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Sample records for deposited thin films

  1. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  2. VACUUM DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book deals with methods of obtaining and processing thin films , methods of measuring the deposition rate and thickness of thin-film layers, and...the main fields of application of thin films . Vacuum requirements and the requirements for the composition of the residual medium in thermal...evaporation and cathode sputtering are given, and modern methods of producing and measuring vacuums and the equipment used in obtaining thin films are described. (Author)

  3. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  4. Characteristics Of Vacuum Deposited Sucrose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, F.; Predoi, D.; Ghita, R. V.; Vatasescu-Balcan, R. A.; Costache, M.

    Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11) were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique (p ~ 10-5 torr). The surface morphology was putted into evidence by FT-IR and SEM analysis. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent sucrose layer. The biological tests (e.g., cell morphology and cell viability evaluated by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenise activity with MTT assay) confirm the properties of sucrose thin films as bioactive material. The human fetal osteoblast system grown on thin sucrose film was used for the determination of cell proliferation, cell viability and cell morphology studies.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Somnath; McKnight, Steven H.; Sengupta, Louise C.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that in bulk ceramic form, the barium to strontium ratio in barium strontium titanium oxide (Ba1- xSrxTiO3, BSTO) affects the voltage tunability and electronic dissipation factor in an inverse fashion; increasing the strontium content reduces the dissipation factor at the expense of lower voltage tunability. However, the oxide composites of BSTO developed at the Army Research Laboratory still maintain low electronic loss factors for all compositions examined. The intent of this study is to determine whether such effects can be observed in the thin film form of the oxide composites. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method has been used to deposit the thin films. The different compositions of the compound (with 1 wt% of the oxide additive) chosen were: Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3, Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3. The electronic properties investigated in this study were the dielectric constant and the voltage tunability. The morphology of the thin films were examined using the atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was also utilized for optical characterization of the thin films. The electronic and optical properties of the thin films and the bulk ceramics were compared. The results of these investigations are discussed.

  6. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  7. Plasma deposition of organic thin films: Control of film chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    Plasma deposition of thin, polymeric films represent a versatile surface modification technology. Although these thin films are exploited for many applications, complaints heard about plasma deposited films are that their structures are uncharacterizable, that organic functionality is lost in their production and that reproducibility is difficult. Recently, new methods for film production, reactor control and surface characterization have led to well characterized plasma deposited thin polymeric films (PDTPF) with defined structure and organic functionality. Such PDTPF often closely resemble conventionally prepared homopolymers. Methods that can be used to control the chemistry of PDTPF are the minimization of the plasma power, pulsing the RF field to reduce the {open_quotes}plasma on{close_quotes} time, use of a Faraday cage to reduce electron bombardment, positioning the sample downfield from the glow zone, the use of monomers containing polymerizable double bonds and the use of a cold substrate to condense vapor simultaneously with plasma deposition.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskeméti, G.; Kresz, N.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Nógrádi, A.

    2005-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm 2. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 × 10 -3 Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm 2. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified "protein cube" method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  9. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  10. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  11. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  12. A study of reactive plasma deposited thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, J.; Williams, E.

    1986-01-01

    A state-of-the-art research laboratory was established to grow and characterize amorphous thin films that are useful in semi-conductor devices. Two film systems, nitride films and silicon dioxide films were studied. Over seventy deposition runs for nitride films were made. The films were deposited on silicon substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the uniformity of the films were affected by the location of the film on the platen.

  13. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips; Haipeng Wang; Andy Wu; T. J. Renk; P Provencio

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV. The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.

  14. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  15. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  16. Deposition of thin films of multicomponent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Composite films of multicomponent materials, such as oxides and nitrides, e.g., lead zirconate titanate, are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, employing a rotating substrate holder, which rotates relative to a plurality of targets, one target for each metal element of the multicomponent material. The sputtering is carried out in a reactive atmosphere. The substrates on which the layers are deposited are at ambient temperature. Following deposition of the composite film, the film is heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate a solid state reaction and form the final product, which is substantially single phase and substantially homogeneous.

  17. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2016-11-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / m }) in the range .01 deposition mechanisms in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, His the characteristic dimension, Uj and Tj are the jet velocity and temperature, nd is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kb is the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn = 0 . 01) ; shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  18. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sahadev

    2016-10-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma =(U_j ∖√{ kbTj / m }) in the range .01 deposition mechanisms in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kb is the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn = 0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number ,which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  19. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-01-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma =(U_j /√{ kbTj / m }) in the range .01 deposition mechanisms in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kb is the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn =0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number ,which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  20. Ion plating technique improves thin film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Ion plating technique keeps the substrate surface clean until the film is deposited, allows extensive diffusion and chemical reaction, and joins insoluble or incompatible materials. The technique involves the deposition of ions on the substrate surface while it is being bombarded with inert gas ions.

  1. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Nanoporous Cobalt Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunming; Nori, Sudhakar; Wei, Wei; Aggarwal, Ravi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Narayan, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous cobalt thin films were deposited on anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoporous cobalt thin films retained the monodisperse pore size and high porosity of the anodized aluminum oxide substrates. Temperature- and field-dependent magnetic data obtained between 10 K and 350 K showed large hysteresis behavior in these materials. The increase of coercivity values was larger for nanoporous cobalt thin films than for multilayered cobalt/alumina thin films. The average diameter of the cobalt nanograins in the nanoporous cobalt thin films was estimated to be ~5 nm for blocking temperatures near room temperature. These results suggest that pulsed laser deposition may be used to fabricate nanoporous magnetic materials with unusual properties for biosensing, drug delivery, data storage, and other technological applications. PMID:19198344

  2. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stöber, Laura Patocka, Florian Schneider, Michael Schmid, Ulrich; Konrath, Jens Peter Haberl, Verena

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  3. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Sputter deposition of metallic thin film and directpatterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K.-N.

    2005-09-09

    A compact apparatus is developed for deposition of metal thin film. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with a straight RF antenna, which is made of or covered with deposition material, serving as sputtering target at the same time. The average deposition rate of copper thin film is as high as 450nm/min. By properly allocating the metal materials on the sputtering antenna, mixture deposition of multiple metal species is achieved. Using an ion beam imprinting scheme also taking advantage of ion beam focusing technique, two different schemes of direct patterning deposition process are developed: direct depositing patterned metallic thin film and resistless ion beam sputter patterning. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated direct pattern transfer from a template with feature size of micro scale; patterns with more than 10x reduction are achieved by sputtering patterning method.

  5. Depositing highly adhesive optical thin films on acrylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomoaki; Harada, Toshinori; Murotani, Hiroshi; Matumoto, Shigeharu

    2014-02-01

    Optical thin films are used to control the reflectance and transmittance of optical components. However, conventional deposition technologies applicable to organic (plastic) substrates typically result in weak adhesion. We overcame this problem by using vacuum deposition in combination with sputtering to directly deposit a SiO2 optical thin film onto an acrylic resin substrate. We observed neither yellowing nor deformation. The hardness of the film is 2H as measured by the pencil hardness test, indicating successful modulation of optical properties without sacrificing substrate hardness.

  6. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  7. Deposition of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yunxiang; Afzaal, Mohammad; Malik, Mohammad A.; O'Brien, Paul

    2006-12-01

    A new method is reported for the growth of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles using copper acetylacetonate and trioctylphosphine selenide. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition experiments lead to successful deposition of tetragonal Cu 2Se films. In contrast, hexadecylamine capped nanoparticles are composed of cubic Cu 2-xSe. The deposited materials are optically and structurally characterized. The results of this comprehensive study are described and discussed.

  8. Large Crystal Grain Niobium Thin Films Deposited by Energetic Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Valente-Feliciano, A-M.; Xu, C.; Geng, R.L.; Phillips, H.; Reece, Charles; Wright, J.; Seo, K.; Crooks, R.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Gerhan, A.; Bures, B.; Wilson, K.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents evidence for unprecedented Nb thin films that were grown on sapphire and copper (Cu) substrates using a vacuum arc process called coaxial energetic deposition CED^TM. Most other deposition techniques with low adatom energy produce amorphous or small crystal-grain films, and typically high substrate temperatures and anneal steps is required to form the large, highly connected grains. The CED^TM technique deposits from plasma consisting of a non-equilibrium, high energy (50-150eV) ion population produced from the ionized source material. At the substrate these fast ions break up columnar structures, intermix with the first few atomic layers of the substrate to improve adhesion, and form dense films at lower substrate temperatures than are typical for low adatom energy techniques, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD). Nano-scale features of the thin films were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The films cryogenic state electrical properties w

  9. Organic thin film deposition in atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, S.; Kogoma, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kodama, M.; Nomiyama, H.; Ichinohe, K.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization of a homogeneous glow discharge at atmospheric pressure has been studied since 1987. On flat surfaces, various plasma surface treatments and film depositions at atmospheric pressure have been examined. A practical application of the atmospheric pressure glow plasma on inner surfaces of flexible polyvinyl chloride tubes was tested for thin film deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene. Deposited film surfaces were characterized by ESCA and FT-IR/ATR measurements. Also SEM observation was done for platelet adhesion on the plasma treated polyvinyl chloride surface. These results showed remarkable enhancement in the inhibition to platelet adhesion on the inner surface of PVC tube, and homogeneous organic film deposition was confirmed. The deposition mechanism of polytetrafluoroethylene film in atmospheric pressure glow plasma is the same as the mechanism of film formation in the low pressure glow plasma, except for radical formation source. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. SnS2 Thin Film Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abdallah Yahia; Alamri, Saleh Noaiman; Aida, Mohammed Salah

    2012-06-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films have been synthesized using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The films were deposited using two different solutions prepared by the dilution of SnCl2 and thiourea in distilled water and in methanol. The obtained films have a microcrystalline structure. The film deposited using methanol as the solvent is nearly stochiometric SnS2 with a spinel phase having a (001) preferential orientation. The film prepared with an aqueous solution is Sn-rich. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the film deposited with the aqueous solution is rough and is formed with large wires. However, the film deposited with methanol is dense and smooth. Conductivity measurements indicate that the aqueous solution leads to an n-type semiconductor, while methanol leads to a p-type semiconductor.

  11. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Thibault; Saitzek, Sébastien; Méar, François O.; Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony; Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  12. Formation of diamond nanoparticle thin films by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yosuke; Ohishi, Fujio; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of diamond nanoparticles were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using 0.5 wt % dispersions in water, ethanol, and 2-propanol. The film growth rate increased with increasing voltage applied to the electrodes. However, an excessive increase in voltage caused the degradation of film morphology. The optimum voltage was 4 V with an electrode separation of 5 mm. The film growth rate was higher in organic solvents than in water. The deposited film had a smooth surface with an average surface roughness comparable to the size of primary particles of the source material. It is notable that the EPD films had a considerably higher physical stability than spin-coated and cast films. The stability was further improved by thermally annealing the films. IR analysis revealed that the diamond nanoparticles have carboxy and amino groups on their surfaces. It is considered that the stability of the EPD films originate from a chemical reaction between these functional groups.

  13. Process Tuning of Silica Thin-Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Keck,J.; Oliver,J.B.; Gruschow,V.; Spaulding,J.; Howe,J.

    2004-12-17

    Use of high-resolution deposition-rate monitoring and programmatic control of electron-beam position results in improvements in rate consistency and uniformity of source depletion during SiO2 thin-film deposition by electron-beam evaporation.

  14. Optimization of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.O.; Chow, L.

    1997-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is known to be an excellent heterojunction partner of p-type cadmium telluride (CdTe) or p-type copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) due essentially to its high electron affinity. It is widely used as a window material in high efficiency thin-film solar cells based on CdTe or CuInSe{sub 2} owing to its transparency and photoconductivity among other properties. The authors report the optimization of CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition where homogeneous reactions are minimized. The optimum parameters have enabled them to maximize the thickness of the deposited film in a single dip and to grow thicker films by periodically replenishing the concentration of reactants while the substrate remains continuously dipped in the reaction bath. Characterization results reveal the deposited CdS films exhibit improved optical and electrical properties.

  15. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  16. Polyelectrolyte Coacervates Deposited as High Gas Barrier Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Haile, Merid; Sarwar, Owais; Henderson, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer coatings consisting of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes have proven to be extraordinarily effective oxygen barriers but require many processing steps to fabricate. In an effort to prepare high oxygen barrier thin films more quickly, a polyelectrolyte complex coacervate composed of polyethylenimine and polyacrylic acid is prepared. The coacervate fluid is applied as a thin film using a rod coating process. With humidity and thermal post-treatment, a 2 µm thin film reduces the oxygen transmission rate of 0.127 mm poly(ethylene terephthalate) by two orders of magnitude, rivalling conventional oxygen barrier technologies. These films are fabricated in ambient conditions using low-cost, water-based solutions, providing a tremendous opportunity for single-step deposition of polymeric high barrier thin films.

  17. Characterization of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    2004-11-01

    A low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films onto glass substrates and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Good quality thin films of smooth surface of copper selenide thin films were deposited using sodium selenosulfate as a source of selenide ions. The structural and optical behaviour of the films are discussed in the light of the observed data.

  18. Thin film zinc oxide deposited by CVD and PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide is known as a mineral since 1810, but it came to scientific interest after its optoelectronic properties found to be tuneable by p-type doping. Since the late 1980’s the number of publications increased exponentially. All thin film deposition technologies, including sol-gel and spray pyrolysis, are able to produce ZnO films. However, for outstanding properties and specific doping, only chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition have shown so far satisfying results in terms of high conductivity and high transparency. In this paper the different possibilities for doping will be discussed, some important applications of doped ZnO thin films will be presented. The deposition technologies used for industrial applications are shown in this paper. Especially sputtering of aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO) and LPCVD of boron doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:B or BZO) are used for the commercial production of transparent conductive oxide films on glass used for thin film photovoltaic cells. For this special application the typical process development for large area deposition is presented, with the important trade-off between optical properties (transparency and ability for light scattering) and electrical properties (conductivity). Also, the long term stability of doped ZnO films is important for applications, humidity in the ambient is often the reason for degradation of the films. The differences between the mentioned materials are presented.

  19. Reactive ion beam deposition of aluminum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, S.; Ashok, S.; Fonash, S. J.; Tongson}, L.

    1985-07-01

    Aluminum nitride thin films have been prepared at room temperature by reactive ion beam sputtering for potential use as a passivant and diffusion/anneal cap in compound semiconductor technology. The electrical and optical pro-perties of these films have been studied along with the in-fluence of thermal annealing on the material characteristics. The quality of the films has also been found to improve in the presence of atomic hydrogen during the deposition.

  20. Investigation of new stilbazolium dye thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotirov, S.; Todorova, M.; Draganov, M.; Penchev, P.; Bakalska, R.; Serbezov, V.

    2013-03-01

    In present work we report the analysis of thin films and targets from new stilbazolium dye E-4-(2-(4- hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)vinyl)-1-octylquinolinium iodide (D1) deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique using high power UV TEA N2 laser. The thin films are deposited onto substrates - KBr, 316L SS alloy, optical glass and aluminum foil. The films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, bright field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. FTIR spectroscopic analysis of thin films and target material shows small differences between deposited films and native substance. The films are found to be homogeneous by AFM results and without any cracks and droplets on the surfaces. The present study demonstrates the ability of PLD technique to provide thin films from new stilbazolium dyes with good quality when they are applied as non-linear optical (NLO) organic materials on different type of substrates.

  1. Deposition of magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin films on substrates of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-12-01

    Magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films (SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19) were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on Silicon substrate. A conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) was deposited as a buffer layer with the dual purposes of 1) to reduce lattice mismatch between the film and silicon and 2) to lower applied voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects at room temperature on Silicon based devices. The film exhibited magnetoelectric effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects was typically about 1000 times larger. The magnetoelectric thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. We measured saturation magnetization of 650 G, and coercive field of about 150 Oe for these thin films. The change in remanence magnetization was measured in the presence of DC voltages and the changes in remanence were in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, α, of 1.36×10-9 s m-1 in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 thin films.

  2. Anodization of Ti thin film deposited on ITO.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Abu Z; Zheng, Haidong; Latham, Kay; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2009-01-06

    We have investigated several key aspects for the self-organization of nanotubes in RF sputtered titanium (Ti) thin films formed by the anodization process in fluoride-ion-containing neutral electrolytes. Ti films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates at room temperature and 300 degrees C, and then anodized. The films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis spectrometry before and after anodization. It was observed that anodization of high temperature deposited films resulted in nanotube type structures with diameters in the range of 10-45 nm for an applied voltage of 5-20 V. In addition, the anatase form of TiO(2) is formed during the anodization process which is also confirmed using photocurrent measurements. However, the anodization of room temperature deposited Ti films resulted in irregular pores or holes.

  3. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  4. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  5. Smoothing of mirror substrates by thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S; Parra, E; Spiller, E; Tarrio, C

    1999-08-03

    Superpolished optical flats with high spatial frequency roughness below 0.1 nm have been commercially available for years. However, it is much more difficult to obtain figured optics of similar quality. We have obtained and tested the finish of figured optics from different vendors by atomic force microscopy and optical profilometry and have investigated how the substrate quality can be improved by the deposition of thin films. We have determined the growth parameters of several thin-film structures. From these parameters we can determine how the surface topography of a coated mirror differs from that of the substrate, select the best thin-film structure, and predict the possible improvement. Keywords: Smoothing films, multilayer coatings, finish of mirror substrates

  6. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohs, Jason K.; Bentz, Amy; Eleamos, Krystal; Poole, John; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process routinely used to produce thin films of materials via decomposition of volatile precursor molecules. Unfortunately, the equipment required for a conventional CVD experiment is not practical or affordable for many undergraduate chemistry laboratories, especially at smaller institutions. In an effort to…

  7. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  8. Sputter deposited Terfenol-D thin films for multiferroic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanchandra, K. P.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Wetzlar, K. P.; Sun, W. Y.; Nordeen, P.; Carman, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the sputter deposition and crystallization process to produce high quality Terfenol-D thin film (100 nm) with surface roughness below 1.5 nm. The Terfenol-D thin film was produced using DC magnetron sputtering technique with various sputtering parameters and two different crystallization methods, i.e. substrate heating and post-annealing. Several characterization techniques including WDS, XRD, TEM, AFM, SQUID and MOKE were used to determine the physical and magnetic properties of the Terfenol-D films. TEM studies reveal that the film deposited on the heated substrate has large grains grown along the film thickness producing undesirable surface roughness while the film crystallized by post-annealing method shows uniformly distributed small grains producing a smooth surface. The Terfenol-D film was also deposited onto (011) cut PMN-PT single crystal substrate. With the application of an electric field the film exhibited a 1553 Oe change in coercivity with an estimated saturation magnetostriction of λs = 910 x 10-6.

  9. Modified chemical route for deposition of molybdenum disulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Akshay N. Sartale, S. D.

    2014-04-24

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using a modified chemical route. Sodium molybdate and sodium sulphide were used as precursors for molybdenum and sulphur respectively. The route involves formation of tetrathiomolybdate ions (MoS{sub 4}{sup 2−}) and further reduction by sodium borohydride to form MoS{sub 2}. The deposition was performed at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed in argon atmosphere at 1073 K for 1 hour to improve its crystallinity. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy for optical studies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structure determination.

  10. Fundamental Mechanisms of Roughening and Smoothing During Thin Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, Randall

    2016-03-18

    In this research program, we have explored the fundamental limits for thin film deposition in both crystalline and amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) materials systems. For vacuum-based physical deposition processes such as sputter deposition, the background gas pressure of the inert gas (usually argon) used as the process gas has been found to be a key variable. Both a roughness transition and stress transition as a function of pressure have been linked to a common mechanism involving collisions of energetic particles from the deposition source with the process inert gas. As energetic particles collide with gas molecules in the deposition process they lose their energy rapidly if the pressure (and background gas density) is above a critical value. Both roughness and stress limit important properties of thin films for applications. In the area of epitaxial growth we have also discovered a related effect; there is a critical pressure below which highly crystalline layers grow in a layer-by-layer mode. This effect is also though to be due to energetic particle thermalization and scattering. Several other important effects such as the observation of coalescence dominated growth has been observed. This mode can be likened to the behavior of two-dimensional water droplets on the hood of a car during a rain storm; as the droplets grow and touch each other they tend to coalesce rapidly into new larger circular puddles, and this process proceeds exponentially as larger puddles overtake smaller ones and also merge with other large puddles. This discovery will enable more accurate simulations and modeling of epitaxial growth processes. We have also observed that epitaxial films undergo a roughening transition as a function of thickness, which is attributed to strain induced by the crystalline lattice mismatch with the substrate crystal. In addition, we have studied another physical deposition process called pulsed laser deposition. It differs from sputter deposition due to the

  11. Stress development during deposition of CNx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, E.; Zheng, W. T.; Sjöström, H.; Ivanov, I.; Greene, J. E.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1998-05-01

    We have investigated the influence of deposition parameters on stress generation in CNx (0.3thin films deposited onto Si(001) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of C in pure N2 discharges. Film stress, σ, which in all cases is compressive, decreases with an increase in the N2 pressure, PN2, due to structural changes induced by the pressure-dependent variation in the average energy of particles bombarding the film during deposition. The film stress σ is also a function of the film growth temperature, Ts, and exhibits a maximum value of ˜5 GPa at 350 °C. Under these conditions, the films have a distorted microstructure consisting of a three-dimensional, primarily sp2 bonded, network. In contrast, films deposited at Ts<200 °C with a low stress are amorphous. At 350 °Cfilms grown at 350 °C exhibit the highest hardness and elasticity.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, David Christopher

    1998-12-01

    The continued drive to decrease the size and increase the speed of micro-electronic Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices is hampered by some of the properties of the SiOsb2 gate dielectric. This research has focused on the CVD of TiOsb2 thin films to replace SiOsb2 as the gate dielectric in MOS capacitors and transistors. The relationship of CVD parameters and post-deposition anneal treatments to the physical and electrical properties of thin films of TiOsb2 has been studied. Structural and electrical characterization of TiOsb2 films grown from the CVD precursors tetraisopropoxotitanium (IV) (TTIP) and TTIP plus Hsb2O is described in Chapter 3. Both types of deposition produced stoichiometric TiOsb2 films comprised of polycrystalline anatase, but the interface properties were dramatically degraded when water vapor was added. Films grown with TTIP in the presence of Hsb2O contained greater than 50% more hydrogen than films grown using only TTIP and the hydrogen content of films deposited in both wet and dry TTIP environments decreased sharply with a post deposition Osb2 anneal. A significant thickness variation of the dielectric constant was observed which could be explained by an interfacial oxide and the finite accumulation thickness. Fabricated TiOsb2 capacitors exhibited electrically equivalent SiOsb2 gate dielectric thicknesses and leakage current densities as low as 38, and 1×10sp{-8} Amp/cmsp2 respectively. Chapter 4 discusses the low temperature CVD of crystalline TiOsb2 thin films deposited using the precursor tetranitratotitanium (IV), TNT, which produces crystalline TiOsb2 films of the anatase phase in UHV-CVD at temperatures as low as 184sp°C. Fabricated TiOsb2 capacitors exhibited electrically equivalent SiOsb2 gate dielectric thicknesses and leakage current densities as low as 17, and 1×10sp{-8} Amp/cmsp2 respectively. Chapter 5 describes the results of a comparison of physical and electrical properties between TiOsb2 films grown via LPCVD using

  13. X-ray reflectivity measurements of vacuum deposited thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, M. ); Chason, E. )

    1992-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity using energy dispersive X-ray detection, a nondestructive probe of surface roughness over the region of [approximately] 1--50 [Angstrom], has been used to investigate the characteristicsof vacuum deposited thin films. With a surface roughness sensitivity better than 1 [Angstrom] X-ray reflectivity is sensitive to interfaces between different materials for sample thicknesses up to approximately2000 [Angstrom] (depending on material density). We have investigated discrete Cr/Al deposits on quartz substrates and determined the surface roughness at the interfaces. We have also monitored the evolution ofthe Cr/Al interface following annealing. The experimental data is presented and discussed. The use of the technique for studying thin film deposits is addressed.

  14. X-ray reflectivity measurements of vacuum deposited thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, M.; Chason, E.

    1992-12-31

    X-ray reflectivity using energy dispersive X-ray detection, a nondestructive probe of surface roughness over the region of {approximately} 1--50 {Angstrom}, has been used to investigate the characteristicsof vacuum deposited thin films. With a surface roughness sensitivity better than 1 {Angstrom} X-ray reflectivity is sensitive to interfaces between different materials for sample thicknesses up to approximately2000 {Angstrom} (depending on material density). We have investigated discrete Cr/Al deposits on quartz substrates and determined the surface roughness at the interfaces. We have also monitored the evolution ofthe Cr/Al interface following annealing. The experimental data is presented and discussed. The use of the technique for studying thin film deposits is addressed.

  15. Thin Film Nanomorphology Tailored by Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motofumi

    Shadowing growth by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) has been providing self-assembled nanostructures over much larger area for much lower costs since much earlier than the recent advanced top down processes do. In these two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of the well-controlled 3D nanomorphologies such as zigzag and helix. Much effort for theoretical and numerical understanding of the growth mechanism has been also paid in order to improve the morphology. Many researches in academia have been investigating useful properties of nanocolumnar thin films in their laboratory. On the other hand, most companies seem hesitate to introduce GLAD technique into the factory due to the prejudice that the obliquely deposited thin films are not durable and reproducible. In this article, we discuss the progress in glancing angle deposition technology for the practical applications.

  16. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Joel S.; Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I.

    2003-12-09

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  17. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Dinescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.

    2013-11-13

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO{sub 2} target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (λ=193 nm, ν=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm{sup −2}. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  18. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system. PMID:27966662

  19. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system.

  20. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  1. Luminescent sulfides and solution-deposited oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jeremy T.

    Solid state luminescent sulfides are prepared as powders in order to elucidate the relationship between structure and light emission. While the sulfides studied in this dissertation are known phosphors, materials are investigated in a variety of new ways. Elementary properties and structures of MgS are reviewed, and preparation of MgS is described with sufficient detail that it may be reproduced in laboratories worldwide. Luminescence of MgS:Eu is evaluated, primarily by interpretation of published work. Solid pellets of MgS:Eu are created for the purpose of depositing thin-film layers by physical vapor deposition, and incorporating the phosphor layer within ACTFEL structures. Fabricated devices are found to exhibit bright ACTFEL luminescence--the brightest known for MgS. Similarly, MgS films are doped with a variety of lanthanide atoms to investigate the hot-electron distribution in MgS layers during device operation. The system BaGa2S4--SrGa 2S4 is evaluated for mutual solid phase solubility. Addition of Eu2+ causes each of these phases to photoluminescence. The emission energies (and therefore colors) are adjusted according to composition. Thin-film oxides are deposited from solution sources. Solution-deposited ZnO serves as the semiconductor layer in transparent thin-film transistor devices. A new class of dielectric material is also developed by solution methods. HafSOx and ZircSOx films, and derivative compositions, are evaluated in simple capacitor structures and demonstrated in functioning transistor devices. High-resolution nanolaminate structures are also constructed from this class of materials. From the knowledge and experience of developing oxide thin-films, more general chemical strategies are expressed.

  2. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  3. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2016-12-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  4. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2009-09-15

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  5. Characterization of electrophoretic suspension for thin polymer film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, D.; Weiter, M.; Stepanek, P.; Ouzzane, I.; Vala, M.; Sinigersky, V.; Zhivkov, I.

    2012-03-01

    The optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of poly [2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] toluene solutions and 50:50% toluene/acetonitrile suspensions show clearly distinguishable differences (e.g., peak broadening and shifting), which could be used for characterization of suspensions with different acetonitrile content. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement of the suspensions prepared showed a particle size of 90 nm. Thin films with thicknesses of about 400 nm were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and spin coating. As the films are very soft, a contactless optical profilometry techique based on chromatic aberration was used to measure their thickness. AFM imaging of spin coated and EPD films revealed film roughness of 20÷40 nm and 40÷80 nm, respectively. The EPD film roughness seems to be less than the suspension particle size obtained by DLS, probably due to the partial film dissolving by the toluene present in the suspension.

  6. Deposition of superconducting thin films by laser ablation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.F.; Bohandy, J.; Moorjani, K.; Adrian, F.J.

    1988-02-25

    Superconducting thin films, approximately 1 ..mu..m thick and 1 cm/sup 2/ in area, have been deposited on fused silica by ablation of the bulk material, YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-y/, using a pulsed excimer laser. The presence of superconductivity in as-deposited films was established by a novel variation of the technique of microwave absorption, in which the superconducting transition appears as a peak in the temperature dependence of the microwave response. The method is sensitive enough to allow detection of superconductivity in small (approx.0.1 mg) samples and is capable of resolving multiple superconducting phases with slight differences in T/sub c/. As-deposited films have essentially the same value of T/sub c/ (94K) as the bulk material.

  7. Process and film characterization of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dona, J.M.; Herrero, J.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical-bath deposition of ZnS thin films from NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}/SC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/ZnSO{sub 4} solutions has been studied. The effect of various process parameters on the growth and the film quality is presented. A first approach to a mechanistic interpretation of the chemical process is reported. The structural, optical, chemical, and electrical properties of the ZNS thin films deposited by this method have been studied. The electron diffraction (EDS) analysis shows that the films are microcrystalline with a cubic structure. EDS analysis has demonstrated that the films are highly stoichiometric. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ZnS thin films deposited by this method show that the films are continuous and homogeneous. Electrical conductivity measurements have shown the highly resistivity nature of these films ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}9} S/cm).

  8. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition and characterizations of pyrochlore iridate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Matthew; Aviles-Acosta, Jaime; Xie, Yuantao; Zhu, Wenka; Li, Zhen; Chen, Aiping; Li, Nan; Tao, Chenggang; Jia, Quanxi; Heremans, J. J.; Zhang, S. X.

    Pyrochlore iridates have attracted growing interest in recent years because of their potential to realize novel topological phases. While most of the previous studies have focused on polycrystalline and single crystalline bulk samples, epitaxial thin films offer a unique platform for controllable tuning of material parameters such as oxygen stoichiometry and elastic strain to achieve new electronic states. In this talk, we will present the growth and characterizations of epitaxial thin films of pyrochlore Y2Ir2O7 and Bi2Ir2O7 that are predicted to host topologically non-trivial states. The iridate thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at different conditions, and a narrow window for epitaxial growth was determined. Characterizations of crystalline structures were performed using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to establish a growth parameter-structure phase diagram. The compositions of thin films were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the surface morphologies were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Magneto-transport studies indicate a strong dependence of transport properties on the oxygen stoichiometry and the film thickness.

  10. Formation of ultrasmooth thin silver films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I. A.; Garaeva, M. Ya.; Mamichev, D. A. Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

    2013-09-15

    Ultrasmooth thin silver films have been formed on a quartz substrate with a buffer yttrium oxide layer by pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of the surface morphology of the film on the gas (N{sub 2}) pressure in the working chamber and laser pulse energy is investigated. It is found that the conditions of film growth are optimal at a gas pressure of 10{sup -2} Torr and lowest pulse energy. The silver films formed under these conditions on a quartz substrate with an initial surface roughness of 0.3 nm had a surface roughness of 0.36 nm. These films can be used as a basis for various optoelectronics and nanoplasmonics elements.

  11. Chemically Deposited Thin-Film Solar Cell Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R.; Junek, W.; Gorse, J.; Thompson, T.; Harris, J.; Hehemann, D.; Hepp, A.; Rybicki, G.

    2005-01-01

    We have been working on the development of thin film photovoltaic solar cell materials that can be produced entirely by wet chemical methods on low-cost flexible substrates. P-type copper indium diselenide (CIS) absorber layers have been deposited via electrochemical deposition. Similar techniques have also allowed us to incorporate both Ga and S into the CIS structure, in order to increase its optical bandgap. The ability to deposit similar absorber layers with a variety of bandgaps is essential to our efforts to develop a multi-junction thin-film solar cell. Chemical bath deposition methods were used to deposit a cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layers on our CIS-based absorber layers. Window contacts were made to these CdS/CIS junctions by the electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO). Structural and elemental determinations of the individual ZnO, CdS and CIS-based films via transmission spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will be presented. The electrical characterization of the resulting devices will be discussed.

  12. Nanoparticle formation and thin film deposition in aniline containing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Cedric; Dias, Ana; Hussain, Shahzad; Strunskus, Thomas; Stefanovic, Ilija; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    This contribution deals with plasma based polymerization processes in mixtures of argon and aniline. The investigations are performed in a capacitively coupled RF discharge (in pulsed and continuous mode) and concern both the observed formation of nanoparticles in the plasma volume and the deposition of films. The latter process was used for the deposition of ultra-thin layers on different kind of nanocarbon materials (nanotubes and free standing graphene). The analysis of the plasma and the plasma chemistry (by means of mass spectroscopy and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy) is accompanied by several ex-situ diagnostics of the obtained materials which include NEXAFS and XPS measurements as well as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The decisive point of the investigations concern the preservation of the original monomer structure during the plasma polymerization processes and the stability of the thin films on the different substrates.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of cellulase thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicco, N.; Morone, A.; Verrastro, M.; Viggiano, V.

    2013-08-01

    Thin films of cellulase were obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on an appropriate substrate. Glycoside hydrolase cellulase has received our attention because it emerges among the antifouling enzymes (enzymes being able to remove and prevent the formation of micro-organism biofilms) used in industry and medicine field. Pressed cellulase pellets, used as target material, were ablated with pulses of a Nd-YAG laser working at wavelength of 532 nm. In this work, we evaluated the impact of PLD technique both on molecular structure and hydrolytic activity of cellulase. Characteristic chemical bonds and morphology of deposited layers were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM respectively. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase thin films was detected by a colorimetric assay.

  14. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Vehkamäki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260–320 °C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  15. Electron Bombardment of Certain Thin Films during Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Stephen Douglas

    The performance of multilayer thin film optical filters depends largely on the microstructure of the component layers. This microstructure varies with the deposition parameters inside the coating chamber. By controlling these parameters, optical filters can be produced to exacting specifications. In 1947, R. M. Rice established the technique of bombarding the substrate with electrons of several kilovolts as the fils were being deposited. This process improved the durability of zinc sulfide films dramatically. This study was performed to quantitatively analyze the effects of bombardment on film microstructure and subsequent effects on optical and mechanical properties. I installed an electron source filament inside the coating chamber and electrically isolated the substrate holder, which was connected to a positive high voltage supply. An accelerating loop placed just above the filament enhanced its efficiency. The source was calibrated by measuring the current through the substrate holder. Single layer films of five different materials were deposited, each at its own set of electron bombardment parameters. The microstructure was analyzed with an X -ray diffractometer and a transmission electron microscope. Optical properties were measured with guided waves, induced absorption, and spectrophotometric analysis. Film durability was analyzed with scotch tape, eraser, and controlled humidity tests. Antimony trioxide films showed a shift in lattice orientation, but this did not affect columnar structure or macroscopic quantities. Potassium hexafluorozirconate films showed elimination of both crystal structure and columnar growth, resulting in slightly reduced durability and some absorption. Silicon monoxide films suffered no change in structure or properties. Zinc sulfide films demonstrated the change in crystal structure, which was quantified and shown to improve moisture resistance. Optical properties were unaffected. Magnesium fluoride films showed a slight increase

  16. RESISTIVITY OF A THIN FILM DEPOSITED ON A CONDUCTIVE SUBSTRATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberle, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Resistivity of a Thin Film Deposited on a Conductive Substrate is a computer program developed to aid in the solution of the class of problems where resistivity measurements are needed for a substance deposited on a substrate of higher resistivity than the deposited layer. One of the ways in which a semiconductor material is characterized is by measurement of its resistivity. In the development of silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a semiconductor material for high temperature applications, it became necessary to measure the resistivity of the thin SiC film while it was still attached to the silicon upon which it had been grown epitaxially. The problem is that the presence of the silicon substrate will introduce error in the measured resistivity of the SiC. This program assumes that the resistivity of a thin film of conducting material deposited on another layer of conducting material is measured using the four-point probe. Using the four-point probe measurements, this program calculates the "true" resistivity of the deposited layer on a substrate of finite and different resistivity. Starting from basic principles, an expression for the ratio of measured voltage difference to injected current is developed. This expression involves the probe spacing, relative thicknesses of the layers, and the substrate resistivity as parameters, as well as the unknown resistivity of the deposited layer. The unknown resistivity can be found by iteratively evaluating the theoretical expression. This must be done numerically. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 and targeted for use on an IBM PC or compatible. It can be modified for use on any machine with a FORTRAN 77 compiler. It requires 46K of memory and has been implemented under MS-DOS 3.2.1. The program was developed in 1986.

  17. thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasery, M.; Halim, S. A.; Dehzangi, A.; Soltani, N.; Bahmanrokh, G.; Erfani H, M.; Kamalianfar, A.; Pan, K. Y.; Chang, S. C.; Chen, S. K.; Lim, K. P.; Awang Kechik, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite manganite La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 thin films were directly grown on MgO(100), Si(100) and glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. From the XRD patterns, the films are found to be polycrystalline, single-phase orthorhombic. The metal-insulator transition temperature is 209 K for LCMO/MgO, 266 K for LCMO/Si and 231 K for film deposited on the glass substrate. The conduction mechanism in these films is investigated in different temperature regimes. Low-temperature resistivity data below the phase transition temperature ( T P) have been fitted with the relation , indicating that the electron-electron scattering affects the conduction of these materials. The high-temperature resistivity data ( T > T P) were explained using variable-range hopping (VRH) and small-polaron hopping (SPH) models. Debye temperature values are 548 K for LCMO/Cg, 568 K for LCMO/Si and 508 K for LCMO/MgO thin films. In all thin films, the best fitting in the range of VRH is found for 3D dimension. The density of states near the Fermi level N ( E F) for LCMO/MgO is lower due to the prominent role of the grain boundary in LCMO/MgO and increase in bending of Mn-O-Mn bond angle, which decreases the double exchange coupling of Mn3+-O2-Mn4+ and in turn makes the LCMO/MgO sample less conducting as compared to the other films.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of compact high adhesion polytetrafluoroethylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smausz, Tomi; Hopp, Béla; Kresz, Norbert

    2002-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were prepared from pressed powder pellets via pulsed laser deposition by using ArF (193 nm) excimer laser. The applied laser fluences were in the 1.6-10 J cm-2 range, the substrate temperature was varied between 27°C and 250°C and post-annealing of the films was carried out in air at temperatures between 320°C and 500°C. Films deposited at 250°C substrate temperature were found to be stoichiometric while those prepared at lower temperatures were fluorine deficient. Morphological analyses proved that the film thickness did not significantly depend on the substrate temperature and the post annealing at 500°C resulted in a thickness reduction of approximately 50%. It was demonstrated that the films prepared at 8.2 J cm-2 fluence and annealed at 500°C followed by cooling at 1°C min-1 rate were compact, pinhole-free layers. The adherence of films to the substrates was determined by tensile strength measurements. Tensile strength values up to 2.4 MPa were obtained. These properties are of great significance when PTFE films are fabricated for the purpose of protecting coatings.

  19. Nanostructuring and texturing of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunbin; Catledge, Shane; Vohra, Yogesh; Camata, Renato; Lacefield, William

    2003-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca_10(PO_4)_6(OH)_2] is commonly deposited onto orthopedic and dental metallic implants to speed up bone formation around devices, allowing earlier stabilization in a patient. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a suitable means of placing thin HA films on these implants because of its control over stoichiometry, crystallinity, and nanostructure. These characteristics determine the mechanical properties of the films that must be optimized to improve the performance of load-bearing implants and other devices that undergo bone insertion. We have used PLD to produce nanostructured and preferentially oriented HA films and evaluated their mechanical properties. Pure, highly crystalline HA films on Ti-6Al-4V substrates were obtained using a KrF excimer laser (248nm) with energy density of 4-8 J/cm^2 and deposition temperature of 500-700^rcC. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies reveal that our careful manipulation of energy density and substrate temperature has led to films made up of HA grains in the nanometer scale. Broadening of x-ray diffraction peaks as a function of deposition temperature suggests it may be possible to control the film nanostructure to a great extent. X-ray diffraction also shows that as the laser energy density is increased in the 4-8 J/cm^2 range, the hexagonal HA films become preferentially oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Texture, nanostructure, and phase make-up all significantly influence the mechanical properties. We will discuss how each of these factors affects hardness and Young's modulus of the HA films as measured by nanoindentation.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of thin superconducting films and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey; Groll, Nikolas; Altin, Serdar; Becker, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    We report the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize thin superconducting films and multilayer superconductor-insulator (S-I) heterostructures including: nitrides, carbides, and silicides, nitrides of molybdenum and titanium, and Nb1-xTixN/AlN-based S-I heterostructures. The atomic-scale thickness control afforded by ALD enables the study of superconductivity and associated phenomena in homogeneous layers in the ultra-thin film limit. Two-dimensional superconductivity in such films is of interest from a fundamental point of view, as a new effect has recently been discovered at ultra-low temperature in thin superconducting films made by ALD: the super-insulating transition. Furthermore, the ALD technique applied to superconducting films opens the way for a variety of applications, including improving the performance and decreasing the cost of high energy particle accelerators, superconducting wires for energy storage, and bolometers for radiation detection. In this respect, we will present results on the ALD growth processes, the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings.

  1. YBCO thin film evaporation on as-deposited silver film on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, J.

    1999-11-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) thin film was evaporated on as-deposited Ag buffer layer on MgO substrate. A simple, inexpensive vacuum system equipped with one resistively heated source was used. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out under low oxygen partial pressure at a relatively low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using DC four-probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that YBCO thin film can grow on as-deposited thin silver layer on MgO substrate.

  2. Biomimetic lithography and deposition kinetics of iron oxyhydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.C.; Wood, L.L.; Marsh, B.M.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Tarasevich, B.J. |; John, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth on functionalized organic substrates is a critical step in biological hard tissue formation. Self assembled monolayers can be derivatized with various organic functional groups to mimic the ``nucleation proteins`` for induction of mineral growth. Studies of nucleation and growth on SAMs can provide a better understanding of biomineralization and can also form the basis of a superior thin film deposition process. We demonstrate that micron-scale, electron and ion beam, lithographic techniques can be used to pattern SAMs with functional organic groups that either inhibit or promote mineral deposition. Patterned films of iron oxyhydroxide were deposited on the areas patterned with nucleation sites. Studies of the deposition kinetic of these films show that indeed the surface induces heterogeneous nucleation and that film formation does not occur via absorption of polymers or colloidal material formed homogeneously in solution. The nucleus interfacial free energy was calculated to be 24 mJ/m2 on a SAM surface composed entirely of sulfonate groups.

  3. Microplasma deposition of challenging thin films at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey; Thejaswini, H. C.; Plasma Engineering Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    Non-equilibrium microplasmas produce fluxes of ions and excited species to a surface while maintaining the surface near room temperature. At atmospheric pressure, however, it is very difficult to accelerate the highly collisional ions. While many applications do not benefit from energetic interactions between plasma and surface, conventional plasma deposition of thin films often requires either ion bombardment or substrate heating. For example, diamondlike carbon (DLC) is known to require ~ 100 eV ion bombardment and transparent conducting oxides (TCO) typically require substrate temperatures on the order of 400-500 K. A microwave-induced microplasma is used to dissociate dilute precursor molecules within flowing helium. The precursor and plasma species result in rapid deposition of thin films (>1 μm/min). This plasma produces a steady-state ion flux of 6×1017 cm-2s-1, which is more than two orders of magnitude greater than a low pressure capacitively coupled plasma. Likewise, the metastable density is roughly two orders greater. These and other microplasma diagnostics are correlated with the measured film properties of microplasma-deposited DLC and TCO. This study shows that high ion flux, even at low energy (~ 1 eV), can provide the needed surface interactions to produce these materials at room temperature.

  4. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  5. Sub-picosecond laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F; Stuart, B; McLean, W; Chase, L

    2000-11-03

    The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry recognized the importance and growing maturity of the femtosecond time-scale in science and engineering. Understanding the interaction between materials and high energy density light to manufacture and process materials has become a key issue in both programmatic and fundamental research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We have emphasized in this research the aspects related to producing thin films by ablation of material with intense ultra-short laser pulses. Our effort during FY2000 has been focused on building the foundation of this research using high purity graphite as the initial ablation material. We have deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) in vacuum, measured ablation rates, and characterized the physical and chemical properties of the films. We successfully completed our first objective to compare the microstructure and materials properties of the films deposited using lasers operated in the femtosecond and nanosecond pulse length regime. The mechanical characterization of the deposits showed improved film-substrate adhesion properties that allowed us to build 200-{micro}m thick layers using 150 fs pulses. Films produced with ns-pulses delaminated as soon as the thickness reached only a couple of microns. The stresses in the films were greatly influenced by the fluence and the duration of the laser pulses. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films did not vary significantly with the processing parameters studied (pulse length and fluence). Finally, we demonstrated that it is possible to significantly increase the deposition rate with shorter pulses at a given fluence. In particular, carbon could be deposited at a rate of 25 {micro}m/hour with this technology. Our goal in FY2001 is to study and model the relationship between the ablation plume characteristics (energy, charge, mass, and momentum) and the film growth behavior in order to influence and optimize the deposition process. We also want to

  6. thin films by an hybrid deposition configuration: pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Perez-Alvarez, J.; Romero, S.; Morales-Mendez, J. G.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to report the application of an hybrid deposition configuration to deposit Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films modified with different amounts of bismuth (Bi:TiO2). The samples were synthesized combining a TiO2 laser ablation plasma with a flux of vapor of bismuth produced by thermal evaporation. By varying the deposition rate of Bi it was possible to control the amount of Bi incorporated in the film and consequently the film properties. A detailed compositional, structural, and optical characterization by XPS, RBS, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry techniques is discussed. Photocatalytic response of the deposited thin films was studied through the degradation of a malachite green solution.

  7. Reactive pulsed laser deposition of gold nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Fernàndez, M.; Leggieri, G.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Romano, F.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.; Verdyan, A.; Soifer, Y. M.; Azoulay, J.; Meda, L.

    2007-07-01

    We report on the growth and characterization of gold nitride thin films on Si <1 0 0> substrates at room temperature by reactive pulsed laser ablation. A pure (99.95%) Au target was ablated with KrF excimer laser pulses in nitrogen containing atmosphere (N 2 or NH 3). The gas ambient pressure was varied in the range 0.1-100 Pa. The morphology of the films was studied by using optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, evidencing compact films with RMS roughness in the range 3.6-35.1 nm, depending on the deposition pressure. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) were used to detect the nitrogen concentration into the films. The EDS nitrogen peak does not decrease in intensity after 2 h annealing at 250 °C. Film resistivity was measured using a four-point probe and resulted in the (4-20) × 10 -8 Ω m range, depending on the ambient pressure, to be compared with the value 2.6 × 10 -8 Ω m of a pure gold film. Indentation and scratch measurements gave microhardness values of 2-3 GPa and the Young's modulus close to 100 GPa. X-ray photoemission spectra clearly showed the N 1s peak around 400 eV and displaced with respect to N 2 phase. All these measurements point to the formation of the gold nitride phase.

  8. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  9. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugle, Dhananjay; Jadhav, Ghanshyam

    2016-05-01

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of nickel-cobalt spinel thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, D J; Tripathi, T S; Karppinen, M

    2017-04-05

    We report the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality crystalline thin films of the spinel-oxide system (Co1-xNix)3O4. These spinel oxides are ferrimagnetic p-type semiconductors, and promising material candidates for several applications ranging from photovoltaics and spintronics to thermoelectrics. The spinel phase is obtained for Ni contents exceeding the x = 0.33 limit for bulk samples. It is observed that the electrical resistivity decreases continuously with x while the magnetic moment increases up to x = 0.5. This is in contrast to bulk samples where a decrease of resistivity is not observed for x > 0.33 due to the formation of a rock-salt phase. From UV-VIS-NIR absorption measurements, a change from distinct absorption edges for the parent oxide Co3O4 to a continuous absorption band ranging deep into the near infrared for 0 < x ≤ 0.5 was observed. The conformal deposition of dense films on high-aspect-ratio patterns is demonstrated.

  11. Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Film from Size-Classified Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camata, Renato P.; Cunningham, Nicholas C.; Seol, Kwang Soo; Okada, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Materials comprising nanometer-sized grains (approximately 1_50 nm) exhibit properties dramatically different from those of their homogeneous and uniform counterparts. These properties vary with size, shape, and composition of nanoscale grains. Thus, nanoparticles may be used as building blocks to engineer tailor-made artificial materials with desired properties, such as non-linear optical absorption, tunable light emission, charge-storage behavior, selective catalytic activity, and countless other characteristics. This bottom-up engineering approach requires exquisite control over nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. We describe the design and characterization of an aerosol system conceived for the deposition of size classified nanoparticles whose performance is consistent with these strict demands. A nanoparticle aerosol is generated by laser ablation and sorted according to size using a differential mobility analyzer. Nanoparticles within a chosen window of sizes (e.g., (8.0 plus or minus 0.6) nm) are deposited electrostatically on a surface forming a film of the desired material. The system allows the assembly and engineering of thin films using size-classified nanoparticles as building blocks.

  12. Thin-film deposition and characterization for neutron detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiano, C.; Trucchi, D. M.; Renzelli, M.; Bemporad, E.; Santoni, A.; Pietropaolo, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Celentano, G.

    2015-10-01

    Solid state physics experimental techniques and characterization tools can provide a valuable contribution to the research and development activity on He-free neutron detection systems, for both detector assessment and performance improvement. Presently, a He replacement strategy relies on the use of 6Li - and/or 10B -based neutron-to-charged particle converters coupled to radiation detectors (solid state, gaseous and scintillators). These topics have been discussed during a devoted session within the HeRe (He- Replacement) in Italy Workshop held in Frascati at the ENEA Research Centre, and this paper aims at presenting a brief overview on possible deposition and characterization techniques of thin films that have been subject of discussion.

  13. (abstract) Optical Scattering and Surface Microroughness of Ion Beam Deposited Au and Pt Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Jumaily, Ghanim A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.; Edlou, Samad M.; Simons, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of gold and platinum have been deposited onto superpolished fused silica substrates using thermal evaporation, ion assisted deposition (IAD), and ion assisted sputtering. The influence of ion beam flux, thin film material, and deposition rate on the films microroughness have been investigated. Short range surface microroughness of the films has been examined using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Long range surface microroughness has been characterized using an angle resolved optical scatterometer. Results indicate that ion beam deposited coatings have improved microstructure over thermally evaporated films.

  14. Thin-film ferrites vapor deposited by one-step process in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacskaylo, M.

    1966-01-01

    Thin-film ferrites are formed by vapor deposition of a mixture of powdered ferrites and powdered boron oxide at controlled temperatures in a vacuum chamber. These films are used in memory devices for computers and as thin-film inductors in communications and telemetry systems.

  15. Aspects of thin film deposition on granulates by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Andreas; Schmid, Gerwin H. S.; Mahr, Harald; Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Thin film and coating technology has entered fields which may show significant deviations from classical coating applications where films are deposited on plane, sometimes large substrates. Often surfaces of small and irregularly shaped bodies have to be improved in respect to electrical, thermal or mechanical properties. Film deposition and characterization on such small substrates is not a trivial task. This specially holds for methods based on Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes such as sputter deposition and its ion- and plasma assisted varieties. Due to their line of sight nature a key issue for homogenous films is efficient intermixing. If this problem is mastered, another task is the prediction and determination of the film thickness on single particles as well as on large scale ensembles thereof. In this work a mechanism capable of uniformly coating up to 1000 cm3 of granulate with particle sizes ranging from approx. 10 μm to 150 μm by magnetron sputtering is thoroughly described. A method for predicting the average film thickness on the particles is presented and tested for several differently shaped objects like microspheres, irregular grains of sinter powder or micro diamonds. For assessing the film thickness on single particles as well as on particle ensembles several complementary methods based on optics, X-ray analysis and gravimetry are employed. Their respective merits and limitations are discussed. Finally an outlook on adapting the described technology for surface modification by plasma based reactive and non-reactive processes is given.

  16. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  17. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  18. Thin Film?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. Afşin

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

  19. Development of vapor deposited thin films for bio-microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popat, Ketul Chandrakant

    Increasing demands for more biocompatible and sophisticated bio-microsystems in recent years has led to the development of a new technology called BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems). The foundation of this technology is the same as that of the traditional field of IC (integrated circuits), but an emphasis on developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Micro- and nano-fabrication techniques are currently being used to develop implants that can record, sense, stimulate and deliver to biological systems. Micromachined substrates can provide unique advantages over traditional implantable devices in terms of their ability to control surface micro-architecture, topography and feature size in micron and nano sizes. However, as BioMEMS technology is rapidly being developed, the practical use of these bio-microsystems is limited due to the inability to effectively interface with the biological system in non-immunogenic and stable manner. This is one of the most important considerations, and hence it is useful to focus on the fundamental scientific issues relating to material science, surface chemistry and immunology of silicon based bio-microsystems. This results in development of biomolecular interfaces that are compatible with both microfabrication processing and biological systems. The overall thrust of this research is to develop, characterize and integrate vapor deposited thin films with bio-microsystems in a manner that it is both reproducible and fully integrated with existing technologies. The main strategy is to use silane coatings precursor coatings on which poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) will be coated in vapor phase. Silane has been coated user vapor phase, but its chemical and biological characterization and stability of the films under physiological conditions has not been investigated for biological applications. PEG has been coated in solution phase on silicon surface. However, it has not been coated under vapor phase. Here we are

  20. Macroparticles Reduction Using Filter Free Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition Method in ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Peranantham, P; Nathanael, A Joseph; Nataraj, D; Mangalaraj, D; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-03-01

    We report a new method to reduce macroparticles in ZnO thin films using filter free cathodic vacuum arc deposition without using any cooling arrangements operated at low arc current. The detailed mechanism has been proposed to reduce macroparticles during thin film deposition. The successful reduction of macroparticles was confirmed employing FESEM-EDX studies. FESEM images of ZnO thin films deposited with cathode spot to substrate distance from 10 to 20 cm revealed that the population of the macroparticles were reduced with the increase of cathode spot to substrate distances at low arc current. The prepared ZnO films were characterised and showed good structural and optical properties.

  1. The thin-film deposition of conjugated molecules for organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Michael H.-C.

    2008-06-01

    Device-quality conjugated organic thin films are now routinely prepared in many different ways to fabricate light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, and photovoltaic devices. Understanding how to design molecules through versatile synthetic chemistry and the mechanisms of phase transformation and chemical reaction that occur during the thin-film deposition process becomes especially vital for the performance of the applications. This article reviews the current understanding of various thin-film deposition technologies for the conjugated organic molecules primarily used in optoelectronics, particularly in photovoltaic applications.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition of metal oxide and nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jeffrey Thomas

    Processes for depositing thin films with various electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties are indispensable in many industries today. Of the many deposition methods available, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has proved over time to be one of the most flexible, efficient, and cost-effective. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a newer process that is gaining favor as a method for depositing films with excellent properties and unparalleled precision. This work describes the development of novel CVD and ALD processes to deposit a variety of materials. Hafnium oxide and zirconium oxide show promise as replacements for SiO 2 as gate dielectrics in future-generation transistors. These high-k materials would provide sufficient capacitance with layers thick enough to avoid leakage from tunneling. An ALD method is presented here for depositing conformal hafnium oxide from tetrakis-(diethylamido)hafnium and oxygen gas. A CVD method for depositing zirconium oxide from tetrakis-(dialkylamido)zirconium and either oxygen gas or water vapor is also described. The use of copper for interconnects in integrated circuits requires improved diffusion barrier materials, given its high diffusivity compared to the previously-used aluminum and tungsten. Tungsten nitride has a low resistivity among barrier materials, and can be deposited in amorphous films that are effective diffusion barriers in layers as thin as a few nanometers. Here we demonstrate CVD and plasma-enhanced CVD methods to deposit tungsten nitride films from bis-(dialkylamido)bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten precursors and ammonia gas. Recent findings had shown uniform copper growth on tantalum silicate films, without the dewetting that usually occurs on oxide surfaces. Tantalum and tungsten silicates were deposited by a CVD reaction from the reaction of either tris-(diethylamido)ethylimido tantalum or bis-(ethylmethylamido)-bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten with tris-(tert-butoxy)silanol. The ability of evaporated

  3. Effect of Deposition Temperature on the Properties of TIO2 Thin Films Deposited by Mocvd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Zaki S.

    2016-02-01

    Crystal structure, microstructure, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited on quartz substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in the temperature range from 250∘C to 450∘C have been studied. The crystal structure, thickness, microstructure, and optical properties have been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and UV-visible transmittance spectroscopy, respectively. XRD patterns show that the obtained films are pure anatase. Simultaneously, the crystal size calculated using XRD peaks, and the grain size measured by AFM decrease with the increase in deposition temperature. Moreover, the texture of the films change and roughness decrease with the increase in deposition temperature. The spectrophotometric transmittance spectra have been used to calculate the refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, optical energy gap, and porosity of the deposited films. While the refractive index and dielectric constant decrease with the increase of deposition temperature, the porosity shows the opposite.

  4. Thermochromic properties of Sn, W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Hur, M G; Masaki, T; Yoon, D H

    2014-12-01

    Tin (Sn) and tungsten (W) co-doped vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructured thin films with 50-nm thickness were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to reduce the transition temperature and improve the IR transmittance. The crystal structure of the nanostructured thin films and the presence of elements were evaluated by XRD and XPS analysis. The transition temperature (T(c)) of 1 at% Sn-1 at% W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film was decreased to about 22 degrees C (from 70.3 to 48.5 degrees C) compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. The transmittance width in the IR range of the co-doped nanostructured thin film decreased from 37.5% to 27% compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. Also, the width of hysteresis was narrowed by Sn doping.

  5. rf plasma oxidation of Ni thin films sputter deposited to generate thin nickel oxide layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoey, Megan L.; Carlson, J. B.; Osgood, R. M. III; Kimball, B.; Buchwald, W.

    2010-10-11

    Nickel oxide (NiO) layers were formed on silicon (Si) substrates by plasma oxidation of nickel (Ni) film lines. This ultrathin NiO layer acted as a barrier layer to conduction, and was an integral part of a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode, completed by depositing gold (Au) on top of the oxide. The electrical and structural properties of the NiO thin film were examined using resistivity calculations, current-voltage (I-V) measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) imaging. The flow rate of the oxygen gas, chamber pressure, power, and exposure time and their influence on the characteristics of the NiO thin film were studied.

  6. Templated electrochemical deposition of zirconia thin films on "recordable CDs.".

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Rowe, Aaron W; Waugh, Damien M

    2002-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a practical method of using gold films constructed from recordable compact disks (CD-Rs) as simple, inexpensive, and micropatterned conductive substrates for the fabrication of inorganic material microstructures. Extending from their application for the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) reported recently, bare and SAM-modified CD-R gold substrates have been used for template-directed electrodeposition of zirconia (ZrO2) thin films (i.e., the controlled formation of zirconia thin films on the different areas of the prefabricated, micrometer mountain-valley CD-R gold substrate surfaces). The present results demonstrate that the variation of the functional groups of the selected SAMs combined with electrodynamic control can be very successful to "customize" the formation and microstructure of functional inorganic thin films, which hold promise for modern technological applications.

  7. Thin-film preparation by back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition using metal powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Several kinds of functional thin films were deposited using a new thin-film preparation method named the back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition (BIPLD) method. In this BIPLD method, powder targets were used as the film source placed on a transparent target holder, and then a visible-wavelength pulsed laser was irradiated from the holder side to the substrate. Using this new method, titanium oxide and boron nitride thin films were deposited on the silicon substrate. Surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest that all of the thin films were deposited on the substrate with some large droplets irrespective of the kind of target used. The deposition rate of the films prepared by using this method was calculated from film thickness and deposition time to be much lower than that of the films prepared by conventional PLD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results suggest that rutile and anatase TiO2 crystal peaks were formed for the films prepared using the TiO2 rutile powder target. Crystal peaks of hexagonal boron nitride were observed for the films prepared using the boron nitride powder target. The crystallinity of the prepared films was changed by annealing after deposition.

  8. Poly-para-xylylene thin films: A study of the deposition chemistry, kinetics, film properties, and film stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jeffrey Bernard

    Poly-para-xylylene, or parylene, thin films are chemically vapor deposited (CVD), conformal, pin-hole free polymeric thin films. They have found many industrial uses since there invention in 1947 and continue to find new applications in micro-electronics, biotechnology, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this study the deposition chemistry, deposition kinetics, film properties, and film stability were investigated. A differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to analyze the vapor species present during the CVD process. The identity of dimer contamination and its impact on the CVD process and film properties was studied. The quantitative conversion of dimer to monomer was investigated and it was found that conversion begins at around 385°C and by 565°C 100% conversion is obtained. The kinetics of the CVD process was analyzed for a range of substrate temperatures and chamber pressures. A new kinetic model based on a two-step adsorption was developed and fit the kinetic data well. This model should be appropriate for use with all parylene family polymers. Many of the properties of the films deposited in this study were analyzed. This includes a detailed study of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy which shows the interface width increases as a power law of film thickness. Other properties analyzed were the thermal stability, electrical properties, index of refraction, birefringence, hardness, and elastic modulus. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of lambda ≥ 250 nm on the thermal stability, electrical, and optical properties of thin parylene films was studied. The thermal stability and electrical properties of UV treated films were seen to deteriorate as the radiation dose increased. The stability of parylene thin films receiving plasma etching was analyzed. The dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and leakage current of plasma etched thin parylene films were investigated and found to be stable for the range of

  9. Ln polyoxocations: yttrium oxide solution speciation & solution deposited thin films.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David A; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Baumeister, Mary K; Zakharov, Lev N; Nyman, May; Johnson, Darren W

    2017-01-17

    Rare earth oxide materials, including thin film coatings, are critically important in magnetic, luminescent and microelectric devices, and few substitutes have been discovered with comparable performance. Thin film coatings from solution are almost unknown for rare earth oxides, likely due to their high activity towards hydrolysis which yields poor quality thin films. The hexamer [Ln6(O)(OH)8(H2O)12(NO3)6](2+) is a rare example of a metal-oxo cluster isolated and stabilized without additional supporting organic ligands. Herein we report a new method for both the preparation and stabilization in non-aqueous media, which makes these clusters valuable precursors for solution-processed thin films. Solution characterization (NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy) in wet organic solvents indicated that the clusters evolve via a fragmentation and reaggregation process. This is especially true for hexamers of the smaller Ln(3+)-ions: the higher charge density yields higher hydration rates. This process produced an entirely new hexadecameric cluster formulated Y16O3(OH)24(NO3)18(OSMe2)16(OCMe2)2(H2O)4. The new structure represents an intermediate hydrolysis product on the pathway from hexanuclear clusters to metal oxyhydroxide bulk solid. DMSO solvent ligands displace aqua ligands on the cluster and likely explain the additional stability observed for these clusters in organic solvents. The enhanced cluster stability in DMF and DMSO also enables solution-processing methods to create high quality thin films.

  10. Carbon Nitride Thin Films Deposited by Cathodic Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chuanbao; Fu, Jiyu; Zhu, Hesun

    Carbon nitride thin films were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. The dicyandiamide compound dissovled in acetone was selected as the organic precursor. Single crystal silicon wafers and conductive glass (ITO) wafers were used as substrates. XPS measurements indicated that the films composed of carbon and nitrogen elements. The nitrogen content reached 41%. The polycrystalline β-C3N4 should exit in the prepared film from TED measurements. The nano hardness of the films on ITO substrates were as high as 13 GPa. The structure and properties were studies.

  11. Dependence of electro-optical properties on the deposition conditions of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dona, J.M.; Herrero, J.

    1997-11-01

    Lately, there has been a sharp increase in the publication of papers on chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films and related materials due to successful results obtained using this method to fabricate CdS thin-film buffer layers for CuInSe{sub 2}- and CdTe-based polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Generally, these papers focus on previously proposed methods of studying film characteristics without a systematic study of the influence of deposition conditions on film characteristics. In this paper the authors present an exhaustive study of the chemical bath-deposited CdS thin films electro-optical properties dependence on deposition variables. The authors propose not only a set of conditions for obtaining CdS thin films by this method but additionally, suitable deposition process conditions for certain application requirements, such as buffer layers for thin-film solar cells. The observed electro-optical characteristics dependence on the deposition variables corroborates the chemical mechanism that they proposed previously for this process.

  12. Pulse laser deposited nanostructured ZnO thin films: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Girish; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    This review summarizes the work principles of pulse laser deposition (PLD) apparatus, physical processes like ablation, and plasma plume formation accompanying the deposition of un-doped ZnO from target to substrate material. Various modes of deposition and factors influencing the properties of thin films such as substrate temperature, background gas pressure, laser energy density (laser fluence), target to substrate distance, repetition rate, oxygen partial pressure in deposition chamber, deposition time and post growth annealing which control deposition parameters such as adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, nucleation, and crystallization/re-crystallization are also discussed in this review. Moreover, various film properties such as morphology, roughness of the film surface, film thickness, grain size, optical transmittance, sensitivity, electrical conductivity, uniformity and electrical resistivity of the deposited ZnO thin films have also been enumerated in the present review.

  13. Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films.

    PubMed

    Finch, Dudley S; Oreskovic, Tammy; Ramadurai, Krishna; Herrmann, Cari F; George, Steven M; Mahajan, Roop L

    2008-10-01

    Presented in this paper is a study of the biocompatibility of an atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) thin film and an ALD hydrophobic coating on standard glass cover slips. The pure ALD alumina coating exhibited a water contact angle of 55 degrees +/- 5 degrees attributed, in part, to a high concentration of -OH groups on the surface. In contrast, the hydrophobic coating (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-octyl-methyl-bis(dimethylamino)silane) had a water contact angle of 108 degrees +/- 2 degrees. Observations using differential interference contrast microscopy on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells showed normal cell proliferation on both the ALD alumina and hydrophobic coatings when compared to cells grown on control substrates. These observations suggested good biocompatibility over a period of 7 days in vitro. Using a colorimetric assay technique to assess cell viability, the cellular response between the three substrates can be differentiated to show that the ALD alumina coating is more biocompatible and that the hydrophobic coating is less biocompatible when compared to the control. These results suggest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups can control cell growth. This patterning can further enhance the known advantages of ALD alumina, such as conformality and excellent dielectric properties for bio-micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators, and microfluidics devices.

  14. RESEARCH ON THE DEPOSITION OF MAGNETIC INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN THIN FILMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A process for the vacuum deposition of thin films of intermetallic compounds of cobalt and yttrium, samarium, or neodymium, was developed. The...of the evaporation rates. Thin films of the desired stoichiometric compositions, Co5R, were produced in an extensive series of sequential experiments

  15. Microstructural and Electrical Characterization of Barium Strontium Titanate-Based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-03

    Strontium Titanate-Based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public...Society H2.4 Microstructural and Electrical Characterization of Barium Strontium Titanate- based Solid Solution Thin Films Deposited on Ceramic...investigated and report the microstructural and electrical characterization of selected barium strontium titanate-based solid solution thin films

  16. Deposition of thermoelectric strontium hexaboride thin films by a low pressure CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Aizawa, Takashi; Ohkubo, Isao; Nakamura, Katsumitsu; Mori, Takao

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of SrB6 were deposited on sapphire substrates using a chemical vapor deposition method, with elemental strontium and decaborane, B10H14, used as the strontium and boron sources, respectively. The formation of highly crystalline, phase-pure SrB6 films was confirmed with X-ray diffraction and reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED) analysis, and the films' thermoelectric transport properties were measured. A relatively high deposition temperature of 850-950 °C was found to be optimal for obtaining well-crystallized films at an extremely high deposition rate. The thermoelectric transport properties of the SrB6 thin films were observed to be comparable to those reported for bulk materials, but an unexpectedly high electrical resistivity led to a reduced power factor value for the thin films.

  17. Ultraviolet optical properties of aluminum fluoride thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, John Jewell, April D.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2016-01-15

    Aluminum fluoride (AlF{sub 3}) is a low refractive index material with promising optical applications for ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. An atomic layer deposition process using trimethylaluminum and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride has been developed for the deposition of AlF{sub 3} at substrate temperatures between 100 and 200 °C. This low temperature process has resulted in thin films with UV-optical properties that have been characterized by ellipsometric and reflection/transmission measurements at wavelengths down to 200 nm. The optical loss for 93 nm thick films deposited at 100 °C was measured to be less than 0.2% from visible wavelengths down to 200 nm, and additional microstructural characterization demonstrates that the films are amorphous with moderate tensile stress of 42–105 MPa as deposited on silicon substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows no signature of residual aluminum oxide components making these films good candidates for a variety of applications at even shorter UV wavelengths.

  18. Properties of ITO thin films deposited on amorphous and crystalline substrates with e-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. X.; Beling, C. D.; Djurisic, A. B.; Li, S.; Fung, S.

    2004-06-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited using the e-beam evaporation method on amorphous and crystalline substrates under identical conditions. The properties of the films were investigated using optical transmittance, XRD and XPS techniques. It was found that the properties of the films depend strongly on the nature of the substrate surface. Analysis suggests that changes in chemical composition and microstructure of the ITO films deposited on crystalline and amorphous substrates are responsible for the differences in optical properties.

  19. XPS analysis and luminescence properties of thin films deposited by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolo, J. J.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Dejene, B. F.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the effect of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the Gd2O2S:Tb3 + thin films that were grown by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The PL intensity increased with an increase in the oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature. The thin film deposited at an oxygen pressure of 900 mTorr and substrate temperature of 900°C was found to be the best in terms of the PL intensity of the Gd2O2S:Tb3 + emission. The main emission peak due to the 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb was measured at a wavelength of 545 nm. The stability of these thin films under prolonged electron bombardment was tested with a combination of techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. It was shown that the main reason for the degradation in luminescence intensity under electron bombardment is the formation of a non-luminescent Gd2O3 layer, with small amounts of Gd2S3, on the surface.

  20. Deposition and characterization of molybdenum thin films using dc-plasma magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Majid; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-12-15

    Molebdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on well-cleaned soda-lime glass substrates using DC-plasma magnetron sputtering. In the design of experiment deposition was optimized for maximum beneficial characteristics by monitoring effect of process variables such as deposition power (100–200 W). Their electrical, structural and morphological properties were analyzed to study the effect of these variables. The electrical resistivity of Mo thin films could be reduced by increasing deposition power. Within the range of analyzed deposition power, Mo thin films showed a mono crystalline nature and the crystallites were found to have an orientation along [110] direction. The surface morphology of thin films showed that a highly dense micro structure has been obtained. The surface roughness of films increased with deposition power. The adhesion of Mo thin films could be improved by increasing the deposition power. Atomic force microscopy was used for the topographical study of the films and to determine the roughness of the films. X-ray diffractrometer and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. Hall effect measurement system was used to find resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of deposited films. The adhesion test was performed using scotch hatch tape adhesion test. Mo thin films prepared at deposition power of 200 W, substrate temperature of 23°C and Ar pressure of 0.0123 mbar exhibited a mono crystalline structure with an orientation along (110) direction, thickness of ∼550 nm and electrical resistivity value of 0.57 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-12-04

    Niobium nitride (NbN{sub x}) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbN{sub x} films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ∼40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbN{sub x} films from mixed β-Nb{sub 2}N and cubic δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb{sub 2}N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbN{sub x} deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbN{sub x} films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbN{sub x} film morphology and phase.

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Myneni, Ganapati; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2015-12-01

    Niobium nitride (NbNx) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbNx films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ˜40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed β-Nb2N and cubic δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb2N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbNx deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbNx films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbNx film morphology and phase.

  3. Annealing effect on Cu2S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Pawan; Dhanayat, Swapnali; Gattu, Ketan; Mahajan, Sandeep; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    In present work Cu2S thin film fabricated on glass substrate by simple, cost effective chemical bath deposition method subsequently it annealed at 150°c.These films were studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and I-V system. The results show successful synthesis of Cu2S thin films and improvement in crystalline nature of the thin film which resulted in reduced bad gap and resistance of the film. Thus these thinfilms prove to be a promising candidate for solar cell application.

  4. Ion beam analysis of copper selenide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Zavala, E. P.; Huerta, L.; Rocha, M. F.

    2000-03-01

    Analyses of Rutherford back scattered (RBS) 4He+-particle spectra of copper selenide thin films deposited on glass slides by chemical bath were carried out to determine the changes brought about in the thin film by annealing processes. The atomic density per unit area and composition of the films were obtained from these measurements. This analysis shows that annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400°C leads to the conversion of Cu xSe thin film to Cu 2Se. Results of X-ray diffraction, optical, and electrical characteristics on the films are presented to supplement the RBS results.

  5. Phase change properties of Ti-Sb-Te thin films deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sannian; Shen, Lanlan; Song, Zhitang; Yao, Dongning; Guo, Tianqi; Li, Le; Liu, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Cheng, Yan; Ding, Yuqiang; Feng, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCM) appears to be the strongest candidate for next-generation high density nonvolatile memory. The fabrication of ultrahigh density PCM depends heavily on the thin film growth technique for the phase changing chalcogenide material. In this study, TiSb2Te4 (TST) thin films were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using TiCl4, SbCl3, (Et3Si)2Te as precursors. The threshold voltage for the cell based on thermal ALD-deposited TST is about 2.0 V, which is much lower than that (3.5 V) of the device based on PVD-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) with the identical cell architecture. Tests of TST-based PCM cells have demonstrated a fast switching rate of 100 ns. Furthermore, because of the lower melting point and thermal conductivities of TST materials, TST-based PCM cells exhibit 19% reduction of pulse voltages for Reset operation compared with GST-based PCM cells. These results show that thermal ALD is an attractive method for the preparation of phase change materials.

  6. Titanium dioxide thin film deposited on flexible substrate by multi-jet electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Daihong; Yi, Wuming; Cao, Zhoubin; Gu, Wenhua

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide thin film plays an important role in thin film solar cells, and has promising future in everyday applications including air cleaning and self-cleaning glass. With the concepts of flexible solar cells and wearable devices being more and more popular, there is increasing interest to coat titanium dioxide thin films on flexible substrates, such as aluminum foils. Many methods have been used to fabricate titanium dioxide thin films, such as dip-coating, spin coating, aerosol spray, plasma-assisted coating, electrospraying, and so on. Among them, electrospraying is especially suitable for thin film deposition on flexible substrates. This work reports fabrication of dense and uniform titanium dioxide thin films on glass as well as flexible aluminum foil using multi-jet electrospraying technique.

  7. AFM investigation and optical band gap study of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mansoor, M.; Abubakar; Asim, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The interest into deposition of nanocrystalline PbS thin films, the potential of designing and tailoring both the topographical features and the band gap energy (Eg) by controlling growth parameters, has significant technological importance. Nanocrystalline thin films of lead sulfide were grown onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experiments were carried out by varying deposition temperature. We report on the modification of structural and optical properties as a function of deposition temperature. The morphological changes of the films were analyzed by using SEM and AFM. AFM was also used to calculate average roughness of the films. XRD spectra indicated preferred growth of cubic phase of PbS films in (200) direction with increasing deposition time. Optical properties have been studied by UV-Spectrophotometer. From the diffused reflectance spectra we have calculated the optical Eg shift from 0.649-0.636 eV with increasing deposition time.

  8. Matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of melanin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.

    2011-07-01

    Melanins constitute a very important class of organic pigments, recently emerging as a potential material for a new generation of bioinspired biocompatible electrically active devices. In this paper, we report about the deposition of synthetic melanin films starting from aqueous suspensions by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). In particular, we demonstrate that it is possible to deposit melanin films by MAPLE even if melanin (a) is not soluble in water and (b) absorbs light from UV to IR. AFM images reveal that the film surface features are highly depending on the deposition parameters. UV-VIS and FTIR spectra show both the optical properties and the molecular structure typical of melanins are preserved.

  9. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  10. ZnO Thin Films Deposited on Textile Material Substrates for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Popescu, A. C.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Zgura, I.; Enculescu, I.; Dumitrescu, I.

    We report on the coating with ZnO adherent thin films of cotton woven fabrics by Pulsed laser deposition technique in order to obtain innovative textile materials, presenting protective effects against UV radiations and antifungal action.

  11. Deposition of vanadium carbide thin films using compound target sputtering and their field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, M.Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Ishikawa, J.

    2005-09-15

    Vanadium carbide (VC) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by direct sputtering of a VC target in an argon atmosphere. The structure, composition, and electrical properties of the films were investigated as functions of deposition conditions. The crystallographic structure of the film was strongly related to the argon pressure. VC films with (111) preferred orientation were formed at 2.0 Pa regardless of the substrate temperature examined, while amorphous films were obtained at the lowest pressure of 0.5 Pa. It was shown that carbon segregation within the film was difficult to avoid, but could be suppressed to some degree. To make a full understanding of the compositional variation in compound target sputtering process, deposition of chromium carbide thin films was also performed. Some common mechanisms involved in compound target sputtering process were discussed. Field emission measurements revealed that the VC film is a good electron emitter.

  12. Deposition of vanadium carbide thin films using compound target sputtering and their field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M. Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Ishikawa, J.

    2005-09-01

    Vanadium carbide (VC) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by direct sputtering of a VC target in an argon atmosphere. The structure, composition, and electrical properties of the films were investigated as functions of deposition conditions. The crystallographic structure of the film was strongly related to the argon pressure. VC films with (111) preferred orientation were formed at 2.0 Pa regardless of the substrate temperature examined, while amorphous films were obtained at the lowest pressure of 0.5 Pa. It was shown that carbon segregation within the film was difficult to avoid, but could be suppressed to some degree. To make a full understanding of the compositional variation in compound target sputtering process, deposition of chromium carbide thin films was also performed. Some common mechanisms involved in compound target sputtering process were discussed. Field emission measurements revealed that the VC film is a good electron emitter.

  13. Structural and Optical Study of Chemical Bath Deposited Nano-Structured CdS Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Vineet; Barman, P. B.; Katyal, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    CdS is commonly used as window layer in polycrystalline solar cells. The paper presents a structural and optical study of CdS nano-structured thin films. High quality CdS thin films are grown on commercial glass by means of chemical bath deposition. It involves an alkaline solution of cadmium salt, a complexant, a chalcogen source and a non-ionic surfactant. The films have been prepared under various process parameters. The chemically deposited films are annealed to estimate its effect on the structural and optical properties of films. These films (as -deposited and annealed) have been characterized by means of XRD, SEM and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. XRD of films show the nano-crystalline nature. The energy gap of films is found to be of direct in nature.

  14. Epitaxial growth of magnetic ZnCuO thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Tae Cheol; Lee, Seung Han; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Jeong, Jaeeun; Han, Seung Ho

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial ZnO thin films doped with 5 at% Cu on SrTiO3 (001) and (111) substrates were investigated. In the case of films deposited in oxygen, unique crystallographic growth directions on different substrates were observed, while a metallic phase was detected in films grown under vacuum. The Cu-doped ZnO thin films deposited on the SrTiO3 (111) substrates, with hexagonal structures, showed a single epitaxial relationship with the substrates, whereas those deposited on the SrTiO3 (001) substrates showed a double epitaxial growth mode. The epitaxial ZnCuO thin films deposited on the SrTiO3 (111) substrates under high vacuum exhibited a ferromagnetic signal at room temperature.

  15. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited lithium doped CdO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, P.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 300˚C by a spray pyrolysis experimental setup. The deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were subjected to XRD, SEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy and Hall measurement analyses. XRD studies revealed the polycrystalline nature of the deposited films and confirmed that the deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films belong to cubic crystal system. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the information on shape of CdO and Li doped CdO films. Electrical study reveals the n-type semiconducting nature of CdO and the optical band gap is varied between 2.38 and 2.44 eV, depending on the Li doping concentrations.

  16. Deposition And Characterization Of Ultra Thin Diamond Like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomcik, B.

    2010-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated and/or nitrogenated carbon films, a-C:H/a-C:N, in overall thickness up to 2 nm are materials of choice as a mechanical and corrosion protection layer of the magnetic media in modern hard disk drive disks. In order to obtain high density and void-free films the sputtering technology has been replaced by different plasma and ion beam deposition techniques. Hydrocarbon gas precursors, like C2H2 or CH4 with H2 and N2 as reactive gases are commonly used in Kaufman DC ion and RF plasma beam sources. Optimum incident energy of carbon ions, C+, is up to 100 eV while the typical ion current densities during the film formation are in the mA/cm2 range. Other carbon deposition techniques, like filtered cathodic arc, still suffer from co-deposition of fine nanosized carbon clusters (nano dust) and their improvements are moving toward arc excitation in the kHz and MHz frequency range. Non-destructive film analysis like μ-Raman optical spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR and optical surface analysis are mainly used in the carbon film characterization. Due to extreme low film thicknesses the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with pre-deposited layer of Au can reduce the signal collection time and minimize photon-induced damage during the spectra acquisition. Standard approach in the μ-Raman film evaluation is the measurement of the position (shift) and area of D and G-peaks under the deconvoluted overall carbon spectrum. Also, a slope of the carbon spectrum in the 1000-2000 cm-1 wavenumber range is used as a measure of the hydrogen intake within a film. Diamond like carbon (DLC) film should possess elasticity and self-healing properties during the occasional crash of the read-write head flying only couple of nanometers above the spinning film. Film corrosion protection capabilities are mostly evaluated by electrochemical tests, potentio-dynamic and linear polarization method and by business environmental method. Corrosion mechanism

  17. Laser deposition of SmCo thin film and coating on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, L.; Bonavolontà, C.; Giardini, A.; Lopizzo, T.; Morone, A.; Valentino, M.; Verrastro, M. F.; Viggiano, V.

    2008-10-01

    Thin films and coatings of permanent magnetic materials are very important for different electronic and micromechanical applications. This paper deals with the fabrication, using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, of good quality magnetic SmCo thin films on polycarbonate, steel, silicon and amorphous quartz substrates, for low cost electronic applications like radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas and electromechanical devices for fuel feeding control in the automotive. X-ray fluorescence and magnetic scanning measurements using giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors have been performed to study the functional magnetic properties of the deposited thin films.

  18. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  19. Effect of incident deposition angle on optical properties and surface roughness of TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongqiang; Yang, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties, surface roughness and packing density of TiO2 thin films are studied by obliquely deposited on K9 glass by electron beam evaporation. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films with different incident deposition angle is compared. The experimental results show that the transmittance increases and transmittance peak shifts to short wavelength with increasing incident deposition angle, the packing density of TiO2 thin films decrease from 0.80 to 0.34 with incident deposition angle increasing from 0° to 75°. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films increase with increasing incident deposition angle. The surface roughness of TiO2 thin films is slightly bigger than the surface roughness of K9 substrate when the incident deposition angle is 75°. When the incident deposition angle is constant, TiO2 thin films surface roughness decrease with increase of film thickness.

  20. Thin films of SiO2 and hydroxyapatite on titanium deposited by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jokanovic, V; Jokanovic, B; Izvonar, D; Dacic, B

    2008-05-01

    Wet spray pyrolysis of fine, well-dispersed a SiO2 sol was used for the deposition of thin films of silicon dioxide. The sol was obtained by hydrothermal precipitation of silicon acid from a solution at pH = 10. The morphology, roughness, phase composition, chemical homogeneity and the mechanism of the films were investigated by SEM, EDS and IR spectroscopy. The obtained results show a complete covering of the titanium substrate with SiO2 after 3 h of deposition. It was observed that the film thickness increased from 3 to 19 microm, the roughness of the film decreased from 12 to 3 microm, while the morphology of the deposit changed considerably. A hydroxyapatite film was prepared on the so-obtained SiO2 thin film by spray pyrolysis deposition and its morphology and phase composition were investigated.

  1. Plume behavior and thin film deposition by laser ablation using a hellicoidal shadow mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Aurelian; Grigoriu, Constantin; Jang, W.; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2000-02-01

    The laser ablation is one of the best ways to obtain smooth thin film deposited on various substrates. However, to obtain a 'droplets-free' surface some special experimental setups are necessary.ONe of them is the 'eclipse' method, using a plane shadow mask. Based on studies on the plume behavior in a 'standard' deposition and in a plane shadow mask eclipse deposition, we prose a new shadow mask having a an helicoidal shape, which permit to obtain a abetter film quality - maximum droplets size about 10 times smaller than for the plane shadow mask. The plume behavior and thin film quality are presented and discussed.

  2. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition onto an insulator for thin film preparation toward electronic device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Shougo; Nagamatsu, Shuichi; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi; Kaneto, Keiichi; Takashima, Wataru

    2012-11-01

    An electrostatic film fabrication method utilizing the dielectric layer, entitled dielectric barrier electrophoretic deposition (DBEPD) has been proposed. We demonstrated the fabrication of uniform organic semiconductor thin film onto any kind of substrate by DBEPD. Optical absorption spectra of colloidal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film prepared by DBEPD exhibited the clear vibrational structure attributed to highly ordered domains. It was in contrast to the relatively disordered structure as shown in the case of P3HT film prepared by conventional electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Organic field effect transistors fabricated by each method showed similar organic field effect transistor characteristics, however, the uniformity of DBEPD film was superior to EPD film.

  4. Study on mixed vanadium oxide thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhang; Jianhui, Tu; Hao, Feng; Jingzhong, Cui

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films were deposited on fused quartz using a pure metal vanadium target by RF reactive magnetron sputtering technique. Film microstructure, valence state, optical transmittance properties were studied. The mixed valence VOx thin films deposited with different thickness were found to be amorphous. And the optical transmittance curves are flatness in certain wavelength region. These films can be used to control the relative light intensity of the rubidium light beam between the rubidium lamp and the vapor cell, in order to optimize the working parameters of the rubidium frequency standard (RAFS).

  5. Chemical solution deposition of the highly c-axis oriented apatite type lanthanum silicate thin films.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shigeo; Takatani, Yasuhiro; Kadoura, Hiroaki; Uyama, Takeshi; Fujita, Satoru; Tani, Toshihiko

    2015-10-28

    Highly c-axis oriented apatite-type lanthanum silicate (LSO) thin films were fabricated by a simple solution coating method. In the solution coating method, LSO thin films are obtained by crystallization of initially deposited amorphous LSO precursor thin films. The degree of orientation was influenced by the precursor morphologies and a dense LSO precursor led to a high c-axis orientation perpendicular to the substrate. The oriented LSO thin films were composed of columnar grains with a single crystal orientation over the entire film thickness. In-plane orientation was not detected, which indicates that the c-axis orientation of the LSO thin films can be attributed to self-orientation.

  6. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  7. Using fence post designs to speed the atomic layer deposition of optical thin films.

    PubMed

    Willey, Ronald R

    2008-05-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) at this time is much slower than conventional optical thin-film deposition techniques. A more rapid ALD process for SiO(2) has been developed than for other ALD materials. A fence post design for optical thin films has thin layers of high-index posts standing above a broad low-index ground. If a design for ALD can be predominantly composed of SiO(2) layers with thin high-index layers, the deposition times can be correspondingly shortened, and it is shown that the required performance can still be nearly that of more conventional designs with high- and low-index layers of equal thickness. This combination makes the ALD benefits of conformal coating and precise thickness control more practical for optical thin-film applications.

  8. Optimization of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin-film growth parameters for thin-film transistors (TFT) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manisha; Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Barlage, Douglas; Tsui, Ying Yin

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present the optimization of zinc oxide (ZnO) film properties for a thin-film transistor (TFT) application. Thin films, 50±10 nm, of ZnO were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under a variety of growth conditions. The oxygen pressure, laser fluence, substrate temperature and annealing conditions were varied as a part of this study. Mobility and carrier concentration were the focus of the optimization. While room-temperature ZnO growths followed by air and oxygen annealing showed improvement in the (002) phase formation with a carrier concentration in the order of 1017-1018/cm3 with low mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2/V s, a Hall mobility of 8 cm2/V s and a carrier concentration of 5×1014/cm3 have been achieved on a relatively low temperature growth (250 °C) of ZnO. The low carrier concentration indicates that the number of defects have been reduced by a magnitude of nearly a 1000 as compared to the room-temperature annealed growths. Also, it was very clearly seen that for the (002) oriented films of ZnO a high mobility film is achieved.

  9. Enhanced Bactericidal Activity of Silver Thin Films Deposited via Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ponja, Sapna D; Sehmi, Sandeep K; Allan, Elaine; MacRobert, Alexander J; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J

    2015-12-30

    Silver thin films were deposited on SiO2-barrier-coated float glass, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, Activ glass, and TiO2-coated float glass via AACVD using silver nitrate at 350 °C. The films were annealed at 600 °C and analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. All the films were crystalline, and the silver was present in its elemental form and of nanometer dimension. The antibacterial activity of these samples was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under UV light (365 nm). All Ag-deposited films reduced the numbers of E. coli by 99.9% within 6 h and the numbers of S. aureus by 99.9% within only 2 h. FTO/Ag reduced bacterial numbers of E. coli to below the detection limit after 60 min and caused a 99.9% reduction of S. aureus within only 15 min of UV irradiation. Activ/Ag reduced the numbers of S. aureus by 66.6% after 60 min and TiO2/Ag killed 99.9% of S. aureus within 60 min of UV exposure. More remarkably, we observed a 99.9% reduction in the numbers of E. coli within 6 h and the numbers of S. aureus within 4 h in the dark using our novel TiO2/Ag system.

  10. Photoluminescence studies of chemically bath deposited nanocrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, L. Rajen; Singh, S. Bobby; London, R. K.; Sharma, H. B.; Rahman, A.

    2012-07-01

    Nanocrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) films have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Lead acetate [Pb(CH3COOH)2] and thiourea [(NH2)2CS] were used as starting materials for deposition of PbS thin films. The as-deposited thin films were found to be crystalline having cubic phase structure with the strongest diffraction intensity along (200) plane. The grain sizes calculated from XRD spectra were found to decrease from 17 to 15 nm with the decrease in molar concentration of the precursor solutions. The structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of the PbS nanocrystalline thin film with different molar concentration were studied.

  11. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  12. Detection of copper ions from aqueous solutions using layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, A.; Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Luculescu, C.; Nedelcea, A.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O. D.

    2015-10-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) thin films with Mg-Al were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. We studied the ability of our films to detect copper ions in aqueous solutions. Copper is known to be a common pollutant in water, originating from urban and industrial waste. Clay minerals, including layered double hydroxides (LDHs), can reduce the toxicity of such wastes by adsorbing copper. We report on the uptake of copper ions from aqueous solution on LDH thin films obtained via PLD. The obtained thin films were characterized using X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. The results in this study indicate that LDHs thin films obtained by PLD have potential as an efficient adsorbent for removing copper from aqueous solution.

  13. Physical properties of chemically deposited Bi2S3 thin films using two post-deposition treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-García, H.; Messina, S.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Martínez, H.

    2014-08-01

    As-deposited bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition technique were treated with thermal annealed in air atmosphere and argon AC plasma. The as-deposited, thermally annealing and plasma treatment Bi2S3 thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM), transmission, specular reflectance and electrical measurements. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films are compared. The XRD analysis showed that both post-deposition treatments, transform the thin films from amorphous to a crystalline phase. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement showed a reduction of roughness for the films treated in plasma. The energy band gap value of the as-prepared film was Eg = 1.61 eV, while for the film thermally annealed was Eg = 1.60 eV and Eg = 1.56 eV for film treated with Plasma. The electrical conductivity under illumination of the as-prepared films was 3.6 × 10-5 (Ω cm)-1, whereas the conductivity value for the thermally annealed films was 2.0 × 10-3 (Ω cm)-1 and for the plasma treated films the electrical conductivity increases up to 7.7 × 10-2 (Ω cm)-1.

  14. Copper selenide thin films by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    1999-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin films (0.05 to 0.25 μm) of copper selenide obtained from chemical baths using sodium selenosulfate or N,N-dimethylselenourea as a source of selenide ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on the films obtained from baths using sodium selenosulfate suggest a cubic structure as in berzelianite, Cu 2- xSe with x=0.15. Annealing the films at 400°C in nitrogen leads to a partial conversion of the film to Cu 2Se. In the case of films obtained from the baths containing dimethylselenourea, the XRD patterns match that of klockmannite, CuSe. Annealing these films in nitrogen at 400°C results in loss of selenium, and consequently a composition rich in copper, similar to Cu 2- xSe, is reached. Optical absorption in the films result from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ˜10 5 cm -1. Band-to-band transitions which gives rise to the optical absorption in the visible-ultraviolet region may be interpreted in terms of direct allowed transitions with band gap in the 2.1-2.3 eV range and indirect allowed transitions with band gap 1.2-1.4 eV. All the films, as prepared and annealed, show p-type conductivity, in the range of (1-5)×10 3 Ω -1 cm -1. This results in high near infrared reflectance, of 30-80%.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of silicon, silicon dioxide, titanium and ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng

    Various silicon-based thin films (such as epitaxial, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon thin films, silicon dioxide thin films and silicon nitride thin films), titanium thin film and various ferroelectric thin films (such as BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 thin films) play critical roles in the manufacture of microelectronics circuits. For the past few years, there have been tremendous interests to search for cheap, safe and easy-to-use methods to develop those thin films with high quality and good step coverage. Silane is a critical chemical reagent widely used to deposit silicon-based thin films. Despite its wide use, silane is a dangerous material. It is pyrophoric, extremely flammable and may explode from heat, shock and/or friction. Because of the nature of silane, serious safety issues have been raised concerning the use, transportation, and storage of compressed gas cylinders of silane. Therefore it is desired to develop safer ways to deposit silicon-based films. In chapter III, I present the results of our research in the following fields: (1) Silane generator, (2) Substitutes of silane for deposition of silicon and silicon dioxide thin films, (3) Substitutes of silane for silicon dioxide thin film deposition. In chapter IV, hydropyridine is introduced as a new ligand for use in constructing precursors for chemical vapor deposition. Detachement of hydropyridine occurs by a low-temperature reaction leaving hydrogen in place of the hydropyridine ligands. Hydropyridine ligands can be attached to a variety of elements, including main group metals, such as aluminum and antimony, transition metals, such as titanium and tantalum, semiconductors such as silicon, and non-metals such as phosphorus and arsenic. In this study, hydropyridine-containing titanium compounds were synthesized and used as chemical vapor deposition precursors for deposition of titanium containing thin films. Some other titanium compounds were also studied for comparison. In chapter V, Chemical Vapor

  16. Deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films by Nd:YAG laser ablation: a microstructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Nistor, L.C.; Ghica, C.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Nistor, S.V. . E-mail: snistor@alpha1.infim.ro; Dinescu, M.; Matei, D.; Frangis, N.; Vouroutzis, N.; Liutas, C.

    2004-11-02

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films has been successfully deposited by Nd:YAG laser ablation at {lambda} = 532 nm. The morphology and microstructure of the deposited layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Polycrystalline HA films were directly obtained with the substrate at 300 deg. C and without introducing water vapors in the deposition chamber. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements show that the oxygen stoichiometry in the HA films is also maintained. Depositions performed at {lambda} = 335 nm laser wavelength and 300 deg. C substrate temperature resulted in polycrystalline layers of mixed composition of HA and tricalciumphosphate (TCP)

  17. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (Eg) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn3O4 phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  18. Bioinspired deposition of TiO2 thin films induced by hydrophobins.

    PubMed

    Santhiya, D; Burghard, Z; Greiner, C; Jeurgens, Lars P H; Subkowski, T; Bill, J

    2010-05-04

    The deposition of ceramic thin films from aqueous solutions at low temperature using biopolymers as templates has attracted much attention due to economic and environmental benefits. Titanium dioxide is one of the most attractive functional materials and shows a wide range of applications across vastly different areas because of its unique chemical, optical, and electrical properties. In the present work, we deposited smooth, nanocrystalline titania thin films by an aqueous deposition method on surface active and amphipathic proteins of fungal origin called hydrophobins. Initially, the hydrophobin molecules were self-assembled on a silicon substrate and characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface potential measurements. Thin films of titanium dioxide were deposited on the surface of hydrophobin self-assembled monolayers from aqueous titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactate) dihydroxide solution at near-ambient conditions. The microstructure of the as-deposited films was analyzed by AFM, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of nanocrystals. The titania films were also characterized using AR-XPS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques. Appropriate mechanisms involved in film deposition are suggested. Additionally, nanoindentation tests on as deposited titania films showed their high resistance against mechanical stress.

  19. Perpendicularly oriented barium ferrite thin films with low microwave loss, prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Ming, Chen; Yuan-Xun, Li; Li-Kun, Han; Chao, Long; Huai-Wu, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Barium ferrite (BaM) thin films are deposited on platinum coated silicon wafers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The effects of deposition substrate temperature on the microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of BaM thin films are investigated in detail. It is found that microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of BaM thin film are very sensitive to deposition substrate temperature, and excellent BaM thin film is obtained when deposition temperature is 910 °C and oxygen pressure is 300 mTorr (1 Torr = 1.3332 × 102 Pa). X-ray diffraction patterns and atomic force microscopy images show that the best thin film has perpendicular orientation and hexagonal morphology, and the crystallographic alignment degree can be calculated to be 0.94. Hysteresis loops reveal that the squareness ratio (M r/M s) is as high as 0.93, the saturated magnetization is 4004 Gs (1 Gs = 104 T), and the anisotropy field is 16.5 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m-1). Ferromagnetic resonance measurements reveal that the gyromagnetic ratio is 2.8 GHz/kOe, and the ferromagnetic resonance linewith is 108 Oe at 50 GHz, which means that this thin film has low microwave loss. These properties make the BaM thin films have potential applications in microwave devices. Project supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (Grant No. KFJJ201506), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation of Hainan University (Grant No. kyqd1539), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province (Grant No. 20165187).

  20. A simple chemical method for deposition of electrochromic Prussian blue thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Demiri, Sani; Najdoski, Metodija; Velevska, Julijana

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue thin films were prepared by a simple chemical deposition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films can be easily prepared from aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films show good electrochromic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change from deep blue color into green, and then back to blue and colorless. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility. -- Abstract: This paper is about a recently developed new chemical method for deposition of Prussian blue thin films. The films are easily prepared by successive immersion of the substrates into an acidic aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. It is calculated of the results from AFM analysis that the growth in the film thickness by one immersion cycle corresponds to an average increase of 6 nm. The characterization of the films with X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS analysis and FTIR spectroscopy shows that the deposited material is amorphous hydrated Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}. The electrochromic properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and VIS spectrophotometry. The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility, which make these films favorable for electrochromic devices.

  1. Laser deposition and direct-writing of thermoelectric misfit cobaltite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jikun; Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Li, Yulong; Chen, Lidong; Shi, Xun; Döbeli, Max; Stender, Dieter; Populoh, Sascha; Xie, Wenjie; Weidenkaff, Anke; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining pulsed laser deposition of calcium cobaltite thin films and a subsequent laser induced forward transfer as micro-pixel is demonstrated as a direct writing approach of micro-scale thin film structures for potential applications in thermoelectric micro-devices. To achieve the desired thermo-electric properties of the cobaltite thin film, the laser induced plasma properties have been characterized utilizing plasma mass spectrometry establishing a direct correlation to the corresponding film composition and structure. The introduction of a platinum sacrificial layer when growing the oxide thin film enables a damage-free laser transfer of calcium cobaltite thereby preserving the film composition and crystallinity as well as the shape integrity of the as-transferred pixels. The demonstrated direct writing approach simplifies the fabrication of micro-devices and provides a large degree of flexibility in designing and fabricating fully functional thermoelectric micro-devices.

  2. Using different chemical methods for deposition of copper selenide thin films and comparison of their characterization.

    PubMed

    Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2015-11-05

    Different chemical methods such as Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR), spin coating and spray pyrolysis methods were used to deposite of copper selenide thin films on the glass substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The XRD and SEM studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline nature and crystallinity of copper selenide thin films prepared with spray pyrolysis greater than spin coating and SILAR methods. From SEM and AFM images, it was observed copper selenide films were uniform on the glass substrates without any visible cracks or pores. The EDX spectra showed that the expected elements exist in the thin films. Optical absorption studies showed that the band gaps of copper selenide thin films were in the range 2.84-2.93 eV depending on different chemical methods. The refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε0, ε∞) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values for each deposition method. The obtained results from different chemical methods revealed that the spray pyrolysis technique is the best chemical deposition method to fabricate copper selenide thin films. This absolute advantage was lead to play key roles on performance and efficiency electrochromic and photovoltaic devices.

  3. Deposition of thin mesoporous silica films on glass substrates from basic solution.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Naoki; Ogawa, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Transparent thin (ca. 100 nm) films of silica-surfactant mesostructured materials were deposited on borosilicate glass plates and soda-lime glass tubes from aqueous solutions containing tetraethoxysilane, alkyltrimethylammonium chloride, ammonia, and methanol. By calcination in air, the films became mesoporous (BET surface area of 700-900 m2 g-1) with pore diameter 2.0-2.8 nm.

  4. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate--lanthanum ruthenate thin film structures prepared by chemical solution deposition.

    PubMed

    Bencan, Andreja; Malic, Barbara; Drazic, Goran; Vukadinović, Miso; Kosec, Marija

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the results of compositional and microstructural analysis of lead zirconate titanate--lanthanum ruthenate thin film structures prepared by chemical solution deposition are discussed. The cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the La-Ru-O film deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate and annealed at 700 degrees C revealed RuO2 crystals embedded in a glassy silicate matrix. When the La-Ru-O film was deposited on a Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate, RuO2 and La4Ru6O19 crystallized after annealing at 700 degrees C. After firing at 550 degrees C randomly oriented lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films crystallized on the La-Ru-O/SiO2/Si substrate, while on La-Ru-O/Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates PZT thin films with (111) preferred orientation were obtained. No diffusion of the Ru atoms in the PZT film was found. Ferroelectric response of PZT thin films on these substrates is shown in comparison with the PZT film deposited directly on the Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate without a La-Ru-O layer.

  5. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae

    2016-12-01

    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10-3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance <20 Ω sq-1 and a visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  6. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae

    2016-12-01

    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance <20 Ω sq(-1) and a visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  7. Chemical Vapor Deposition for Ultra-lightweight Thin-film Solar Arrays for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.; Lau, Janice E.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. A key technical issues outlined in the 2001 U.S. Photovoltaic Roadmap, is the need to develop low cost, high throughput manufacturing for high-efficiency thin film solar cells. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single-source-precursors (SSPs) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV devices.

  8. Properties of RF sputtered cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films: Influence of deposition pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, R. R.; Pawbake, A. S.; Waykar, R. G.; Rondiya, S. R.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of deposition pressure on structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of CdTe thin films deposited at low substrate temperature (100°C) by RF magnetron sputtering was investigated. The formation of CdTe was confirmed by low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the CdTe films have zinc blende (cubic) structure with crystallites having preferred orientation in (111) direction. Raman spectra show the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode peak ˜ 165.4 cm-1 suggesting high quality CdTe film were obtained over the entire range of deposition pressure studied. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that films are smooth, homogenous, and crack-free with no evidence of voids. The EDAX data revealed that CdTe films deposited at low deposition pressure are high-quality stoichiometric. However, for all deposition pressures, films are rich in Cd relative to Te. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis show the blue shift in absorption edge with increasing the deposition pressure while the band gap show decreasing trend. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the film deposited at deposition pressure 1 Pa which indicates that the optimized deposition pressure for our sputtering unit is 1 Pa. Based on the experimental results, these CdTe films can be useful for the application in the flexible solar cells and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Britson, Jason Curtis

    2008-11-18

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB14 have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB14 used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB14 has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB14 films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB14 films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel

  10. Impact of deposition-rate fluctuations on thin-film thickness and uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Joli B.

    2016-11-04

    Variations in deposition rate are superimposed on a thin-film–deposition model with planetary rotation to determine the impact on film thickness. Variations in magnitude and frequency of the fluctuations relative to the speed of planetary revolution lead to thickness errors and uniformity variations up to 3%. Sufficiently rapid oscillations in the deposition rate have a negligible impact, while slow oscillations are found to be problematic, leading to changes in the nominal film thickness. Finally, superimposing noise as random fluctuations in the deposition rate has a negligible impact, confirming the importance of any underlying harmonic oscillations in deposition rate or source operation.

  11. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  12. Laser-induced chemical vapour deposition of conductive and insulating thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisse, G.; Gaensicke, F.; Ebert, R.; Illmann, U.; Johansen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations concerning the laser-induced chemical vapour deposition of Mo, W, Co and TiSi 2 conductive thin film structures from Mo(CO) 6, W(CO) 6, Co 2(CO) 8, TiCl 4 and SiH 4 using a direct writing method are presented. SiO 2 thin films were deposited from SiH 4 and N 2O in a large area deposition process stimulated by an excimer laser by using a parallel beam configuration.

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. InGaZnO semiconductor thin film fabricated using pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangbo; Wang, Li; Su, Xueqiong; Kong, Le; Liu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xinping

    2010-01-18

    The InGaZnO thin films are fabricated on the quartz glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), where the target is prepared by mixing the Ga(2)O(3), In(2)O(3), and ZnO powders at a mol ratio of 1:1:8 before the solid-state reactions in a tube furnace at the atmospheric pressure. The product thin films were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect investigation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thus, we demonstrate semiconductor thin-film materials with high smoothness, high transmittance in visible region, and excellent electrical properties.

  15. Nanomechanical properties of platinum thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, M.A.; Gu, D.; Baumgart, H.; Elmustafa, A.A.

    2015-03-01

    The nanomechanical properties of Pt thin films grown on Si (100) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated using nanoindentation. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has successfully demonstrated the capability to deposit ultra-thin films of platinum (Pt). Using (methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum (MeCpPtMe3) as chemical platinum precursor and oxygen (O2) as the oxidizing agent, the ALD synthesis of Pt can be achieved with high conformity and excellent film uniformity. The ALD process window for Pt films was experimentally established in the temperature range between 270 °C and 320 °C, where the sheet conductance was constant over that temperature range, indicating stable ALD Pt film growth rate. ALD growth of Pt films exhibits very poor nucleation and adhesion characteristics on bare Si surfaces when the native oxide was removed by 2% HF etch. Pt adhesion improves for thermally oxidized Si wafers and for Si wafers covered with native oxide. Three ALD Pt films deposited at 800, 900, and 1000 ALD deposition cycles were tested for the structural and mechanical properties. Additionally, the sample with 900 ALD deposition cycles was further annealed in forming gas (95% N2 and 5% H2) at 450 °C for 30 min in order to passivate dangling bonds in the grain boundaries of the polycrystalline Pt film. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to characterize the films' surface structure and morphology. Nanoindentation technique was used to evaluate the hardness and modulus of the ALD Pt films of various film thicknesses. The results indicate that the films depict comparable hardness and modulus results; however, the 800 and 1000 ALD deposition cycles films without forming gas annealing experienced significant amount of pileup, whereas the 900 ALD deposition cycles sample annealed in forming gas resulted in a smaller pileup.

  16. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Arturo; Juarez, Héctor; Pacio, Mauricio; Perez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm), which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process. PMID:25977868

  17. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Jose Alberto; Maldonado, Arturo; Juarez, Héctor; Pacio, Mauricio; Perez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm), which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  18. Structural and morphological properties of metallic thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for photocathode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, A.; Gontad, F.; Caricato, A. P.; Chiadroni, E.; Broitman, E.; Perrone, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work yttrium and lead thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique and characterized by ex situ different diagnostic methods. All the films were adherent to the substrates and revealed a polycrystalline structure. Y films were uniform with a very low roughness and droplet density, while Pb thin films were characterized by a grain morphology with a relatively high roughness and droplet density. Such metallic materials are studied because they are proposed as a good alternative to copper and niobium photocathodes which are generally used in radiofrequency and superconducting radiofrequency guns, respectively. The photoemission performances of the photocathodes based on Y and Pb thin films have been also studied and discussed.

  19. Engineering the Crystalline Morphology of Polymer Thin Films via Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyuncheol; Arnold, Craig; Priestley, Rodney

    Thin-film growth via physical vapor deposition (PVD) has been successfully exploited for the delicate control of film structure for molecular and atomic systems. The application of such a high-energetic process to polymeric film growth has been challenged by chemical degradation. However, recent development of Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique opened up a way to deposit a variety of macromolecules in a PVD manner. Here, employing MAPLE technique to the growth of semicrystalline polymer thin films, we show the engineering of crystalline film morphology can be achieved via manipulation of substrate temperature. This is accomplished by exploiting temperature effect on crystallization kinetics of polymers. During the slow film growth crystallization can either be permitted or suppressed, and crystal thickness can be tuned via temperature modulation. In addition, we report that the crystallinity of polymer thin films may be significantly altered with deposition temperature in MAPLE processing. We expect that this ability to manipulate crystallization kinetics during polymeric film growth will open the possibility to engineer structure in thin film polymeric-based devices in ways that are difficult by other means.

  20. Atomic Layer-Deposited Titanium-Doped Vanadium Oxide Thin Films and Their Thermistor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyu; Yu, Shifeng; Lu, Ming; Liu, Mingzhao; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the enhancement in the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of atomic layer-deposited vanadium oxide thin films through the doping of titanium oxide. The Hall effect measurement provides a potential explanation for the phenomenon. The composition and morphology of the thin films are investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The high TCR, good uniformity, and low processing temperature of the material make it a good candidate for thermistor application.

  1. Deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, W.B.; Sacks, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    Use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for electrochromic WO{sub 3} film deposition is investigated. Oxygen, hydrogen, and tungsten hexafluoride were used as source gases. Reactant gas flow was investigated to determine the effect on film characteristics. High quality optical films were obtained at deposition rates on the order of 100 {angstrom}/s. Higher deposition rates were attainable but film quality and optical coherence degraded. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), was used to provide an in situ assessment of the plasma deposition chemistry. Through AES, it is shown that the hydrogen gas flow is essential to the deposition of the WO{sub 3} film. Oxygen gas flow and tungsten hexafluoride gas flow must be approximately equal for high quality films.

  2. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  3. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    DOE PAGES

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; ...

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited undermore » higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.« less

  4. Properties of NiO thin films deposited by intermittent spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguig, B. A.; Khelil, A.; Cattin, L.; Morsli, M.; Bernède, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    NiO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition of NiCl 2·6H 2O diluted in distilled water, using a simple "perfume atomizer". The effect of the solution molarity on their properties was studied and compared to those of NiO thin films deposited with a classical spray system. It is shown that NiO thin films crystallized in the NiO structure are achieved after deposition. Whatever the precursor molarity, the grain size is around 25-30 nm. The crystallites are preferentially oriented along the (1 1 1) direction. All the films are p-type. However, the thickness and the conductivity of the NiO films depend on the precursor contraction. By comparison with the properties of films deposited by classical spray technique, it is shown that the critical precursor concentration, which induces strong thin films properties perturbations, is higher when a perfume atomizer is used. This broader stability domain can be attributed to better chlorides decomposition during the rest time used in the perfume atomizer technique.

  5. IN-SITU Diagnostics For Deposition And Processing Of High Tc Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1990-02-01

    The deposition of high quality superconducting thin films based on the metal oxides has given rise to a variety of needs for diagnostic techniques. These needs are primarily for monitoring, 1. the material ejection process from the target, 2. the ejected vapor interaction with the background oxygen, 3. the crystallization dynamics at the substrate and 4. post deposition analysis and processing of the film. This paper summarizes some of the recent work in this direction

  6. Optimization of the Automated Spray Layer-by-Layer Technique for Thin Film Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The operational parameters of the automated Spray- LbL technique for thin film deposition have been investigated in...order to-identify their effects on film thickness and roughness. We use the automated Spray- LbL system developed at MIT by the Hammond lab to build...This interdiffusion is investigated using both the conventional dipped LbL and Spray- LbL deposition techniques. Interdiffusion is shown to be dependent

  7. Substrate dependent structural and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Fe3O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Kaur, Davinder; Pandey, Ashish K

    2010-12-01

    Nanocrystalline iron oxide thin films have been deposited on various substrates such as quartz, MgO(100), and Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition technique using excimer KrF laser (248 nm). The orientations, crystallite size and lattice parameters were studied using X-ray diffraction. The XRD results show that the films deposited on MgO and Si substrates are highly oriented and show only (400) and (311) reflections respectively. On the other hand, the orientation of the films deposited on quarts substrate changed from (311) to (400) with an increase in the substrate temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C, indicating thereby that the film growth direction is highly affected with nature of substrate and substrate temperature. The surface morphology of the deposited films was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and spherical ball like regular features of nanometer size grains were obtained. The magnetic properties were studied by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer in the magnetic field +/- 6 Tesla. The magnetic field dependent magnetization (M-H) curves of all the Fe3O4 thin films measured at 5 K and 300 K show the ferrimagnetic nature. The electrochemical sensing of dopamine studied for these films shows that the film deposited on MgO substrate can be used as a sensing electrode.

  8. In situ monitoring of atomic layer deposition in nanoporous thin films using ellipsometric porosimetry.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Jolien; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Levrau, Elisabeth; Van Hove, Robbert; Sree, Sreeprasanth Pulinthanathu; Baklanov, Mikhail R; Martens, Johan A; Detavernier, Christophe

    2012-02-28

    Ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) is a handy technique to characterize the porosity and pore size distribution of porous thin films with pore diameters in the range from below 1 nm up to 50 nm and for the characterization of porous low-k films especially. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to functionalize porous films and membranes, e.g., for the development of filtration and sensor devices and catalytic surfaces. In this work we report on the implementation of the EP technique onto an ALD reactor. This combination allowed us to employ EP for monitoring the modification of a porous thin film through ALD without removing the sample from the deposition setup. The potential of in situ EP for providing information about the effect of ALD coating on the accessible porosity, the pore radius distribution, the thickness, and mechanical properties of a porous film is demonstrated in the ALD of TiO(2) in a mesoporous silica film.

  9. Investigations of LBMO thin films deposited on different substrates by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshendra Reddy, Ch.; Ashoka Reddy, Ch.; Sivasankar Reddy, A.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2016-04-01

    La0.7Ba0.3MnO3 (LBMO) thin films were prepared on different substrates such as Si, MgO, and c-ZrO2 substrates at substrate temperature 1023 K using electron beam evaporation technique for first time. Through optimizing the preparation condition, the better film uniformity of thickness, composition, and temperature was achieved. To find the influence of substrates, we studied the structural, compositional, morphological, and electrical properties of LBMO thin films. All the LBMO films exhibited a single phase and good crystallinity with no impurity phases. Films deposited on MgO have high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) value with low transition temperature (245 K). Better TCR (4.09 %/K) value at room temperature is observed in LBMO films deposited on Si substrate.

  10. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Hao, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  11. Thin films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, A.; Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; Galasso, A.; Rau, J. V.

    2012-09-01

    Ultra-short Pulsed Laser Deposition has been applied to the production of thin films from a tungsten carbide target. The gaseous phase obtained by the laser ablation shows a very weak primary plume, in contrast with a very strong secondary one. The deposited films, investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction, present a mixture of WC and other phases with lower carbon content. All films are amorphous, independently from the substrate temperature. The characteristics of the deposits have been explained in terms of thermal evaporation and cooling rate of molten particles ejected from the target.

  12. Nanomechanical and microstructural characterization of sputter deposited ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Vipul; Chowdhury, Rajib; Jayaganthan, R.

    2016-12-01

    The nano-mechanical properties of ZnO thin films deposited at different substrate temperature such as (RT) 25 °C, 100 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C using DC-sputtering on Corning glass substrate were investigated. The ZnO thin films are found to be predominately c-axis (002) oriented. The crystal structure is sensitive to increasing substrate temperature and new set of crystal planes become visible at 300 °C as thin films become highly polycrystalline. The presence of (103) crystal plane is more pronounced with the increasing substrate temperature. However, high crystallinity and peak intensity ratio I(002)/I(103) (counts) is highest for thin films deposited at 100 °C, which is attributed for high hardness and better adhesive properties observed for ZnO thin films. Concomitantly, no major sudden burst of displacement 'pop-in' event in load-displacement curve of thin films observed during indentation, indicating the films are dense with low defects and adhered strongly to the substrate.

  13. Monte Carlo Modeling of Thin Film Deposition: Factors that Influence 3D Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmer, G H; Dalla Torre, J; Baumann, F H; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2002-01-04

    In this paper we discuss the use of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations to predict film microstructure evolution. We discuss physical vapor deposition, and are primarily concerned with films that are formed by the nucleation and coalescence of 3D islands. Multi-scale modeling is used in the sense that information obtained from molecular dynamics and first principles calculations provide atomic interaction energies, surface and grain boundary properties and diffusion rates for use in the Monte Carlo model. In this paper, we discuss some fundamental issues associated with thin film formation, together with an assessment of the sensitivity of the film morphology to the deposition conditions and materials properties.

  14. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  15. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of AZO Thin Films for Schottky Diode Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    High-quality aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed from the temperatures 350 °C to 650 °C in pure nitrogen (N₂) ambient. The effects of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the AZO films were investigated. A detailed analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Four Probe and Hall measurements was performed to study the properties of these AZO thin films. It was observed that all of the as-deposited and annealed AZO films have homogenous surfaces and hexagonal wurtzite structures with good crystalline quality. The study also suggested that there was an intermediate post annealing temperature (450 °C) at which the deposited ZnO film exhibit best surface characteristics. Pd/AZO Schottky devices were fabricated with 450 °C annealed AZO thin films and the parameters of Schottky devices were extracted from I-V characteristics. These results indicated that the Pd/AZO films were very much suitable for various optoelectronics applications particularly for metal semiconductor metal based UV detector application.

  16. Sputter deposition and characterization of lithium cobalt oxide thin films and their applications in thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F.; Sales, B.C.; Zuhr, R.A.; Robertson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Li Co oxide thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of a LiCoO{sub 2} target in a 3:1 Ar/O{sub 2} mixture gas. From proton-induced gamma-ray emission analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the average composition of these films was determined to be Li{sub 1.15}CoO{sub 2.16}. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of films annealed in air at 500-700 C were consistent with regular rhombohedral structure of crystalline LiCoO{sub 2}. Discharge curves of thin film lithium cells with amoprohous LiCoO{sub 2} showed no obvious structural transition between 4.2 and 1.5 V. Shape of discharge curves of cells with polycrystalline cathodes were consistent with a two-phase voltage plateau at {similar_to}3.9 V with a relatively large capacity and two additional smaller plateaus at higher voltages. Cells with the 700 C annealed cathodes showed a capacity loss of {similar_to} after 1000 cycles between 4.2 and 3.0 V.

  17. Chemical-bath deposition of ZnSe thin films: Process and material characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Dona, J.M.; Herrero, J.

    1995-03-01

    Chemical-bath deposition of ZnSe thin films from NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}/SeC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}/ZnSO{sub 4} solutions has been studied. The effect of various process parameters on the growth and the film quality is presented. A first approach to a mechanistic interpretation of the chemical process, based on the influence of the process parameters on the film growth rate, is reported. The structural, optical, chemical, and electrical properties of the ZnSe thin-films deposited by this method have been studied. The electron diffraction (EDS) analysis shows that the films are microcrystalline with mixed cubic and hexagonal structure. EDS analysis has demonstrated that the films are highly stoichiometric. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the ZnSe thin films deposited by this method show that the films are continuous and homogeneous. Optical measurements have allowed the authors to detect the presence of the spin-orbit splitting effect in this material. Electrical conductivity measurements have shown the highly resistive nature of these films ({rho} {approximately} 10{sup 9} {Omega} cm).

  18. Chemical bath deposition of Cu3BiS3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh S., G.; Panchal A., K.; Vipul, Kheraj

    2016-05-01

    First time, copper bismuth sulfide (Cu3BiS3) thin films were synthesized on the glass substrate using simple, low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The synthesized parameters such as temperature of bath, pH and concentration of precursors were optimized for the deposition of uniform, well adherent Cu3BiS3 thin films. The optical, surface morphology and structural properties of the Cu3BiS3 thin films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as- synthesized Cu3BiS3 film exhibits a direct band gap 1.56 to 1.58 eV having absorption coefficient of the order of 105 cm-1. The XRD declares the amorphous nature of the films. SEM images shows films were composed of close-packed fine spherical nanoparticles of 70-80 nm in diameter. The chemical composition of the film was almost stoichiometric. The optical study indicates that the Cu3BiS3 films can be applied as an absorber layer for thin film solar cells.

  19. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  20. Growth and characteristics of tantalum oxide thin films deposited using thermionic vacuum arc technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladoiu, Rodica; Ciupina, Victor; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Prodan, Madalina; Musa, Geavit

    2010-11-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films were synthesized using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technology. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and electron gun system for the growth of thin films from solid precursors under vacuum of 10-6 Torr. The properties of the deposited Ta2O5 thin films were investigated in terms of wettability, refractive index, morphology, and structure. The surface free energy was determined by means of surface energy evaluation system indicating a hydrophilic character and the refractive index was measured by Filmetrics F20 device. The morphology was determined from bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image performed by Philips CM 120 ST TEM system. It exhibits nanoparticles of 3-6 nm diameter smoothly distributed. Selected area electron diffraction pattern revealed the contrast fringes given by complex polycrystalline particles included in the amorphous film. The measured fringes could be indexed using monoclinic structure of Ta2O5.

  1. Phenomenological Model of the Growth of Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junce; Fryauf, David M; Garrett, Matthew; Logeeswaran, V J; Sawabe, Atsuhito; Islam, M Saif; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2015-07-21

    The structural properties of optically thin (15 nm) silver (Ag) films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) substrates with a germanium (Ge) nucleation layer were studied. The morphological and crystallographical characteristics of Ag thin films with different Ge nucleation layer thicknesses were assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), X-ray reflection (XRR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface roughness of Ag thin films was found to decrease significantly by inserting a Ge nucleation layer with a thickness in the range of 1 to 2 nm (i.e., smoothing mode). However, as the Ge nucleation layer thickness increased beyond 2 nm, the surface roughness increased concomitantly (i.e., roughing mode). For the smoothing mode, the role of the Ge nucleation layer in the Ag film deposition is discussed by invoking the surface energy of Ge, the bond dissociation energy of Ag-Ge, and the deposition mechanisms of Ag thin films on a given characteristic Ge nucleation layer. Additionally, Ge island formation, the precipitation of Ge from Ag-Ge alloys, and the penetration of Ge into SiO2 are suggested for the roughing mode. This demonstration of ultrasmooth Ag thin films would offer an advantageous material platform with scalability for applications such as optics, plasmonics, and photonics.

  2. Studies on VOx thin films deposited over Si3N4 coated Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, P. Deepak; Gupta, Sudha; Sridharan, M.

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films were deposited on to the silicon nitride (Si3N4) coated silicon (Si) substrate using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures (Ts). The deposited films were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The average grain size of the deposited films was in the range of 95 to 178 nm and the strain varied from 0.071 to 0.054 %. The optical bandgap values of the films were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and lies in the range of 2.46 to 3.88 eV. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for the film deposited at 125 °C was -1.23%/°C with the sheet resistivity of 2.7 Ω.cm.

  3. RF magnetron sputter deposition and analysis of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Holland, Anthony S.; Fardin, Ernest; Kandasamy, Sasikaran

    2006-01-01

    The paper investigates conditions for depositing perovskite-oriented strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films using RF magnetron sputtering. PSZT is a material that can exhibit high piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The deposition was conducted using an 8/65/35 PSZT sputtering target. The effects of sputtering conditions and the deposition rates for films sputtered onto several surfaces (including gold and platinum coated substrates) were studied. Combinations of in-situ heating during sputtering and post-deposition Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) were performed and resulting phases determined. RTA was carried out in argon to observe their effects. The sputtered films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Results show dramatic differences in the grain structure of the deposited films on the different surfaces. The stoichiometry of the sputtered films is demonstrated using XPS. In the case of gold and platinum coated substrates, sputtering was also carried out for different durations, to establish the growth rate of the film, and to observe the variation in grain size with sputtering duration. The deposited thin films were resistant to most chemical wet etchants and were Ion Beam Etched (IBE) at 19 nm/min.

  4. Continuous equilibrated growth of ordered block copolymer thin films by electrospray deposition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanqiong; Rangou, Sofia; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopalan, Padma; Filiz, Volkan; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2013-04-23

    Deposition of block copolymer thin films is most often accomplished in a serial process where material is spin coated onto a substrate and subsequently annealed, either thermally or by solvent vapor, to produce a well-ordered morphology. Here we show that under appropriate conditions, well-ordered block copolymer films may be continuously grown under substrate equilibrated conditions by slow deposition of discrete subattoliter quantities of material using electrospray. We conduct time-resolved observations and investigate the effects of process parameters that underpin film morphology including solvent selectivity, substrate temperature, block-substrate selectivity, and flow rate of the feed solution. For a PEO cylinder-forming poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer, we uncover a wide temperature window from 90 to 150 °C and an ideal flow rate of 2 μL/min for ordered film deposition from dilute acetone solutions. PEO cylinders aligned with their long axes perpendicular to the film-air interface at optimal spray conditions. Using poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) deposited onto neutrally selective surfaces, we show that the substrate-equilibrated process results in vertically oriented microdomains throughout the film, indicating a preservation of the initial substrate-dictated morphology during the film deposition. Electrospray offers a new and potentially exciting route for controlled, continuous growth of block copolymer thin films and manipulation of their microstructure.

  5. Effects of deposition temperature on the mechanical and physical properties of silicon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, B. A.; Liu, Y.; Hu, X. Z.; Bush, M. B.; Winchester, K. J.; Martyniuk, M.; Dell, J. M.; Faraone, L.

    2005-08-01

    This study investigates the mechanical and physical properties of low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited silicon nitride thin films, with particular respect to the effect of deposition temperature. The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by both nanoindentation and microcantilever beam-bending techniques. The cantilever beam specimens were fabricated from silicon nitride thin films deposited on (100) silicon wafer by bulk micromachining. The density of the films was determined from quartz crystal microbalance measurements, as well as from the resonant modes of the cantilever beams, which were mechanically excited using an atomic force microscope. It was found that both the Young's modulus and density of the films were significantly reduced with decreasing deposition temperature. The decrease in Young's modulus is attributed to the decreasing material density. The decrease in density with decreasing deposition temperature is believed to be due to the slower diffusion rates of the deposited species, which retarded the densification of the film during the deposition process.

  6. Structural and optical characterizations of chemically deposited cadmium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Khomane, A.S.

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} CdSe thin films deposited first time using formic acid as a complexing agent. {yields} The deposited thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-vis-NIR and electrical techniques. {yields} X-ray diffraction analysis shows presence of zinc blende crystal structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of cadmium selenide thin films by CBD method has been presented. The deposited film samples were subjected to XRD, SEM, UV-vis-NIR and TEP characterization. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that CdSe film sample crystallized in zinc blende or cubic phase structure. SEM studies reveal that the grains are spherical in shape and uniformly distributed all over the surface of the substrates. The optical band gap energy of as deposited film sample was found to be in the order of 1.8 eV. The electrical conductivity of the film sample was found to be 10{sup -6} ({Omega} cm){sup -1} with n-type of conduction mechanism.

  7. Sequential pulsed laser deposition of homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, D. J.; Gariglio, S.

    2016-12-01

    The control of thin film stoichiometry is of primary relevance to achieve desired functionality. Pulsed laser deposition ablating from binary-oxide targets (sequential deposition) can be applied to precisely control the film composition, offsetting the importance of growth conditions on the film stoichiometry. In this work, we demonstrate that the cation stoichiometry of SrTiO3 thin films can be finely tuned by sequential deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets. Homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films were deposited at different substrate temperatures and Ti/Sr pulse ratios, allowing the establishment of a growth window for stoichiometric SrTiO3. The growth kinetics and nucleation processes were studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy, providing information about the growth mode and the degree of off-stoichiometry. At the optimal (stoichiometric) growth conditions, films exhibit atomically flat surfaces, whereas off-stoichiometry is accommodated by crystal defects, 3D islands, and/or surface precipitates depending on the substrate temperature and the excess cation. This technique opens the way to precisely control stoichiometry and doping of oxide thin films.

  8. Anomalous scaling behavior and surface roughening in molecular thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-04-15

    The thin film growth dynamics of a molecular semiconductor, free-base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc), deposited by organic molecular beam deposition, has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and height difference correlation function (HDCF) analysis. The measured dynamic scaling components ({alpha}{sub loc}=0.61{+-}0.12, {beta}=1.02{+-}0.08, and 1/z=0.72{+-}0.13) are consistent with rapid surface roughening and anomalous scaling behavior. A detailed analysis of AFM images and simple growth models suggest that this behavior arises from the pronounced upward growth of crystalline H{sub 2}Pc mounds during the initial stages of thin film growth.

  9. DCEMS Study of Thin Stainless Steel Films Deposited by RF Sputtering of AISI316L

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, K.; Iio, S.; Ujihira, Y.; Terai, T.

    2005-04-26

    Thin stainless steel films were prepared on SiO2/Si plate heated at 100 deg. C and 400 deg. C using AISI316L as target, by a RF magnetron Ar sputtering method. RF sputtered-deposited films and the oxidized surface layers by post heating were characterized by depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (DCEMS) using a He+5%CH4 gas proportional counter. The as-deposited films consisted of magnetic phases, the magnetic orientation of which had a tendency to be perpendicular to the surface of the film. In the case of the deposited films at substrate temperature of 100 deg. C, a small amount of Fe2O3 and ferritic stainless steel formed by post-heating in air. A magnetic subcomponent and a austenite phase were formed in the films deposited at substrate temperature of 400 deg. C. {alpha}-Fe2O3 and magnetite formed easily on the top and middle layers of the films by post-heating in air. The oxide states of the films deposited at different temperatures of substrate were clearly distinguished by post-heating. Thus it was found by DCEMS that the structures of the deposited films were strongly affected by the preparation method and the temperature of the substrate.

  10. Photovoltaic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films RF sputter deposited on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharmadhikari, V. S.; Grannemann, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of BaTiO3 have been successfully deposited on n-type silicon substrates at temperatures above 500 C by RF sputtering in an O2/Ar atmosphere. Analysis by X-ray diffraction patterns show that films deposited at room temperature are amorphous. At temperatures above 500 C, crystalline BaTiO3 films with a tetragonal structure are obtained. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops and a broad peak in the dielectric constant versus temperature curve at Curie point indicate that the RF sputtered BaTiO3 films are ferroelectric. An anomalous photovoltaic effect is observed in these thin films which is related to the remanent polarization of the material. The results on open-circuit and short-circuit measurements provide an important basis for a better understanding of the role of photovoltaic field, photovoltaic current, and the pyroelectric properties in photoferroelectric domain switching.

  11. Preparation of vanadium oxide thin films modified with Ag using a hybrid deposition configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Zavala, F.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Rivera-Rodríguez, C.; Basurto, R.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2016-04-01

    The application of a hybrid deposition configuration, formed by the interaction of a laser ablation plasma with a flux of atomic vapor, to deposit vanadium oxide thin films modified with different amounts of silver, is reported. The effect of the amount of Ag incorporated in the films on their structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties was studied. The obtained results reveal that films with variable Ag content from 11.7 to 24.6 at.% were obtained. Depending on the silver content, the samples show very different surface morphologies. Optical characterization indicates the presence of nanostructures of Ag. Thin films containing silver exhibit better photocatalytic performances than unmodified V2O5 films. Raman spectra reveal that as the silver content is increased, the signals associated with V2O5 disappear and new modes attributed mainly to silver vanadates appear suggesting the formation of ternary compounds.

  12. Uses of ion bombardment in thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.

    1990-10-01

    Use of plasma- and ion-beam-modified surfaces and surface coatings in continually expanding in engineering disciplines. The purpose of these modifications and treatments is to impart favorable properties, such as wear resistance and lubricity, to the surfaces, while at the same time retaining the strength or toughness of the bulk materials. Energetic-ion bombardment can be used to modify the structural and chemical properties of surfaces or applied coatings. Ion-implantation has been used for many years, and recently, other surface-modification techniques, among them ion-beam mixing and ion-beam-assisted deposition, have attracted attention because they permit application of highly adherent lubricious and wear-resistant films. In this paper, ion-beam techniques are described from the viewpoint of ion-surface interactions, and some avenues for the engineering of tribological surfaces are presented. 100 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Microstructure of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-07

    optical properties ." (Final text in preparation). John Lehan, "Microstructural analysis of thin films by Rutherford Backscattering...correlation of optical properties and micro- Ion assisted deposition (IAD) is known to produce structure of IAD thin films with ion beam parameters thin films ...1.5-eV interband absorption. P (eV) R (%) P (, -V) R %) Optical properties of metal thin films in the spectral 0 98.3 0 88.8 range of

  14. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sadananda Kumar, N. Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  15. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuhan; Comes, Ryan B.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2015-03-01

    Epitaxial NbO2 thin films were synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO2. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ~ 1.3 nm thick Nb2O5 layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO2. The epitaxial relationship between NbO2 film and substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement as a function of temperature showed that the conduction mechanism could be described by variable range hopping mechanism.

  16. Development of aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition for thin film fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Marthatika, Dian; Panatarani, Camellia; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to grow a thin film applied in many industrial applications. This paper report the development of an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) which is one of the CVD methods. Newly developed AACVD system consists of a chamber of pyrex glass, two wire-heating elements placed to cover pyrex glass, a substrate holder, and an aerosol generator using an air brush sprayer. The temperature control system was developed to prevent condensation on the chamber walls. The control performances such as the overshoot and settling time were obtained from of the developed temperature controller. Wire-heating elements were controlled at certain setting value to heat the injected aerosol to form a thin film in the substrate. The performance of as-developed AACVD system tested to form a thin film where aerosol was sprayed into the chamber with a flow rate of 7 liters/minutes, and vary in temperatures and concentrations of precursor. The temperature control system have an overshoot around 25 °C from the desired set point temperature, very small temperature ripple 2 °C and a settling time of 20 minutes. As-developed AACVD successfully fabricated a ZnO thin film with thickness of below 1 µm. The performances of system on formation of thin films influenced by the generally controlled process such as values of setting temperature and concentration where the aerosol flow rate was fixed. Higher temperature was applied, the more uniform ZnO thin films were produced. In addition, temperature of the substrate also affected on surface roughness of the obtained films, while concentration of ZnO precursor determined the thickness of produce films. It is concluded that newly simple AACVD can be applied to produce a thin film.

  17. Effects of Buffer Salt Concentration on the Dominated Deposition Mechanism and Optical Characteristics of Chemically Deposited Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakhaki, Z. Makhdoumi; Youzbashi, A.; Sangpour, P.; Kazemzadeh, A.; Naderi, N.; Bazargan, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Effects of buffer salt concentration on the rate of deposition, dominated deposition mechanism and subsequently the structural, morphological, and optical properties of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on glass substrate were investigated. The precursors were chosen to be cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as the cadmium source, thiourea (CS(NH2)2) as the sulfur source, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) as the buffer salt and ammonia as the complexing agent and the pH controller. The influence of the NH4NO3 concentration on the structure, morphology, film uniformity, stoichiometry and optical properties of CdS thin films was also studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, uv-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopes. The XRD studies revealed that all the deposited films exhibited a (002)h/(111)c preferred orientation. The crystallite size was increased from 20nm to 30nm by the increase of concentration of NH4NO3 from 0.5M to 2.5M. The morphology of CdS thin films were agglomerated spherical particles consisted of smaller particles. The surface of thin films deposited at the NH4NO3 concentration of 0.5M was compact and smooth. The increase of the concentration of NH4NO3 decreased the packing density of the films. The optical band gap was in the range of 2.25-2.4eV, which was decreased by the decrement of packing density. The PL spectra showed two peaks centered at 400nm and 500nm which are attributed to violet and band-to-band emissions, respectively.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of diamond thin films on titanium silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Songlan

    2008-10-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been the main method for synthesizing diamond thin films on hetero substrate materials since 1980s. It has been well acknowledged that both nucleation and growth of diamond on non-diamond surfaces without pre-treatment are very difficult and slow. Furthermore, the weak adhesion between the diamond thin films and substrates has been a major problem for widespread application of diamond thin films. Up to now, Si has been the most frequently used substrate for the study of diamond thin films and various methods, including bias and diamond powder scratching, have been applied to enhance diamond nucleation density. In the present study, nucleation and growth of diamond thin films on Ti3SiC2, a newly developed ceramic-metallic material, using Microwave Plasma Enhanced (MPE) and Hot- Filament (HF) CVD reactors were carried out. In addition, synchrotron-based Near Edge Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was used to identify the electronic and chemical structures of various NCD films. The results from MPECVD showed that a much higher diamond nucleation density and a much higher film growth rate can be obtained on Ti3SiC2 compared with on Si. Consequently, nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films were feasibly synthesized on Ti3SiC2 under the typical conditions for microcrystalline diamond film synthesis. Furthermore, the diamond films on Ti3SiC 2 exhibited better adhesion than on Si. The early stage growth of diamond thin films on Ti3SiC2 by HFCVD indicated that a nanowhisker-like diamond-graphite composite layer, different from diamond nucleation on Si, initially formed on the surface of Ti3SiC2, which resulted in high diamond nucleation density. These results indicate that Ti3SiC 2 has great potentials to be used both as substrates and interlayers on metals for diamond thin film deposition and application. This research may greatly expand the tribological application of both Ti3SiC 2 and diamond thin films

  19. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.

  20. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  1. Magnetism of Amorphous and Nano-Crystallized Dc-Sputter-Deposited MgO Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Mahadeva, Sreekanth K.; Fan, Jincheng; Biswas, Anis; Sreelatha, K.S.; Belova, Lyubov; Rao, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic study of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in pristine MgO thin films in their amorphous and nano-crystalline states. The as deposited dc-sputtered films of pristine MgO on Si substrates using a metallic Mg target in an O2 containing working gas atmosphere of (N2 + O2) are found to be X-ray amorphous. All these films obtained with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) ~10% to 80% while maintaining the same total pressure of the working gas are found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. The room temperature saturation magnetization (MS) value of 2.68 emu/cm3 obtained for the MgO film deposited in PO2 of 10% increases to 9.62 emu/cm3 for film deposited at PO2 of 40%. However, the MS values decrease steadily for further increase of oxygen partial pressure during deposition. On thermal annealing at temperatures in the range 600 to 800 °C, the films become nanocrystalline and as the crystallite size grows with longer annealing times and higher temperature, MS decreases. Our study clearly points out that it is possible to tailor the magnetic properties of thin films of MgO. The room temperature ferromagnetism in MgO films is attributed to the presence of Mg cation vacancies.

  2. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on the Properties of Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Natalie; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Lawson, Bridget; Houston, David; Neubauer, Samuel; Johnson, Anthony; Schaefer, David; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    We will present our results on the effects of post-deposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties of CaMnO3-d thin films grown by Pulsed Laser deposition. The thin films are epitaxially grown on (100) LaAlO3 which has larger in-plane lattice parameters than that of bulk CaMnO3, which leads to bi-axial tensile strain in the thin films. Results from our laboratory show that bi-axial tensile strain leads to low resistivity in thinner films, the resistivity increasing with increasing thickness. These results are suggestive of a coupling between strain and oxygen stoichiometry in the thin films. We have investigated the effects of post-deposition annealing in various gas ambients towards the goal of understanding the effects of relaxation and oxygen stoichiometric changes. We will present a comparison of the structural and electrical properties of as-grown and post-annealed films over a range of thicknesses. Support from Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant & Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science & Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies, & NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  3. Comparison of the properties of Pb thin films deposited on Nb substrate using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Gontad, F.; Lorusso, A.; Di Giulio, M.; Broitman, E.; Ferrario, M.

    2013-11-01

    Pb thin films were prepared at room temperature and in high vacuum by thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques. Films deposited by both the techniques were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine their surface topology. The structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction in θ-2θ geometry. The photoelectron performances in terms of quantum efficiency were deduced by a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. Relatively high quantum efficiency (>10-5) was obtained for all the deposited films, comparable to that of corresponding bulk. Finally, film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Weak and strong points of these two competitive techniques are illustrated and discussed.

  4. Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of polycrystalline tetragonal indium sulphide (InS) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Cleaver, William M.; Barron, Andrew R.; Power, Michael B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1992-01-01

    The dimeric indium thiolate /(t Bu)2In(mu-S sup t Bu)/2 has been used as a single-source precursor for the MOCVD of InS thin films. The dimeric In2S2 core is proposed to account for the formation of the nonequilibrium high-pressure tetragonal phase in the deposited films. Analysis of the deposited films has been obtained by TEM, with associated energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  5. Aligned carbon nanotube, graphene and graphite oxide thin films via substrate-directed rapid interfacial deposition.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Julio M; Tran, Henry D; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K; Kaner, Richard B

    2012-05-21

    A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

  6. Thin film growth rate effects for primary ion beam deposited diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, D.; Mirtich, M.

    1986-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were grown by primary ion beam deposition and the growth rates were measured for various beam energies, types of hydrocarbon gases and their ratio to Ar, and substrate materials. The growth rate had a linear dependence upon hydrocarbon content in the discharge chamber, and only small dependence on other parameters. For given deposition conditions a threshold in the atomic ratio of carbon to argon gas was identified below which films did not grow on fused silica substrate, but grew on Si substrate and on existing DLC films. Ion source deposition parameters and substrate material were found to affect the deposition threshold and film growth rates.

  7. Impact of sputter deposition parameters on molybdenum nitride thin film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöber, L.; Konrath, J. P.; Krivec, S.; Patocka, F.; Schwarz, S.; Bittner, A.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U.

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum and molybdenum nitride thin films are presented, which are deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The influence of deposition parameters, especially the amount of nitrogen during film synthesization, to mechanical and electrical properties is investigated. The crystallographic phase and lattice constants are determined by x-ray diffraction analyses. Further information on the microstructure as well as on the biaxial film stress are gained from techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and the wafer bow. Furthermore, the film resistivity and the temperature coefficient of resistance are measured by the van der Pauw technique starting from room temperature up to 300 °C. Independent of the investigated physical quantity, a dominant dependence on the sputtering gas nitrogen content is observed compared to other deposition parameters such as the plasma power or the sputtering gas pressure in the deposition chamber.

  8. Transparent ferrimagnetic semiconducting CuCr2O4 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Yadav, C. S.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the magnetic and optical properties of CuCr2O4 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Cu(thd)2, Cr(acac)3, and ozone; we deposit 200 nm thick films and anneal them at 700 °C in oxygen atmosphere to crystallize the spinel phase. A ferrimagnetic transition at 140 K and a direct bandgap of 1.36 eV are determined for the films from magnetic and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. Electrical transport measurements confirm the p-type semiconducting behavior of the films. As the ALD technique allows the deposition of conformal pin-hole-free coatings on complex 3D surfaces, our CuCr2O4 films are interesting material candidates for various frontier applications.

  9. Laser ablation deposition of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films on zirconia-buffered crystalline quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Bohandy, J.; Agostinelli, E.; Kim, B.F.; Green, W.J.; Phillips, T.E.; Adrian, F.J.; Moorjani, K.

    1989-06-01

    Thin films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O have been deposited on crystalline quartz substrates by laser ablation. Without a buffer layer, superconducting regions exist in the films as detected by magnetically modulated microwave absorption. However, with a 1000-A zirconia buffer layer, also deposited by laser ablation, continuous, superconducting thin films were obtained. It is shown that both annealing temperature and annealing time greatly affect the film quality.

  10. Chemical bath deposition of thin film cadmium selenide for photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, R.A.; Raugh, R.D.

    1983-02-01

    Chemical bath deposition provides an attractive, low cost method of producing cadmium chalcogenide thin films. Intimate contact between the bath solution and the substrate material permits uniform deposition on substrates of complex geometry, presently difficult with spray pyrolysis, vacuum evaporation, or electrodeposition techniques. For CdSe, rigorous control of deposition conditions promotes the formation of a hexagonal, specularly reflecting deposit rather than a less desirable sphalerite (cubic) powdery deposit. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a small grained layered plate morphology similar to that produced by the evaporation method. Specularly reflecting CdSe films can be formed over large area substrates at a thickness optimal for their use as photoelectrochemical cells (PEC). Employing polysulfide as the redox couple, conversion efficiencies as high as 6.8% have been achieved in the authors' laboratory for these films using a tungstenhalogen white light source.

  11. Plasma and Laser-Enhanced Deposition of Powders and Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Moses

    The objective of this thesis has been the development of novel plasma and laser based techniques for the deposition and characterization of thin films and nano-scale powders. The different energy sources utilized for excitation and break -down of reactive species prior to deposition include an RF plasma discharge, an excimer laser and a CO _2 laser. Nanometer-scale (10-20 nm) powders and thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) have been successfully deposited in a glow discharge by reacting trimethylaluminum and ammonia. Macroquantities (~800 mg/hr) of powder have been collected at the centers of two vortices around which the reactant gases swirl. Powders of AlN have large surface areas (85 m^2/g) and are free from oxygen contamination. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films have been deposited from ternary mixtures of butadiene, argon and hydrogen. DLC films have been etched in O _2 and CF_4/O _2 plasmas. The etching behavior was correlated with the deposition feed gas composition by combining the etch rate, bias voltage during deposition and the deposition rate into a new non-dimensional number. Two new processes for depositing copper films have been developed. The first technique involves the hydrogen plasma reduction of copper formate films and the second technique involves the reactive excimer laser ablation of copper formate. Particle forming plasmas have been characterized by measuring the light scattering intensity during the deposition of silicon nitride from silane/ammonia plasmas. Both spatial variations and transients during the plasma start -up and shut-off steps have been measured. The ultraviolet (vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet) reflectance characteristics of AlN, DLC and SiC thin films has been measured. AlN and SiC films exhibit a relatively high (~20-40%) reflectance in the different regions of the ultraviolet spectrum. An improved algorithm has been developed for estimating thin film parameters such as thickness, refractive index, band-gap, and

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of tungsten carbide thin films on silicon (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Ebihara, K.; Baba, K.

    1997-01-01

    A method of synthesizing tungsten carbide (WC) thin films by a pulsed YAG laser deposition is investigated. WC thin films are deposited on silicon (100) substrates by using WC5%Co alloy targets. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction shows that the strong peaks of W 2C appear at the substrate temperature of 500°C. Beside the strong peaks of W 2C, weak peaks of WC and W 3Co 3C appear at the substrate temperature of 650°C. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the almost stoichiometric WC films are deposited at the methane gas pressure of 1.0 Pa. Morphological features of the samples have been obtained by employing the technique of scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to obtain structural and compositional information about the samples.

  13. Characterization of ethylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Rusen, L.; Dinca, V.; Filipescu, M.; Lippert, T.; Dinescu, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this study is reported the deposition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and ethylcellulose (EC) by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Both HPMC and EC were deposited on silicon substrates using a Nd:YAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns laser pulse and 10 Hz repetition rate) and then characterized by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that for laser fluences up to 450 mJ/cm2 the structure of the deposited HPMC and EC polymer in the thin film resembles to the bulk. Morphological investigations reveal island features on the surface of the EC thin films, and pores onto the HPMC polymer films. The obtained results indicate that MAPLE may be an alternative technique for the fabrication of new systems with desired drug release profile.

  14. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  15. Investigation on single walled carbon nanotube thin films deposited by Langmuir Blodgett method

    SciTech Connect

    Vishalli, Dharamvir, Keya; Kaur, Ramneek; Raina, K. K.

    2015-05-15

    Langmuir Blodgett is a technique to deposit a homogeneous film with a fine control over thickness and molecular organization. Thin films of functionalized SWCNTs have been prepared by Langmuir Blodgett method. The good surface spreading properties of SWCNTs at air/water interface are indicated by surface pressure-area isotherm and the monolayer formed on water surface is transferred onto the quartz substrate by vertical dipping. A multilayer film is thus obtained in a layer by layer manner. The film is characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and FTIR.AFM shows the surface morphology of the deposited film. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy shows the characteristic peaks of semiconducting SWCNTs. The uniformity of LB film can be used further in understanding the optical and electrical behavior of these materials.

  16. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Kenneth M.; Wiley, William R.; Venkatasubramanian, Eswaranand; Ohuchi, Fumio S.

    2009-09-30

    Indium selenide thin films are important due to their applications in non-volatile memory and solar cells. In this work, we present an initial study of a new application of deposition-site selective laser back ablation (LBA) for making thin films of In2Se3. In-vacuo annealing and subsequent characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that control of substrate temperature during deposition and post-deposition annealing temperature is critical in determining the phase and composition of the films. The initial laser fluence and target film thickness determine the amount of material deposited onto the substrate.

  17. Critical issues in plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Djeridane, Yassine; Bui, V. D.; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Abramov, Alexey

    2008-03-01

    After more than 20 years of research and despite improved transport properties with respect to amorphous silicon, microcrystalline silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) are not yet ready for industrial production. We review here the progress made in the understanding of the growth of this material with particular emphasis on industry relevant aspects such as deposition rate and uniformity. We show that the synthesis of silicon nanocrystals in the plasma offers unique advantages with respect to deposition rate and film properties. In particular, this allows the production of films which are similar to polycrystalline thin films produced by furnace and laser crystallization. The growth process is also discussed with respect to TFT design: top gate or bottom gate. Results on bottom gate TFTs meeting all the necessary requirements in terms of mobility, ON/OFF ratio and stability required for AMOLED applications are also reported.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  19. Embedded argon as a tool for sampling local structure in thin plasma deposited aluminum oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Marina; Kortmann, Annika; Keudell, Achim von; Arcos, Teresa de los; Winter, Joerg

    2012-11-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, either amorphous or of varying degrees of crystallinity, were deposited by two-frequency radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Film crystallinity was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the amount of Ar naturally trapped within the films during the deposition process. A clear correlation was found between the existence of crystalline phases, as determined by XRD, and a shift towards lower binding energy positions of the Ar2p core levels of embedded gas. The shift is due to differences in the local Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix (amorphous or crystalline) of the embedded gas, thus, providing an XPS fingerprint that can be used to qualitatively determine the presence or absence of crystalline phases in very thin films.

  20. Bath Parameter Dependence of Chemically-Deposited Copper Selenide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin films (0.2-0.6 μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that complexing the Cu2+ ions with TEA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe.

  1. Low temperature deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films on a flexible polymer substrate by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-hoon; Jung, Jae-soo; Lee, Sung-soo; Lee, Sung-bo; Hwang, Nong-moon

    2016-11-01

    For the applications such as flexible displays and solar cells, the direct deposition of crystalline silicon films on a flexible polymer substrate has been a great issue. Here, we investigated the direct deposition of polycrystalline silicon films on a polyimide film at the substrate temperature of 200 °C. The low temperature deposition of crystalline silicon on a flexible substrate has been successfully made based on two ideas. One is that the Si-Cl-H system has a retrograde solubility of silicon in the gas phase near the substrate temperature. The other is the new concept of non-classical crystallization, where films grow by the building block of nanoparticles formed in the gas phase during hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The total amount of precipitation of silicon nanoparticles decreased with increasing HCl concentration. By adding HCl, the amount and the size of silicon nanoparticles were reduced remarkably, which is related with the low temperature deposition of silicon films of highly crystalline fraction with a very thin amorphous incubation layer. The dark conductivity of the intrinsic film prepared at the flow rate ratio of RHCl=[HCl]/[SiH4]=3.61 was 1.84×10-6 Scm-1 at room temperature. The Hall mobility of the n-type silicon film prepared at RHCl=3.61 was 5.72 cm2 V-1s-1. These electrical properties of silicon films are high enough and could be used in flexible electric devices.

  2. Effect of thickness on electrical properties of SILAR deposited SnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Astam, Aykut; Cerhan, Asena; ćayir, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films of different thickness were prepared on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using tin (II) chloride and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions. The thicknesses of the films were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and found to be 47.2, 65.8, 111.0, and 128.7nm for 20, 25, 30 and 35 deposition cycles respectively. The electrical properties of the films were investigated using d.c. two-point probe method at room temperature and the results showed that the resistivity was found to decrease with increasing film thickness.

  3. Splitting methanol on ultra-thin MgO(100) films deposited on a Mo substrate.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenjun; Xu, Hu

    2017-03-08

    The dissociation reaction of methanol on metal-supported MgO(100) films has been studied by employing density functional theory calculations. As far as we know, the dissociation of a single methanol molecule over inert oxide insulators such as MgO has not yet been successfully realized without the introduction of defects or low coordinated atoms. By depositing ultra-thin oxide films on a Mo substrate, we have successfully proposed the dissociative state of methanol. The dissociation reaction is energetically exothermic and nearly barrierless. The lattice mismatch between ultra-thin MgO(100) films and metal substrates plays a crucial role in the heterolytic dissociation of adsorbates, while the electronic effect of the Mo(100) substrate plays a non-ignorable role in the homolytic dissociation of methanol. The metal-supported ultra-thin oxide films studied herein provide a versatile approach to enhance the surface reaction activity and properties of oxides.

  4. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  5. Some Questions of Vacuum Technology during the Deposition of Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The structure and properties of thin films obtained by thermal vaporization in a vacuum are determined to a considerable degree by the conditions of condensation and depend on temperature of vaporization, rate of condensation, and angle of incidence of deposited substance on the base layer; nature of the base layer, its degree of purity, and microrelief of the

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate biodegradable polymer thin films using ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemeti, G.; Smausz, T.; Kresz, N.; Tóth, Zs.; Hopp, B.; Chrisey, D.; Berkesi, O.

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of high quality films of a biodegradable polymer, the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Thin films of PHB were deposited on KBr substrates and fused silica plates using an ArF ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) excimer laser with fluences between 0.05 and 1.5 J cm -2. FTIR spectroscopic measurements proved that at the appropriate fluence (0.05, 0.09 and 0.12 J cm -2), the films exhibited similar functional groups with no significant laser-produced modifications present. Optical microscopic images showed that the layers were contiguous with embedded micrometer-sized grains. Ellipsometric results determined the wavelength dependence ( λ ˜ 245-1000 nm) of the refractive index and absorption coefficient which were new information about the material and were not published in the scientific literature. We believe that our deposited PHB thin films would have more possible applications. For example to our supposal the thin layers would be applicable in laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of biological materials using them as absorbing thin films.

  7. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  8. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of electrochromic thin films of sodium vanadium bronzes

    SciTech Connect

    Najdoski, Metodija; Koleva, Violeta; Demiri, Sani

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a new chemical bath method for the deposition of vanadium bronze thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are phase mixture of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with 10.58% lattice water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited vanadium bronze films exhibit two-step electrochromism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change their yellow-orange color to green and then from green to blue color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows the preparation of films on substrates with low melting point. -- Abstract: Thin yellow-orange films of sodium vanadium oxide bronzes have been prepared from a sodium-vanadium solution (1:1) at 75 Degree-Sign C and pH = 3. The composition, structure and morphology of the films have been studied by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TG and SEM-EDX analyses. It has been established that the prepared films are a phase mixture of hydrated NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} (predominant component) and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with total water content of 10.58%. The sodium vanadium bronze thin films exhibit two-step electrochromism followed by color change from yellow-orange to green, and then from green to blue. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on the as-deposited and annealed vanadium bronze films reveal the existence of different oxidation/reduction vanadium sites which make these films suitable for electrochromic devices. The annealing of the films at 400 Degree-Sign C changes the composition, optical and electrochemical properties.

  9. Physical investigation of electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politano, Grazia Giuseppina; Versace, Carlo; Vena, Carlo; Castriota, Marco; Ciuchi, Federica; Fasanella, Angela; Desiderio, Giovanni; Cazzanelli, Enzo

    2016-11-01

    Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide thin films are very promising materials because they can be used in optoelectronic devices and in a growing range of applications such as touch screens and flexible displays. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) and thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films, deposited on Ti/glass substrates, have been obtained by electrophoretic deposition. The morphological and the structural properties of the samples have been investigated by micro-Raman technique, X-ray reflectometry, and SEM analysis. In order to study the optical and electrical properties, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and impedance analysis have been performed. The thermal annealing changes strongly the structural, electrical, and optical properties, because during the thermal processes some amount of sp3 bonds originally present in GO were removed. In particular, the annealing enhances the Ohmic behavior of the rGO film increasing its conductivity and the estimated optical density. Moreover, using electrophoretic deposition, we have found a higher value of optical density for GO thin films, not observed in GO films obtained with other deposition methods.

  10. Fluorocarbon thin-film deposition on polymer surfaces from low-energy polyatomic ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesundara, Muthu Bandage Jayathilaka

    Low energy polyatomic ion deposition is attractive for selective surface modification of advanced materials. Surface modification by fluorocarbon (FC) thin film deposition is widely used for many technological applications. Thus, polymer surface modification by FC thin film deposition was carried out using mass-separated low energy FC ion beams. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and air/water contact angles were employed to examine how the FC film chemistry, morphology, and long term stability depend on incident ion structure, kinetic energy, and fluence. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to support experimental data. 25--100 eV CF3+ and C3F 5+ ion deposition on polystyrene (PS) surface was examined. CF3+ and C3F5+ each formed a distribution of different FC functional groups on PS in amounts dependent upon the incident ion energy, structure, and fluence. Both ions deposited mostly intact upon the surface at 25 eV. The total fluorine and fluorinated carbon content were increased with ion energy. The fluorination efficiency was higher for the larger ion. The simulations revealed that the fragmentation behavior depends on the incident ion structure and its energy. The simulations also confirmed that FC ions only penetrated a few angstroms into the surface. The compositional changes of 25--100 eV CF3+ and C3F5+ ion-modified PS surfaces were examined after being exposed to atmosphere for four and eight weeks. The FC films oxidized in atmospheric conditions. Oxygen incorporation into the ion-modified surfaces increased with ion energy due to higher surface bond breakage and active site formation at high collision energy. Overall, the aging process of these ion-deposited films appeared similar to that of plasma-deposited films. Mass-selected 50 eV C3F5+ ion deposition was employed to create chemical gradient thin films on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by variation of the ion fluence across the substrate surface. The surface chemistry

  11. Fabrication of Co thin films using pulsed laser deposition method with or without employing external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, M. H.; Mehrabad, M. Jalali; Kameli, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. Two specimens of Co films with different condition (with and without external magnetic field) were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition method. Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. During the deposition processes, the external applied magnetic field had been provided by a permanent magnet. The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field during deposition were performed. Comparison between experimental data and output data of the simulation show promising accommodation and approve the existence of a strong correlation between the structural and magnetic properties of the specimens, and deposition rate of Co thin films.

  12. Physical Vapor Deposition of Hexagonal and Tetragonal CuIn5Se8 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohara, Naoki; Nishiawaki, Shiro; Negami, Takayuki; Wada, Takahiro

    2000-11-01

    Hexagonal and tetragonal CuIn5Se8 thin films have been successfully prepared by physical vapor deposition. A hexagonal CuIn5Se8 thin film was obtained via the reaction of (Cu+Se) and (In+Se) layers. This hexagonal film had a layered structure with a lattice spacing of approximately 16 Å, corresponding to fivefold close-packed stacking of Se. With an alternative deposition process using (CuInSe2) and (In2Se3) layers, a tetragonal CuIn5Se8 thin film was obtained. The tetragonal film had a columnar structure with a lattice spacing of 3.3 Å, corresponding to the cubic close-packed stacking of Se. As evident from examination of the Cu2Se-In2Se3 pseudo-binary system phase diagram, hexagonal CuIn5Se8 is a stable phase and tetragonal CuIn5Se8 is metastable. The growth mechanism of the hexagonal and tetragonal phase CuIn5Se8 thin films is discussed from a crystallographic point of view.

  13. Studies on Nanostructure Aluminium Thin Film Coatings Deposited using DC magnetron Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh M, Muralidhar; G, Vijaya; MS, Krupashankara; Sridhara, B. K.; Shridhar, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructured thin film metallic coatings has become an area of intense research particularly in applications related solar, sensor technologies and many other optical applications such as laser windows, mirrors and reflectors. Thin film metallic coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering process. The deposition rate was varied to study its influence on optical behavior of Aluminum thin films at a different argon flow rate. Studies on the optical response of these nanostructure thin film coatings were characterized using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere in the wavelength range of (250-2500nm) and Surface morphology were carried out using atomic force microscope with roughness ranging from 2 to 20nm and thickness was measured using Dektak measuring instrument. The reflection behavior of aluminium coatings on polycarbonate substrates has been evaluated. UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer analysis indicates higher reflectance of 96% for all the films in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm. Nano indentation study revealed that there was a considerable change in hardness values of the films prepared at different conditions.

  14. Properties of NiO thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using different precursor solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattin, L.; Reguig, B. A.; Khelil, A.; Morsli, M.; Benchouk, K.; Bernède, J. C.

    2008-07-01

    NiO thin films have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis using a perfume atomizer to grow the aerosol. The influence of the precursor, nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl 2·6H 2O), nickel nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO 3) 2·6H 2O), nickel hydroxide hexahydrate (Ni(OH) 2·6H 2O), nickel sulfate tetrahydrate (NiSO 4·4H 2O), on the thin films properties has been studied. In the experimental conditions used (substrate temperature 350 °C, precursor concentration 0.2-0.3 M, etc.), pure NiO thin films crystallized in the cubic phase can be achieved only with NiCl 2 and Ni(NO 3) 2 precursors. These films have been post-annealed at 425 °C for 3 h either in room atmosphere or under vacuum. If all the films are p-type, it is shown that the NiO films conductivity and optical transmittance depend on annealing process. The properties of the NiO thin films annealed under room atmosphere are not significantly modified, which is attributed to the fact that the temperature and the environment of this annealing is not very different from the experimental conditions during spray deposition. The annealing under vacuum is more efficient. This annealing being proceeded in a vacuum no better than 10 -2 Pa, it is supposed that the modifications of the NiO thin film properties, mainly the conductivity and optical transmission, are related to some interaction between residual oxygen and the films.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of air-sensitive hydride epitaxial thin films: LiH

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Shigehito; Kuwano, Hiroki; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-01

    We report on the epitaxial thin film growth of an air-sensitive hydride, lithium hydride (LiH), using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We first synthesized a dense LiH target, which is key for PLD growth of high-quality hydride films. Then, we obtained epitaxial thin films of [100]-oriented LiH on a MgO(100) substrate at 250 °C under a hydrogen pressure of 1.3 × 10{sup −2} Pa. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the film demonstrates a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and that the film with a thickness of ∼10 nm has a good surface flatness, with root-mean-square roughness R{sub RMS} of ∼0.4 nm.

  16. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yun Seog; Winkler, Mark T.; Siah, Sin Cheng; Brandt, Riley; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-05-09

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. High substrate growth temperature enhances film grain structure and Hall mobility. Temperature-dependent Hall mobilities measured on these films are comparable to monocrystalline Cu{sub 2}O at temperatures above 250 K, reaching 62 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. At lower temperatures, the Hall mobility appears limited by carrier scattering from ionized centers. These observations indicate that sputtered Cu{sub 2}O films at high substrate growth temperature may be suitable for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  17. Electrochemical impedance analysis of spray deposited CZTS thin film: Effect of Se introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Swati J.; Lokhande, Vaibhav C.; Lee, Dong-Weon; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with electrochemical impedance analysis of spray deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates and effect of post Se introduction. The CZTS thin films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical measurements are carried out using impedance analysis spectroscopy. The strong peak in XRD pattern along (112) plane confirms the Kestrite crystal structure of CZTS film. The FE-SEM analysis reveals that nanoflakes contain crack-free surface microstructure changes with post Se introucation. The optical study reveals that absorption increases with Se dipping time and observed lower band gap of 1.31 eV. Introduction of Se in CZTS film results an improvement in the grain size and surface morphology which leads to increased electrical conductivity of CZTS film.

  18. Alternate deposition and hydrogen doping technique for ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Lim, Koeng Su

    2006-08-01

    We propose an alternate deposition and hydrogen doping (ADHD) technique for polycrystalline hydrogen-doped ZnO thin films, which is a sublayer-by-sublayer deposition based on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and mercury-sensitized photodecomposition of hydrogen doping gas. Compared to conventional post-deposition hydrogen doping, the ADHD process provides superior electrical conductivity, stability, and surface roughness. Photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K reveal that the ADHD technique improves ultraviolet and violet emissions by suppressing the green and yellow emissions. Therefore, the ADHD technique is shown to be very promising aid to the manufacture of improved transparent conducting electrodes and light emitting materials.

  19. Investigation on vanadium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margoni, Mudaliar Mahesh; Mathuri, S.; Ramamurthi, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Sethuraman, K.

    2016-05-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were deposited at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using 0.1 M aqueous precursor solution of ammonium meta vanadate (AMV) with two different pH values. X-ray diffraction results showed that the film prepared using aqueous precursor AMV solution (solution A; pH 7) is amorphous in nature and the film prepared by adding HNO3 in the AMV aqua solution A (solution B; pH 3) is polycrystalline in nature. Vanadium oxide film prepared from the precursor solution B is in the mixed phases of V2O5 and V4O7. Crystallinity is improved for the film prepared using solution B when compared to film prepared from solution A. Crystallite size, strain and dislocation density calculated for the film prepared from solution B is respectively 72.1 nm, 0.4554 × 10-3 lin.-2m-4 and 1.7263 × 1014 lin.m-2. Morphology study revealed that the size of the flakes formed on the surface of the films is influenced by the pH of the precursor solution. Average Visible Transmittance and maximum transmittance of the deposited films exceed 70% and the direct optical band gap value calculated for the films deposited from A and B solution is 1.91 eV and 2.08 eV respectively.

  20. High-performance ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Han, Jin-Woo; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Tae-Won; Kim, Kwang-Young; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2011-08-01

    We report the fabrication and characteristics of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) using a 50 nm thick ZnO film as an active layer on an Al2O3 gate dielectric film deposited by atomic layer deposition. Lowering the deposition temperature allowed the control of the carrier concentration of the active channel layer (ZnO film) in the TFT device. The ZnO TFT fabricated at 110 °C exhibited high-performance TFT characteristics including a saturation field-effect mobility of 11.86 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on-to-off current ratio of 3.09 × 107 and a sub-threshold gate-voltage swing of 0.72 V decade-1.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of V2O5 thin films deposited by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, R.; Loureiro, J.; Nogueira, A.; Elangovan, E.; Pinto, J. V.; Veiga, J. P.; Busani, T.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the structural, optical, electrical and thermoelectric properties of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) thin films deposited at room temperature by thermal evaporation on Corning glass substrates. A post-deposition thermal treatment up to 973 K under atmospheric conditions induces the crystallization of the as-deposited amorphous films with an orthorhombic V2O5 phase with grain sizes around 26 nm. As the annealing temperature rises up to 773 K the electrical conductivity increases. The films exhibit thermoelectric properties with a maximum Seebeck coefficient of -218 μV/K and electrical conductivity of 5.5 (Ω m)-1. All the films show NIR-Vis optical transmittance above 60% and optical band gap of 2.8 eV.

  2. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  3. Nucleation and strain-stabilization during organic semiconductor thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Wan, Jing; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Bouffard, Nicole; Sun, Richard; Headrick, Randall L.

    2016-09-01

    The nucleation mechanisms during solution deposition of organic semiconductor thin films determine the grain morphology and may influence the crystalline packing in some cases. Here, in-situ optical spectromicroscopy in reflection mode is used to study the growth mechanisms and thermal stability of 6,13-bis(trisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene thin films. The results show that the films form in a supersaturated state before transforming to a solid film. Molecular aggregates corresponding to subcritical nuclei in the crystallization process are inferred from optical spectroscopy measurements of the supersaturated region. Strain-free solid films exhibit a temperature-dependent blue shift of optical absorption peaks due to a continuous thermally driven change of the crystalline packing. As crystalline films are cooled to ambient temperature they become strained although cracking of thicker films is observed, which allows the strain to partially relax. Below a critical thickness, cracking is not observed and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that the thinnest films are constrained to the lattice constants corresponding to the temperature at which they were deposited. Optical spectroscopy results show that the transition temperature between Form I (room temperature phase) and Form II (high temperature phase) depends on the film thickness, and that Form I can also be strain-stabilized up to 135 °C.

  4. Nucleation and strain-stabilization during organic semiconductor thin film deposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wan, Jing; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Bouffard, Nicole; Sun, Richard; Headrick, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleation mechanisms during solution deposition of organic semiconductor thin films determine the grain morphology and may influence the crystalline packing in some cases. Here, in-situ optical spectromicroscopy in reflection mode is used to study the growth mechanisms and thermal stability of 6,13-bis(trisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene thin films. The results show that the films form in a supersaturated state before transforming to a solid film. Molecular aggregates corresponding to subcritical nuclei in the crystallization process are inferred from optical spectroscopy measurements of the supersaturated region. Strain-free solid films exhibit a temperature-dependent blue shift of optical absorption peaks due to a continuous thermally driven change of the crystalline packing. As crystalline films are cooled to ambient temperature they become strained although cracking of thicker films is observed, which allows the strain to partially relax. Below a critical thickness, cracking is not observed and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that the thinnest films are constrained to the lattice constants corresponding to the temperature at which they were deposited. Optical spectroscopy results show that the transition temperature between Form I (room temperature phase) and Form II (high temperature phase) depends on the film thickness, and that Form I can also be strain-stabilized up to 135 °C. PMID:27600905

  5. Influence of precursor concentration on the properties of spray deposited CdO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Helen, S. J.; Devadason, Suganthi Mahalingam, T.

    2015-06-24

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films of thickness 50 to 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates maintained at 400°C using spray pyrolysis technique. CdO thin films were deposited by varying the molar concentrations of cadmium acetate solution such as 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 M. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. SEM images show that the films have well defined spherical grains and grain boundaries are seen. Optical studies reveal that the films prepared from solution of 0.01 and 0.1M concentration have high transparency than films prepared at other solution concentration. The optical energy band gap value decreases from 2.50 to 2.37eV with the increase in molar concentration. Electrical studies revealed that the CdO thin film prepared using 0.1M solution possesses lowest resistivity.

  6. Physical properties of vacuum evaporated CdTe thin films with post-deposition thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Subhash; Dhaka, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the physical properties of vacuum evaporated CdTe thin films with post-deposition thermal annealing. The thin films of thickness 500 nm were grown on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates employing thermal vacuum evaporation technique followed by post-deposition thermal annealing at temperature 450 °C. These films were subjected to the X-ray diffraction (XRD),UV-Vis spectrophotometer, source meter and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological analysis respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the films have zinc-blende structure of single cubic phase with preferred orientation (111) and polycrystalline in nature. The crystallographic and optical parameters are calculated and discussed in brief. The optical band gap is found to be 1.62 eV and 1.52 eV for as-grown and annealed films respectively. The I-V characteristics show that the conductivity is decreased for annealed thin films. The AFM studies reveal that the surface roughness is observed to be increased for thermally annealed films.

  7. Synthesis of CuInS2 thin films by spray pyrolysis deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, K. M. A.; Podder, J.; Saha, D. K.

    2013-02-01

    Copper indium disulfide (CuInS2) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by the locally made spray pyrolysis deposition system. The films were characterized by using energy dispersive analytical X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. The XRD pattern indicated that the prepared CuInS2 thin films are chalcopyrite structure. Lattice parameters and FWHM values were verified by the standard values of JCPDS 270159 file. The EDAX analysis indicated the stoichiometric ratio of 1.14:1:1.88 (CIS-2) thin films. The SEM analysis showed that the average grain size of the film was 100-800 nm and that of XRD data indicate the values of 30-50 nm. The high absorption co-efficient and 1.48 eV band gap of the films indicate that the films are useful as an absorber for photovoltaic application in the solar cell.

  8. Post-deposition annealing study of tantalum nitride thin-film resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Chi Lok.

    1989-01-01

    With the present integrated circuit design, the use of hybrid metallic thin film resistor networks leads to more design flexibility, economical chip area consumption, reduced processing steps, higher precision and stability for the integrated circuits. To meet the hybrid circuit requirements, the thin film resistors must have high sheet resistivity for compact design, chemical and mechanical stability, and precise resistance which is temperature independent. The nickel-chrome (NiCr) alloy, with its very low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), is currently used in the industry. The non-linear TCR behavior and the ease of hydrolytic dissociation of NiCr give place to a more stable material, such as tantalum nitride. Due to technical difficulties in heating the substrate to a high temperature during deposition, which is the controlling parameter for achieving the stable Ta{sub 2}N structure, post deposition annealing becomes the central theme for this project. Preliminary TCR studies of the reactive sputtered tantalum nitride thin films shows that films with sheet resistivity less than 60 ohm/sq. can be air annealed to improve the TCR to less than 30 ppm/{degree}C in magnitude. The deposition parameters may influence the annealing conditions. For films with higher sheet resistivity, high vacuum annealing must be used for the TCR improvement. The TCR can be adjusted to an almost zero value by the combination of annealing temperature and time. With the electrical stability and chemically inertness in water and acids, tantalum nitride is likely to become a major thin-film resistor material in the industry. A systematic study of this thin film material is conducted, covering both electrical and structural properties.

  9. Polymer-assisted deposition of co-doped zinc oxide thin films for the detection of aromatic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Kim, Dojin

    2011-12-01

    Co-doped Zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto SiO2/Si substrate by polymer-assisted deposition method. The surface morphology, structures and chemical states of the thin films are examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the thin films upon exposure to aromatic organic compound vapors are also investigated. Co-doping is shown to be very effective in enhancing the response of ZnO thin film to aromatic organic compound.

  10. Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, A.A.; Barote, M.A.; Masumdar, E.U.

    2010-05-15

    Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C is used for studying the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in dark, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response characteristics of the as deposited films. Photoelectrochemical study shows that as deposited CdSe thin films exhibits n-type of conductivity. The spectral response characteristics of the films at room temperature show a prominent sharp peak at 725 nm. The measured values of efficiency ({eta}) and fill factor (FF) are found to be 0.50% and 0.44 respectively for film deposited at 300 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies show that the CdSe film deposited at 300 C shows better performance in PEC cell. (author)

  11. Pulsed laser deposited cobalt-doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Su, Xue-qiong; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jiang-bo

    2013-09-01

    To realize the room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we prepared a series of Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at deposition temperatures 500°C under oxygen pressure from 2.5×10-4 Pa to 15 Pa. To elucidate the physical origin of RTFM, Co 2p spectra of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnetic properties of films were measured by an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM), and the electrical properties were detected by a Hall Effect instrument using the Van der Pauw method. XPS analysis shows that the Co2+ exists and Co clusters and elemental content change greatly in samples under various deposition oxygen pressures. Not only the valence state and elemental content but also the electrical and magnetic properties were changed. In the case of oxygen pressure 10 Pa, an improvement of saturation magnetic moment about one order of magnitude over other oxygen pressure experiments, and the film exhibits ferromagnetism with a curie temperature above room temperature. It was found that the value of carrier concentration in the Co-doped ZnO film under oxygen pressure 10Pa increases about one order of magnitude than the values of other samples under different oxygen pressure. Combining XPS with AGM measurements, we found that the ferromagnetic signals in cobalt-doped ZnO thin film deposited at 500 °C under oxygen pressure 10 Pa only appear with the detectable Co2+ spectra from incompletely oxidized Co metal or Co cluster. So oxygen pressure 10 Pa can be thought the best condition to obtain room-temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor about cobalt-doped ZnO thin films.

  12. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  13. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia sensing characteristics of SILAR deposited ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O. I.; Shishiyanu, S. T.; Shishiyanu, T. S.

    2007-07-01

    Pure and Sn, Ni doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature. Microstructures of the deposited films were optimized by adjusting growth parameters. The variation in resistivity of the ZnO film sensors was performed with rapid photothermal processing (RPP). The effect of rapid photothermal processing was found to have an important role in ZnO based sensor sensitivity to NO 2, NH 3. While the undoped ZnO film surface exhibited higher NH 3 sensitivity than that of NO 2, an enhanced NO 2 sensitivity was noticed for the ZnO films doped with Sn and higher NH 3 sensitivity was obtained by Ni doping.

  14. Studies of aluminum oxide thin films deposited by laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płóciennik, P.; Guichaoua, D.; Korcala, A.; Zawadzka, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the structural and optical investigations of the aluminum oxide nanocrystalline thin films. Investigated films were fabricated by laser ablation technique in high vacuum onto quartz substrates. The films were deposited at two different temperatures of the substrates equal to room temperature and 900 K. X-ray Diffraction spectra proved nanocrystalline character and the corundum phase of the film regardless on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Values of the refractive indices, extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated by using Transmission and Reflection Spectroscopy in the UV-VIS-NIR range of the wavelength. Coupling Prism Method was used for films thickness estimations. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the Third Harmonic Generation were also reported. Obtained results show that the lattice strain may affect obtained values of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2 Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifai, Aditia; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nugraha; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Suyatman; Yuliarto, Brian

    2011-12-01

    SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) with stannous chloride (SnCl2..2H2O) as a precursor and urea (CO(NH2)2) as a buffer. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the structure of the films; the surface morphology of the films were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Using this techniques, we specify the effect of stannous chloride concentration and weight ratio of urea/H2O on the crystallinity and morphology of these films. The rutile structure corresponding (110), (101) and (211) planes of SnO2 is obtained. The increasing of stannous chloride concentration and the decreasing weight ratio of urea/H2O is found to improve the crystallinity of the film. The average diameter of grain size is about 96 nm.

  16. Effect of substrate temperature on deposition rate of rf plasma-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andújar, J. L.; Bertran, E.; Canillas, A.; Campmany, J.; Morenza, J. L.

    1991-03-01

    We present a study about the influence of substrate temperature on deposition rate of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by rf glow discharge decomposition of pure silane gas in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. Two different behaviors are observed depending on deposition pressure conditions. At high pressure (30 Pa) the influence of substrate temperature on deposition rate is mainly through a modification of gas density, in such a way that the substrate temperature of deposition rate is similar to pressure dependence at constant temperature. On the contrary, at low pressure (3 Pa), a gas density effect cannot account for the observed increase of deposition rate as substrate temperature rises above 450 K with an activation energy of 1.1 kcal/mole. In accordance with laser-induced fluorescence measurements reported in the literature, this rise has been ascribed to an increase of secondary electron emission from the growing film surface as a result of molecular hydrogen desorption.

  17. Method of forming ultra thin film devices by vacuum arc vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for providing an ultra thin electrical circuit integral with a portion of a surface of an object, including using a focal Vacuum Arc Vapor Deposition device having a chamber, a nozzle and a nozzle seal, depressing the nozzle seal against the portion of the object surface to create an airtight compartment in the chamber and depositing one or more ultra thin film layer(s) only on the portion of the surface of the object, the layers being of distinct patterns such that they form the circuit.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of In2S3 Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition on Polyethylene Naphthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelo-González, O. A.; Santacruz-Ortega, H. C.; Quevedo-López, M. A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The materials were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the influence of the polymeric substrate on the resulting thin In2S3. The films showed polycrystalline (cubic and tetragonal) structure. A reduction of the ordering of the polymeric chains at the surface of the PEN was also observed, demonstrated by the appearance of two infrared bands at 1094 cm-1 and 1266 cm-1. Presence of oxygen during the early stages of In2S3 growth was also identified. We propose a reaction mechanism for both the equilibrium and nucleation stages. These results demonstrate that In2S3 can be deposited at room temperature on a flexible substrate.

  19. Beam steering laser assisted deposition system for high- T sub c superconducting thin film devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, T.T.; Chen, K.W. )

    1991-03-01

    We present the design and construction of a beam steering laser-assisted deposition system (LAD) for high quality epitaxial YBaCuO superconducting thin film production suitable for commercial application. Deposition of single layer or multilayer YBaCuO superconducting thin film on large and complex surfaced substrate is now feasible. Expitaxial and polycrystaline films with onsets at 90 K having 6 K transition widths have been produced. Dome-shaped magnetic shield enclosures, microwave cavity resonant in the TM{sub 010} mode, and short dipole antennas have been fabricated. The advantages of the laser ablation deposition method (J. T. Cheung and D. T. Chueng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. {bold 21}, 182 (1982)) are its simplicity and cleanliness. Laser ablation deposition is a viable method to produce high quality thin film of the Tl-based compound (S. H. Liou and K. D. Aylesworth, Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 54}, 760 (1989)) by using a small target in a sealed environment which is important in handling toxic material of a Tl-based compounds.

  20. Effect of sputter deposited YSZ thin films on the fracture behavior of dental bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Erica Cappelletto Nogueira

    The fracture behavior of dental bioceramic materials was evaluated under physiologic conditions when modified by yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film deposition. It was hypothesized that changing the YSZ thin film properties will produce a significant enhancement in the strength of bioceramic materials, ultimately promoting a more fatigue resistant construct. Porcelain, alumina, and zirconia were evaluated in terms of dynamic fatigue for an initial characterization of their fracture behavior. Data showed that strength degradation occurred in all three materials, most drastically in porcelain. Initial strength measurements, focused on depositing YSZ thin films on three unique substrates; porcelain, alumina, and zirconia, were carried out. A significant increase in strength was observed for alumina and porcelain. Since strength alone is not enough to characterize the fracture behavior of brittle materials, coated specimens of porcelain and zirconia were subjected to dynamic fatigue and Weibull analysis. Coated YSZ porcelain specimens showed a significant increase in strength at all tested stressing rates. YSZ coated zirconia specimens showed similar strength values at all stressing rates. The effect of film thickness on porcelain was also evaluated. Data demonstrated that film thickness alone does not appear to control increases in the flexural strength of a modified substrate. It is expected that deposition induced stress in YSZ sputtered films does not change with film thickness. However, a thicker film will generate a larger force at the film/substrate interface, contributing to delamination of the film. It was clear that in order to have a significant improvement in the fracture behavior of porcelain, changing the thickness of the film is not enough. The columnar structure of the YSZ films developed seems to favor an easy path for crack propagation limiting the benefits expected by the coating. The effect of a multilayered film, composed by brittle

  1. Thermal Vapor Deposition and Characterization of Polymer-Ceramic Nanoparticle Thin Films and Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagoshi, Joel A.

    Research on alternative energies has become an area of increased interest due to economic and environmental concerns. Green energy sources, such as ocean, wind, and solar power, are subject to predictable and unpredictable generation intermittencies which cause instability in the electrical grid. This problem could be solved through the use of short term energy storage devices. Capacitors made from composite polymer:nanoparticle thin films have been shown to be an economically viable option. Through thermal vapor deposition, we fabricated dielectric thin films composed of the polymer polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and the ceramic nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2). Fully understanding the deposition process required an investigation of electrode and dielectric film deposition. Film composition can be controlled by the mass ratio of PVDF:TiO2 prior to deposition. An analysis of the relationship between the ratio of PVDF:TiO2 before and after deposition will improve our understanding of this novel deposition method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to analyze film atomic concentrations. The results indicate a broad distribution of deposited TiO2 concentrations with the highest deposited amount at an initial mass concentration of 17% TiO2. The nanoparticle dispersion throughout the film is analyzed through atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Images from these two techniques confirm uniform TiO2 dispersion with cluster size less than 300 nm. These results, combined with spectroscopic analysis, verify control over the deposition process. Capacitors were fabricated using gold parallel plates with PVDF:TiO 2 dielectrics. These capacitors were analyzed using the atomic force microscope and a capacohmeter. Atomic force microscope images confirm that our gold films are acceptably smooth. Preliminary capacohmeter measurements indicate capacitance values of 6 nF and break down voltages of 2.4 V

  2. Study of the morphology of ZnS thin films deposited on different substrates via chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Claudia M; Luque, P A; Castro-Beltran, A; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Lugo-Medina, Eder; Carrillo-Castillo, A; Quevedo-Lopez, M A; Olivas, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of substrate on the morphology of ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition is studied. The materials used were zinc acetate, tri-sodium citrate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide/ammonium chloride solution. The growth of ZnS thin films on different substrates showed a large variation on the surface, presenting a poor growth on SiO2 and HfO2 substrates. The thin films on ITO substrate presented a uniform and compact growth without pinholes. The optical properties showed a transmittance of about 85% in the visible range of 300-800 nm with band gap of 3.7 eV.

  3. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  4. Negative ions: The overlooked species in thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, M.; Bator, M.; Lippert, T.; Schneider, C. W.; Wokaun, A.; Doebeli, M.

    2011-11-07

    Plasma plume species from a ceramic La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} target were studied by plasma mass spectrometry as a function of laser fluence, background gas, and deposition pressure to understand the interplay between plasma composition and oxide thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition. The plume composition reveals a significant contribution of up to 24% of negative ions, most notably using a N{sub 2}O background. The significance of negative ions for thin film growth is shown for La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} films grown in different background conditions where the best structural properties coincide with the largest amount of negative plasma species.

  5. On the wetting behavior of ceria thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sin-Pui; Rossero, Jorge; Chen, Chen; Li, Daniel; Takoudis, Christos G.; Abiade, Jeremiah T.

    2017-02-01

    Polymers are most widely used in the production of water-repellant coatings. However, their use in applications requiring wear resistance or high-temperature stability is extremely limited. A recent report suggests that wear resistant, thermally stable rare earth oxide materials like cerium dioxide (ceria) are intrinsically water repellant. We have studied this intriguing finding for ceria thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at different oxygen pressures and different substrate temperatures. We used a custom apparatus for measuring water contact angles on ceria films deposited by PLD. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the relationship between the ceria wetting behavior and ceria surface chemistry. Our results show that ceria thin films are intrinsically hydrophilic and that hydrophobicity arises due to adsorption of hydrocarbon species after ˜24 h.

  6. Tailoring the LCST of thermosensitive hydrogel thin films deposited by iCVD.

    PubMed

    Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Montero, Laura; Borrós, Salvador

    2014-06-24

    Using the iCVD (initiated chemical vapor deposition) polymerization technique, we generated a library of thermosensitive thin film hydrogels in the physiological temperature range. The library shows how a specific hydrogel with a desired temperature response can be synthesized via the copolymerization of three main components: (a) the main thermosensitive monomer, which determines the temperature range of the LCST; (b) the comonomer, which modulates the temperature according to its hydrophilic/hydrophobic behavior; and (c) the cross-linker, which determines the swelling degree and the polymer chain mobility of the resulting hydrogel. The thermosensitive thin films included in the library have been characterized by the water contact angle (WCA), revealing a switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic behavior depending on the temperature and a decrease in the WCA with the incorporation of hydrophilic moieties. Moreover, a more accurate characterization by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is performed. With temperature and flow control, the switchable swelling properties of the thermosensitive thin films (due to the polymer mixture transition) can be recorded and analyzed in order to study the effects of the comonomer moieties on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Thus, the LCST tailoring method has been successfully used in this paper, and thermoresponsive thin films (50 nm in thickness) have been deposited by iCVD, exhibiting LCSTs in the 32-49 °C range. Due to the presented method's ability to tailor the LCST in the physiological temperature range, the developed thermoresponsive films present potential biosensing and drug delivery applications in the biomedical field.

  7. Control of crystalline volume and nano crystal grain size in nanocrystalline silicon thin film deposited by PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Thanh Tung; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-11-01

    Application of the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique was studied to fabricate amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon (a-Si and nc-Si) thin films for photovoltaic devices at substrate temperature of 200 °C. Amorphous-crystalline transition of silicon thin films in working conditions of PECVD system was shown as a function of deposition parameters, i.e., dilution ratio of silane (SiH4) in hydrogen, total gas pressure during deposition and RF excitation power density. The crystalline volume as well as grain size of nanocrystalline silicon films could be successfully controlled by tuning those deposition parameters. Micro Raman scattering spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) methods were used to characterize the structure and crystallization of the deposited silicon thin films. We could make nc-Si thin films with various crystalline volumes. Nc-Si grain size was also controlled and was in the range of 3-5 nm.

  8. Formation and stability of lanthanum oxide thin films deposited from β-diketonate precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Minna; Putkonen, Matti; Niinistö, Lauri

    2001-04-01

    Lanthanum oxide thin film deposition by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was studied at 180-425°C on soda-lime glass and Si(1 0 0) substrates using a β-diketonate type precursor La(thd) 3 and ozone. The chemical constituents of the films were analyzed by TOF-ERDA, RBS and FTIR while XRD and AFM were used to determine the crystallinity and surface morphology. Films grown below 275°C were amorphous La 2O 2CO 3, while at deposition temperatures above 300°C XRD patterns indicated that cubic La 2O 3 phase was formed. All the films were transparent and uniform with only small thickness variations. Carbonate type impurity was found in all films, but the carbon content of the films decreased with growth temperature being 3 at.% in films grown above 400°C. Hexagonal La 2O 3 was obtained when the films grown on silicon substrates were annealed at 800°C or above in a nitrogen flow. The as-deposited cubic and annealed hexagonal La 2O 3 films were found to be chemically unstable in ambient air since a transformation to monoclinic LaO(OH) and hexagonal La(OH) 3 was detected, respectively.

  9. Hydrogen gas sensors based on electrostatically spray deposited nickel oxide thin film structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Raied K.; Aadim, Kadhim A.; Al-Zaidi, Qahtan G.; Taaban, Iman N.

    2015-09-01

    A simple, low-cost, and home-built electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) system with the stable cone-jet mode was used to deposit nickel oxide (NiO) thin films on glass substrates kept at temperature of 400 °C as the primary precursor solution of 0.1 M concentration hydrated nickel chloride was dissolved in isopropyl alcohol. Electrical measurements showed that these films were of n-type conductivity while their resistance response to hydrogen flow in air ambient was varied by 2.81% with the rise and recovery time of 48 s and 40 s, respectively.

  10. CuInS 2 thin films obtained through the annealing of chemically deposited In 2S 3-CuS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Y.; Lugo, S.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Vázquez, A.; Gómez, I.; Elizondo, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the formation of CuInS 2 thin films on glass substrates by heating chemically deposited multilayers of copper sulfide (CuS) and indium sulfide (In 2S 3) at 300 and 350 °C in nitrogen atmosphere at 10 Torr. CIS thin films were prepared by varying the CuS layer thickness in the multilayers with indium sulfide. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallographic structure of the CuInS 2 (JCPDS 27-0159) is present on the deposited films. From the optical analysis it was estimated the band gap value for the CIS film (1.49 eV). The electrical conductivity varies from 3 × 10 -8 to 3 Ω -1 cm -1 depending on the thickness of the CuS film. CIS films showed p-type conductivity.

  11. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi3Fe5O12, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches -5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods.

  12. Fabrication of InGaN thin-film transistors using pulsed sputtering deposition

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Takeki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of operational InGaN-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) on glass substrates. The key to our success was coating the glass substrate with a thin amorphous layer of HfO2, which enabled a highly c-axis-oriented growth of InGaN films using pulsed sputtering deposition. The electrical characteristics of the thin films were controlled easily by varying their In content. The optimized InGaN-TFTs exhibited a high on/off ratio of ~108, a field-effect mobility of ~22 cm2 V−1 s−1, and a maximum current density of ~30 mA/mm. These results lay the foundation for developing high-performance electronic devices on glass substrates using group III nitride semiconductors. PMID:27383148

  13. Fabrication of InGaN thin-film transistors using pulsed sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takeki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of operational InGaN-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) on glass substrates. The key to our success was coating the glass substrate with a thin amorphous layer of HfO2, which enabled a highly c-axis-oriented growth of InGaN films using pulsed sputtering deposition. The electrical characteristics of the thin films were controlled easily by varying their In content. The optimized InGaN-TFTs exhibited a high on/off ratio of ~108, a field-effect mobility of ~22 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, and a maximum current density of ~30 mA/mm. These results lay the foundation for developing high-performance electronic devices on glass substrates using group III nitride semiconductors.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CrSe thin film produced via chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kariper, Ishak afsin

    2017-02-01

    Chromium selenide (CrSe) crystalline thin film has been produced via chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass). Transmittance, absorption, optical band gap and refractive index of the films have been examined by UV/VIS. Spectrum. Structural properties have been examined and XRD hexagonal form has been observed. The structural and optical properties of CrSe thin films, produced at different pH levels were analyzed; SEM and EDX analysis have been performed for surface analysis and elemental ratio of the films. It has been found that some properties of the films have been changed with pH and the changes of these properties with respect to pH have been investigated. Tested pH values were between 8 and 11. The optical band gap has been varied between 3.80 and 3.92 eV and film thickness has been changed from 76 nm to 126 nm for tested pH levels. Absorbance values were found to be 0.053, 0.018, 0.012 and 0.069 for pH values of 11, 10, 9 and 8, respectively (550 nm wavelength). The refractive index of CrSe thin films have been changed with film thickness, found as 2.27, 2.24, 2.25 and 2.26.

  15. Ti-Nb thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E. David; Niemeyer, Terlize C.; Afonso, Conrado R. M.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.

    2016-03-15

    Thin films of Ti-Nb alloys were deposited on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by magnetron sputtering, and the structure, composition, morphology, and microstructure of the films were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thin films of four compositions were produced: Ti{sub 85}Nb{sub 15} (Ti-26 wt. % Nb), Ti{sub 80}Nb{sub 20} (Ti-33 wt. % Nb), Ti{sub 70}Nb{sub 30} (Ti-45 wt. % Nb), and Ti{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} (Ti-56 wt. % Nb). Structural characterization by XRD indicated that only the β phase was present in the thin films and that the increase in the Nb content modified the alloy film texture. These changes in the film texture, also detected by TEM analysis, were attributed to different growth modes related to the Nb content in the alloy films. The mean grain sizes measured by AFM increased with the Nb amount (from 197 to 222 nm). XPS analysis showed a predominance of oxidized Ti and Nb on the film surfaces and an enrichment of Ti.

  16. Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes.

    PubMed

    Dominik, M; Leśniewski, A; Janczuk, M; Niedziółka-Jönsson, J; Hołdyński, M; Wachnicki, Ł; Godlewski, M; Bock, W J; Śmietana, M

    2017-07-15

    This work discusses an application of titanium oxide (TiOx) thin films deposited using physical (reactive magnetron sputtering, RMS) and chemical (atomic layer deposition, ALD) vapour deposition methods as a functional coating for label-free optical biosensors. The films were applied as a coating for two types of sensors based on the localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles deposited on a glass plate and on a long-period grating (LPG) induced in an optical fibre. Optical and structural properties of the TiOx thin films were investigated and discussed. It has been found that deposition method has a significant influence on optical properties and composition of the films, but negligible impact on TiOx surface silanization effectiveness. A higher content of oxygen with lower Ti content in the ALD films leads to the formation of layers with higher refractive index and slightly higher extinction coefficient than for the RMS TiOx. Moreover, application of the TiOx film independently on deposition method enables not only for tuning of the spectral response of the investigated biosensors, but also in case of LSPR for enhancing the ability for biofunctionalization, i.e., TiOx film mechanically protects the nanoparticles and induces change in the biofunctionalization procedure to the one typical for oxides. TiOx coated LSPR and LPG sensors with refractive index sensitivity of close to 30 and 3400nm/RIU, respectively, were investigated. The ability for molecular recognition was evaluated with the well-known complex formation between avidin and biotin as a model system. The shift in resonance wavelength reached 3 and 13.2nm in case of LSPR and LPG sensors, respectively. Any modification in TiOx properties resulting from the biofunctionalization process can be also clearly detected.

  17. Novel photoresist thin films with in-situ photoacid generator by molecular layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Han; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-03-01

    Current photoresist materials are facing many challenges introduced by advanced lithographies, particularly the need for excellent compositional homogeneity and ultrathin film thickness. Traditional spin-on polymeric resists have inherent limitations in achieving a high level of control over the chemical composition, leading to interest in development of alternative methods for making photoresists. In this work, we demonstrate that molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a potential method for synthesizing photoresists because it allows for precise control over organic film thickness and composition. MLD utilizes sequential, self-limiting reactions of organic precursors to build a thin film directly on a substrate surface and grows organic films by depositing only one molecular layer at each precursor dose, which in turn allows for fine-tuning of the position and concentration of various functionalities in the deposited film. In this study, we use bifunctional precursors, diamine and diisocyanate, to build polyurea resist films via urea coupling reaction between the amine and isocyanate groups. Acid-labile groups and photoacid generators (PAGs) are embedded in the backbone of the resist films with a highly uniform distribution. The resist films were successfully deposited and characterized for both materials properties and resist response. E-beam patterning was achieved with the resist films. Cross-linking behavior of the resist films was observed, likely due to the aromatic rings in the films, which is undesirable for application as a positive-tone photoresist. Moreover, the in-situ polymer-bound PAGs had low sensitivity. It is suggested that this effect may arise because the PAG is cation-bound, leading to lower efficiency of sulfur-carbon bond cleavage in the sulfonium cation, which is needed to produce the photoacid, and consequently a lower photoacid yield. Further work is needed to improve the performance of the MLD resist films.

  18. Optical properties of electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films on colloidal crystal film of SiO2 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yong Taeg; Choi, Bum Ho; Shin, Dong Chan

    2012-02-01

    The optical properties of electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films on colloidal crystal film of SiO2 microspheres structures were studied. Colloidal crystal film of SiO2 microspheres were self-assembled by evaporation using SiO2 in solution at a constant 0.1 wt%. ZnO in thin films was then electrochemically deposited on to colloidal crystal film of SiO2 microspheres. During electrochemical deposition, the content of Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O in solution was 5 wt%, and the process's conditions were varied between of 2-4 V and 30-120 s at room temperature, with subsequent heat-treatment between 200 and 400 degrees C. A smooth surface and uniform thickness of 1.8 microm were obtained at 3 V for 90 s. The highest PL peak intensity was obtained in the ZnO thin film heat-treated at 400 degrees C. The double layered ZnO/SiO2 colloidal crystals showed clearly better emission properties than the SiO2/ZnO and ZnO structures.

  19. Dielectric dilatometry on thin Teflon-PTFE films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoediauer, Reinhard; Bauer-Gogonea, Simona; Bauer, Stefan; Heitz, J.; Arenholz, Enno; Baeuerle, Dieter

    1999-12-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon PTFE) films were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Films prepared by ablation from press-sintered targets are found to be highly crystalline, with spherulite sizes adjustable over more than one order in magnitude by suitable thermal annealing. As revealed by dielectric dilatometry, PLD-PTFE films show characteristics remarkably similar to those of conventional PTFE, i.e. the same structural first-order phase transitions. Dielectric losses are low and indicate no tendency to film oxidation. PLD-PTFE films additionally show an excellent charge-stability, comparable and even superior to commercially available Teflon-PTFE foils. PLD-PTFE enlarges the family of Teflon materials and may thus become interesting for potential miniaturized electret devices. Furthermore, dielectric dilatometry provides an elegant means for the determination of the coefficient of thermal expansion in thin nonpolar films.

  20. Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposited Thin Films for Space Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; McNatt, Jeremiah; Dickman, John E.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Kelly, Christopher V.; AquinoGonzalez, Angel R.; Rockett, Angus A.

    2006-01-01

    Copper indium disulfide thin films were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using single source precursors. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties in order to optimize device-quality material. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hot-wall reactor at 395 C yielded best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier, smoother, denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands (1.45, 1.43, 1.37, and 1.32 eV) and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was 1.03 percent.

  1. Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Aile Kozlova, Jekaterina; Aarik, Lauri; Aarik, Jaan; Kukli, Kaupo; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo

    2015-01-15

    Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates. For depositing dysprosium and titanium oxides Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 3} were used as precursors combinations. Appropriate parameters for Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} growth process were obtained by using a quartz crystal microbalance system. The Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The Dy/Ti ratio of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited on a planar silicon substrate ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. Magnetometry studies revealed that saturation of magnetization could not be observed in planar Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, but it was observable in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on 3D substrates and in doped TiO{sub 2} films with a Dy/Ti atomic ratio of 0.06. The latter films exhibited saturation magnetization 10{sup −6} A cm{sup 2} and coercivity 11 kA/m at room temperature.

  2. High-temperature conductivity in chemical bath deposited copper selenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanam, M.; Manoj, P. K.; Prabhu, Rajeev. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports high-temperature (305-523 K) electrical studies of chemical bath deposited copper (I) selenide (Cu 2-xSe) and copper (II) selenide (Cu 3Se 2) thin films. Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have been prepared on glass substrates from the same chemical bath at room temperature by controlling the pH. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, it has been found that Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have cubic and tetragonal structures, respectively. The composition of the chemical constituent in the films has been confirmed from XRD data and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It has been found that both phases of copper selenide thin films have thermally activated conduction in the high-temperature range. In this paper we also report the variation of electrical parameters with film thickness and the applied voltage.

  3. Deposition and characterization of silicon thin-films by aluminum-induced crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebil, Ozgenc

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) as a thin-film solar cell material could have major advantages compared to non-silicon thin-film technologies. In theory, thin-film poly-Si may retain the performance and stability of c-Si while taking advantage of established manufacturing techniques. However, poly-Si films deposited onto foreign substrates at low temperatures typically have an average grain size of 10--50 nm. Such a grain structure presents a potential problem for device performance since it introduces an excessive number of grain boundaries which, if left unpassivated, lead to poor solar cell properties. Therefore, for optimum device performance, the grain size of the poly-Si film should be at least comparable to the thickness of the films. For this project, the objectives were the deposition of poly-Si thin-films with 2--5 mum grain size on glass substrates using in-situ and conventional aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) and the development of a model for AIC process. In-situ AIC experiments were performed using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) both above and below the eutectic temperature (577°C) of Si-Al binary system. Conventional AIC experiments were performed using a-Si layers deposited on aluminum coated glass substrates by Electron-beam deposition, Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and HWCVD. Continuous poly-Si films with an average grain size of 10 mum on glass substrates were achieved by both in-situ and conventional aluminum-induced crystallization of Si below eutectic temperature. The grain size was determined by three factors; the grain structure of Al layer, the nature of the interfacial oxide, and crystallization temperature. The interface oxide was found to be crucial for AIC process but not necessary for crystallization itself. The characterization of interfacial oxide layer formed on Al films revealed a bilayer structure containing Al2O3 and Al(OH)3 . The effective activation energy for AIC process was determined

  4. Some aspects over the quality of thin films deposited on special steels used in hydraulic blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugui, C. A.; Vizureanu, P.; Iftimie, N.; Steigmann, R.

    2016-08-01

    The experimental research involved in this paper consists in the obtaining of superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties of stainless steels used in the construction of hydraulic turbine blades. These properties are obtained by deposition of hard thin films in order to improve the wear resistance, increasing the hardness but maintaining the tenacious core of the material. The chosen methods for deposition are electrospark deposition because it has relatively low costs, are easy to obtain, the layers have a good adherence to support and the thickness can be variable in function of the established conditions and the pulsed laser deposition because high quality films can be obtained at nanometric precision. The samples will be prepared for the analysis of the structure using optical method as well as for the obtaining of the optimal roughness for the deposition. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties will be determined after deposition using SEM and EDX, in order to emphasize the structure film-substrate and repartition of the deposition elements on the surface and in transversal section. The non-destructive testing has emphasized the good adherence between deposited layer and the metallic support, due to double deposition, spallation regions doesn't appear.

  5. High Performance and Highly Reliable ZnO Thin Film Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition for Next Generation Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-19

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film as an active channel layer in TFT has become of great interest owing to their specific...630-0192 Japan Phone: +81-743-72-6060 Fax: +81-743-72-6069 E-mail: uraoka@ms.naist.jp Keywords: zinc oxide , thin film transistors , atomic layer...deposition Symposium topic: Transparent Semiconductors Oxides [Abstract] In this study, we fabricated TFTs using ZnO thin film as the

  6. V2O5 thin film deposition for application in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, Elhadi A. A.; Mola, Genene Tessema

    2016-04-01

    Vanadium pentoxide V2O5 films were fabricated by way of electrochemical deposition technique for application as hole transport buffer layer in organic solar cell. A thin and uniform V2O5 films were successfully deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate. The characterization of surface morphology and optical properties of the deposition suggest that the films are suitable for photovoltaic application. Organic solar cell fabricated using V2O5 as hole transport buffer layer showed better devices performance and environmental stability than those devices fabricated with PEDOT:PSS. In an ambient device preparation condition, the power conversion efficiency increases by nearly 80 % compared with PEDOT:PSS-based devices. The devices lifetime using V2O5 buffer layer has improved by a factor of 10 over those devices with PEDOT:PSS.

  7. Effect of deposition times on structure of Ga-doped ZnO thin films as humidity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Faridzatul Shahira; Awang, Rozidawati

    2014-09-03

    Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) has good electrical property. It is widely used as transparent electrode in photovoltaic devices, and sensing element in gas and pressure sensors. GZO thin film was prepared using magnetron sputtering. Film deposition times were set at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes to get samples of different thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the structure of GZO thin films. Structure for GZO thin film is hexagonal wurtzite structure. Morphology and thickness of GZO thin films was observed from FESEM micrographs. Grain size and thickness of thin films improved with increasing deposition times. However, increasing the thickness of thin films occur below 25 minutes only. Electrical properties of GZO thin films were studied using a four-point probe technique. The changes in the structure of the thin films lead to the changed of their electrical properties resulting in the reduction of the film resistance. These thin films properties significantly implying the potential application of the sample as a humidity sensor.

  8. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  9. Hexagonal nanosized molybdenum diselenide thin film deposited at 333 K by chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathe, D. J.; Chate, P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Molybdenum diselenide thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and glass substrates by the chemical process, using ammonium molybdate, sodium selenosulphite as a precursor sources and citric acid was used as a complexing agent. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with band gap energy 1.51 eV. EDAX analysis shows that the films are nearly stoichiometry of Mo: Se: 1:2. The configuration of fabricated cell is n-MoSe2 | NaI (2 M) + I2 (1 M) | C (graphite) yielded a conversion efficiency of 1.08%.

  10. Characterization of tin (II) sulphide thin film synthesized by successive chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Mitra, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, tin (II) sulphide ( SnS) thin films were grown on glass substrate by successive chemical solution deposition method using ammonium sulphide as anionic precursor solutions. Characterization techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray were utilized to study the microstructure of the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray confirmed formation of nearly stoichiometric film with slight excess of tin under optimized deposition conditions. Particle size estimated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data using MAUD software was 41 nm which compared well with field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements. The value of the energy gap of 1.51 eV was found to be near the optimum needs for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV) with high absorption in the visible region. An enhancement in energy gap was observed for tin-enriched films.

  11. Properties of nanostructured undoped ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolytes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for thin film solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Lee, Yoon Ho; Cha, Suk Won E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr; Ji, Sanghoon; Hong, Soon Wook; Koo, Bongjun; Kim, Young-Beom E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr; An, Jihwan

    2016-01-15

    Nanostructured ZrO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The effects of the deposition conditions of temperature, reactant, plasma power, and duration upon the physical and chemical properties of ZrO{sub 2} films were investigated. The ZrO{sub 2} films by PEALD were polycrystalline and had low contamination, rough surfaces, and relatively large grains. Increasing the plasma power and duration led to a clear polycrystalline structure with relatively large grains due to the additional energy imparted by the plasma. After characterization, the films were incorporated as electrolytes in thin film solid oxide fuel cells, and the performance was measured at 500 °C. Despite similar structure and cathode morphology of the cells studied, the thin film solid oxide fuel cell with the ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolyte by the thermal ALD at 250 °C exhibited the highest power density (38 mW/cm{sup 2}) because of the lowest average grain size at cathode/electrolyte interface.

  12. Effect of target density on the growth and properties of YGBCO thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Linfei; Li, Yiejie; Wu, Xiang; Yao, Yanjie; Wang, Menglin; Wang, Binbin

    2016-12-01

    Some works found that target density had not a large effects on the superconducting or structural properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. However, the possible effect of target density on the Y0.5Gd0.5Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YGBCO) is not clear. In this paper, YGBCO thin films were deposited on flexible metal substrates by pulsed laser deposition using target with different densities. The density of each YGBCO target was varied from to 4.0 g/cm3 to 5.5 g/cm3. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the microstructure and superconducting properties of YGBCO films as a function of the target density. The film structures were examined by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The superconducting properties of the YGBCO films were evaluated using the conventional four-probe method and PPMS. It was found that all the YGBCO films had pure c-axis orientation. The target density had effect on the surface morphology and superconducting properties of the YGBCO thin films. With increasing target density, the pore became larger and the distribution density and size of the particles became higher and larger, and the critical current Ic decreased. The YGBCO film deposited at a target density of 4.0 g/cm3 exhibited the highest critical current density Jc of 5.4 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field, 47.2 MA/cm2 at 0 T and 8.8 MA/cm2 at 9 T at 4.2 K and B//c.

  13. Structures and Properties of C-Doped NiCr Thin Film Deposited by Closed-Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Lifei; Wang, Jinxia; Wang, Hongtao; Bao, Mingdong

    2017-01-01

    The structures and properties of C-doped NiCr thin film as embedded thin film resistor (ETFR) materials were studied by closed-field, unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The C-doped NiCr (NiCrC1) thin film had more stable electrical performance, better corrosion resistance, and higher hardness than NiCr thin film. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of NiCrC1 thin film deposited at room temperature (from 19.73 ppm/K to 173.7 ppm/K) was lower than that of NiCr thin film (from 157.8 ppm/K to 378.9 ppm/K), and the sheet resistor (154.25 Ω/Sq) was higher than that of NiCr thin film (62.84 Ω/Sq). The preferred orientations of C-doped NiCr thin film was Ni (111), while that of NiCr thin film was Ni (011). The carbon-doped NiCr thin film can reduce the defects and stress and change the preferred orientations. The dominant carbon in C-doped NiCr thin film had a graphite-like structure.

  14. Design of Faraday cup ion detectors built by thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalkowski, G. A.; Darrow, D. S.; Cecil, F. E.

    2017-03-01

    Thin film Faraday cup detectors can provide measurements of fast ion loss from magnetically confined fusion plasmas. These multilayer detectors can resolve the energy distribution of the lost ions in addition to giving the total loss rate. Prior detectors were assembled from discrete foils and insulating sheets. Outlined here is a design methodology for creating detectors using thin film deposition that are suited to particular scientific goals. The intention is to use detectors created by this method on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The detectors will consist of alternating layers of aluminum and silicon dioxide, with layer thicknesses chosen to isolate energies of interest. Thin film deposition offers the advantage of relatively simple and more mechanically robust construction compared to other methods, as well as allowing precise control of film thickness. Furthermore, this depositional fabrication technique places the layers in intimate thermal contact, providing for three-dimensional conduction and dissipation of the ion-produced heating in the layers, rather than the essentially two-dimensional heat conduction in the discrete foil stack implementation.

  15. [Spectrum diagnostics for optimization of experimental parameters in thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Cui, Yong-Liang; Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Huai, Su-Fang; Liu, Bao-Ting; Chen, Jin-Zhong

    2010-12-01

    The plasma emission spectra generated during the deposition process of Si-based thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using Cu and Al targets in an argon atmosphere were acquired by the plasma analysis system, which consists of a magnetron sputtering apparatus, an Omni-lambda300 series grating spectrometer, a CCD data acquisition system and an optical fiber transmission system. The variation in Cu and Al plasma emission spectra intensity depending on sputtering conditions, such as sputtering time, sputtering power, the target-to-substrate distance and deposition pressure, was studied by using the analysis lines Cu I 324. 754 nm, Cu I 327. 396 nm, Cu I 333. 784 nm, Cu I 353. 039 nm, Al I 394. 403 nm and Al I 396. 153 nm. Compared with the option of experimental parameters of thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, it was shown that emission spectra analysis methods play a guiding role in optimizing the deposition conditions of thin films in RF magnetron sputtering.

  16. Study of deposition parameters for the fabrication of ZnO thin films using femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Jaweria Zartaj; Siraj, Khurram; Latif, Anwar; Murray, Mathew; Jose, Gin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser deposition (fs-PLD) of ZnO thin film on borosilicate glass substrates is reported in this work. The effect of important fs-PLD parameters such as target-substrate distance, laser pulse energy and substrate temperature on structure, morphology, optical transparency and luminescence of as-deposited films is discussed. XRD analysis reveals that all the films grown using the laser energy range 120-230 μJ are polycrystalline when they are deposited at room temperature in a ~10-5 Torr vacuum. Introducing 0.7 mTorr oxygen pressure, the films show preferred c-axis growth and transform into a single-crystal-like film when the substrate temperature is increased to 100 °C. The scanning electron micrographs show the presence of small nano-size grains at 25 °C, which grow in size to the regular hexagonal shape particles at 100 °C. Optical transmission of the ZnO film is found to increase with an increase in crystal quality. Maximum transmittance of 95 % in the wavelength range 400-1400 nm is achieved for films deposited at 100 °C employing a laser pulse energy of 180 μJ. The luminescence spectra show a strong UV emission band peaked at 377 nm close to the ZnO band gap. The shallow donor defects increase at higher pulse energies and higher substrate temperatures, which give rise to violet-blue luminescence. The results indicate that nano-crystalline ZnO thin films with high crystalline quality and optical transparency can be fabricated by using pulses from fs lasers.

  17. Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Solution-Based Vapor-Deposition of Aluminum Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Jinchun; Katori, Shigetaka; Ikenoue, Takumi; Fujita, Shizuo

    2011-02-01

    Aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) thin films were fabricated by a vapor-deposition technique from its methanol solution, that is, by the ultrasonic-assisted mist deposition technique. The application of high ultrasonic power to the Alq3-methanol mixture resulted in a stable and transparent solution. Mist particles formed by ultrasonic atomization of the solution were used as the source for vapor-deposition at the substrate temperature of 100-200 °C. Optical absorption and photoluminescence characteristics indicated the formation of Alq3 thin films. The results promise the formation of thin films of a variety of organic materials by the solution-based technique.

  18. Preparation and characterization of ALD deposited ZnO thin films studied for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Georgieva, V.; Yordanov, R.; Raicheva, Z.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The gas sensing of the ZnO films to NO2 was tested in the concentration interval between 10 and 5000 ppm. On the basis of registered frequency change of the QCM, for each concentration the sorbed mass was calculated. Further characterization of the films was carried out by various techniques, i.e. by SEM-EDS, XRD, ellipsometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Although being very thin, the films were gas sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register very well as low concentrations as 100 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible. Our results for very thin ALD ZnO films show that the described fast, simple and cost-effective technology could be implemented for producing gas sensors working at room temperature and being capable to detect in real time low concentrations of NO2.

  19. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. T.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, V. M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.

    1997-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  20. Room temperature deposition of ZnSe thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, R.B.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in

    2004-10-04

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films are deposited onto glass substrate using relatively simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films are deposited using zinc acetate sodium selenosulphate precursors. The concentration, pH, immersion and rinsing times and number of immersion cycles have been optimized to obtain good quality ZnSe thin films. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveals nanocrystalline nature alongwith some amorphous phase present in ZnSe thin films. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis shows that the films are Se deficient. From optical absorption data, the optical band gap 'E{sub g}' for as-deposited thin film was found to be 2.8 eV and electrical resistivity in the order of 10{sup 7} {omega} cm.

  1. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl3 in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films' crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V2O5 film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  2. In situ stress evolution during and after sputter deposition of Al thin films.

    PubMed

    Pletea, M; Koch, R; Wendrock, H; Kaltofen, R; Schmidt, O G

    2009-06-03

    The stress, growth, and morphology evolution of Al thin films up to 300 nm thick, sputter deposited at a constant rate of 0.04 nm s(-1) onto thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates have been investigated for various sputter pressures in the range from 0.05 to 6 Pa. The stress evolution has been studied during and after the film deposition by means of in situ substrate curvature measurements using an optical two-beam deflection method. In order to obtain insight into the mechanisms of stress generation and relaxation, the microstructure of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, focused-ion-beam microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The stress evolution during the early stage of deposition of films is consistent with the Volmer-Weber growth mode known for metals with high adatom mobility. For thicker films, the compressive stress increases in the sputter pressure range of 0.05-0.5 Pa, whereas at even higher sputter pressures a transition from compressive to tensile stress takes place. This transition is correlated with a change from a relatively dense to a more porous microstructure characterized by decreasing mass density and increasing electrical resistivity with increasing sputter pressure. The dependence of the stress and microstructure on the sputter pressure can be consistently understood through a combination of the stress mechanisms for vapor and sputter deposited films proposed in the literature.

  3. Non-conventional photocathodes based on Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; D'Elia, M.; Gontad, F.; Di Giulio, M.; Maruccio, G.; Cola, A.; Stankova, N. E.; Kovacheva, D. G.; Broitman, E.

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  4. Control of Thin Liquid Film Morphology During Solvent-Assisted Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, G.; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

    2010-01-01

    Liquid films of different silicate esters were deposited from volatile solvents on hydroxylated and hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces. We show that adsorption of silicate ester molecules and the resulting structural morphology of the liquid films not only are determined by attractive van der Waals forces with contributions from electrostatic interactions between the silicone ester moieties and oxide surface sites but also can be tuned by modifying the substrate surface or by changing the liquid-solvent interactions. Our results also show the importance of the conformational properties of liquid molecules and their rearrangements at the liquid/solid interface for controlled solvent-assisted film deposition.

  5. Adherent and Conformal Zn(S,O,OH) Thin Films by Rapid Chemical Bath Deposition with Hexamethylenetetramine Additive.

    PubMed

    Opasanont, Borirak; Van, Khoa T; Kuba, Austin G; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Baxter, Jason B

    2015-06-03

    ZnS is a wide band gap semiconductor whose many applications, such as photovoltaic buffer layers, require uniform and continuous films down to several nanometers thick. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a simple, low-cost, and scalable technique to deposit such inorganic films. However, previous attempts at CBD of ZnS have often resulted in nodular noncontinuous films, slow growth rates at low pH, and high ratio of oxygen impurities at high pH. In this work, ZnS thin films were grown by adding hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) to a conventional recipe that uses zinc sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt, and thioacetamide. Dynamic bath characterization showed that HMTA helps the bath to maintain near-neutral pH and also acts as a catalyst, which leads to fast nucleation and deposition rates, continuous films, and less oxygen impurities in the films. Films deposited on glass from HMTA-containing bath were uniform, continuous, and 90 nm thick after 1 h, as opposed to films grown without HMTA that were ∼3 times thinner and more nodular. On Cu2(Zn,Sn)Se4, films grown with HMTA were continuous within 10 min. The films have comparatively few oxygen impurities, with S/(S+O) atomic ratio of 88%, and high optical transmission of 98% at 360 nm. The Zn(S,O,OH) films exhibit excellent adhesion to glass and high resistivity, which make them ideal nucleation layers for other metal sulfides. Their promise as a nucleation layer was demonstrated with the deposition of thin, continuous Sb2S3 overlayers. This novel HMTA chemistry enables rapid deposition of Zn(S,O,OH) thin films to serve as a nucleation layer, a photovoltaic buffer layer, or an extremely thin continuous coating for thin film applications. HMTA may also be applied in a similar manner for solution deposition of other metal chalcogenide and oxide thin films with superior properties.

  6. Incorporation of Linear Spacer Molecules in Vapor Deposited Silicone Polymer Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Achyuta, Anil Kumar H.; White, Aleksandr J.; Pryce Lewis, Hilton G.; Murthy, Shashi K.

    2009-01-01

    Poly (trivinyl-trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane) or polyV3D3 is a promising insulating thin film known for its potential application in neural probe fabrication. However, its time-consuming synthesis rate renders it impractical for manufacturing standards. Previously, the growth mechanism of polyV3D3 was shown to be affected by significant steric barriers. This article describes the synthesis of a copolymer of polyV3D3 via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) using V3D3 as the monomer, hexavinyl disiloxane (HVDS) as a spacer, and tert-butyl peroxide (TBP) as the initiator to obtain nearly a 4-fold increase in deposition rate. The film formation kinetics is limited by the adsorption of the reactive species on the surface of the substrate with an activation energy of −41.5 kJ/mol with respect to substrate temperature. The films deposited are insoluble in polar and non polar solvents due to their extremely crosslinked structure. They have excellent adhesion to silicon substrates and their adhesion properties are retained after soaking in a variety of solvents. Spectroscopic evidence shows that the films do not vary in structure after boiling in DI water for 1 hour, illustrating hydrolytic stability. PolyV3D3-HVDS has a bulk resistivity of 5.6 (±1) × 1014 Ω-cm, which is comparable to that of parylene-C; the insulating thin film currently used in neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:21359171

  7. Zirconium doped TiO2 thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juma, A.; Oja Acik, I.; Oluwabi, A. T.; Mere, A.; Mikli, V.; Danilson, M.; Krunks, M.

    2016-11-01

    Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) is a flexible deposition technique that allows for mixing of the precursor solutions in different proportions suitable for doping thin films. The CSP method was used to dope TiO2 thin films with Zr by adding zirconium(IV) acetylacetonate into a solution of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in ethanol stabilized by acetylacetone at [Zr]/[Ti] of 0, 5, 10 and 20 at%. The Zr-doped TiO2 thin films were uniform and homogeneous showing much smaller grains than the undoped TiO2 films. Zr stabilized the anatase phase to temperatures above 800 °C depending on Zr concentration in the spray solution. The concentration of Zr determined by XPS was 6.4 at% for the thin film deposited from the 20 at% solution. According to AFM studies, Zr doping decreased the root mean square roughness of TiO2 film from 5.9 to 1.1 nm. An XRD study of samples with the highest Zr amount showed the ZrTiO4 phase started forming after annealing at 800 °C. The optical band gap for TiO2 decreased from 3.3 eV to 3.0 eV after annealing at 800 °C but for the TiO2:Zr(20) film it remained at 3.4 eV. The dielectric constant increased by more than four times with Zr-doping and this was associated with the change in the bond formations caused by substitution of Ti by Zr in the lattice.

  8. Periodic oxidation for fabricating titanium oxynitride thin films via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, Shinya Aoyama, Shintaro; Nasu, Masayuki; Shimomura, Kouji; Noro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Toshio; Akasaka, Yasushi; Miyashita, Kohei

    2016-01-15

    This paper demonstrates thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) combined with periodic oxidation for synthesizing titanium oxynitride (TiON) thin films. The process used a typical ALD reactor for the synthesis of titanium nitride (TiN) films wherein oxygen was supplied periodically between the ALD-TiN cycles. The great advantage of the process proposed here was that it allowed the TiN films to be oxidized efficiently. Also, a uniform depth profile of the oxygen concentration in the films could be obtained by tuning the oxidation conditions, allowing the process to produce a wide variety of TiON films. The resistivity measurement is a convenient method to confirm the reproducibility of metal film fabrication but may not be applicable for TiON films depending upon the oxidation condition because the films can easily turn into insulators when subjected to periodic oxidation. Therefore, an alternative reproducibility confirmation method was required. In this study, spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to monitor the variation of TiON films and was able to detect changes in film structures such as conductor–insulator transitions in the TiON films.

  9. Microstructural and conductivity changes induced by annealing of ZnO:B thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    David, C; Girardeau, T; Paumier, F; Eyidi, D; Lacroix, B; Papathanasiou, N; Tinkham, B P; Guérin, P; Marteau, M

    2011-08-24

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have attracted much attention in recent years due to progress in crystal growth for a large variety of technological applications including optoelectronics and transparent electrodes in solar cells. Boron (B)-doped ZnO thin films are deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) on Si(100). These films exhibit a strong (002) texture with a pyramidal grain structure. The ZnO films were annealed after growth; the annealing temperature and the atmosphere appear to strongly impact the layer conductivity. This work will first present the modification of the physical properties (carrier concentration, mobility) extracted from the simulation of layer reflection in the infrared range. At low annealing temperatures the mobility increases slightly before decreasing drastically above a temperature close to 250 °C. The chemical and structural evolution (XPS, x-ray diffraction) of the films was also studied to identify the relationship between microstructural modifications and the variations observed in the film conductivity. An in situ XRD study during annealing has been performed under air and low pressure conditions. As observed for electrical properties, the microstructural modifications shift to higher temperatures for vacuum annealing.

  10. Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Wook; Kwon, Se-Hun; Kwak, Dong-Kee; Kang, Sang-Won

    2008-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition of iridium (Ir) and iridium oxide (IrO{sub 2}) films was investigated using an alternating supply of (ethylcyclopentadienyl)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) iridium and oxygen gas at temperatures between 230 and 290 deg. C. The phase transition between Ir and IrO{sub 2} occurred at the critical oxygen partial pressure during the oxygen injection pulse. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled by the O{sub 2}/(Ar+O{sub 2}) ratio or deposition pressures. The resistivity of the deposited Ir and IrO{sub 2} films was about 9 and 120 {mu}{omega} cm, respectively. In addition, the critical oxygen partial pressure for the phase transition between Ir and IrO{sub 2} was increased with increasing the deposition temperature. Thus, the phase of the deposited film, either Ir or IrO{sub 2}, was controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and the deposition temperature. However, the formation of a thin Ir layer was detected between the IrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} substrate. To remove this interfacial layer, the oxygen partial pressure is increased to a severe condition. And the impurity contents were below the detection limit of Auger electron spectroscopy in both Ir and IrO{sub 2} films.

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition of High Tc Superconducting Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    de- temperature thermal detectors such as the pyroelectric ec sign of imaging arrays of high-T, bolometers for wave- tector, the thermopile , or the... concepts to discuss materials and fabrication considerations. The thermal con- the sensitivity of imaging arrays of high-T, bolometers as a ductance G to...any conceived IR detector . In addition, flux motion studies have been made by this group using our films of YBCO grown on 0.003" thick silicon wafers

  12. Chemical spray pyrolysis of β-In2S3 thin films deposited at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sall, Thierno; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    In2S3 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis while keeping the substrates at different temperatures. The structures of the sprayed In2S3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XFD). The quality of the thin films was determined by Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy were used to explore the surface morphology and topography of the thin films, respectively. The optical band gap was determined based on optical transmission measurements. The indium sulfide phase exhibited a preferential orientation in the (0, 0, 12) crystallographic direction according to the XRD analysis. The phonon vibration modes determined by Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the In2S3 phase in our samples. According to SEM, the surface morphologies of the films were free of defects. The optical band gap energy varied from 2.82 eV to 2.95 eV.

  13. Improved efficiency of the chemical bath deposition method during growth of ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Lopez, Mauricio; Avila-Garcia, Alejandro; Albor-Aguilera, M.L.; Resendiz, V.M. Sanchez

    2003-06-19

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is an inexpensive and low temperature method (25-90 deg. C) that allows to deposit large area semiconductor thin films. However, the extent of the desired heterogeneous reaction upon the substrate surface is limited first by the competing homogeneous reaction, which is responsible for colloidal particles formation in the bulk solution, and second, by the material deposition on the CBD reactor walls. Therefore, the CBD method exhibits low efficiency in terms of profiting the whole amount of starting materials. The present work describes a procedure to deposit ZnO thin films by CBD in an efficient way, since it offers the possibility to minimize both the undesirable homogeneous reaction in the bulk solution and the material deposition on the CBD reactor walls. In a first stage, zinc peroxide (ZnO{sub 2}) crystallizing with cubic structure is obtained. This compound shows a good average transparency (90%) and an optical bandgap of 4.2 eV. After an annealing process, the ZnO{sub 2} suffers a transformation toward polycrystalline ZnO with hexagonal structure and 3.25 eV of optical bandgap. The surface morphology of the films, analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM), reveals three-dimensional growth features as well as no colloidal particles upon the surface, therefore indicating the predominance of the heterogeneous reaction during the growth.

  14. Cell adhesion to cathodic arc plasma deposited CrAlSiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Pham, Vuong-Hung; Kim, Chong-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Osteoblast cell response (cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton and focal contact adhesion as well as cell proliferation) to CrN, CrAlSiN and Ti thin films was evaluated in vitro. Cell adhesion and actin stress fibers organization depended on the film composition significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of vinculin in osteoblast cells showed good focal contact adhesion on the CrAlSiN and Ti thin films but not on the CrN thin films. Cell proliferation was significantly greater on the CrAlSiN thin films as well as on Ti thin films than on the CrN thin films.

  15. Photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in argon and water vapour plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirghi, L.; Hatanaka, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.

    2015-10-01

    The present work is investigating the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a pure TiO2 target in Ar and Ar/H2O (pressure ratio 40/3) plasmas. Optical absorption, structure, surface morphology and chemical structure of the deposited films were comparatively studied. The films were amorphous and included a large amount of hydroxyl groups (about 5% of oxygen atoms were bounded to hydrogen) irrespective of the intentional content of water in the deposition chamber. Incorporation of hydroxyl groups in the film deposited in pure Ar plasma is explained as contamination of the working gas with water molecules desorbed by plasma from the deposition chamber walls. However, intentional input of water vapour into the discharge chamber decreased the deposition speed and roughness of the deposited films. The good photocatalytic activity of the deposited films could be attributed hydroxyl groups in their structures.

  16. MAPLE deposition of Mn(III) metalloporphyrin thin films: Structural, topographical and electrochemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A. C.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Ciucu, A. A.; Iordache, S.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2011-04-01

    We report the deposition by MAPLE of metallized nanostructured (5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl)porphinato manganese(III) chloride thin films onto gold screen-printed electrodes, or <1 1 1> Si substrates. The deposited nanostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and exhibited globular structures with average diameters decreasing with laser fluence. Raman spectroscopy showed that no major decomposition appeared. We have investigated the Mn(III)-metalloporphyrin thin films by cyclic voltammetry in order to evaluate the potential bio/chemosensing activity on dopamine neurotransmitter analyte. We have found that the manganese(III)-porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for dopamine sensing in the specific case of gold screen-printed electrodes.

  17. Variable temperature photoluminescence of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J. B.; Soo, Y. C.; Thomas, A.; Kandel, H.; Chen, T. P.; Daghlian, C. P.

    2008-08-01

    Variable temperature photoluminescence of ZnO thin films deposited by a reactive laser ablation of metallic zinc was investigated. Free and bound exciton emissions are absent at cryogenic temperature, and the near band edge (NBE) emission is independent of measurement temperature for the ZnO thin film deposited at room temperature. Annealing at 700 °C results in the removal of defects, reappearance of exciton emission, and a temperature dependent NBE emission. The experimental data suggest that defects play an important role in the band edge emission in terms of both spectra shape and temperature dependence. Our observations will have an impact on device applications using ZnO, especially for optoelectronics that utilizes the exciton emission.

  18. Industrial Application of Thin Films (TiAl)N Deposited on Thermo-Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, G.; Jaramillo, S.; Arango, Y. C.; Devia, D.; Quintero, J.; Devia, A.

    2006-12-04

    The thermo-well is formed by two layers, one layer is a ceramic and the other layer is anviloy (comprised tungsten). They are used to coat the thermocouple in the control temperature system during the Aluminum-Silicon alloy melting process. After two weeks of continuous work at 750 deg. C of temperature (the alloy temperature), a high wear in this material is observed, affecting the ceramic. (TiAl)N thin films are deposited directly on the anviloy substrates by the PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physics Vapor Deposition) in arc pulsed technique, using a TiAl target in a mono-vaporizer system, composed by a reactor and a power controlled system. Two opposite electrodes are placed into the reactor and discharge is produced by a controlled power system. The XRD (X-ray diffraction) patterns show the presence of the (TiAl)N thin film peaks. The morphological characteristics are studied by the scanning probe microscopy (SPM)

  19. Magnetic domain observation of FeCo thin films fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuki, T. Kotsugi, M.; Ohkochi, T.; Kojima, T.; Mizuguchi, M.; Takanashi, K.

    2014-01-28

    FeCo thin films are fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition method on a Cu{sub 3}Au buffer layer, which in-plane lattice constant is very close to the predicted value to obtain a large magnetic anisotropy constant. The variation of the in-plane lattice constant during the deposition process is investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The magnetic domain images are also observed by a photoelectron emission microscope in order to microscopically understand the magnetic structure. As a result, element-specific magnetic domain images show that Fe and Co magnetic moments align parallel. A series of images obtained with various azimuth reveal that the FeCo thin films show fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy along 〈110〉 direction, and that the magnetic domain structure is composed only of 90∘ wall.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Kinge, Sachin; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10-2 A W-1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 109 Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  1. Random lasing of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachoncinlle, C.; Hebert, C.; Perrière, J.; Nistor, M.; Petit, A.; Millon, E.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dimensional semiconductor structures on nanometer scale are of great interest because of their strong potential applications in nanotechnologies. We report here optical and structural properties on UV lasing in ZnO thin films. The ZnO films, 110 nm thick, were prepared using pulsed-laser deposition on c-cut sapphire substrates at 500 °C under 10-2 oxygen pressure. The ZnO films are nearly stoichiometric, dense and display the wurtzite phase. The films are highly textured along the ZnO c-axis and are constituted of nanocrystallites. According to Hall measurements these films are conductive (0.11 Ω cm). Photoluminescence measurements reveals a so-called random lasing in the range 390 to 410 nm, when illuminating at 355 nm with a tripled frequency pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Such random lasing is obtained at rather low optical pumping, 45 kW cm-2, a value lower than those classically reported for pulsed-laser deposition thin films.

  2. Biocompatible Mn2+-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    György, E; Toricelli, P; Socol, G; Iliescu, M; Mayer, I; Mihailescu, I N; Bigi, A; Werckman, J

    2004-11-01

    Mn(2+)-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite (Mn-CHA) thin films were obtained by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. The results of the performed complementary diagnostic techniques, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy investigations indicate that the films are crystalline with a Ca/P ratio of about 1.64-1.66. The optimum conditions, when nearly stoichiometric crystalline thin films were deposited, were found to be 10 Pa oxygen pressure, 400 degrees C substrate temperature, and postdeposition heat treatment in water vapors at the same substrate temperature. The films were seeded with L929 fibroblast and hFOB1.19 osteoblast cells and subjected to in vitro tests. Both fibroblast and osteoblast cells have a good adherence on the Mn-CHA film and on the Ti or polystyrene references. Proliferation and viability tests showed that osteoblast cells growth on Mn-CHA-coated Ti was enhanced as compared to uncoated pure Ti surfaces. Caspase-1 activity was not affected significantly by the material, showing that Mn-CHA does not induce apoptosis of cultured cells. These results demonstrate that Mn-CHA films on Ti should provoke a faster osteointegration of the coated implants as compared to pure Ti. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 71A: 353-358, 2004.

  3. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance Depending on Morphology of Bismuth Vanadate Thin Film Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Yun; Choi, Kyoung Soon; Shin, Hye-Min; Kim, Taemin Ludvic; Song, Jaesun; Yoon, Sejun; Jang, Ho Won; Yoon, Myung-Han; Jeon, Cheolho; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Sanghan

    2017-01-11

    We have fabricated high quality bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) polycrystalline thin films as photoanodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without a postannealing process. The structure of the grown films is the photocatalytically active phase of scheelite-monoclinic BiVO4 which was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The change of surface morphology for the BIVO4 thin films depending on growth temperature during synthesis has been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and its influence on water splitting performance was investigated. The current density of the BiVO4 film grown on a glass substrate covered with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) at 230 °C was as high as 3.0 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V versus the potential of the reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE) under AM 1.5G illumination, which is the highest value so far in previously reported BiVO4 films grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods. We expect that doping of transition metal or decoration of oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) in our BiVO4 film might further enhance the performance.

  4. Preparation and characterization of LiCoO2 thin films by laser ablation deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antaya, M.; Dahn, J. R.; Preston, J. S.; Rossen, E.; Reimers, J. N.

    1993-03-01

    Thin films of LiCoO2 are obtained by laser ablation from sintered LiCoO2 targets. The films were deposited on stainless steel or tantalum foil substrates so they could be used as cathodes in rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries. The films are amorphous when deposited on unheated substrates but crystallize readily when heated in air above 500 C. Using X-ray diffraction, we show that the films are basically stoichiometric and have no impurity phases present. They consist partly of the normal bulk LiCoO2 phase which can be prepared by reacting Li2CO3 and CoCO3 at 850 C. However, the films also contain some of the new, low temperature LiCoO2 phase. We have synthesized bulk low temperature LiCoO2 from LiNO3 and CO(NO3)2 at 400 C to measure its structure and electrochemical properties. Electrochemical measurements can distinguish between the high and low temperature phases.

  5. Liquid flow deposited spinel (Ni,Mn)3O4 thin films for microbolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Duc Thang; Jeon, Chang Jun; Lee, Kui Woong; Jeong, Young Hun; Yun, Ji Sun; Yoon, Dae Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-03-01

    A liquid flow deposition (LFD) technique was initially used for the fabrication of single-component Mn3O4 thin films onto Si wafer substrates at a range of substrate temperatures of 30-80 °C, with the introduction of an oxidizing reagent (H2O2). As a result, solid thin films were well formed from an aqueous solution. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed typical characteristics of hausmannite Mn3O4 with a spinel tetragonal phase. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed nano-sized grains arranged uniformly on a dense and smooth surface for all of the as-deposited films. On the other hand, the LFD method was then extended to prepare two-component nickel-manganite films according to the binary chemical composition of NixMn3-xO4 with x = 0.02-0.2. The as-grown nickel-manganite films showed a surface with a good quality with a spherical bead-like architecture when x ≤ 0.10, while a conversion from spherical grains into highly porous nanowalls in the microstructure was noted in films when x ≥ 0.12. These results signify that it is possible to fabricate various multi-component manganite-oxide thin films at a low temperature. In addition, the dependences of the room-temperature electrical resistivity (ρ) and the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) on the Ni substitution level (x) were investigated on films annealed at 400 °C.

  6. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn2+/Al3+ ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  7. Synthesis of Cobalt Oxides Thin Films Fractal Structures by Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Haniam, P.; Kunsombat, C.; Chiangga, S.; Songsasen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

  8. Deposition Of Thin-Film Sensors On Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sang Q.

    1995-01-01

    Direct-deposition process devised for fabrication of thin-film sensors on three-dimensional, curved surfaces of models made of stainless steel covered with glass-fiber/epoxy-matrix composite material. Models used under cryogenic conditions, and sensors used to detect on-line transitions between laminar and turbulent flows in wind tunnel environments. Sensors fabricated by process used at temperatures from minus 300 degrees F to 175 degrees F.

  9. Structural and magnetic studies of thin Fe57 films formed by ion beam assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyadov, N. M.; Bazarov, V. V.; Vagizov, F. G.; Vakhitov, I. R.; Dulov, E. N.; Kashapov, R. N.; Noskov, A. I.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Shustov, V. A.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Thin Fe57 films with the thickness of 120 nm have been prepared on glass substrates by using the ion-beam-assisted deposition technique. X-ray diffraction, electron microdiffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies have shown that as-deposited films are in a stressful nanostructured state containing the nanoscaled inclusions of α-phase iron with the size of ∼10 nm. Room temperature in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization measurements confirmed the presence of the magnetic α-phase in the iron film and indicated the strong effect of residual stresses on magnetic properties of the film as well. Subsequent thermal annealing of iron films in vacuum at the temperature of 450 °C stimulates the growth of α-phase Fe crystallites with the size of up to 20 nm. However, electron microdiffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopic data have shown the partial oxidation and carbonization of the iron film during annealing. The stress disappeared after annealing of the film. The magnetic behaviour of the annealed samples was characterized by the magnetic hysteresis loop with the coercive field of ∼10 mT and the saturation magnetization decreased slightly in comparison with the α-phase Fe magnetization due to small oxidation of the film.

  10. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuhan Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Lu, Jiwei; Comes, Ryan B.; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2015-03-15

    Epitaxial NbO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO{sub 2}. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ∼1.3 nm thick Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO{sub 2}. The epitaxial relationship between the NbO{sub 2} film and the substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement was measured up to 400 K, and the conduction mechanism was discussed.

  11. Thermal transport properties of nanocrystalline Bi-Sb-Te thin films prepared by sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-N.; Wang, Y.-C.; Chu, H.-S.

    2008-11-15

    Grain-size dependent thermal conductivity of sputtered nanocrystalline Bi-Sb-Te thin films was measured by a 3{omega} method. By changing deposition temperature from 100 deg. C to room temperature, the mean grain size of the Bi-Sb-Te films decreased from 83 to 26 nm and the lattice thermal conductivity reduced from 0.79 to 0.45 W/mK proportionally. The effect of grain boundary on lattice thermal conductivity can be described by an effective thermal boundary resistance that was determined in the range of 0.56-1.8x10{sup -8} m{sup 2}K/W for the nanocrystalline Bi-Sb-Te thin films studied.

  12. Tight comparison of Mg and Y thin film photocathodes obtained by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, A.; Gontad, F.; Solombrino, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Broitman, E.; Perrone, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work Magnesium (Mg) and Yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Copper (Cu) polycrystalline substrates by the pulsed laser ablation technique for photocathode application. Such metallic materials are studied for their interesting photoemission properties and are proposed as a good alternative to the Cu photocathode, which is generally used in radio-frequency guns. Mg and Y films were uniform with no substantial differences in morphology; a polycrystalline structure was found for both of them. Photoemission measurements of such cathodes based on thin films were performed, revealing a quantum efficiency higher than Cu bulk. Photoemission theory according to the three-step model of Spicer is invoked to explain the superior photoemission performance of Mg with respect to Y.

  13. RAPID COMMUNICATION: ? thin film bilayers grown by pulsed laser ablation deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Palmer, S. B.; McK Paul, D.; Lees, M. R.

    1996-09-01

    We have grown superconducting thin films of 0022-3727/29/9/044/img2 (Y-123) on 0022-3727/29/9/044/img3 (PCMO) buffer layers and PCMO overlayers on Y-123 thin films using pulsed laser ablation deposition. For both sets of films below 50 K, the Y-123 layer is superconducting and the zero-field cooled PCMO layer is insulating. The application of a magnetic field of 8 T results in an insulator - metal transition in the PCMO layer. This field-induced conducting state is stable in zero magnetic field at low temperature. The PCMO layer can be returned to an insulating state by annealing above 100 K. This opens the way for the construction of devices incorporating these oxide materials in which the electronic properties of key components such as the substrate or the barrier layer can be switched in a controlled way by the application of a magnetic field.

  14. X-ray reflectivity analysis of titanium dioxide thin films grown by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, A; Lamas, D G; Craievich, A F; Márquez, A

    2014-05-01

    TiO2 thin films deposited by a vacuum arc on a glass substrate were characterized by X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several thin films with different amounts of deposited TiO2 mass and different deposition and annealing temperatures were studied. A qualitative analysis of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of the anatase and/or rutile crystalline phases in most of the studied samples. From the analysis of the experimental XRR curves--which exhibited a wide angular range of oscillatory behavior--the thickness, mass density and interface roughness were determined. All XRR patterns were well fitted by modeled curves that assume the presence of a single and homogeneous TiO2 layer over which a very thin H2O layer is adsorbed. The thickest H2O adsorption layers were developed in films with the highest anatase content. Our overall results of the XRR analyses are consistent with those derived from the imaging techniques (SEM and AFM).

  15. Femtosecond to nanosecond excited state dynamics of vapor deposited copper phthalocyanine thin films.

    PubMed

    Caplins, Benjamin W; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J; Blank, David A

    2016-04-28

    Vapor deposited thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Exciton-exciton annihilation dominated the kinetics at high exciton densities. When annihilation was minimized, the observed lifetime was measured to be 8.6 ± 0.6 ns, which is over an order of magnitude longer than previous reports. In comparison with metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc), the data show evidence that the presence of copper induces an ultrafast relaxation process taking place on the ca. 500 fs timescale. By comparison to recent time-resolved photoemission studies, this is assigned as ultrafast intersystem crossing. As the intersystem crossing occurs ca. 10(4) times faster than lifetime decay, it is likely that triplets are the dominant excitons in vapor deposited CuPc films. The exciton lifetime of CuPc thin films is ca. 35 times longer than H2Pc thin films, while the diffusion lengths reported in the literature are typically quite similar for the two materials. These findings suggest that despite appearing to be similar materials at first glance, CuPc and H2Pc may transport energy in dramatically different ways. This has important implications on the design and mechanistic understanding of devices where phthalocyanines are used as an excitonic material.

  16. Photoelectric and passivation properties of atomic layer deposited gradient AZO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Tang, Li-dan; Wang, Bing; Jia, Yi; Feng, Jia-heng

    2017-02-01

    Gradient Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with different Al concentration gradient, and their photoelectric and passivation properties were investigated. With increasing Al concentration gradient from 0.09 to 1.21%/nm, Hall-effect showed that the resistivity of gradient AZO thin films deteriorates. The minimal resistivity (2.81 × 10-3 Ω cm), the maximum mobility (9.03 cm2/Vs) and the maximum carrier concentration (2.46 × 1020 cm-3) were obtained at 0.09%/nm Al concentration gradient. The average transmittance of all the gradient AZO films can be more than 85% in the visible region. In addition, gradient AZO thin films demonstrated excellent passivation properties. The maximum minority carrier lifetime (120.6 μs) and the minimal surface recombination velocity (≤208.3 cm/s) were obtained at 0.71%/nm Al concentration gradient.

  17. Thin Film Deposition Using SOL-GEL Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyane, R.; Gonzalez-Oliver, C. J. R.

    1983-11-01

    Sol-Gel technology can be used to deposit a wide variety of oxide coatings on substrates such as glass, ceramics or metals. This presentation outlines the fundamentals of the process and the possibilities offered by this technique. Several oxide layers have been prepared in our laboratories including single oxides like SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, VO2+x, V205, as well as multicomponent systems such as SiO2-Ge02, SiO2-TiO2, SiO2-Y203 and SiO2-TiO2-Al203. The coatings are deposited by dipping the substrate into a solution containing the appropriate organometallic compound with control of the surrounding atmosphere. Subsequent thermal treatments are required to eliminate the volatile solvents, which are physically and chemically absorbed into the oxide layer and to densify the layers. The first thermal treatments are carried out at temperatures up to 150°C. Further treatments up to about 600°C (depending on oxide composition) are necessary to eliminate organic traces and residual moisture as well as to harden further the oxide coating.

  18. High mobility n-type organic thin-film transistors deposited at room temperature by supersonic molecular beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarella, F. Barra, M.; Ciccullo, F.; Cassinese, A.; Toccoli, T.; Aversa, L.; Tatti, R.; Verucchi, R.

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication of N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutil dicyanoperylenediimide (PDIF-CN{sub 2}) organic thin-film transistors by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition. The devices exhibit mobility up to 0.2 cm{sup 2}/V s even if the substrate is kept at room temperature during the organic film growth, exceeding by three orders of magnitude the electrical performance of those grown at the same temperature by conventional Organic Molecular Beam Deposition. The possibility to get high-mobility n-type transistors avoiding thermal treatments during or after the deposition could significantly extend the number of substrates suitable to the fabrication of flexible high-performance complementary circuits by using this compound.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition vs. matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for growth of biodegradable polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, A. L.; Allmond, C. E.; Hoekstra, J. G.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Thin films of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, were deposited on Si wafers by both conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) using chloroform (CHCl3) as a matrix solvent. This research represents an initial study to investigate the deposition characteristics of each technique at comparable conditions to gain insight into the transport and degradation mechanisms of each approach. The deposited materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with refractive index (RI) detection. While FTIR and NMR results do not show a measurable departure from the native, in sharp contrast GPC results show a significant change (up to 95%) in molecular weight for both deposition methods. This result makes it clear that it is possible to overlook substantial degradation when incomplete chemical analysis is conducted.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2013-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition has been used to fabricate thin films of aluminum-doped ZnO by depositing interspersed layers of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on borosilicate glass substrates. The growth characteristics of the films have been investigated through x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflection, and x-ray fluorescence measurements, and the efficacy of the Al doping has been evaluated through optical reflectivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The Al doping is found to affect the carrier density of ZnO up to a nominal Al dopant content of 5 at. %. At nominal Al doping levels of 10 at. % and higher, the structure of the films is found to be strongly affected by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and no further carrier doping of ZnO is observed.

  1. Thin film of sol-gel deposited in photonic crystal fiber for cholesterol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razo-Medina, D. A.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the fabrication of thin films mixed with cholesterol enzyme as recognition component is shown, using solgel technique. The film was deposited at one end of photonic crystal fiber (optrode), which was used as carrier medium of sol-gel matrix. The concentration of cholesterol in the test sample was determined by the use of transmittance. Measuring device consists of a power source (laser diode), optrode and a light detector. The laser beam is transmitted through the optrode; the variations of intensity depending on cholesterol concentration are emitted to be detected by a photoresistor.

  2. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  3. Pulsed laser deposited metal oxide thin films mediated controlled adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Jin

    Several metal oxide thin films were grown on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition for controlling adsorption of proteins. No intentional heating of substrate and introduction of oxygen gas during growth were employed. Additionally, fibrinogen, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme were used as model protein in this study. The film properties such as cyratllinity, surface roughness, surface electrical charge and chemistry were investigated by many techniques in order to obtain the relationship with protein adsorption. Firstly, as grown Ta2O5 and ZnO thin film were used to study the effects of surface charge on the behaviors of BSA and lysozyme adsorption. The protein thickness results by ellipsometry showed that negatively charged Ta2O5 had a stronger affinity to positively charged lysozyme, while positively charged ZnO had a stronger affinity to negatively charged BSA. The results confirmed electrostatic interaction due to surface charge is one of main factors for determining adsorption of proteins. Furthermore, annealing studies were performed by heat treatment of as grown Ta2O5 and ZnO at 800°C in air ambience. Annealed Ta2O5 thin film had almost wetting property (from 10.02° to less than 1˜2°) and the change of cystallinity (from amorphous to cyrsalline) while annealed ZnO thin film had a reduced contact angle (from 75.65° to 39.41°) and remained to crystalline structure. The fibrinogen thickness on annealed Ta2O5 film was increased compared with as grown sample, while heat treated ZnO film showed much reduction of fibrinogen adsorption. Binary Ta-Zn oxide thin films (TZ) were grown by preparing PLD target composed of 50 wt% Ta2O5 and 50 wt% ZnO. This binary film had IEP pH 7.1 indicating nearly neutral charge in pH 7.4 PBS solution, and hydrophilic property. Ellipsometrical results showed that TZ film had the lowest fibrinogen, BSA and lysozyme thickness after 120 min adsorption compared with Ta2O5 and ZnO. Other samples, bilayer oxide films in

  4. Optical, structural and electrochromic properties of sputter- deposited W-Mo oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesheva, K.; Arvizu, M. A.; Bodurov, G.; Ivanova, T.; Niklasson, G. A.; Iliev, M.; Vlakhov, T.; Terzijska, P.; Popkirov, G.; Abrashev, M.; Boyadjiev, S.; Jágerszki, G.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Marinov, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Thin metal oxide films were investigated by a series of characterization techniques including impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thin film deposition by reactive DC magnetron sputtering was performed at the Ångström Laboratory. W and Mo targets (5 cm diameter) and various oxygen gas flows were employed to prepare samples with different properties, whereas the gas pressure was kept constant at about 30 mTorr. The substrates were 5×5 cm2 plates of unheated glass pre-coated with ITO having a resistance of 40 ohm/sq. Film thicknesses were around 300 nm as determined by surface profilometry. Newly acquired equipment was used to study optical spectra, optoelectronic properties, and film structure. Films of WO3 and of mixed W- Mo oxide with three compositions showed coloring and bleaching under the application of a small voltage. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded with a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. Ellipsometric data for the optical constants show dependence on the amount of MoOx in the chemical composition. Single MoOx film, and the mixed one with only 8% MoOx have the highest value of refractive index, and similar dispersion in the visible spectral range. Raman spectra displayed strong lines at wavenumbers between 780 cm-1 and 950 cm-1 related to stretching vibrations of WO3, and MoO3. AFM gave evidence for domains of different composition in mixed W-Mo oxide films.

  5. Deposition of Chromium Thin Films on Stainless Steel-304 Substrates Using a Low Energy Plasma Focus Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Hojabri, A.; Habibi, M.; Hosseinnejad, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study thin films of chromium deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates using a low energy (1.6 kJ) plasma focus device. The films of chromium are likewise deposited with 25 focus shots each at various axial distances from the top of the anode (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 cm). We also consider different angular positions with respect to the anode axis (0°, 15° and 30°) at a distance of 5 cm from the anode tip to deposit the chromium films on the stainless steel substrates. To characterize the structural properties of the films, we benefit from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are applied as well to study the surface morphology of these deposited films. Furthermore, we make use of Vicker's micro-hardness measurements to investigate the mechanical properties of chromium thin films. The XRD results show that the degree of crystallinity of chromium thin films depends on the substrate axial and angular positions. The AFM images illustrate that the film deposited at the distance of 5 cm and the angular position of 0° has quite a uniform surface with homogeneous distribution of grains on the film surface. From the hardness results, we observe that the sample deposited at the axial distance of 5 cm from the anode tip and at the angle of 0° with respect to the anode axis, is harder than the other deposited films.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200 °C. Growth rate of 1.3 Å per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  7. Effect of the nozzle tip’s geometrical shape on electrospray deposition of organic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2017-04-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) is a favorable wet fabrication technique for organic thin films. We investigated the effects of the nozzle tip’s geometrical shape on the spraying properties of an organic solution used for ESD. Five types of cylindrical metal nozzles with zero (flat end) to four protrusions at the tips were prepared for depositing a solution of a small-molecule compound, tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) solution. We confirmed that the diameter of the deposited droplets and their size dispersion decreased with an increase in the number of protrusions. The area occupation ratio of small droplets with a diameter smaller than 2 µm increased from 21 to 83% as the number of protrusions was increased from zero to four. The surface roughness root mean square of 60-nm-thick Alq3 films substantially improved from 32.5 to 6.8 nm with increasing number of protrusions.

  8. Formation of β-FeSi 2 thin films by partially ionized vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Noriyuki; Takai, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    The partially ionized vapor deposition (PIVD) is proposed as a new method to realize low temperature formation of β-FeSi 2 thin films. In this method, Fe is evaporated by E-gun and a few percents of Fe atoms are ionized. We have investigated influences of the ion content and the accelerating voltage of Fe ions on the structural properties of β-FeSi 2 films deposited on Si substrates. It was confirmed that β-FeSi 2 can be formed on Si(1 0 0) substrate by PIVD even at substrate temperature as low as 350, while FeSi by the conventional vacuum deposition. It was concluded that the influence of Fe ions on preferential orientation of β-FeSi 2 depends strongly on the content and the acceleration energy of ions.

  9. Research Update: Stoichiometry controlled oxide thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Groenen, Rik; Smit, Jasper; Orsel, Kasper; Vailionis, Arturas; Bastiaens, Bert; Huijben, Mark; Boller, Klaus; Rijnders, Guus; Koster, Gertjan

    2015-07-01

    The oxidation of species in the plasma plume during pulsed laser deposition controls both the stoichiometry as well as the growth kinetics of the deposited SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, instead of the commonly assumed mass distribution in the plasma plume and the kinetic energy of the arriving species. It was observed by X-ray diffraction that SrTiO{sub 3} stoichiometry depends on the composition of the background gas during deposition, where in a relative small pressure range between 10{sup −2} mbars and 10{sup −1} mbars oxygen partial pressure, the resulting film becomes fully stoichiometric. Furthermore, upon increasing the oxygen (partial) pressure, the growth mode changes from 3D island growth to a 2D layer-by-layer growth mode as observed by reflection high energy electron diffraction.

  10. Non-classical crystallization of silicon thin films during hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Da-Seul; Kim, Kun-Su; Park, Soon-Won; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The deposition behavior of silicon films by hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) was approached by non-classical crystallization, where the building block of deposition is a nanoparticle generated in the gas phase of the reactor. The puzzling phenomenon of the formation of an amorphous incubation layer on glass could be explained by the liquid-like property of small charged nanoparticles (CNPs), which are generated in the initial stage of the HWCVD process. Using the liquid-like property of small CNPs, homo-epitaxial growth as thick as 150 nm could be successfully grown on a silicon wafer at 600 °C under the processing condition where CNPs as small as possible could be supplied steadily by a cyclic process which periodically resets the process. The size of CNPs turned out to be an important parameter in the microstructure evolution of thin films.

  11. Optoelectronic properties of graphene thin films deposited by a Langmuir-Blodgett assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hokwon; Mattevi, Cecilia; Kim, Hyun Jun; Mittal, Anudha; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Riman, Richard E.; Chhowalla, Manish

    2013-11-01

    thickness dependent conductivity and to determine the percolation threshold film thickness which was found to be about 10 nm (at a volume fraction of ~39%) for a Langmuir-Blodgett film of an average platelet lateral size of 170 +/- 40 nm. The electronic behaviour of the material shows more similarities with polycrystalline turbostratic graphite than thin films of reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, or disordered conducting polymers. While in these systems the conduction mechanism is often dominated by the presence of an energy barrier between conductive and non-conductive regions in the network, in the exfoliated graphene networks the conduction mechanism can be explained by the simple two-band model which is characteristic of polycrystalline graphite. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on the absorbance calculations, additional figures on thin film deposition techniques, thickness vs. number of deposition plot, transmittance vs. sheet resistance plot with literature data, and temperature dependent hole mobility plot. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02907g

  12. Structure and properties of uranium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Dahan, Isaac; Valderrama, Billy; Manuel, Michele V.

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline uranium oxide thin films were deposited in an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system by sputtering from a depleted uranium target in an Ar + O2 mixture using middle frequency pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was constantly maintained at 500 °C. Different uranium oxide phases (including UO2-x, UO2, U3O7 and U3O8) were obtained by controlling the percentage of the O2 flow rate to the total gas flow rate (f) in the chamber. The crystal structure of the films was characterized using X-ray diffraction and the microstructure of the films was studied using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. When the f was below 10%, the film contains a mixture of metallic uranium and UO2-x phases. As the f was controlled in the range of 10-13%, UO2 films with a (2 2 0) preferential orientation were obtained. The oxide phase rapidly changed to a mixture of U3O7 and U3O8 as the f was increased to the range of 15-18%. Further increasing the f to 20% and above, polycrystalline U3O8 thin films with a (0 0 1) preferential orientation were formed. The hardness and Young's modulus of the uranium oxide films were evaluated using nanoindentation. The film containing a single UO2 phase exhibited the maximum hardness of 14.3 GPa and a Young's modulus of 195 GPa. The UO2 thin film also exhibited good thermal stability in that no phase change was observed after annealing at 600 °C in vacuum for 104 h.

  13. Diamond thin films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leksono, M.

    1991-09-05

    Undoped and boron doped diamond thin films have been successfully grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The films were characterized using x- ray diffraction techniques, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and various electrical measurements. The deposition rates of the diamond films were found to increase with the CH{sub 4} concentration, substrate temperature, and/or pressure, and at 1.0% methane, 900{degrees}C, and 35 Torr, the value was measured to be 0.87 {mu}m/hour. The deposition rate for boron doped diamond films, decreases as the diborane concentration increases. The morphologies of the undoped diamond films are strongly related to the deposition parameters. As the temperature increases from 840 to 925 C, the film morphology changes from cubo-octahedron to cubic structures, while as the CH{sub 4} concentration increases from 0.5 to 1.0%, the morphology changes from triangular (111) faces with a weak preferred orientation to square (100) faces. At 2.0% Ch{sub 4} or higher the films become microcrystalline with cauliflower structures. Scanning electron microscopy analyses also demonstrate that selective deposition of undoped diamond films has been successfully achieved using a lift-off process with a resolution of at least 2 {mu}m. The x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra demonstrate that high quality diamond films have been achieved. The concentration of the nondiamond phases in the films grown at 1.0% CH{sub 4} can be estimated from the Raman spectra to be at less than 0.2% and increases with the CH{sub 4} concentration. The Raman spectra of the boron doped diamond films also indicate that the presence of boron tends to suppress the nondiamond phases in the films. Infrared spectra of the undoped diamond films show very weak CH stretch peaks which suggest that the hydrogen concentration is very low.

  14. Investigation of optical properties of nickel oxide thin films deposited on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nama Manjunatha, Krishna; Paul, Shashi

    2015-10-01

    Nickel oxide has been investigated for several potential applications, namely, ultraviolet detectors, electro chromic devices, displays, diodes for light emitting, transparent conductive electrode, and optoelectronic devices. These applications require an in depth analysis of nickel oxide prior to its exploration in aforementioned devices. Optical properties of materials were investigated by depositing thin film of nickel oxide on different substrates in order to understand if the choice of substrate can have effect on deducing various optical parameters and can lead to wrong conclusions. In view of this, we have investigated optical properties of nickel oxide deposited on different substrates (glass, transparent plastic, sapphire, potassium bromide, and calcium fluoride).

  15. Design and Development of Binary Diffractive Germanium Lens by Thin Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshami, M.; Wabby, A.; Mousselly, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The design and development of infrared (λ: [8]-[12] μm) binary diffractive germanium lens (BDGL) by two - steps thin film deposition (Physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique) is presented. The optical design of the required elements using the optical design code Zemax, the design of the 4 steps binary surface and its required metallic masks using the programming language Delphi, the procedures of fabrication, and the measurement of the resulting profile, were presented. The comparison between the refractive/diffractive lenses by measuring the minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) shows the advantages of binary diffractive surface.

  16. Effects of zinc salts on the structural and optical properties of acidic chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Meng; Zhang, Bin Lei; Li, Liang; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Shou Ren; Cao, Hong; Jiang, Jin Chun; Sun, Yan; Shen, Yue

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of annealed ZnS films from different zinc salts. Curves a, b, c, d correspond to the annealed ZnS–C1, ZnS–S{sub 3}, ZnS–Cl{sub 2}, ZnS–N{sub 2} thin films. Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnS thin films were deposited using different zinc salts. ► The grain sizes of deposited ZnS thin films are about 12.5 15.5 nm. ► The band gaps of deposited ZnS thin films were in the range of 3.66–3.83 eV. -- Abstract: ZnS thin films were deposited from different zinc salts by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Structural, morphological and optical characterizations were performed using different methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectra. The particle sizes of as-deposited ZnS thin films were calculated to be about 12.5–15.5 nm and the crystal qualities were improved after annealed at 500 °C in Ar/H{sub 2}S (5%) atmosphere. Optical absorption measurements indicated that the band gaps of ZnS thin films were in the range of 3.66–3.83 eV and they decreased with the increasing of particle sizes. ZnCl{sub 2} was found to the best precursor due to the higher crystal quality and compact surface of deposited ZnS thin films.

  17. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Spiliopoulos, N.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted

  18. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-06-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of CC, CH, SiC, and SiH bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio ID/IG. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  19. Deposition of Tungsten Thin Films on Flexible Polymer Substrates by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huo, Zhenxuan; Jiao, Xiangquan; Zhong, Hui; Shi, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated thin tungsten films deposited on polymer substrates by direct-current magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Unlike tungsten films deposited on rigid substrates, films on polymer substrates grew at appropriate sputtering power, low sputtering pressure, and low substrate temperature. High sputtering power results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, compact microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. However, high-power sputtering damages the polymer substrates. Enhancing sputtering pressure substantially degrades tungsten orientation and increases electrical resistivity. Furthermore, a slight increase in substrate temperature results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, a dense microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. Nonetheless, a high substrate temperature results in soft and deformed polymer substrates; this degrades tungsten crystal orientation and substantially roughens tungsten films. On the basis of this study, compact and flat tungsten films with low electrical resistivity can be obtained at a sputtering power of 69 W, a sputtering pressure of 1 Pa, a substrate temperature of 100°C, and a distance between target and substrate of 60 mm.

  20. Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt

    2012-10-23

    Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

  1. Optical Characteristics of La-Doped ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hai-Qing; Chen, Yuan; Huang, Wei-Qing; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, Ping; Peng, Li; Wang, Tai-Hong; Zeng, Yun

    2011-02-01

    Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors zinc sulfate, thiosulfate ammonia and La2O3. Composition of the films is analyzed using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Absorption spectra and spectral transmittances of the films are measured using a double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (TU-1901). It is found that significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease in absorptivity are obtained with increasing lanthanum. Moreover, optical transmittance is increased as La is doped, with a transmittance of more than 80% for wavelength above 360 nm in La-doped ZnS thin films. Compared to pure ZnS, the band gap decreases and flat-band potential positively shifts to quasi-metal for the La-doped ZnS. These results indicate that La-doped ZnS thin films could be valuably adopted as transparent electrodes.

  2. Nanostructured Ti-Ta thin films synthesized by combinatorial glancing angle sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Savan, Alan; Hans, Michael; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Eggeler, Gunther; Ludwig, Alfred

    2016-12-09

    Ti-Ta alloys are attractive materials for applications in actuators as well as biomedical implants. When fabricated as thin films, these alloys can potentially be employed as microactuators, components for micro-implantable devices and coatings on surgical implants. In this study, Ti100-x Ta x (x = 21, 30) nanocolumnar thin films are fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at room temperature using Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter targets. Crystal structure, morphology and microstructure of the nanostructured thin films are systematically investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. Nanocolumns of ∼150-160 nm in width are oriented perpendicular to the substrate for both Ti79Ta21 and Ti70Ta30 compositions. The disordered α″ martensite phase with orthorhombic structure is formed in room temperature as-deposited thin films. The columns are found to be elongated small single crystals which are aligned perpendicular to the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] planes of α″ martensite, indicating that the films' growth orientation is mainly dominated by these crystallographic planes. Laser pre-patterned substrates are utilized to obtain periodic nanocolumnar arrays. The differences in seed pattern, and inter-seed distances lead to growth of multi-level porous nanostructures. Using a unique sputter deposition geometry consisting of Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter sources, a nanocolumnar Ti-Ta materials library was fabricated on a static substrate by a co-deposition process (combinatorial-GLAD approach). In this library, a composition spread developed between Ti72.8Ta27.2 and Ti64.4Ta35.6, as confirmed by high-throughput EDX analysis. The morphology over the materials library varies from well-isolated nanocolumns to fan-like nanocolumnar structures. The influence of two sputter sources is investigated by studying the resulting column angle on the materials library. The presented nanostructuring methods including the use of the GLAD technique along with pre

  3. Structural and optical properties of CdO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G. Anil Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, Katta Narasimha

    2014-04-24

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique using a high purity (99.99%) Cd target of 2-inch diameter and 3 mm thickness in an Argon and oxygen mixed atmosphere with sputtering power of 50W and sputtering pressure of 2×10{sup −2} mbar. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis reveals that the films were polycrystalline with cubic structure. The visible range transmittance was found to be over 70%. The optical band gap increased from 2.7 eV to2.84 eV with decrease of film thickness.

  4. Growth inhibition to enhance conformal coverage in thin film chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Daly, Scott R; Girolami, Gregory S; Abelson, John R

    2008-12-31

    We introduce the use of a growth inhibitor to enhance thin film conformality in low temperature chemical vapor deposition. Films of TiB(2) grown from the single source precursor Ti(BH(4))(3)(dme) are much more highly conformal when grown in the presence of one of the film growth byproducts, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (dme). This effect can be explained in terms of two alternative inhibitory mechanisms: one involving blocking of surface reactive sites, which is equivalent to reducing the rate of the forward reaction leading to film growth, the other analogous to Le Chatelier's principle, in which the addition of a reaction product increases the rate of the back reaction. The reduction in growth rate corresponds to a reduction in the sticking probability of the precursor, which enhances conformality by enabling the precursor to diffuse deeper into a recessed feature before it reacts.

  5. Influence of annealing on the optical properties of vacuum deposited silver thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanadurai, P. Vijayan, C.; Sivaraja, N.; Soundrarajan, N.

    2015-06-24

    Thin Silver films of thickness 15nm were prepared by thermal evaporation on well cleaned glass substrates at room temperature at a pressure of 2×10{sup −5} mbar with the deposition rate of 0.01À/sec and annealed in air for an hour at temperatures between 300°c and 400°c. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and AFM. The mean grain size of the film at different annealing temperatures was determined by the X-ray diffraction pattern by using Scheer’s formula. It is found that from absorbance studies surface Plasmon peak position decreases as the annealing temperature increases and blue shifted. And also from transmittance studies the thermal effect of silver film strongly affects the optical transmittance. From AFM studies the average particle size and RMS surface roughness increase with increase of annealing temperatures.

  6. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of copper(II) oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Iivonen, Tomi Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Leskelä, Markku; Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Kim, Jiyeon; Fischer, Roland A.

    2016-01-15

    Copper(II) oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis-(dimethylamino-2-propoxide)copper [Cu(dmap){sub 2}] and ozone in a temperature window of 80–140 °C. A thorough characterization of the films was performed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The process was found to produce polycrystalline copper(II) oxide films with a growth rate of 0.2–0.3 Å per cycle. Impurity content in the films was relatively small for a low temperature ALD process.

  7. Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Summary The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic–organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD), is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD) technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic–organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to, e.g., selectively decompose parts of the structure. Such layer-engineered and/or nanostructured hybrid materials with exciting combinations of functional properties hold great promise for high-end technological applications. PMID:25161845

  8. Formation mechanisms of metallic Zn nanodots by using ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yuk, J. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y.; No, Y. S.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, W. K.

    2010-08-09

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that metallic Zn nanodots (NDs) were fabricated through transformation of ZnO thin films by deposition of SiO{sub x} on ZnO/n-Si (100) heterostructures. The Zn NDs with various sizes and densities were formed due to the occurrence of the mass diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries in the ZnO thin films. The fabrication mechanisms of metallic Zn NDs through transformation of ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  9. Photocatalytic Functional Coating of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited by Cyclic Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Dae; Rha, Jong-Joo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Park, Jin-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 thin films were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using cyclic plasma chemical vapor deposition (CPCVD) at atmospheric pressure. The CPCVD TiO2 films contain carbon-free impurities up to 100 °C and polycrystalline anatase phases up to 200 °C, due to the radicals and ion-bombardments. The CPCVD TiO2 films have high transparency in the visible wavelength region and absorb wavelengths below 400 nm (>3.2 eV). The photocatalytic effects of the CPCVD TiO2 and commercial sprayed TiO2 films were measured by decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation. The smooth CPCVD TiO2 films showed a relatively lower photocatalytic efficiency, but superior catalyst-recycling efficiency, due to their high adhesion strength on the substrates. This CPCVD technique may provide the means to produce photocatalytic thin films with low cost and high efficiency, which would be a reasonable candidate for practical photocatalytic applications, because of the reliability and stability of their photocatalytic efficiency in a practical environment.

  10. Molecular separations using nanostructured porous thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuidenhout, Louis Wentzel

    Biomolecular separation techniques are an enabling technology that indirectly in.uence many aspects of our lives. Advances have led to faster analyses, reduced costs, higher specificity, and new analytical techniques, impacting areas such as health care, environmental monitoring, polymer sciences, agriculture, and nutrition. Further development of separations technology is anticipated to follow the path of computing technology such that miniaturization through the development of microfluidics technology, lab-on-a-chip systems, and other integrative, multi-component systems will further extend our analysis capabilities. Creation of new and improvement of existing separation technologies is an integral part of the pathway to miniaturized systems. the work of this thesis investigates molecular separations using porous nanostructured films fabricated by the thin film process glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Structural architecture, pore size and shape, and film density can be finely controlled to produce high-surface area thin films with engineered morphology. The characteristic size scales and structural control of GLAD films are well-suited to biomolecules and separation techniques, motivating investigation into the utility and performance of GLAD films for biomolecular separations. This project consisted of three phases. First, chromatographic separation of dye molecules on silica GLAD films was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography Direct control of film nanostructure altered the separation characteristics; most strikingly, anisotropic structures provided two-dimensional analyte migration. Second, nanostructures made with GLAD were integrated in PDMS microfluidic channels using a sacrificial etching process; DNA molecules (10/48 kbp and 6/10/20 kbp mixtures) were electrophoretically separated on a microfluidic chip using a porous bed of SiO2 vertical posts. Third, mass spectrometry of proteins and drugs in the mass range of 100-1300 m/z was performed using

  11. Pulsed-laser deposition of crystalline cobalt ferrite thin films at lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiles, David; Raghunathan, Arun; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Snyder, John

    2010-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite thin films have been proposed for various engineering applications due to their exceptional magnetic, magnetoelastic, magnetotransport, magnetooptical properties. In this research, cobalt ferrite thin films were grown on SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique at substrate temperatures ranging from 250 C to 600 C. It has been shown in this study, that polycrystalline films with (111)-preferred orientation can be prepared at substrate temperatures as low as 250 C, as opposed to a report of optimum 600 C substrate temperature [1]. Thermal expansion mismatch between the film and substrate was found to have a substantial effect on the magnetic properties of the cobalt ferrite films, due to the large magnetoelastic coupling of cobalt ferrite. The growth of crystalline cobalt ferrite films at such low temperatures indicates the potential to use cobalt ferrite for MEMS devices and sensor applications [2] including integration with a wider range of multilayered device structures. This research was supported by the UK EPSRC (EP/D057094) and the US NSF (DMR-0402716). [1] J. Zhou et. al, Applied Surface Sciences, 253 (2007), p. 7456. [2] J. A. Paulsen et. al., Journal of Applied Physics, 97 (2005), p. 044502.

  12. Characterizations of multilayer ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Bhatti, K. A.; Qindeel, Rabia; Alonizan, Norah; Althobaiti, Hayat Saeed

    In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) multilayer thin films are deposited on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique and the effect of these multilayer films on optical, electrical and structural properties are investigated. It is observed that these multilayer films have great impact on the properties of ZnO. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) confirms that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the crack-free films which have uniformly distributed grains structures. Both micro and nano particles of ZnO are present on thin films. Four point probe measured the electrical properties showed the decreasing trend between the average resistivity and the number of layers. The optical absorption spectra measured using UV-Vis. showed the average transmittance in the visible region of all films is 80% which is good for solar spectra. The performance of the multilayer as transparent conducting material is better than the single layer of ZnO. This work provides a low cost, environment friendly and well abandoned material for solar cells applications.

  13. Paramagnetic dysprosium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Fang-Yuh Ting, Yi-Chieh; Chou, Kai-Chieh; Hsieh, Tsung-Chun; Ye, Cin-Wei; Hsu, Yung-Yuan; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chern, Ming-Yau

    2015-06-07

    Dysprosium(Dy)-doped zinc oxide (Dy:ZnO) thin films were fabricated on c-oriented sapphire substrate by pulsed-laser deposition with doping concentration ranging from 1 to 10 at. %. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-scattering, optical transmission spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed incorporation of Dy into ZnO host matrix without secondary phase. Solubility limit of Dy in ZnO under our deposition condition was between 5 and 10 at. % according to XRD and Raman-scattering characteristics. Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry also showed increase in both transmittance in ultraviolet regime and band gap of Dy:ZnO with increasing Dy density. Zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials were identified by photoluminescence spectroscopy as the defects accompanied with Dy incorporation. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device showed paramagnetism without long-range order for all Dy:ZnO thin films, and a hint of antiferromagnetic alignment of Dy impurities was observed at highest doping concentration—indicating the overall contribution of zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials to magnetic interaction was either neutral or toward antiferromagnetic. From our investigations, Dy:ZnO thin films could be useful for spin alignment and magneto-optical applications.

  14. Paramagnetic dysprosium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Fang-Yuh; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Chou, Kai-Chieh; Hsieh, Tsung-Chun; Ye, Cin-Wei; Hsu, Yung-Yuan; Chern, Ming-Yau; Liu, Hsiang-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Dysprosium(Dy)-doped zinc oxide (Dy:ZnO) thin films were fabricated on c-oriented sapphire substrate by pulsed-laser deposition with doping concentration ranging from 1 to 10 at. %. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-scattering, optical transmission spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed incorporation of Dy into ZnO host matrix without secondary phase. Solubility limit of Dy in ZnO under our deposition condition was between 5 and 10 at. % according to XRD and Raman-scattering characteristics. Optical transmission spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry also showed increase in both transmittance in ultraviolet regime and band gap of Dy:ZnO with increasing Dy density. Zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials were identified by photoluminescence spectroscopy as the defects accompanied with Dy incorporation. Magnetic investigations with a superconducting quantum interference device showed paramagnetism without long-range order for all Dy:ZnO thin films, and a hint of antiferromagnetic alignment of Dy impurities was observed at highest doping concentration—indicating the overall contribution of zinc vacancies and zinc interstitials to magnetic interaction was either neutral or toward antiferromagnetic. From our investigations, Dy:ZnO thin films could be useful for spin alignment and magneto-optical applications.

  15. BiVO4 thin film photoanodes grown by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Chen, Le; Hettick, Mark; Mashouf, Neeka; Lin, Yongjing; Javey, Ali; Ager, Joel W

    2014-01-28

    BiVO4 thin film photoanodes were grown by vapor transport chemical deposition on FTO/glass substrates. By controlling the flow rate, the temperatures of the Bi and V sources (Bi metal and V2O5 powder, respectively), and the temperature of the deposition zone in a two-zone furnace, single-phase monoclinic BiVO4 thin films can be obtained. The CVD-grown films produce global AM1.5 photocurrent densities up to 1 mA cm(-2) in aqueous conditions in the presence of a sacrificial reagent. Front illuminated photocatalytic performance can be improved by inserting either a SnO2 hole blocking layer and/or a thin, extrinsically Mo doped BiVO4 layer between the FTO and the CVD-grown layer. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), measured under front illumination, for BiVO4 grown directly on FTO/glass is about 10% for wavelengths below 450 nm at a bias of +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For BiVO4 grown on a 40 nm SnO2/20 nm Mo-doped BiVO4 back contact, the IPCE is increased to over 40% at wavelengths below 420 nm.

  16. Simultaneous Optimization of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Film Deposition Using Multiple Linear Regressions

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film was synthesized by a chemical bath method. The parameters affecting the energy band gap and surface morphology of the deposited SnO2 thin film were optimized using a semi-empirical method. Four parameters, including deposition time, pH, bath temperature and tin chloride (SnCl2·2H2O) concentration were optimized by a factorial method. The factorial used a Taguchi OA (TOA) design method to estimate certain interactions and obtain the actual responses. Statistical evidences in analysis of variance including high F-value (4,112.2 and 20.27), very low P-value (<0.012 and 0.0478), non-significant lack of fit, the determination coefficient (R2 equal to 0.978 and 0.977) and the adequate precision (170.96 and 12.57) validated the suggested model. The optima of the suggested model were verified in the laboratory and results were quite close to the predicted values, indicating that the model successfully simulated the optimum conditions of SnO2 thin film synthesis. PMID:24509767

  17. Formation of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films onto wool fiber surfaces by vapor deposition polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M Mahbubul; McLaughlin, J Robert

    2013-03-13

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization is a useful technique because of the possibility of forming very thin film of pure polymers on substrates with any geometric shape. In this work, thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA were formed on the surfaces of wool fabrics by a CVD polymerization process. Various polymerization initiators including dicumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, and potassium peroxydisulfate have been investigated to polymerize methyl methacrylate onto the surfaces of wool by the CVD polymerization. The wool fabrics were impregnated with initiators and were then exposed to MMA monomer vapor under vacuum at the boiling temperature of the monomer. Wool fabrics with vapor-deposited PMMA surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR, disperse dye absorption, contact angles measurement, AFM, and SEM. PMMA-coated wool fabrics showed higher contact angle and absorbed more dyes than that of the control wool. It was evident from the results obtained by various characterization techniques that MMA was successfully polymerized and formed thin films on the surfaces of wool fabrics by all initiators investigated but the best results were achieved with tert-butyl peroxide.

  18. Frictional Properties of UV illuminated ZnO Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Chang, Huan-Pu; Lo, Fang-Yu; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University Collaboration

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have potential applications in nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) due to their unique physical properties. ZnO is also an excellent lubricant and hence a promising candidate for protective coatings in NEMS. By means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have investigated the frictional properties of ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. In addition, UV illumination is used to convert the surface wettability of ZnO thin films from being more hydrophobic to superhydrophilic via the photo-catalyst effect. We found that the frictional properties of the UV illuminated, superhydrophilic ZnO surface are strongly dependent on the environment humidity. While for hydrophobic ZnO, no such dependence is found. The observed frictional behaviors can be explained by the interplay between the surface roughness, environmental humidity and the presence of nanoscale capillary condensation forming between surface asperities at the tip-ZnO contact. Our results might find applications in future ZnO related NEMS. Frictional Properties of UV illuminated ZnO Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

  19. Ion-beam-assisted deposition of metal nanocluster thin films with nonlinear optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cotell, C.M.; Carosella, C.A.; Flom, S.R.; Schiestel, S.; Haralampus, N.; Barnett, T.W.; Bartoli, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Metal nanocluster thin films ({approximately} 200 nm thickness) consisting of noble metal (Au) clusters (5--30 nm) in an active metal oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix were deposited by evaporation or ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). In some cases the films were given a post-deposition anneal. The microstructure of the films was examined by plan view and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of the metal nanoclusters was found to depend upon the temperature of the post-deposition anneal as well as the conditions of ion bombardment. Ion bombardment was found to stabilize smaller size particles. The linear optical properties of the films, as measured by VIS/UV spectroscopy, show particle size-dependent surface plasmon resonance effects. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the nanoclusters in oxidized niobium were probed experimentally using degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and nonlinear transmission (NLT). The DFWM measurements yielded signals that showed strong evidence of saturation and give large values of {vert_bar}{chi}{sup (3)}{sub xxxx}{vert_bar}. NLT measurements demonstrated that the nonlinear absorption coefficient and, hence, I{sub m}{chi}{sup (3)}{sub xxxx} was negative. Time resolved DFWM measurements exhibited dynamics that decayed on a several picosecond time scale. The magnitude and the picosecond dynamics of the NLO response were compared to those observed in gold nanoclusters formed by ion implantation in other media. The advantages of the IBAD method for fabricating third order NLO films include the ability to deposit films of arbitrary active region thickness and, more importantly, high cluster densities.

  20. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  1. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  2. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  3. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  4. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yaowei; Liu, Hao; Sheng, Ouyang; Liu, Zhichao; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Liming

    2011-08-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO2/Al2O3 films at 110° C and 280° C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO2/Al2O3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47J/cm2 and 6.5±0.46J/cm2 at 110° C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110° C are notably better than 280° C.

  5. Effects of complexing agents on electrochemical deposition of FeS x O y thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supee, Aizuddin; Ichimura, Masaya

    2016-08-01

    FeS x O y thin films were deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates at 15 °C via galvanostatic electrochemical deposition from an aqueous solution containing 100 mM Na2S2O3 and 30 mM FeSO4. The effects of l(+)-tartaric acid (C4H4O6) and lactic acid [CH3CH(OH)COOH] at different concentrations were investigated. All the deposited films were amorphous. With the complexing agents, the thickness was increased, and the oxygen content was reduced significantly compared with the sample deposited without the complexing agents. In the photoelectrochemical measurement, p-type conductivity was confirmed. The photoresponsivity was not influenced significantly by the complexing agent, suggesting that the oxygen content does not drastically affect the properties of the deposited films probably because the local bonding configuration around Fe atoms in FeS x O y is similar to that in FeS2.

  6. Nanostructured Ti-Ta thin films synthesized by combinatorial glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Savan, Alan; Hans, Michael; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Eggeler, Gunther; Ludwig, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Ta alloys are attractive materials for applications in actuators as well as biomedical implants. When fabricated as thin films, these alloys can potentially be employed as microactuators, components for micro-implantable devices and coatings on surgical implants. In this study, Ti100-x Ta x (x = 21, 30) nanocolumnar thin films are fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at room temperature using Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter targets. Crystal structure, morphology and microstructure of the nanostructured thin films are systematically investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. Nanocolumns of ˜150-160 nm in width are oriented perpendicular to the substrate for both Ti79Ta21 and Ti70Ta30 compositions. The disordered α″ martensite phase with orthorhombic structure is formed in room temperature as-deposited thin films. The columns are found to be elongated small single crystals which are aligned perpendicular to the (20\\bar{4}) and (204) planes of α″ martensite, indicating that the films’ growth orientation is mainly dominated by these crystallographic planes. Laser pre-patterned substrates are utilized to obtain periodic nanocolumnar arrays. The differences in seed pattern, and inter-seed distances lead to growth of multi-level porous nanostructures. Using a unique sputter deposition geometry consisting of Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter sources, a nanocolumnar Ti-Ta materials library was fabricated on a static substrate by a co-deposition process (combinatorial-GLAD approach). In this library, a composition spread developed between Ti72.8Ta27.2 and Ti64.4Ta35.6, as confirmed by high-throughput EDX analysis. The morphology over the materials library varies from well-isolated nanocolumns to fan-like nanocolumnar structures. The influence of two sputter sources is investigated by studying the resulting column angle on the materials library. The presented nanostructuring methods including the use of the GLAD technique along with pre-patterning and a

  7. Deposition of Highly Luminescent Zinc Tungstate Thin Films on Various Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrakhan, Rashad

    Zinc tungstate films have promising applications in small form factor backscatter electron detectors. We are developing a multistep technology for synthesis of these films. Zinc and tungsten were co-sputtered onto substrates through the process of magnetron sputtering. The metallic films were oxidized in a vacuum sealed tube furnace in controlled flow of argon and oxygen at 800 °C. The chemical composition of the film was characterized by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The structure of the film was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the films was found to be 60%. Process parameters for obtaining the desired 1-1 ratio of zinc to tungsten in the film is explored through varying factors such as: the composition of the target used in the sputtering, the power and or voltage used in the sputtering process. Our experiments show that zinc tungstate thin films can be deposited on various substrates with good adhesion and mechanical integrity, and still be efficient light emitters.

  8. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-04-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO2) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO2 films and DLC/TiO2/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO2-coated and the DLC/TiO2/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO2/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO2/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  9. Deposition and characterization of TiZrV-Pd thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yan-Hui; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    TiZrV film is mainly applied in the ultra-high vacuum pipes of storage rings. Thin film coatings of palladium, which are added onto the TiZrV film to increase the service life of nonevaporable getters and enhance H2 pumping speed, were deposited on the inner face of stainless steel pipes by dc magnetron sputtering using argon gas as the sputtering gas. The TiZrV-Pd film properties were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The grain size of TiZrV and Pd films were about 0.42-1.3 nm and 8.5-18.25 nm respectively. It was found that the roughness of TiZrV films is small, about 2-4 nm, but for Pd film it is large, about 17-19 nm. The PP At. % of Pd in TiZrV/Pd films varied from 86.84 to 87.56 according to the XPS test results. Supported by National Natural Science Funds of China (11205155) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2310000041)

  10. Vanadium oxide thin films for bolometric applications deposited by reactive pulsed dc sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Fieldhouse, N.; Pursel, S. M.; Carey, R.; Horn, M. W.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.

    2009-07-15

    Vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) thin films were deposited by reactive pulse dc magnetron sputtering process using a pure vanadium metal target. The structural, microstructure, and electrical properties were correlated as a function of processing parameters such as substrate temperature, Ar:O partial pressures ratios, and pulsed dc power to fabricate these films. The VO{sub x} films deposited at various substrate temperatures between 30 and 300 degree sign C using a range of oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios exhibited huge variation in their microstructure even though most of them are amorphous to x-ray diffraction technique. In addition, the electrical properties such as temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), resistivity, and noise levels were influenced by film microstructure. The TCRs of the VO{sub x} films were in the range of -1.1% to -2.4% K{sup -1} having resistivity values of 0.1-100 {Omega} cm. In particular, films grown at lower substrate temperatures with higher oxygen partial pressures have shown finer columnar grain structure and exhibited larger TCR and resistivity.

  11. CW laser induced crystallization of thin amorphous silicon films deposited by EBE and PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Bacar, Z.; Prathap, P.; Cayron, C.; Mermet, F.; Leroy, Y.; Antoni, F.; Slaoui, A.; Fogarassy, E.

    2012-09-01

    This work presents the Continuous Wave (CW) laser crystallization of thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) on low cost glass substrate. The films are characterized by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the hydrogen content. Analysis shows that the PECVD films contain a high hydrogen concentration (˜10 at.%) while the EBE films are almost hydrogen-free. It is found that the hydrogen is in a bonding configuration with the a-Si network and in a free form, requiring a long thermal annealing for exodiffusion before the laser treatment to avoid explosive effusion. The CW laser crystallization process of the amorphous silicon films was operated in liquid phase regime. We show by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) that polysilicon films with large grains can be obtained with EBE as well as for the PECVD amorphous silicon provided that for the latest the hydrogen content is lower than 2 at.%.

  12. Chemical deposition of bismuth selenide thin films using N,N-dimethylselenourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, V. M.; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.; Zingaro, R. A.

    1997-05-01

    Good quality thin films of bismuth selenide of thickness up to 0268-1242/12/5/020/img7 were deposited from solutions containing bismuth nitrate, triethanolamine and N,N-dimethylselenourea maintained at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 0268-1242/12/5/020/img8. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples annealed at 0268-1242/12/5/020/img9 in air match the standard pattern of hexagonal 0268-1242/12/5/020/img10 (paraguanajuatite, JCPDS 33-0214). The films exhibit strong optical absorption corresponding to a bandgap of about 1.7 - 1.41 eV in the as-prepared films. These values decrease to about 1.57 - 1.06 eV upon annealing the films at 0268-1242/12/5/020/img9 for 1 h in nitrogen. As-deposited, the films show high sheet resistance 0268-1242/12/5/020/img12 in the dark. Annealing the films in air or in nitrogen enhances the dark current by about seven orders of magnitude; the resulting dark conductivity is about 0268-1242/12/5/020/img13. This enhancement in conductivity results from improved crystallinity as well as from partial loss of selenium.

  13. Sputter Deposition of Yttrium-Barium Superconductor and Strontium Titanium Oxide Barrier Layer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, James Kelly

    1992-01-01

    The commercial application of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7 -x} thin films requires the development of deposition methods which can be used to reproducibly deposit films with good superconducting properties on insulating and semiconducting substrates. Sputter deposition is the most popular method to fabricate Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor thin films, but when used in the standard configuration suffers from a deviation between the compositions of the Y-Ba-Cu-O sputter target and deposited films, which is thought to be primarily due to resputtering of the film by negative ions sputtered from the target. In this study, the negative ions were explicitly identified and were found to consist predominantly O^-. The sputter yield of O^- was found to depend on the Ba compound used in the fabrication of Y -Ba-Cu-O targets and was related to the electronegativity difference between the components. An unreacted mixture of rm Y_2O_3, CuO, and BaF_2 was found to have the lowest O^- yield among targets with Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3. The high yield of O^- from rm YBa_2Cu_3O _{7-x} was found to depend on the target temperature and be due to the excess oxygen present. The SIMS negative ion data supported the composition data for sputter-deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O films. Targets using BaF _2 were found to improve the Ba deficiency, the run-to-run irreproducibility and the nonuniformity of the film composition typically found in sputtered Y -Ba-Cu-O films. Superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films were formed on SrTiO_3 substrates by post-deposition heat treatment of Y-Ba-Cu-O-F films in humid oxygen. The growth of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-x}, thin films on common substrates such as sapphire or silicon requires the use of a barrier layer to prevent the deleterious interaction which occurs between Y-Ba-Cu-O films and these substrates. Barrier layers of SrTiO_3 were studied and found to exhibit textured growth with a preferred (111) orientation on (100) Si substrates. However, SrTiO_3 was found to be

  14. Electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO thin films for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadane, Hemalata; Samuel, Edmund; Gautam, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    Zinc Oxide thin films have been deposited by electrochemical method on stainless steel using Zinc nitrate hexahydrate as precursor and 0.05 M potassium chloride (KCl) as supporting electrolyte. The paper reveals thorough investigation of effect of concentration of Zinc nitrate. Further, morphological, structural and optical analysis has been carried out using the FESEM, XRD and PL spectroscopy respectively. From FESEM hexagonal shape nanorods ZnO films fabricated for 1 hour using 0.05M and 0.1M concentration are clearly observed. The XRD of ZnO thin films shows strong peaks along c-axis with (0 0 2) orientation of ZnO nanorods which implies deposited nanorods are perpendicular to the substrate surface and wurtzite hexagonal phase. The hexagonal ZnO nanorod grown using a 0.05M zinc nitrate concentration exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peak in at 382 nm near UV band edge, indicates the enhanced crystalline structure of ZnO film.

  15. Precursor-Surface Reactions in Plasma Deposition of Silicon Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Tamas

    2005-03-01

    Device-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are usually grown by plasma deposition under conditions where the SiH3 radical is the dominant deposition precursor. In this presentation, we report results of first-principles density functional theory calculations on the interactions of the SiH3 radical with the crystalline Si(100)-(2x1):H surface in conjunction with molecular-dynamics simulations of a-Si:H thin film growth by SiH3 radicals, which elucidate the pathways and energetics of surface reactions that govern important film properties. In particular, we show that an SiH3 radical can insert into strained surface Si-Si dimer bonds, abstract surface H through an Eley-Rideal mechanism, and passivate surface dangling bonds; these reactions follow exothermic and barrierless pathways that lead to a temperature-independent growth rate in agreement with experimental measurements. We also identify a thermally activated surface H abstraction process, in which the SiH3 radical diffuses through overcoordinated surface Si atoms until it encounters a favorable site for H abstraction; the diffusion and H-abstraction steps have commensurate activation barriers. This mechanism explains partly the reduction of the film H content at elevated substrate temperatures.

  16. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  17. Oxygen Interstitial Defects in Sc2O3 Thin Films Deposited with Reactive Ion Beam Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiltz, Drew; Langston, Peter; Krous, Erik; Patel, Dinesh; Markosyan, Ashot; Route, Rodger; Menoni, Carmen; Colorado State University Team; Stanford University Team

    2014-03-01

    Numerous defects may develop when depositing amorphous thin films with reactive ion beam sputtering, including interstitials and vacancies. In many cases, these defects limit the functionality of the film, degrading both the mechanical and optical properties. This study aims to investigate the nature of oxygen interstitial point defects in scandium oxide thin films and characterize the effect on composition, optical absorption and mechanical stress. The films are deposited with argon ion beam sputtering of a scandium metal target. The density of defects is correlated with the oxygen partial pressure, revealing an optimal condition where defects are minimized. Furthermore, the defect density also demonstrates a direct correlation with the main ion beam accelerating voltage. The native oxygen defects behave as shallow levels, with binding energies in the 1-2 eV range. Work supported by the DoD Office of Naval Research and the High Energy Laser Program of the DoD Joint Technology Office. National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

  18. Evolution of morphology and structure of Pb thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lorusso, Antonella Maiolo, Berlinda; Perrone, Alessio; Gontad, Francisco; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Tasco, Vittorianna

    2014-03-15

    Pb thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a Si (100) substrate at different growth temperatures to investigate their morphology and structure. The morphological analysis of the thin metal films showed the formation of spherical submicrometer grains whose average size decreased with temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that growth temperature influences the Pb polycrystalline film structure. A preferred orientation of Pb (111) normal to the substrate was achieved at 30 °C and became increasingly pronounced along the Pb (200) plane as the substrate temperature increased. These thin films could be used to synthesize innovative materials, such as metallic photocathodes, with improved photoemission performances.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy deposition of Gd2O3 thin films on SrTiO3 (100) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxing; Hao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yangyang; Wei, Hongmei; Mu, Juyi

    2016-06-01

    Gd2O3 thin films are grown on the SrTiO3 (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are performed to investigate the microstructure of deposited thin films. It is found that the as-deposited thin film possesses a very uniform thickness of ∼40 nm and is composed of single cubic phase Gd2O3 grains. STEM and TEM observations reveal that Gd2O3 thin film grows epitaxially on the SrTiO3 (100) substrate with (001)Gd2O3//(100)STO and [110]Gd2O3//[001]STO orientations. Furthermore, the Gd atoms are found to diffuse into the SrTiO3 substrate for a depth of one unit cell and substitute for the Sr atoms near the interface.

  20. Cell adhesion on NiTi thin film sputter-deposited meshes.

    PubMed

    Loger, K; Engel, A; Haupt, J; Li, Q; Lima de Miranda, R; Quandt, E; Lutter, G; Selhuber-Unkel, C

    2016-02-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering enable the possibility to fabricate and form biomedical implants in vitro, which fulfill special functionality in vivo. In this study, free-standing Nickel–Titanium(NiTi) thin film mesheswere produced by means of magnetron sputter deposition.Meshes contained precisely defined rhombic holes in the size of 440 to 1309 μm2 and a strut width ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 μm. The effective mechanical properties of the microstructured superelastic NiTi thin film were examined by tensile testing. These results will be adapted for the design of the holes in the film. The influence of hole and strut dimensions on the adhesion of sheep autologous cells (CD133+) was studied after 24 h and after seven days of incubation. Optical analysis using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that cell adhesion depends on the structural parameters of the mesh. After 7 days in cell culture a large part of the mesh was covered with aligned fibrous material. Cell adhesion is particularly facilitated on meshes with small rhombic holes of 440 μm2 and a strut width of 5.3 μm. Our results demonstrate that free-standing NiTi thin film meshes have a promising potential for applicationsin cardiovascular tissue engineering, particularly for the fabrication of heart valves.

  1. Manifestation of unusual size effects in granular thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeenkov, S.; Cichetto, L.; Diaz, J. C. C. A.; Bastos, W. B.; Longo, E.; Araújo-Moreira, F. M.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate manifestation of some rather unusual size effects in granular thin films prepared by a pulsed laser deposition technique. We observed that the temperature dependence of resistivity ρ(T) notably depends on the relation between the grain size Rg and the film thickness d. Namely, more granular LaNiO3 thin films (with small values of Rg) grown on LaAlO3 substrate are found to follow a universal ρ(T) ∝T 3 / 2 law for all the measured temperatures. While less granular thin films (with larger values of Rg), exhibit a more complicated behavior accompanied by a clear-cut crossover (around Tcr = 200 K), from ρ(T) ∝T 3 / 2 (for 20 K < T < 200 K) to ρ(T) ∝ T (for 200 K < T < 300 K). The obtained results are attributed to manifestation of the finite temperature size effects (when an average grain size Rg becomes comparable with the thermal de Broglie wavelength Λ) leading to the crossover temperature Tcr ∝(d /Rg) 2 .

  2. Effect of hydrogen addition on the deposition of titanium nitride thin films in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Bhuyan, H.; Diaz-Droguett, D. E.; Guzman, F.; Mändl, S.; Saikia, B. K.; Favre, M.; Maze, J. R.; Wyndham, E.

    2016-06-01

    The properties and performance of thin films deposited by plasma assisted processes are closely related to their manufacturing techniques and processes. The objective of the current study is to investigate the modification of plasma parameters occurring during hydrogen addition in N2  +  Ar magnetron plasma used for titanium nitride thin film deposition, and to correlate the measured properties of the deposited thin film with the bulk plasma parameters of the magnetron discharge. From the Langmuir probe measurements, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen led to a decrease of electron density from 8.6 to 6.2  ×  (1014 m-3) and a corresponding increase of electron temperature from 6.30 to 6.74 eV. The optical emission spectroscopy study reveals that with addition of hydrogen, the density of argon ions decreases. The various positive ion species involving hydrogen are found to increase with increase of hydrogen partial pressure in the chamber. The thin films deposited were characterized using standard surface diagnostic tools such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Although it was possible to deposit thin films of titanium nitride with hydrogen addition in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma, the quality of the thin films deteriorates with higher hydrogen partial pressures.

  3. Deposition of Pd–Ag thin film membranes on ceramic supports for hydrogen purification/separation

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, A.I.; Pérez, P.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Mendes, A.; Madeira, L.M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Thin film Pd–Ag membranes have been produced for hydrogen selectivity. • Magnetron sputtering yields Pd–Ag compact films for atomic H diffusion. • The thin film Pd–Ag membranes yielded a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. - Abstract: Pd–Ag based membranes supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (doped with yttria-stabilized zirconia) were studied for hydrogen selective separation. Magnetron sputtering technique was employed for the synthesis of thin film membranes. The hydrogen permeation flux is affected by the membrane columnar structure, which is formed during deposition. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, it was observed that different sputtering deposition pressures lead to distinct columnar structure growth. X-ray diffraction patterns provided evidence of a Pd–Ag solid solution with an average crystallite domain size of 21 nm, whose preferential growth can be altered by the deposition pressure. The gas-permeation results have shown that the Pd–Ag membrane supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is selective toward H{sub 2}. For optimized membrane synthesis conditions, the permeance toward N{sub 2} is 0.076 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1} at room temperature, whereas for a pressure difference of 300 kPa the H{sub 2}-flux is of the order of ca. 0.21 mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, which corresponds to a permeance of 0.71 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1}, yielding a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. These findings suggest that the membrane has a reasonable capacity to selectively permeate this gas.

  4. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  5. The properties of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO thin films and comparison with thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doyoung; Kang, Hyemin; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Hyungjun

    2011-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using oxygen plasma as a reactant and the properties were compared with those of thermal atomic layer deposition (TH-ALD) ZnO thin films. While hexagonal wurzite phase with preferential (0 0 2) orientation was obtained for both cases, significant differences were observed in various aspects of film properties including resistivity values between these two techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have shown that high resistivity of PE-ALD ZnO thin films is due to the oxygen interstitials at low growth temperature of 200 °C, whose amount decreases with increasing growth temperature. Thin film transistors (TFT) using TH- and PE-ALD ZnO as an active layer were also fabricated and the device properties were evaluated comparatively.

  6. Physical vapor deposition synthesis of tungsten monocarbide (WC) thin films on different carbon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Weigert, E. C.; Humbert, M. P.; Mellinger, Z. J.; Ren, Q.; Beebe, T. P. Jr.; Bao, L.; Chen, J. G.

    2008-01-15

    The synthesis of tungsten monocarbide (WC) thin films has been performed by physical vapor deposition on various substrates including glassy carbon, carbon fiber sheet, carbon foam, and carbon cloth. The WC and W{sub 2}C phase contents of these films have been evaluated with bulk and surface analysis techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. These characterization techniques were also used to determine the effects of synthesis by nonreactive and reactive sputtering. The synthesis of WC particles supported on the carbon fiber substrate has also been accomplished using the temperature programmed reaction method. Overall, the results demonstrate that the phase purity of tungsten carbides can be controlled by the deposition environment and annealing temperatures.

  7. Sputtering deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films using mixed powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Tamiko; Maeda, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Sputtering deposition generally uses high-density bulk targets. Such a fabrication process has various problems including deterioration of the material during heating and difficulty in mixing a large number of materials in precise proportions. However, these problems can be solved by using a powder target. In this study, we prepared Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as transparent conductive thin films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with powder and bulk targets. Both the powder and bulk targets formed crystalline structures. The ZnO (002) peak was observed in the X-ray diffraction measurements. The mean transparency and resistivity of the films prepared with the powder target were 82% and 0.548 Ω · cm, respectively. The deposition rate with the powder target was lower than that with the bulk target.

  8. Optical characteristics of pulsed laser deposited Ge-Sb-Te thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, P.; Prikryl, J.; Frumar, M.; Nazabal, V.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of (GeTe){sub 1-x}(Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub x} (x = 0, 0.33, 0.50, 0.66, and 1) amorphous thin films. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (rocksaltlike) layers. In order to extract optical functions of the films, the Cody-Lorentz model was applied for the analysis of ellipsometric data. Fitted sets of Cody-Lorentz model parameters are discussed in relation with chemical composition and the structure of the layers. The GeTe component content was found to be responsible for the huge optical functions and thickness changes upon amorphous-to-fcc phase transition.

  9. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CHxNH2, etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH4/N2 mixture.

  10. Deposition of superconducting YBaCuO thin films by pseudospark ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoebel, M.; Geerk, J.; Linker, G.; Schultheiss, C. , P.O. Box 3640, D-7500 Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany )

    1990-03-05

    Thin YBaCuO films have been deposited on ZrO{sub 2}(Y) and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by a novel ablation method, using a pulsed intense electron beam generated by a pseudospark source. Films with zero resistance around 85 K were grown at substrate temperatures of 820 {degree}C with high reproducibility. X-ray analysis indicates highly textured growth on both substrates. {ital J}{sub {ital c}} values were 6{times}10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 1.1{times}10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Because of the high simplicity of the deposition system and the variety of changeable parameters it represents an interesting alternative to existing laser ablation methods.

  11. Nanoporosity induced by ion implantation in deposited amorphous Ge thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.; Impellizzeri, G.; Ruffino, F.; Miritello, M.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Bosco, L.

    2012-06-01

    The formation of a nano-porous structure in amorphous Ge thin film (sputter-deposited on SiO{sub 2}) during ion irradiation at room temperature with 300 keV Ge{sup +} has been observed. The porous film showed a sponge-like structure substantially different from the columnar structure reported for ion implanted bulk Ge. The voids size and structure resulted to be strongly affected by the material preparation, while the volume expansion turned out to be determined only by the nuclear deposition energy. In SiGe alloys, the swelling occurs only if the Ge concentration is above 90%. These findings rely on peculiar characteristics related to the mechanism of voids nucleation and growth, but they are crucial for future applications of active nanostructured layers such as low cost chemical and biochemical sensing devices or electrodes in batteries.

  12. Studies on spin coated PANI/PMMA composite thin film: Effect of post-deposition heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, J. B.; Patil, R. B.; Puri, R. K.; Puri, Vijaya

    2008-12-01

    Adhesion, structural and optical properties of spin coated PANI/PMMA composite thin films of different composition on glass substrate are reported. The effect of post-deposition heating for 100 °C, 125 °C and 150 °C is also reported. The adhesion of the film was found to increase from 712 ± 5 × 104 N/m 2 to 1602 ± 3 × 10 4 N/m 2 and refractive index decreased from 1.852 ± 0.005 to 1.650 ± 0.004 with increase in concentration of PMMA. Due to post-deposition heating adhesion, optical band gap increased but refractive index decreased.

  13. Nanoindentation study of niobium nitride thin films on niobium fabricated by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films deposited on single crystal Nb using pulsed laser deposition for different substrate temperature were previously investigated as a function of film/substrate crystal structure (Mamun et al. (2012) [30]). In this study we focus on the effect of laser fluences and background nitrogen pressure on the nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin films were tested by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Using nanoindentation, the investigation of the nanomechanical properties revealed that the hardness of the NbNx films was directly influenced by the laser fluence for low background nitrogen pressure, whereas the nanomechanical hardness showed no apparent correlation with laser fluence at high background nitrogen pressure. The NbNx film hardness measured at 30% film thickness increased from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 18.9 ± 2.4 GPa when the laser fluence was increased from 15 to 25 J/cm2 at 10.7 Pa N2 pressure. X-ray diffraction showed NbNx films with peaks that correspond to δ-NbN cubic and β-Nb2N hexagonal phases in addition to the δ'-NbN hexagonal phase. Finally, increasing the laser fluence resulted in NbNx films with larger grain sizes.

  14. The growth characteristics of microcrystalline Si thin film deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Dae

    2013-11-01

    Microcrystalline silicon thin film was grown by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique with a cylindrical rotary electrode supplied with 150 MHz very-high-frequency power. The crystalline volume fraction could be controlled by changing the flow rate ratio of silane and hydrogen gas during AP-PECVD. We could also control it by regulating the substrate scanning speed. At low substrate scanning speed, the silicon film had a low crystalline volume faction and layer-by-layer structure with alternating layers of amorphous and microcrystalline Si. On the other hand, at high substrate scanning speed, silicon crystals of sizes 25 nm grew homogeneously throughout the whole film.

  15. Pulsed-laser deposition and characterization of hetero-paired thin-film gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlacher, Artur

    2005-07-01

    The III-V compound semiconductor gallium arsenide (GaAs) possesses a direct bandgap and a six-fold higher electron mobility than the indirect semiconductor silicon (Si). For that reason GaAs based devices are of particular significance for high-speed digital (mobile phones, radar systems, all-optical switches, etc.) and high-performance optoelectronic applications (high-efficiency solar cells, high-power IR laser diodes, etc.). The state-of-the-art GaAs device production is mainly covered by rather sophisticated and expensive techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This project investigated pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) as a cost effective alternative method to grow thin-film GaAs. In addition, detailed data of electronic and optoelectronic properties of GaAs/Si hetero-structures were obtained. During this dissertation about 110 GaAs thin films have been formed on glass and Si substrates by PLD with different process parameters. The crystal structure and surface properties of the thin films have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Electronic and optoelectronic features of GaAs/Si hetero-structures have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) characterization and photocurrent (PC) experiments. In addition, theoretical models describing the ablation temperature and the deposited film profile are presented. The experimental results reveal that the sample textures consist of a predominate amorphous portion and (111) oriented crystallites. Furthermore, these features are widely independent of the laser ablation wavelength and do not depend on the substrate surface texture. However, the ablation wavelength influences and varies the formation of clusters on the film surfaces as demonstrated with AFM. Doped GaAs thin films deposited on counter-doped Si substrates exhibit rectifying I-V characteristics. The spectral response data shows that the Ga

  16. Phase transition and thermal expansion studies of alumina thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, G; Thirumurugesan, R; Mohandas, E; Sastikumar, D; Kuppusami, P; Songl, J I

    2014-10-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3 x 10(-3) mbar at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were characterized by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTXRD pattern showed the cubic y-Al2O3 phase in the temperature range 300-973 K. At temperatures ≥ 1073 K, the δ and θ-phases of Al2O3 were observed. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficient and volume thermal expansion coefficient of γ-Al2O3 was found to be 12.66 x 10(-6) K(-1) and 38.87 x 10(-6) K(-1) in the temperature range 300 K-1073 K. The field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth and structureless morphology of the films deposited on Si (100). The atomic force microscopy study indicated the increased crystallinity and surface roughness of the films after annealing at high temperature.

  17. Photoluminescence study of chemical bath deposited ZnIn2Se4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Pejjai; Reddy, Minnam Reddy Vasudeva; Reddy, Kotte Tulasi Ramakrishna

    2014-07-01

    Thin films of ZnIn2Se4 (ZIS) have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using a novel and water soluble Na2SeO3 as a source of selenium ion for the first time. The deposition of the films was carried out at various pH values in the range of 6-11, keeping all other bath parameters at optimised values. EDAX analysis revealed that all the grown layers were selenium deficient with trace amounts of oxygen and chlorine incorporation. FTIR spectral measurements revealed the associated symmetric and asymmetric stretching modes of bridged oxygen atoms on the surface of the films. The room temperature photoluminescence properties of these samples at different pH values are studied in detail. Further, Gaussian curve fitting was employed to deconvolute the PL spectra and the change in intensities of these peaks with respective to pH values was addressed and correlated to the role of native defects that were incorporated while deposition. The results indicate that the variation of solution pH had a noticeable effect on the photoluminescence ZIS films.

  18. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Bouška, M.; Pechev, S.; Simon, Q.; Boidin, R.; Nazabal, V.; Gutwirth, J.; Baudet, E.; Němec, P.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers. PMID:27199107

  19. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 [mu]m; they have extinction coefficients of k[approx]10[sup [minus]7]. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (''pole'') the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ''Poling'' films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  20. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 {mu}m; they have extinction coefficients of k{approx}10{sup {minus}7}. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (``pole``) the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ``Poling`` films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  1. Lithium outdiffusion in LiTi2O4 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoraca, S.; Kleibeuker, J. E.; Prasad, B.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Blamire, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    We report surface chemical cation composition analysis of high quality superconducting LiTi2O4 thin films, grown epitaxially on MgAl2O4 (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The superconducting transition temperature of the films was 13.8 K. Surface chemical composition is crucial for the formation of a good metal/insulator interface for integrating LiTi2O4 into full-oxide spin-filtering devices in order to minimize the formation of structural defects and increase the spin polarisation efficiency. In consideration of this, we report a detailed angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Results show Li segregation at the surface of LiTi2O4 films. We attribute this process due to outdiffusion of Li toward the outermost LiTi2O4 layers.

  2. Influence of Carbon in Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Few-Layer WSe2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Zhang, Fu; Choudhury, Tanushree H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Alem, Nasim; Jackson, Thomas N.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a promising technique to form large-area, uniform films of monolayer or few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) thin films; however, unintentional carbon incorporation is a concern. In this work, we report the presence of a defective graphene layer that forms simultaneously during MOCVD growth of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on sapphire at high growth temperature and high Se:W ratio when using tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) and dimethyl selenide ((CH3)2Se, DMSe) as precursors. The graphene layer alters the surface energy of the substrate reducing the lateral growth and coalescence of WSe2 domains. The use of hydrogen selenide (H2Se) instead of DMSe eliminates the defective graphene layer enabling coalesced monolayer and few-layer WSe2 films.

  3. Polymetallic citric complexes as precursors for spray-pyrolysis deposition of thin ferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanova, M.; Koleva, I.; Todorovska, R.; Zaharieva, J.; Кostadinov, M.; Todorovsky, D.

    2011-06-01

    Thin films of ferrites of the type M IIFe 2O 4 (M = Cu, Mg, Zn) are prepared by spray-pyrolysis using ethylene glycol solutions of mixed-metal citric complexes of the respective metals at substrate temperature between 350 °C and 450 °C and post-deposition annealing at 480-750 °C in air. Phase composition, crystal structure, morphology and adhesion of the obtained films (40-400 nm in thickness) are studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and AFM. Single phase dense uniform films with grains from 30-100 nm (M = Cu, Mg) to 0.15-2 μm (M = Zn) are obtained.

  4. Pyroelectric response of spray-deposited BaTiO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, Robert E.; Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Smith, Evan M.; Vasilyev, Vladimir; Alhasan, Sarmad Fawzi Hamza; Abouelkhair, Hussain; Todorovski, Dalibor; Kimani, Martin; Cleary, Justin W.

    2016-09-01

    Pyroelectric photoresponse of aqueous spray deposited thin films containing BaTiO3 nano-crystals is reported. X-ray diffraction data indicate the presence of hexagonal BaTiO3 nano-crystals with 20 nm crystalline domains in a matrix of some as yet unidentified nano-crystalline material. When the film is annealed at 600 C, the X-ray pattern changes significantly and indicates a conversion to one of the non-hexagonal phases of BaTiO3 as well as a complete change in the matrix. With suitable amplifier, the measured photoresponse was 40V/W. Ferroelectric hysteresis on a film with significant presence of hexagonal BaTiO3 shows saturated polarization which is about 5-times smaller than for the bulk tetragonal phase. A potential application is a patternable infrared detector for photonic and plasmonic devices, such as chip-scale spectral sensors.

  5. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E.-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  6. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-24

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  7. Unambiguous magnetoelastic effect on residual anisotropy in thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Mouhamadou; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Zighem, Fatih; Faurie, Damien; Belmeguenai, Mohamed; Olusola Adeyeye, Adekunle

    2016-04-01

    The residual magnetic uniaxial anisotropy of thin films deposited on flexible substrates was studied to elucidate its main origins. For that purpose, we sputtered 20 nm thick films of Co40Fe40B20 and Ni80Fe20 on Kapton® substrates. After measuring magnetomechanical properties of each system, we have shown that the weak residual anisotropy in the Ni80Fe20 film, compared to that of Co40Fe40B20, is perfectly correlated to its low magnetostriction coefficient. As a consequence, we conclude that this residual anisotropy is undoubtedly due to the unavoidable bending of the system, even if it is invisible with the naked eye (radius of several centimeters).

  8. Growth and characterization of polymer thin films grown using molecular layer deposition with heterobifunctional precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Zachary Michael Conway

    In this work, growth of thin polymer films using molecular layer deposition with heterobifunctional precursors is investigated. Several growth phenomena are observed including: loss or gain of reactive sites as a result of precursor reactivity or vapor pressure; precursor diffusion and reaction within the porous polymer film; and crosslinking. Reactions were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and various ex situ techniques. Reactions involving 4-azidophenylisothiocyanate and 4-aminobenzonitrile were shown to stop growth after only a few cycles which is attributed to a loss in reactive sites which was modeled by an exponentially decaying growth rate. Growth of 4-carboxyphenylisothiocyanate with TMA and water was investigated as well. Active site multiplication as a result of the trifunctionality of the TMA molecule was proposed to explain the significantly higher growth rate for TMA/CI films. TMA/H2O/CI films showed the ability to crosslink through aluminum hydroxyl condensation reactions. Upon increasing the reaction temperature, reactant diffusion was observed in the form of mass removal upon TMA exposure. This same phenomena is thought to be occurring in films grown using Diels-Alder reactions in the third section of this thesis. These films showed a strong growth rate dependence upon reactant purge time and growth temperature. FTIR seems to weakly support Diels-Alder reaction, but it appears that the primary film growth mechanism is through CVD-like diffusion and condensation reactions.

  9. Characterization of high temperature deposited Ti-containing hydrogenated carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, B.; Meng, W. J.; Evans, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    A detailed structural and mechanical characterization was performed on Ti-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Ti-C:H) thin films deposited at ˜600°C by plasma assisted hybrid chemical/physical vapor deposition. The structural and mechanical characteristics of these specimens were compared to those deposited at the lower temperature of ˜250°C. The results indicated that Ti-C :H consisted of a nanocrystalline TiC phase and a hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) phase, and that Ti atoms were incorporated into Ti-C :H predominantly as B1-TiC. Deposition at ˜600°C promoted TiC precipitation, resulting in little Ti dissolution within the a-C :H matrix. High temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens were found to possess lower modulus and hardness values as compared to low temperature deposited specimens, especially at low Ti compositions. This is rationalized by electron microscopy evidence of increased short and medium range graphitic order within the a-C :H matrix of high temperature deposited Ti-C :H, and supported by additional Raman spectroscopic observations. Heat treatments at 600 °C combined with Raman scattering measurements showed that the a-C :H matrix in high temperature deposited Ti-C :H specimens appears to be less structurally sensitive to additional annealing.

  10. Oriented Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buršík, J.; Kužel, R.; Knížek, K.; Drbohlav, I.

    2013-07-15

    Thin films of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (Y) hexaferrite were prepared through the chemical solution deposition method on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) (ST) single crystal substrates using epitaxial SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M) hexaferrite thin layer as a seed template layer. The process of crystallization was mainly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. A detailed inspection revealed that growth of seed layer starts through the break-up of initially continuous film into isolated grains with expressive shape anisotropy and hexagonal habit. The vital parameters of the seed layer, i.e. thickness, substrate coverage, crystallization conditions and temperature ramp were optimized with the aim to obtain epitaxially crystallized Y phase. X-ray diffraction Pole figure measurements and Φ scans reveal perfect parallel in-plane alignment of SrTiO{sub 3} substrate and both hexaferrite phases. - Graphical abstract: XRD pole figure and AFM patterns of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} thin film epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) single crystal using seeding layer templating. - Highlights: • Single phase Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films were prepared by CSD method. • Seed M layer breaks into isolated single crystal islands and serves as a template. • Large seed grains grow by consuming the grains within the bulk of recoated film. • We explained the observed orientation relation of epitaxial domains. • Epitaxial growth on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) with relation (0 0 1){sub M,Y}//(1 1 1){sub ST}+[1 0 0]{sub M,Y}//[2 −1 −1]{sub ST}.

  11. Use of supercritical fluid solution expansion processes for drug delivery, particle synthesis, and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hybertson, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of the gases and aerosols resulting from the expansion of supercritical fluid solutions were studied. Film deposition, particle formation, and drug delivery processes using supercritical fluids were developed. Thin films of palladium, copper, aluminum, silver, and silicon dioxide were deposited by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical deposition (SFT-CD). In each case, a precursor compound was dissolved in a supercritical fluid and the solution was allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle into a reaction chamber at subcritical pressure, resulting in the formation of aerosol particles of the precursor. A chemical reaction was induced to occur at the surface of a substrate, resulting in deposition of a thin film. Micron-sized particles of aluminum fluoride and copper oxide were synthesized by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical formation of particles (SFT-CFP). The process was similar to that in SFT-CD, but the chemical reactions were induced to occur in the gas phase instead of at a substrate surface, resulting in the formation of fine particles. A new method of pulmonary drug delivery called supercritical fluid drug delivery (SFDD) was conceived and demonstrated. In SFDD a drug compound is dissolved in a supercritical fluid, and the solution is allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle. The resultant aerosol is directly inhaled by a human or animal subject and the fine drug particles are deposited in the lungs. Menthol, vanillin, camphor, cholesterol, Sudan III, and Oil Blue N were used as model drug compounds for SFDD. Delivery of [alpha]-tocopherol to rat lung tissue was demonstrated, with observed increases of 80-290% above background levels.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang

    2003-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor material. It is a promising candidate for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. Single crystalline and nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have been grown by organo-metallic chemical vapor depositions in a pulsed organo-metallic beam epitaxy (POMBE) system. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films strongly depend on growth conditions. For epitaxially grown ZnO films on sapphire under optimal conditions, excellent crystallinity have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Nanocrystalline films with columnar-shaped grains are grown with different grain sizes. With decreasing growth temperature, the morphology of POMBE grown ZnO goes through an transition from continuous thin film to nanorods. Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been grown using two-step chemical vapor deposition methods. The growth mechanism is based on studies of ZnO nucleation. By controlling substrate temperature and oxygen concentration during the nucleation and growth steps, ZnO nanorods growth is achieved without any catalysts. High-resolution TEM studies show that ZnO nanorods are single crystals. Alignment of these nanorods depends on lattice match between ZnO and substrate. ZnO nanorods with different areal densities can be obtained by varying nucleation time. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of nonorods have shown band edge emission at 380 nm with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 106 meV which is comparable to films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Green emissions are found to originate from oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials; while orange-red emissions are attributed to oxygen interstitials. Optical properties of ZnO thin films and nanostructures are studied. Clear excitonic features observed in different optical measurements have proven good optical qualities of single crystal ZnO films. By alloying with magnesium, band gap of ZnO can be widened

  13. Electrochemical co-deposition of conductive polymer-silica hybrid thin films.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Moran; Liu, Liang; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-07-14

    Conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (ppy), have been the subject of numerous studies due to their promising applications in organic solar cells, flexible electronics, electrochromic devices, super capacitors, etc. Yet, their application is still limited as a result of poor processability. Silica has been reported to improve the mechanical strength and adhesion of conductive polymer films. In this work, we propose a controllable electrochemical approach for preparing ppy-silica hybrid thin films from a solution containing both pyrrole and silane monomers. It is known that pyrrole can be electropolymerised using anodic potentials, while silica can be electrodeposited under cathodic potentials. Thus, we studied the formation of ppy-silica hybrid thin films on a stainless steel surface by applying alternating potentials, i.e. cathodic followed by anodic pulses (denoted C + A) or anodic followed by cathodic pulses (denoted A + C). We show that by controlling the deposition potential and time for the cathodic and anodic pulses, the film thickness and composition can be manipulated well as analysed using profilometry and EDX. The element depth profile of the films was characterized using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In essence, for the C + A process, pyrrole diffuses through the cathodically electrodeposited wet silica gel layer and undergoes anodic polymerisation on the substrate, while for the A + C process, silane can be electrodeposited both on top of the anodically electrodeposited conductive ppy films as well as on the stainless steel through the pinholes in the ppy film. This offers a simple approach for tuning the structure of conductive polymer-sol-gel composite films.

  14. Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, S. Keith; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting were studied. Thin films of BiVO were deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) to the precursor. The 1.7- to 2.2-μm-thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375°C in 3% H exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination, where photocurrent densities of up to 1.3 mA cm-2 at 0.5 V with respect to Ag/AgCl were achieved. Films doped with 1% or 5% (atomic percent) tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced PEC performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder x-ray diffraction data indicated that the films continue to crystallize in the monoclinic polymorph at low doping levels but crystallize in the tetragonal scheelite structure at higher doping. It is surmised that the phase and morphology differences promoted by the addition of W during the deposition process reduced the PEC performance as measured by photovoltammetry.

  15. Chemical vapour deposition of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, S E; Baryshnikova, M V; Filatov, L A; Shahmin, A L; Andreeva, V D

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is often considered as a promising nanomaterial for photocatalytic applications. Here we report the first results of a study of APCVD of N-doped TiO2 thin films prepared with the use of ammonia as a source of nitrogen and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source of Ti and O atoms. The obtained films were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. It was found that the film growth rate in the TTIP-NH3-Ar reaction system varied insignificantly with substrate temperature in the range of 450,..., 750 degrees C and did not exceed 4.4 nm/min. Yellow and orange layers with nitrogen content of about 7.6% were formed at the deposition temperature higher than 600 degrees C. The results of the structure analysis of the deposited films showed that addition of ammonia led to stabilization of the amorphous phase in the films. The effect of ammonia on optical and photocatalytic properties was also considered.

  16. Epitaxial growth of metal fluoride thin films by pulsed-laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, D.P.; Budal, J.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Geohegan, D.B.; Puretzky, A.

    1995-12-01

    We have studied growth of GdLiF4 thin films for optical waveguide applications. Epitaxial, c-axis oriented GdLiF4 films wer grown from undoped GdLiF4 targets in an on-axis Pulsed-laser deposition geometry on (100) CaF2. These films exhibit a high density of particulates on the surface which are ejected from the target in the ablation process. Growth from Nd-doped polycrystalline GdLiF4 ablation targets results in smooth films with lower particulate densities, as Nd doping increases the optical absorption of GdLiF4 at the ablation laser wavelength 193 nm and permits efficient pulsed-laser deposition. Optical emission spectra of the ablation pume reveals the presence of atomic F, Gd, and Li, indicating the dissociation of the metal-fluorine bonds in the ablation process. In addition, we find that the residual background oxygen pressure must be reduced to avoid formation of Gd4O3F6 as an impurity oxyfluoride phase in the films.

  17. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films prepared by various deposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2011-07-15

    B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were prepared with various thicknesses up to about 500 nm on glass substrates at 200 deg. C by dc or rf magnetron sputtering deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) methods. Resistivities of 4-6 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm were obtained in BZO thin films prepared with a B content [B/(B + Zn) atomic ratio] around 1 at. % by PLD and VAPE methods: Hall mobilities above 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and carrier concentrations on the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. All 500-nm-thick-BZO thin films prepared with a resistivity on the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -4}{Omega} cm exhibited an averaged transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The resistivity in BZO thin films prepared with a thickness below about 500 nm was found to increase over time with exposure to various high humidity environments. In heat-resistance tests, the resistivity stability of BZO thin films was found to be nearly equal to that of Ga-doped ZnO thin films, so these films were judged suitable for use as a transparent electrode for thin-film solar cells.

  18. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  19. Effective role of deposition duration on the growth of V2O5 nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Saini, Sujit Kumar; Singh, Megha; Reddy, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this report, vanadium pentoxide nanostructured thin films (NSTs) with nanoplates (NPs) have synthesized on Ni coated glass substrate employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP), as a function of deposition/growth durations. The effect of deposition durations on the morphological, structural, vibrational, and compositional properties have been investigated one by one. The structural and vibrational studies endorsed that the grown NPs have only orthorhombic phase, no other sub oxide phases are recorded in the limit of resolution. The morphological results of all samples using SEM, revealed that the features, coverage density, and alignments of NPs are greatly controlled by deposition duration and the best sample is obtained for 25 min (S2). Further, the more insight information is accomplished by HRTEM/SAED on the best featured sample, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of NPs. The XPS result again confirmed the compositional purity and the nearly stoichiometric nature of NPs.

  20. Wafer-scale, three-dimensional helical porous thin films deposited at a glancing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Bai, Fan

    2014-07-01

    Minimization of helices opens a door to impose novel functions derived from the dimensional shrinkage of optical, mechanical and electronic devices. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) enables one to deposit three-dimensional helical porous thin films (HPTFs) composed of separated spiral micro/nano-columns. GLAD integrates a series of advantageous features, including one-step deposition, wafer-scale production with mono-handedness of spirals, flexible engineering of spiral materials and dimensions, and the adaption to various kinds of substrates. Herein, we briefly review the fabrication of HPTFs by GLAD, specific growth mechanisms, physical properties in structures, mechanics and chiral optics, and the emerging applications in green energy. A prospective outlook is presented to illuminate some promising developments in enantioselection, bio-dynamic analyses, wirelessly-controlled drug delivery and mass production.

  1. Effect of precursor concentration and bath temperature on the growth of chemical bath deposited tin sulphide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2012-01-01

    SnS is a promising candidate for a low-cost, non-toxic solar cell absorber layer. Tin sulphide thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a solution containing stannous chloride, thioacetamide, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). The effects of concentration of tin salt, triethanolamine and bath temperature on the growth of tin sulphide films have been investigated in order to optimize the growth conditions to obtain tin monosulphide (SnS) films. SnS films obtained under optimized conditions were found to be polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure. The optical band gap of these films was found to be 1.5 eV.

  2. Deposition and characterization of titanium dioxide and hafnium dioxide thin films for high dielectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Meeyoung

    The industry's demand for higher integrated circuit density and performance has forced the gate dielectric layer thickness to decrease rapidly. The use of conventional SiO2 films as gate oxide is reaching its limit due to the rapid increase in tunneling current. Therefore, a need for a high dielectric material to produce large oxide capacitance and low leakage current has emerged. Metal-oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are attractive candidates for gate dielectrics due to their electrical and physical properties suitable for high dielectric applications. MOCVD of TiO2 using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor on p-type Si(100) has been studied. Insertion of a TiO x buffer layer, formed by depositing metallic Ti followed by oxidation, at the TiO2/Si interface has reduced the carbon contamination in the TiO2 film. Elemental Ti films, analyzed by in-situ AES, were found to grow according to Stranski-Krastanov mode on Si(100). Carbon-free, stoichiometric TiO2 films were successfully produced on Si(100) without any parasitic SiO2 layers at the TiO 2/Si interface. Electron-beam deposition of HfO2 films on Si(100) has also been investigated in this work. HfO2 films are formed by depositing elemental Hf on Si(100) and then oxidizing it either in O2 or O 3. XPS results reveal that with oxidation Hf(4f) peak shifts +3.45eV with 02 and +3.65eV with O3 oxidation. LEED and AFM studies show that the initially ordered crystalline Hf becomes disordered after oxidation. The thermodynamic stability of HfO2 films on Si has been studied using a unique test-bed structure of Hf/O3/Si. Post-Oxidation of Layer Deposition (POLD) has been employed to produce HfO2 films with a desired thickness. XPS results indicate that stoichiometric HfO 2 films were successfully produced using the POLD process. The investigation of the growth and thin film properties of TiO 2 and HfO2 using oxygen and ozone has laid a foundation for the application of these metal

  3. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Source Precursors for Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Thin-Film Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Harris, Jerry D.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Dickman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provide an attractive approach to fabricating solar arrays with high mass-specific power. A polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer is among the new generation of photovoltaic device technologies for thin film solar cells. At NASA Glenn Research Center we have focused on the development of new single-source precursors (SSPs) for deposition of semiconducting chalcopyrite materials onto lightweight, flexible substrates. We describe the syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering. Copper indium disulfide and related thin-film materials were deposited via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SSPs. Processing and post-processing parameters were varied in order to modify morphology, stoichiometry, crystallography, electrical properties, and optical properties to optimize device quality. Growth at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal hotwall reactor at 395 C yielded the best device films. Placing the susceptor closer to the evaporation zone and flowing a more precursor-rich carrier gas through the reactor yielded shinier-, smoother-, and denser-looking films. Growth of (112)-oriented films yielded more Cu-rich films with fewer secondary phases than growth of (204)/(220)-oriented films. Post-deposition sulfur-vapor annealing enhanced stoichiometry and crystallinity of the films. Photoluminescence studies revealed four major emission bands and a broad band associated with deep defects. The highest device efficiency for an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposited cell was one percent.

  4. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T. G. Cuevas, A.

    2014-07-21

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1 cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5 nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2 Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5 eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9 eV.

  5. Electro deposition of cuprous oxide for thin film solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrestani, Seyed Mohammad

    p and n type copper oxide semiconductor layers were fabricated by electrochemistry using new approaches for photovoltaic applications. Thin films were electroplated by cathodic polarization on a copper foil or indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The optimum deposition conditions (composition, pH and temperature of the electrolyte and applied potential) of the layers as thin films have been identified; in particular the conditions that allow getting the n-type layers have been well identified for the first time. The configuration of a photo - electrochemical cell was used to characterize the spectral response of the layers. It was shown that the p type layers exhibit a photocurrent in the cathode potential region and n layers exhibit photo current in the anode potential region. Measurements of electrical resistivity of electro chemically deposited layers of p and n type Cu2O, showed that the resistivity of p-type Cu2O varies from 3.2 x 105 to 2.0 x 108 Ocm. These values depend the electrodepositing conditions such as the pH of the solution, the deposition potential and temperature. The influence of several plating parameters of the p type layers of Cu2O, such as applied potential, pH and temperature of the bath on the chemical composition, degree of crystallinity, grain size and orientation parameters of the sample was systematically studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Depending of the electro-deposition potential, two different surface morphologies with various preferential crystal orientations were obtained for the temperatures of the electro-deposition of 30 °C and pH 9. For the same temperature, the layers of p type Cu2O of highly crystalline p type are obtained at pH 12, indicating that the crystallinity depends on the pH of the bath. Also, it has been shown that the morphology of Cu2O layers was changed by varying the potential and the duration of deposition, as well as the temperature of the solution. The conditions for the

  6. Synthesis and characterization of flower-like ZnSe nanostructured thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakiyaraj, G.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2013-04-01

    Flower-like zinc selenide nanostructured thin films were successfully prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on non-conducting glass substrate in an aqueous alkaline medium using sodium selenosulphate as Se2- ion source. The as-deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The XRD studies reveal that the as-deposited ZnSe thin film is nanocrystalline with a face-centered cubic phase. SEM image shows the tens to hundreds of petals are self-assembled within a single nanoflower. The direct optical band gap ` E g' for as-deposited flower-like ZnSe thin films is found to be 2.80 eV. Room temperature PL measurement indicates that the as-deposited cubic ZnSe thin films have a near band edge (NBE) emission peaked at around 440 nm (2.81 eV) and broad weak band emission peak from 552 nm (2.24 eV) to 658 nm (1.88 eV). The strong NBE emission from the flower-like ZnSe nanostructured thin films reveals their potential as building for optoelectronic devices.

  7. Matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of light emitting polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz-Gerald, J. M.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, R.; Fraser, C. L.

    2005-02-01

    Matrix assisted laser processing allows for the deposition of functional and fragile materials with a minimum of breakdown and decomposition. In this communication we report on light emitting thin films of ruthenium tris(bipyridine)-centered star-shaped poly(methyl methacrylate), Ru(bpyPMMA2)3(PF6)2, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition. A pulsed excimer laser (KrF) operating at 248 nm was used for all experiments. Due to the absorption at 248 nm and the solubility characteristics of [Ru(bpyPMMA2)3](PF6)2, dimethoxy-ethane (DME) was used as a solvent [1]. Dilute solutions (2 wt. %) of [Ru(bpyPMMA2)3](PF6)2 and DME were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen producing a solid target. Thin films ranging from 20 to 100 nm were grown on Si in an Ar atmosphere at 200 mTorr at a laser fluence of 0.04 J/cm2. The deposited materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) equipped with refractive index (RI), and ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) detection.

  8. ZnS nanostructured thin-films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Jariwala, Akshay; Agarwal, Anubha; Patel, Chetna; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    ZnS thin films were grown on glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 and Na2S were used as precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements were applied to study the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of as-deposited ZnS thin films. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that ZnS thin films consist of crystalline grains with cubic phase. Spherical nano grains of random size and well covered on the glass substrate were observed from FESEM. The average grain size were found to be 77 nm, 100 nm and 124 nm for 20 cycles, 40 cycles and 60 cycles samples respectively. For 60 cycle sample, Raman spectra show two prominent peaks at 554 cm-1 and 1094 cm-1. The optical band gap values were found to be 3.76 eV, 3.72 eV and 3.67 eV for 20 cycle, 40 cycle and 60 cycle samples respectively.

  9. Structural analysis of ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Sn thin films fabricated by co-sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvenc, Sema; Yumak, Mehmet; Nedelcos, A. Quintana; Llamazares, J. L. Sanchez; Garcia, Carlos Garcia

    2015-03-01

    Ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-X (Sn, In) alloys are predicted as potential candidates for energy efficient Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE) technologies. The MCE is the basis of magnetic refrigeration and it leads to a groundbreaking progress on conventional refrigeration methods. In our research, Ni-Mn-Sn thin films were fabricated by co-sputter deposition method. The Mn losses due to the high Mn vapor pressure produce a deviation from the desired Ni50Mn37Sn13 composition, which are partially compensated by increasing power of the Mn target gun. A systematic study of thin film co-sputter fabrication was divided into three stages; i) a Ni-Mn-Sn target was evaporated at different temperatures in order to study the grain size temperature dependence, ii) the nominal chemical composition (Ni50Mn37Sn13) was reached by controlling the power value applied to the Mn target, iii) the dependence of the phase transformation temperature with the grain size of the thin film alloys was studied. Grain size can be controlled by modifying the substrate temperature (Ts) .

  10. ZnO thin film deposition using colliding plasma plumes and single plasma plume: Structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shyam L. Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-12-14

    We report the comparative study on synthesis of thin films of ZnO on glass substrates using IR laser ablated colliding plasma plumes and conventional pulsed laser deposition using 355 nm in oxygen ambient. The optical properties of deposited films are characterized using optical transmission in the UV-visible range of spectrum and photoluminescence measurements. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy are used to investigate the surface morphology of synthesized ZnO films. The films synthesized using colliding plumes created with 1064 nm are non-polar a-plane ZnO with transmission in UV-visible (300–800 nm) region ∼60% compared to polycrystalline thin film deposited using single plume which has chunk deposition and poor optical response. However, deposition with 355 nm single plume shows polar c-axis oriented thin film with average roughness (∼thickness) of ∼86 nm (∼850 nm) compared to ∼2 nm (∼3 μm) for 1064 nm colliding plumes. These observed differences in the quality and properties of thin films are attributed to the flux of mono-energetic plasma species with almost uniform kinetic energy and higher thermal velocity reaching the substrate from interaction/stagnation zone of colliding plasma plumes.

  11. High-purity cobalt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootera, Yasuaki; Shimada, Takuya; Kado, Masaki; Quinsat, Michael; Morise, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shiho; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    A study of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of high-purity cobalt thin films is described. The Co layer prepared by a thermal CVD technique with a Pt/Ta underlayer and a Pt cap layer shows a saturation magnetization (Ms) of ∼1.8 T and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an anisotropy energy (Ku) of ∼105 J/m3. The cobalt thickness dependence of Ku reveals that the interfacial anisotropy at the Pt/Co interface is most likely the origin of the obtained PMA.

  12. New ion-assisted filtered cathodic arc deposition (IFCAD) technology for producing advanced thin films on temperature-sensitive substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    An innovative Ion-Assisted Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (IFCAD) system has been developed for low temperature production of thin-film coatings. The IFCAD system employs electro-magnetic and mechanical filtering techniques to remove unwanted macroparticles and neutral atoms from the plasma stream. Therefore, only ions within a defined energy range arrive at the substrate surface, depositing thin-films with excellent mechanical and optical properties. Ion- Assisted-Deposition is coupled with Filtered Cathodic Arc technology to enhance and modify the arc deposited thin- films. Using an advanced computer controlled plasma beam scanning system, high quality, large area, uniform IFCAD multi-layer film structures are attained. Amorphous Diamond- Like-Carbon films (up to 85% sp3 bonded carbon; and micro- hardness greater than 50 GPa) have been deposited in multi- layer thin-film combinations with other IFCAD source materials (such as: Al2O3) for optical and tribological applications. Rutile TiO2 (refractive index of 2.8 at 500 nm) has been deposited with this technology for advanced optical filter applications. The new IFCAD technology has been included in development programs, such as: plastic and glass lens coatings for optical systems; wear resistant coatings on various metal substrates, ultra smooth, durable, surface hydrophobic coatings for aircraft windows; EUV coatings for space instrumentation; transparent conductive coatings; and UV protective coatings for solar cell concentrator plastic Fresnel lens elements for space power.

  13. Varying stress of SiOxCy thin films deposited by plasma polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Bo; Chang, Ya-Chen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Ching-Long; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Wei, Hung-Sen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    SiOxCy thin films were deposited by plasma polymerization. The stress of the deposited SiOxCy thin films can be modified by adjusting the beam current, the anode voltage, and the flow rate of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) gas and oxygen. Reducing the beam current or increasing the flow rate of HMDSO gas increased the linear/cage structure ratio and turned the stress of the SiOxCy thin films from compressive to tensile. The linear/cage structure ratio can be adjusted by changing the composite parameter, W[FM]c/[FM]m, to control the stress of the deposited plasma polymer films. Multilayers of TiO2/SiO2/TiO2 were coated on a SiOxCy plasma polymer film herein, reducing their stress by 70% from 0.06 to 0.018 GPa. The refractive index is 1.55, and the absorption coefficient is less than 10-4 at 550 nm of the SiOxCy films. Superior optical performances of SiOxCy thin films make their use in optical thin films.

  14. Stress analysis, structure and magnetic properties of sputter deposited Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annadurai, A.; Manivel Raja, M.; Prabahar, K.; Kumar, Atul; Kannan, M. D.; Jayakumar, S.

    2011-11-01

    The residual stress instituted in Ni-Mn-Ga thin films during deposition is a key parameter influencing their shape memory applications by affecting its structural and magnetic properties. A series of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates at four different sputtering powers of 25, 45, 75 and 100 W for systematic investigation of the residual stress and its effect on structure and magnetic properties. The residual stresses in thin films were characterized by a laser scanning technique. The as-deposited films were annealed at 600 °C for 1 h in vacuum for structural and magnetic ordering. The compressive stresses observed in as-deposited films transformed into tensile stresses upon annealing. The annealed films were found to be crystalline and possess mixed phases of both austenite and martensite, exhibiting good soft magnetic properties. It was found that the increase of sputtering power induced coarsening in thin films. Typical saturation magnetization and coercivity values were found to be 330 emu/cm 3 and 215 Oe, respectively. The films deposited at 75 and 100 W display both structural and magnetic transitions above room temperature.

  15. Continued improvment of large area, in situ sputter deposition of superconducting YBCO thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truman, J. K.; White, W. R.; Ballentine, P. H.; Mallory, D. S.; Kadin, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x onto substrates of up to 3-in diameter by an integrated off-axis sputtering is reported. The substrate is located above the center of an 8-in-diameter YBCO planar target, and, in conjunction with a negative ion shield, negative ion effects are avoided. A large radiant heater provides backside, noncontact heating of the bare substrates. YBCO films have been grown on polished 1-cm2 MgO and LaAlO3 substrates with Tc = 90 K or greater, Jc = 2.5 x 10 exp 6 A/sq cm or greater at 77 K, and microwave surface resistance Rs less than 0.4 micro-ohm at 77 K and 10 GHz. The films have a very smooth surface morphology. Uniformity data for LaAlO3 substrates are less than +/-5 percent in Rs. Thickness uniformity results for 3-in substrates indicate less than 10 percent variation. The growth of epitaxial insulating films for use with YBCO films and application of the YBCO films in microwave devices are briefly discussed.

  16. Optical and microwave properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emani, Sivanagi Reddy; Joseph, Andrews; Raju, K. C. James

    2016-05-01

    Transparent CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBTi) ferroelectric thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, optical and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. CBTi thin films had polycrystalline bismuth-layered perovskite structure and exhibited excellent optical properties. The X-ray analysis of the thin film demonstrates the phase formation and crystallinity. The optical transmission studies show that film is transparent in VIS-NIR region with a direct band gap of 3.53 EV. Morphological studies provide surface roughness as 3 mm. Dielectric constant and loss factors were 48 and 0.060 respectively, at 10GHz. These results suggest that CBTi thin films are promising multifunctional materials for applications in optoelectronic and microwave devices.

  17. Research on structural characteristics of large-scale CdS thin films deposited by CBD under low ammonia condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yu-ming; Gao, Lin; Yin, Fu-hong; Qiao, Zai-xiang; Liu, Hao; Feng, Shao-jun; Sun, Hai-tao; Hang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layers with the scale of 10 cm×10 cm are deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) with different temperatures and thiourea concentrations under low ammonia condition. There are obvious hexagonal phases and cubic phases in CdS thin films under the conditions of low temperature and high thiourea concentration. The main reason is that the heterogeneous reaction is dominant for homogeneous reaction. At low temperature, CdS thin films with good uniformity and high transmittance are deposited by adjusting the thiourea concentration, and there is almost no precipitation in reaction solution. In addition, the low temperature is desired in assembly line. The transmittance and the band gap of CdS thin films are above 80% and about 2.4 eV, respectively. These films are suitable for the buffer layers of large-scale Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells.

  18. Lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid-state thin-film electrolyte deposited and modified by bias sputtering and low temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, K.-F.; Chen, C. C.; Lin, K. M.; Lo, C. C.; Lin, H. C.; Ho, W.-H.; Jiang, C. S.

    2010-07-15

    Amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state thin-film electrolyte has been deposited and characterized. The thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering under various substrate biases. By fabricating under different substrate biases and applying low temperature annealing (473 K), the properties of the LiPON thin-film electrolytes and the electrolyte/cathode interfaces were modified. The ionic conductivity as high as 9.4x10{sup -4} S m{sup -1} can be obtained by depositing at optimal bias. The performances of the consequently fabricated SnO{sub 2}/LiPON/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} all-solid-state lithium ion thin-film batteries were improved using the bias sputtering technique, due to the enhanced the ionic conductivity and uniform interface.

  19. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  20. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  1. Low-temperature roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃ thin films.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-12-02

    The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.

  2. Optical Parameters of Spray-Deposited CdS1- y Te y Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.

    2017-02-01

    CdS x Te1- x and CdS1- y Te y solid solutions are usually formed in the interfacial region in CdS/CdTe solar cells during the deposition of the CdTe layer and/or the processing steps of the device. In this work, indium-doped CdS1- y Te y thin films were prepared by first producing CdS:In thin films by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates, then annealing the films in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of elemental tellurium. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. The transmittance was used to deduce the reflectance from which the optical parameters were computed. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and energy loss were computed, and their dependence on the composition was investigated. In addition, the dispersion of the refractive index was analyzed by the single oscillator model, and dispersion parameters were investigated.

  3. Orientation dependent Ti diffusion in YNMO/STO thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coy, L. E.; Yate, L.; Ventura, J.; Załęski, K.; Tadyszak, K.; Ferrater, C.; Polo, M. C.; Varela, M.

    2016-11-01

    Epitaxial thin films of double perovskite Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3(001) and Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3(101) grown on SrTiO3(001) and SrTiO3(111), respectively, were studied by XPS and SQUID magnetometer. Temperature dependent Ti diffusion was detected in the Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3(101)/SrTiO3(111) samples, while no diffusion was observed in Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3(001)/SrTiO3(001) samples. It was observed that the use of a low ablation rate promoted ionic migrations, mainly due to the associated annealing time that samples undergo when grown at lower rates. The migration speed was determined by XPS analysis and its influence on the magnetic properties of the Y(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O3 (101) films was characterized and discussed.

  4. Thin film deposition at atmospheric pressure using dielectric barrier discharges: Advances on three-dimensional porous substrates and functional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Fiorenza; Bosso, Piera; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Fracassi, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Surface processing of materials by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) has experienced significant growth in recent years. Considerable research efforts have been directed for instance to develop a large variety of processes which exploit different DBD electrode geometries for the direct and remote deposition of thin films from precursors in gas, vapor and aerosol form. This article briefly reviews our recent progress in thin film deposition by DBDs with particular focus on process optimization. The following examples are provided: (i) the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin films on an open-cell foam accomplished by igniting the DBD throughout the entire three-dimensional (3D) porous structure of the substrate, (ii) the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposite coatings using an aerosol-assisted process, (iii) the DBD jet deposition of coatings containing carboxylic acid groups and the improvement of their chemical and morphological stability upon immersion in water.

  5. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  6. Structural disordering studies of Cu6PS5I-based thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, Ihor; Rybak, Stefan; Bendak, Andrii; Izai, Vitalii; Guranich, Pavlo; Kúš, Peter; Mikula, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cu6PS5I-based thin films were deposited onto silicate glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. With Cu content increase, a red shift of the optical transmission spectra as well as increase of the total electric conductivity are observed. A typical Urbach bundle are revealed, the temperature behaviour of the Urbach absorption edge in thin films are explained by strong electron-phonon interaction. Temperature dependences of the absorption edge energy position and the Urbach energy for thin film are well described in Einstein model. The influence of different type of disordering on the Urbach tail is studied.

  7. Nickel oxide and molybdenum oxide thin films for infrared imaging prepared by biased target ion-beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yao; Saint John, David; Jackson, Tom N.; Horn, Mark W.

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films have been intensively used as sensing materials for microbolometers. VOx thin films have good bolometric properties such as low resistivity, high negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) and low 1/f noise. However, the processing controllability of VOx fabrication is difficult due to the multiple valence states of vanadium. In this study, metal oxides such as nickel oxide (NiOx) and molybdenum oxide (MoOx) thin films have been investigated as possible new microbolometer sensing materials with improved process controllability. Nickel oxide and molybdenum oxide thin films were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel and molybdenum metal targets in a biased target ion beam deposition tool. In this deposition system, the Ar+ ion energy (typically lower than 25 eV) and the target bias voltage can be independently controlled since ions are remotely generated. A residual gas analyzer (RGA) is used to precisely control the oxygen partial pressure. A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to monitor the evolution of microstructure and properties of deposited oxides during growth and post-deposition. The properties of deposited oxide thin films depend on processing parameters. The resistivity of the NiOx thin films is in the range of 0.5 to approximately 100 ohm-cm with a TCR from -2%/K to -3.3%/K, where the resistivity of MoOx is between 3 and 2000 ohm-cm with TCR from -2.1%/K to -3.2%/K. We also report on the thermal stability of these deposited oxide thin films.

  8. Measuring atomic oxygen densities and electron properties in an Inductively Coupled Plasma for thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, David; Gibson, Andrew; Booth, Jean-Paul; Wagenaars, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Plasma Enhanced Pulsed Laser Deposition (PE-PLD) is an advanced way of depositing thin films of oxide materials by using a laser to ablate a target, and passing the resulting plasma plume through a background Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP), instead of a background gas as is done in traditional PLD. The main advantage of PE-PLD is the control of film stoichiometry via the direct control of the reactive oxygen species in the ICP instead of relying on a neutral gas background. The aim is to deposit zinc oxide films from a zinc metal target and an oxygen ICP. In this work, we characterise the range of compositions of the reactive oxygen species achievable in ICPs; in particular the atomic oxygen density. The density of atomic oxygen has been determined within two ICPs of two different geometries over a range of plasma powers and pressures with the use of Energy Resolved Actinometry (ERA). ERA is a robust diagnostic technique with determines both the dissociation degree and average electron energy by comparing the excitation ratios of two oxygen and one argon transition. Alongside this the electron densities have been determined with the use of a hairpin probe. This work received financial support from the EPSRC, and York-Paris CIRC.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  10. Near zero temperature coefficient of resistance in Ti:Si:O thin films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Marcela; Quevedo Lopez, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of titanium/silicon/oxygen (Ti:Si:O) deposited by sputtering were evaluated as thin film resistors and the resulting resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) was studied. The films were deposited in an Argon atmosphere at room temperature with 1% oxygen and their electrical properties evaluated before and after forming gas (5% H2: 95% N2) annealing at 325 and 450 °C for 1 h. The physical structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition and depth profile by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and film composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carrier mobility, type and concentration were evaluated by Hall effect measurements. Thin films with a Ti:Si ratio of 1.6 exhibited a near zero TCR (-405 ppm °C-1) and sheet resistance (Rsh) at 25 °C of 1 kOhm sq-1.

  11. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nelson, Shelby F.; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  12. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad; Hussain, Nabiha; Jandow, Nidhal

    2016-07-01

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH2)2) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  13. Effect of Zinc Oxide Film Deposition Position on the Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Low-Temperature Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Kazushige; Nakata, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Toshimasa; Otsuki, Shigeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Setsuo

    2008-09-01

    We report on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition position on the characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by magnetron sputtering with no intentional heating of the substrate. We evaluate the properties of ZnO (channel semiconductor) films deposited at various positions with respect to the target position. We show that the film deposition at a position off-centered from the target results in good TFT characteristics. This might be due to the fact that the off-centered deposition position is effective for suppressing the effect of energetic negative ions in the plasma.

  14. Comparison between PZT thin films deposited on stainless steel and on platinum/silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, V.; Sava, F.; Lisca, M.; Pintilie, L.; Popescu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) thin films were prepared by sol-gel method on stainless steel (SS) an on platinum-coated silicon substrate (Pt/Si). The structure revealed by X-ray diffraction shows stron crystallographic orientation: (110) and (100), respectively. The crystallite size shows significa differences: d(SS)(001) = 27.1 nm, d(Pt)(h00) = 88 nm. The tetragonal splitting is (Δc/c)(SS) = 3.55 % an (Δc/c)(Pt) = 3.32 %. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop in the static mode is characterized by remanentpolarization of 25 μC/cm2 and coercive field of 45 kV/cm for SS substrate, while for Pt/Si substrate the values are 10 μC/cm2 and 39 kV/cm, respectively. The leakage current is about 3 orders of magnitude lower in the PZT film deposited on SS. The better properties of the PZT deposited on S are explained by the presence of large single crystal-like crystallites, which make the film closer to epitaxial ones. The results show the potential of growing epitaxial films on low-price substrates such as stainless-steel.

  15. Thin films for material engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  16. Chemical bath deposition of ZnSe and CuSe thin films using n,n-dimethylselenourea

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, C.A.; Zingaro, R.A.; Meyers, E.A. . Dept. of Chemistry); Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S. . Lab. de Energia Solar)

    1994-03-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for ZnSe and CuSe thin films using N,N-dimethylselenourea as the source of selenide ion are presented. Films of 0.1 to 0.3 [mu]m in thickness of ZnSe and CuSe are obtained in 2 to 10 h depositions at 50 C. The ZnSe films possess optical bandgap [approximately]2.63 eV and suffer thermal degradation at temperatures >350 C. They are very resistive, with sheet resistance [approximately]10[sup 12] [Omega]/[open square] ([approximately]0.3 [mu]m film, 10 h deposition). The CuSe films have sheet resistance [approximately]10[sup 3] [Omega]/[open square] ([approximately]0.13 [mu]m, 3 h deposition) but undergo thermal degradation at temperature >200 C. Structure, composition, optical, and electrical characteristics of the films are discussed.

  17. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-22

    techniques for reducing roughness were developed and tested . Substrate Preparation We deposited Si films by sputtering on a variety of substrates, and...deposition," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 3, 1039 (1989). 41 42 Nd: YAG LASER ABLATION OF BaTiO 3 THIN FILMS *URSULA J. GIBSON, **J.A. RUFFNER,***J.J. MCNALLY...thin films of barium titanate onto a variety of substrates, using picosecond and nanosecond pulsed Nd: YAG lasers. The films were deposited from a hot

  18. Structural and nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chang, Huang-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Ping-Han; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-06-25

    The nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films are subjected to nanoindentation evaluation. BFO thin films are grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various deposition temperatures. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results confirmed the presence of BFO phases. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average film surface roughness increased with increasing of the deposition temperature. A Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurement option indicated that the hardness decreases from 10.6 to 6.8 GPa for films deposited at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. In contrast, Young's modulus for the former is 170.8 GPa as compared to a value of 131.4 GPa for the latter. The relationship between the hardness and film grain size appears to follow closely with the Hall-Petch equation.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of sputter-deposited LaNiO3 thin films on Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Tai-Bor; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    1996-08-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to investigate the growth behavior of LaNiO3 thin films on Si substrate deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering at high temperature. The thickness of deposited film was always proportional to the sputtering time. However, the Ni-to-La ratio in the film was found to decrease with increasing substrate temperature. It is due to a loss of Ni on high-temperature deposition which lowers the film growth rate and leads to a gradual structural change. Nevertheless, the oxidation states of both Ni atom and La atom in the thin films were not influenced by the substrate temperature or sputtering time. All the XAS evidence was consistent with the results from x-ray reflectivity, x-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis.

  20. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de; Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Alves, Clodomiro; Nishimoto, Akio

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.