more prone to transport as a result of breakage into shorter parts) and gradual biochemical decay to wood depletion rates in a field study on 12 northern Minnesota, USA, streams. Wood pieces > 0.05 m in diameter for a portion > 1 m in length were individually tagged (n = 651), measured, and remeasured a year later. Pieces showed significant reductions in density and branching complexity (i.e., branches and twigs) and 22% of pieces broke (i.e., lost 10% or more of length). Processes related to breakage and decay were examined using Bayesian structural equation modeling and multiple regression. Breakage was more likely for pieces that were thin in diameter, long, deeply submerged, braced, buried, and traveled long distances. Pieces lost more density if they were initially dense, traveled a long distance, were not deeply submerged, lacked bark, were thin in diameter, were steeply pitched, were long, and were not buried. Pieces lost more branching complexity if they were complex with little gap between them and the streambed. Actual mass losses related to breakage and decay were 7.3% and 1.9% (respectively), both less than the 36% observed for total fluvial export. In contrast to the associations of breakage and decay with structural properties of the wood pieces and their position, hydraulic and geomorphic variables (stream power, slope, velocity, width) had little effect.

  8. About ozone depletion in stratosphere over Brazil in last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Inácio M.; Imai, Takeshi; Seguchi, Tomio

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone, resulting from the emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has become a major issue since 1980. The decrease in stratospheric ozone over the polar regions has been pronounced at the South Pole than at the North Pole. In mid-latitude and equatorial regions, ozone depletion becomes less important; it depends on seasonal effects and on the characteristics of a particular region. The detailed mechanism by which the polar ozone holes form is different from that for the mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both trends is the catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine and bromine. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photodissociation of CFC compounds, commonly called freons, and of bromofluorocarbon compounds known as halons. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both ozone depletion mechanisms strengthened as emissions of CFCs and halons increased [1]. Measurements of stratospheric ozone carried out on several locations in Brazil and on the South Pole in the last decade (1996-2005), using detectors placed on ground, stratospheric balloons and Earth Probe TOMS satellites, are presented here. Detailed series analysis from 1980 up to the present describes a mean ozone depletion of 4[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone/depletion.

  9. Surface depletion induced quantum confinement in CdS nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Li, Dehui; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Qihua

    2012-06-26

    We investigate the surface depletion induced quantum confinement in CdS nanobelts beyond the quantum confinement regime, where the thickness is much larger than the bulk exciton Bohr radius. From room temperature to 77 K, the emission energy of free exciton A scales linearly versus 1/L(2) when the thickness L is less than 100 nm, while a deviation occurs for those belts thicker than 100 nm due to the reabsorption effect. The 1/L(2) dependence can be explained by the surface depletion induced quantum confinement, which modifies the confinement potential leading to a quasi-square potential well smaller than the geometric thickness of nanobelts, giving rise to the confinement effect to exciton emission beyond the quantum confinement regime. The surface depletion is sensitive to carrier concentration and surface states. As the temperature decreases, the decrease of the electrostatic potential drop in the surface depletion region leads to a weaker confinement due to the decrease of carrier concentration. With a layer of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) passivation, PL spectra exhibit pronounced red shifts due to the decrease of the surface states at room temperature. No shift is found at 10 K both with or without PMMA passivation, suggesting a much weaker depletion field due to the freezing-out of donors.

  10. Cholesterol depletion impairs contractile machinery in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hissa, Barbara; Oakes, Patrick W.; Pontes, Bruno; Ramírez-San Juan, Guillermina; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol regulates numerous cellular processes. Depleting its synthesis in skeletal myofibers induces vacuolization and contraction impairment. However, little is known about how cholesterol reduction affects cardiomyocyte behavior. Here, we deplete cholesterol by incubating neonatal cardiomyocytes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Traction force microscopy shows that lowering cholesterol increases the rate of cell contraction and generates defects in cell relaxation. Cholesterol depletion also increases membrane tension, Ca2+ spikes frequency and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These changes can be correlated with modifications in caveolin-3 and L-Type Ca2+ channel distributions across the sarcolemma. Channel regulation is also compromised since cAMP-dependent PKA activity is enhanced, increasing the probability of L-Type Ca2+ channel opening events. Immunofluorescence reveals that cholesterol depletion abrogates sarcomeric organization, changing spacing and alignment of α-actinin bands due to increase in proteolytic activity of calpain. We propose a mechanism in which cholesterol depletion triggers a signaling cascade, culminating with contraction impairment and myofibril disruption in cardiomyocytes. PMID:28256617

  11. Recovery of the Ozone Layer: The Ozone Depleting Gas Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, David J.; Montzka, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer, through absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation, protects all biological systems on Earth. In response to concerns over the depletion of the global ozone layer, the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 mandates that NASA and NOAA monitor stratospheric ozone and ozone-depleting substances. This information is critical for assessing whether the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, an international treaty that entered into force in 1989 to protect the ozone layer, is having its intended effect of mitigating increases in harmful ultraviolet radiation. To provide the information necessary to satisfy this congressional mandate, both NASA and NOAA have instituted and maintained global monitoring programs to keep track of ozone-depleting gases as well as ozone itself. While data collected for the past 30 years have been used extensively in international assessments of ozone layer depletion science, the language of scientists often eludes the average citizen who has a considerable interest in the health of Earth's protective ultraviolet radiation shield. Are the ozone-destroying chemicals declining in the atmosphere? When will these chemicals decline to pre-ozone hole levels so that the Antarctic ozone hole might disappear? Will this timing be different in the stratosphere above midlatitudes?

  12. Global Depletion of Groundwater Resources: Past and Future Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, about 17% of the crops are irrigated, yet irrigation accounts for 40% of the global food production. As more than 40% of irrigation water comes from groundwater, groundwater abstraction rates are large and exceed natural recharge rates in many regions of the world, thus leading to groundwater depletion. In this paper we provide an overview of recent research on global groundwater depletion. We start with presenting various estimates of global groundwater depletion, both from flux based as well as volume based methods. We also present estimates of the contribution of non-renewable groundwater to irrigation water consumption and how this contribution developed during the last 50 years. Next, using a flux based method, we provide projections of groundwater depletion for the coming century under various socio-economic and climate scenarios. As groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, we also provide estimates of this contribution from the past as well as for future scenarios. Finally, we show recent results of groundwater level changes and change in river flow as a result of global groundwater abstractions as obtained from a global groundwater flow model.

  13. Wall depletion length of a channel-confined polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Guo Kang; Li, Xiaolan; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2017-02-01

    Numerous experiments have taken advantage of DNA as a model system to test theories for a channel-confined polymer. A tacit assumption in analyzing these data is the existence of a well-defined depletion length characterizing DNA-wall interactions such that the experimental system (a polyelectrolyte in a channel with charged walls) can be mapped to the theoretical model (a neutral polymer with hard walls). We test this assumption using pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations of a DNA-like semiflexible polymer confined in a tube. The polymer-wall interactions are modeled by augmenting a hard wall interaction with an exponentially decaying, repulsive soft potential. The free energy, mean span, and variance in the mean span obtained in the presence of a soft wall potential are compared to equivalent simulations in the absence of the soft wall potential to determine the depletion length. We find that the mean span and variance about the mean span have the same depletion length for all soft potentials we tested. In contrast, the depletion length for the confinement free energy approaches that for the mean span only when depletion length no longer depends on channel size. The results have implications for the interpretation of DNA confinement experiments under low ionic strengths.

  14. Antarctic winter mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic winter over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The winter depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during winter. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that winter depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Continuous measurements of mandibular cortical width on dental panoramic radiographs for computer-aided diagnosis of osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, M. S.; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided osteoporosis diagnosis system that automatically determines the inferior cortical width of the mandible continuously on dental panoramic radiographs to realize statistically more robust measurements than the conventional one-point measurements. The cortical width was continuously measured on dental panoramic radiographs by enhancing the original image, determining cortical boundaries, and finally evaluating the distance between boundaries continuously throughout the region of interest. The diagnostic performance using the average width calculated from the continuous measurement was compared with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women of whom 50 to the development of the tool and 50 to its validation with no history of osteoporosis was evaluated. We experimentally showed the superiority of our method with improved sensitivity and specificity of identifying the development subjects were 90.0% and 75.0% in women with low spinal BMD and 81.8% and 69.2% in those with low femoral BMD, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation subjects were 93.3% and 82.9% at the lumbar spine and 92.3% and 75.7% at the femoral neck, respectively in terms of efficacy for diagnosing osteoporosis. We also assessed the diagnosis and classification of women with osteoporosis using support vector machine employing the average and variance of the continuous measurements gave excellent discrimination ability. It yields sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 83.8%, respectively with lumbar spine and 90.0% and 69.1%, respectively with femoral neck BMD. Performance comparison and simplicity of this method indicate that our computeraided system is readily applicable to clinical practice.

  16. Length to width ratio of the ductus venosus in simple screening for fetal congenital heart diseases in the second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Lee, Shy-Ming; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chen, Ran-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is still low even though screening was first introduced over 25 years ago. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of a second-trimester prenatal ultrasonographic method of screening for CHD. From September 2012 to September 2013, the length and width of the fetal ductus venosus were measured sonographically in 1006 singleton fetuses, and the ratio of length to width was calculated. The accuracy of each fetal measurement and Doppler ultrasonography were determined. The standard fetal echocardiographic evaluations including 2-dimensional gray-scale imaging, color, and Doppler color flow mapping were performed. The transducer was aligned to the long axis of the fetal trunk to view the ductus venosus in its full length, including the inlet (isthmus) and outlet portions of the vessel. The diameters of the vessel inner wall and mid-point of the ductus venosus were measured using calipers. All scans and fetal measurements were conducted by a registered sonographer with more than 20 years of perinatal ultrasound screening experience. Of the 1006 singleton fetuses between 19+0 and 28+6 weeks’ gestation, 36 had CHD. The ductus venosus length/width ratio (DVR) for the first CHD screening was extremely sensitive at 88.90%, with a specificity of 99.10% for the cardiac abnormalities included in this study. Chromosomal anomalies accompanied CHD in 0.4% (4/1006) of all cases and 11.11% (4/36) of the CHD cases. The DVR differed significantly between fetuses with CHD and normal fetuses during the second trimester. Careful assessment of the ratio should be a part of the sonographic examination of every fetus. In the case of a small DVR, advanced echocardiography and karyotype analysis should be performed. The ratio is a helpful tool for screening CHD abnormalities prenatally in the Chinese population. PMID:27684831

  17. Non-contact measurements of water jet spreading width with a laser instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funami, Yuki; Hasuya, Ryo; Tanabe, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Jet spreading width is one of the important characteristics of water jets discharging into the air. Many researchers have dealt with measuring this width, and contact measuring methods on the water jet surface were employed in a lot of the cases. In order to avoid undesirable effects caused by the contact on the jet surface, we introduce non-contact measuring methods with a laser instrument to the measurements of jet spreading width. In measurements, a transmitter emits sheet-like laser beam to a receiver. The water jet between the transmitter and the receiver interrupts the laser beam and makes a shadow. The minimum and maximum values of the shadow width are measured. In addition, pictures of the water jet are taken with a scale, and the shadow width is measured from the pictures. The experiments on various needle strokes were performed. Three kinds of width consistent with the jet structure were obtained. In the results, it can be concluded that our non-contact measuring methods are feasible. The data of jet spreading widths and jet taper were obtained and are useful for future applications.

  18. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable “resting” or “traction” performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction. PMID:26957767

  19. Changes in joint space width during Kaltenborn traction according to traction grade in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gui-do; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the joint space width of the humeral head and glenoid fossa during traction under 2 grade conditions (grade 2/grade 3). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy male adults who had not experienced any shoulder injury. Three radiographs were obtained with the subjects in the supine position (resting, grades 2 and 3). The glenohumeral joint space was examined on radiography. Joint space width was measured by a radiologist at the points described by Petersson and Redlund-Johnell. A radiologist blinded to the variable "resting" or "traction" performed all radiographic measurements. The joint space widths were compared by using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] The results of this study indicated significant differences in the changes in joint space width according to traction grade. Compared to resting, grades 2 and 3 traction significantly increased joint space width. However, no significant difference in joint space width was found between grades 2 and 3 traction. [Conclusion] Although no significant differences were found between grades 2 and 3 traction during glenohumeral joint traction, the increase in joint space width between the glenoid fossa and humeral head was highest during grade 3 traction.

  20. Solar-Cycle Changes in GONG P-Mode Widths and Amplitudes 1995-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm R. W.; Howe, R.; Hill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We search for a solar cycle variation in mode widths and amplitudes derived from 3-month GONG time series. The variation of mode width and amplitude observed in GONG data are the combined effects of fill factor, temporal variation, and measurement uncertainties. The largest variation is caused by the fill factor resulting in modes with increased width and reduced amplitude when fill is lower. We assume that the solar cycle variation is the only other systematic variation beside the temporal window function effect. We correct all currently available data sets for the fill factor and simultaneously derive the solar cycle variation. We find an increase of about 3% on average in mode width from the previous minimum to Oct. 1998 and a decrease of about 7% and 6% in mode amplitude and mode area (width x amplitude). We find no l dependence of the solar-cycle changes. As a function of frequency, these changes show a maximum between 2.7 and 3.3 mHz with about 47% higher than average values for mode width and about 29% and 36% higher ones for mode amplitude and area. We estimate the significance of these rather small changes by a pre-whitening method and find that the results are significant at or above the 99.9% level with mode area showing the highest level of significance and mode width the lowest. The variation in background amplitude is most likely not significant and is consistent with a zero change.

  1. Uncertainties Associated with Theoretically Calculated N2-Broadened Half-Widths of H2O Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Gamache, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    With different choices of the cut-offs used in theoretical calculations, we have carried out extensive numerical calculations of the N2-broadend Lorentzian half-widths of the H2O lines using the modified Robert-Bonamy formalism. Based on these results, we are able to thoroughly check for convergence. We find that, with the low-order cut-offs commonly used in the literature, one is able to obtain converged values only for lines with large half-widths. Conversely, for lines with small half-widths, much higher cut-offs are necessary to guarantee convergence. We also analyse the uncertainties associated with calculated half-widths, and these are correlated as above. In general, the smaller the half-widths, the poorer the convergence and the larger the uncertainty associated with them. For convenience, one can divide all H2O lines into three categories, large, intermediate, and small, according to their half-width values. One can use this division to judge whether the calculated half-widths are converged or not, based on the cut-offs used, and also to estimate how large their uncertainties are. We conclude that with the current Robert- Bonamy formalism, for lines in category lone can achieve the accuracy requirement set by HITRAN, whereas for lines in category 3, it 'is impossible to meet this goal.

  2. Complexity in the high latitude HF radar spectral width boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, M. L.; Hannah, K. M.; Dyson, P. L.

    2008-05-01

    SuperDARN radars are sensitive to the collective Doppler characteristics of decametre-scale irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. The radars routinely observe a distinct transition from large spectral width (>100 m s-1) located at higher latitudes to low spectral width (<50 m s-1) located at lower latitudes. Because of its equatorward location, the TIGER Tasmanian radar is very sensitive to the detection of the spectral width boundary (SWB) in the nightside auroral ionosphere. An analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and 2-D beam-swinging vectors suggests the meso-scale (~100 km) convection is more erratic in the high spectral width region, but slower and more homogeneous in the low spectral width region. The radar autocorrelation functions are better modelled using Lorentzian Doppler spectra in the high spectral width region, and Gaussian Doppler spectra in the low spectral width region. However, paradoxically, Gaussian Doppler spectra are associated with the largest spectral widths. Application of the Burg maximum entropy method suggests the occurrence of double-peaked Doppler spectra is greater in the high spectral width region, implying the small-scale (~10 km) velocity fluctuations are more intense above the SWB. These observations combined with collective wave scattering theory imply there is a transition from a fast flowing, turbulent plasma with a correlation length of velocity fluctuations less than the scattering wavelength, to a slower moving plasma with a correlation length greater than the scattering wavelength. Peak scaling and structure function analysis of fluctuations in the SWB itself reveals approximately scale-free behaviour across temporal scales of ~10 s to ~34 min. Preliminary scaling exponents for these fluctuations, αGSF=0.18±0.02 and αGSF=0.09±0.01, are even smaller than that expected for MHD turbulence.

  3. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  4. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  5. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  6. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D. Aswal, V. K.

    2014-04-24

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction.

  7. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1997-12-01

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotonically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  8. Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate.

    PubMed

    Kira, M

    2015-03-13

    Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom-atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom-atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies.

  9. Transient Effects And Pump Depletion In Stimulated Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, J. L.; Wenzel, R. G...; Druhl, K.

    1983-11-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H2 with a single-mode CO2-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the So(0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  10. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyuhan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.

    2017-02-01

    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications.

  11. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, KyuHan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.

    2017-01-01

    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications. PMID:28145435

  12. Depletion induced clustering of red blood cells in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Podgorski, Thomas; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    The flow properties of blood are determined by the physical properties of its main constituents, the red blood cells (RBC's). At low shear rates RBC's form aggregates, so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates can break them up and the viscosity of blood shows a shear thinning behavior. The physical origin of the rouleaux formation is not yet fully resolved and there are two competing models available. One predicts that the adhesion is induced by bridging of the plasma (macromolecular) proteins in-between two RBC's. The other is based on the depletion effect and thus predicts the absence of macromolecules in-between the cells of a rouleaux. Recent single cell force measurements by use of an AFM support strongly the depletion model. By varying the concentration of Dextran at different molecular weights we can control the adhesions strength. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the depletion induced adhesion strength.

  13. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Programmable nanometer-scale electrolytic metal deposition and depletion

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-09-10

    A method of nanometer-scale deposition of a metal onto a nanostructure includes the steps of: providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart; and depositing metal on at least one of the nanostructures by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal deposition. Moreover, a method of nanometer-scale depletion of a metal from a nanostructure includes the steps of providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart, at least one of the nanostructures having a metal disposed thereon; and depleting at least a portion of the metal from the nanostructure by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal depletion. A bypass circuit enables ultra-finely controlled deposition.

  15. Ultrasonic nondestructive characterization of mortars by the width of the resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bita, H.; Faiz, B.; Moudden, A.; Lotfi, H.; Ouacha, El H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we study the width of the resonances of the ultrasound waves reflection coefficient backscattered by a plane structure of the mortar. We establish the relationship between this width with two parameters which are widely used in non-destructive characterization of cementitious materials namely the velocity and attenuation. Monitoring the hydration of three solutions of mortars produced with different sizes of sand grains shows that the experimental results confirmed the theoretical predictions. Linear correlations are established between the width of resonance and the two ultrasonic parameters.

  16. Pulse width dependence of Brillouin frequency in single mode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Kim, Young-Gyu; Heo, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2005-11-14

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers can be used to measure strain or temperature in a distributed manner. Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is the most common sensor system based on the Brillouin scattering. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the characteristics of Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) influenced by the width of launched pulse. Brillouin strain coefficient is also examined for the different pulse widths, which is important to apply a Brillouin scattering-based sensor to a structural health monitoring. Experimental results showed that not only the Brillouin linewidth and gain but also the Brillouin frequency were dependent on the pulse widths.

  17. Spectral width of laser generation in quantum dot lasers: An analytical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Savelyev, A. V. Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E.

    2011-02-15

    An analytical approach to description of broad spectra of lasing in quantum-dot lasers has been developed. It is shown that the spectral width of the laser generation is determined by three parameters: the spectral width of the gain spectrum, homogeneous broadening of the line, and the effective parameter of the gain saturation. As a result, the dependence of the spectral width of lasing on the laser output power is shown to be universal and can be described as a function of a single dimensionless parameter.

  18. Geodynamic evidence for a chemically depleted continental tectosphere.

    PubMed

    Forte, A M; Perry, H K

    2000-12-08

    The tectosphere, namely the portions of Earth's mantle lying below cratons, has a thermochemical structure that differs from average suboceanic mantle. The tectosphere is thought to be depleted in its basaltic components and to have an intrinsic buoyancy that balances the mass increase associated with its colder temperature relative to suboceanic mantle. Inversions of a large set of geodynamic data related to mantle convection, using tomography-based mantle flow models, indicate that the tectosphere is chemically depleted and relatively cold to 250 kilometers depth below Earth's surface. The approximate equilibrium between thermal and chemical buoyancy contributes to cratonic stability over geological time.

  19. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  20. Ozone depletion over the polar caps caused by solar protons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J. )

    1992-12-24

    Energetic solar protons are a natural source of ozone depletion due to nitric oxides they produce in the earth's atmosphere. In March 1989, following a period of intense solar activity, the TOMS instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite recorded very similar ozone losses over both polar caps for areas extending from 90[degrees] to 70[degrees]. Ozone depletions of 7.4 [times] 10[sup 9] kg for the south polar cap and 8.0 [times] 10[sup 9] kg for the north polar cap indicate the degree of symmetry over the polar caps. 11 refs., 6 figs.