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Sample records for depressed cinnamyl alcohol

  1. Silver nano particle formation on Ar plasma - treated cinnamyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, S.; Marschewski, M.; Wegewitz, L.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.; Vioel, W.

    2012-02-01

    Metastable induced electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy are employed to study the adsorption of silver on cinnamyl alcohol films prepared on Au(111) substrates by thermal evaporation. Additionally, the impact of an Ar atmosphere dielectric barrier discharge plasma applied to the cinnamyl alcohol film preliminary to the Ag adsorption is investigated. In both cases silver nano particles with an average diameter of 9 nm are formed. These particles do not interact chemically with the underlying cinnamyl alcohol film. We do not find any influence of the preliminary Ar plasma-treatment on the adsorption behavior at all.

  2. Penetration of the fragrance compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol, through human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weibel, H; Hansen, J

    1989-03-01

    The delivery of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol in fragrance through human skin has been investigated by in vitro penetration studies using full thickness human skin. Cinnamaldehyde was transformed to cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid in the skin. The transformation took place in model protein solution, bovine serum albumin, as well as in skin homogenates. After conjugation of cinnamaldehyde with the protein, a lag time was observed after which cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid were released. On the other hand, cinnamyl alcohol was not transformed in detectable amounts to either cinnamaldehyde or cinnamic acid during penetration of the skin.

  3. Liquid chromatographic-fluorometric determination of cinnamyl alcohol in perfumes, colognes, and toilet waters.

    PubMed

    Wisneski, H H; Yates, R L; Wenninger, J A

    1988-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for the determination of cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ol) in fragrance compositions. The fragrance product is partially cleaned up by diluting the fragrance with a 95% ethanol-water mixture and passing it through a short column containing RP-8 packing. An aliquot of the effluent is then analyzed by LC using an RP-18 column interfaced to a spectrophotofluorometer equipped with double monochromators. The fluorescence emission intensity of the eluted cinnamyl alcohol is measured and compared with that of a standard to calculate the amount of cinnamyl alcohol present. Recoveries from fragrance products fortified with cinnamyl alcohol at levels ranging from 0.0020 to 0.060 mg/mL ranged from 85 to 105% with a mean of 94%. The lowest level of determination was 0.0005 mg/mL.

  4. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  5. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents. PMID:24064207

  6. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  7. In Situ Metabolism of Cinnamyl Alcohol in Reconstructed Human Epidermis: New Insights into the Activation of This Fragrance Skin Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Eric; Debeuckelaere, Camille; Berl, Valérie; Elbayed, Karim; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Lepoittevin, J-P

    2016-07-18

    Chemical modification of epidermal proteins by skin sensitizers is the molecular event which initiates the induction of contact allergy. However, not all chemical skin allergens react directly as haptens with epidermal proteins but need either a chemical (prehaptens) or metabolic (prohaptens) activation step to become reactive. Cinnamyl alcohol has been considered a model prohapten, as this skin sensitizer has no intrinsic reactivity. Therefore, the prevailing theory is that cinnamyl alcohol is enzymatically oxidized into the protein-reactive cinnamaldehyde, which is the sensitizing agent. Knowing that reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models have been demonstrated to be quite similar to the normal human epidermis in terms of metabolic enzymes, use of RHE may be useful to investigate the in situ metabolism/activation of cinnamyl alcohol, particularly when coupled with high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Incubation of carbon-13 substituted cinnamyl derivatives with RHE did not result in the formation of cinnamaldehyde. The metabolites formed suggest the formation of an epoxy-alcohol and an allylic sulfate as potential electrophiles. These data suggest that cinnamyl alcohol is inducing skin sensitization through a route independent of the one involving cinnamaldehyde and should therefore be considered as a skin sensitizer on its own. PMID:27281158

  8. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases from a liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Yu; Han, Xiaojuan; Lou, Hongxiang; Cheng, Aixia

    2013-09-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) (EC 1.1.1.195) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. It catalyzes cinnamyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols, the last step in monolignol biosynthesis. Almost all CAD members of land plants could be divided into three classes according to the phylogenetic analysis, together with gene structure and function. In the present investigation, two cDNAs encoding CADs were obtained from a Chinese liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum thallus library and were designated as PaCAD1 and PaCAD2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 belonged to Class II. Full length cDNAs were heterologously expressed in E. coli and the recombinant PaCAD proteins displayed high activity levels using p-coumaryl, caffeyl, coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl and sinapyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols. The enzyme kinetics results showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 used coniferyl aldehyde as the favourite substrate and showed high catalytic efficiency towards p-coumaryl aldehyde but lowest catalytic efficiency towards 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In accord with the higher lignin content in the thallus than in the callus, the expression level of PaCAD2 was also higher in thallus than in the callus. The expression of PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 was induced by Methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment. This suggested that these two PaCADs played twin roles in lignin biosynthesis and the defencedefence of abiotic stress in P. appendiculatum. This is the first time that the CADs in liverworts have been functionally characterized.

  9. Electron beam irradiation of maltodextrin and cinnamyl alcohol mixtures: influence of glycerol on cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Khandal, Dhriti; Aggarwal, Manjeet; Suri, Gunjan; Coqueret, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The influence of glycerol on the electron beam-induced changes in maltodextrins-cinnamyl alcohol (CA) blends is examined with respect to its influence on the degree of chain scission, grafting, and cross-linking. The study is relevant to radiation-induced polysaccharide modification, specifically in the perspective of using blended starch as a thermoplastic material, where glycerol is commonly used as a plasticizer. In the absence of CA, glycerol protects maltodextrin from chromophore formation onto the main chain, but also induces more chain scission. The presence of CA provides efficient radiation-protection against scission. Glycerol is shown to affect the interaction between maltodextrin and CA, most likely in the form of an inclusion complex when glycerol is absent. The global behavior under radiation is therefore governed by the physical interactions between the blend constituents rather than on the role of glycerol role as a plasticizer, or as an OH˙ radical scavenger.

  10. Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49 kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions. PMID:23028019

  11. Catalytic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol using Au-Ag nanotubes investigated by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Jean Claudio Santos; Corio, Paola; Rossi, Liane Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed species at the catalyst surface. However, it is quite difficult to combine catalytic and SERS activities on the same material. Here we report the application of well-defined Au-Ag nanotubes as both SERS substrates and catalysts for the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol. The species adsorbed on the catalyst surfaces at different reaction times were analyzed by SERS. The bimetallic nanotubes prepared via a simple galvanic replacement reaction are highly active in the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol, but do not avoid a radical-chain reaction and the cleavage of the carbon-carbon double bond. A comparison between changes in bulk composition and the nature of adsorbed species at the surface of the catalyst over time suggests that cinnamaldehyde is formed on the catalyst surface (metal-catalyzed oxidation) and benzaldehyde is probably formed in the bulk solution via a radical-chain pathway. In the presence of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, the radical-chain reaction is suppressed and the oxidation reaction produces cinnamaldehyde.Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed species at the catalyst surface. However, it is quite difficult to combine catalytic and SERS activities on the same material. Here we report the application of well-defined Au-Ag nanotubes as both SERS substrates and catalysts for the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol. The species adsorbed on the catalyst surfaces at different reaction times were analyzed by SERS. The bimetallic nanotubes prepared via a simple galvanic replacement reaction are highly active in the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol, but do not avoid a radical-chain reaction and the cleavage of the carbon-carbon double bond. A comparison between changes in bulk composition and the nature of adsorbed species at the surface of the catalyst over time suggests that cinnamaldehyde is formed on the catalyst surface (metal

  12. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenationmore » activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.« less

  13. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenation activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.

  14. Functional analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase involved in lignin biosynthesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-Hu

    2010-06-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignols. In the present study, a cDNA encoding a CAD was isolated from wheat, designated as TaCAD1. A genome-wide data mining in the wheat EST database revealed another 10 CAD-like homologues, namely TaCAD2 to TaCAD11. A phylogenetic analysis showed that TaCAD1 belonged to the bona fide CAD group involved in lignin synthesis. Two other putative CADs from the wheat genome (TaCAD2 and TaCAD4) also belonged to this group and were very close to TaCAD1, but lacked C-terminal domain, suggesting that they are pseudogenes. DNA gel blot analysis for the wheat genome showed two to three copies of CAD related to TaCAD1, but RNA gel blot analysis revealed only single band for TaCAD1, which was highly expressed in stem, with quite low expression in leaf and undetectable expression in root. The predicted three-dimension structure of TaCAD1 resembled that of AtCAD5, but two amino acid substitutions were identified in the substrate binding region. Recombinant TaCAD1 protein used coniferyl aldehyde as the most favoured substrate, also showed high efficiencies toward sinapyl and p-coumaryl aldehydes. TaCAD1 was an enzyme being pH-dependent and temperature-sensitive, and showing a typical random catalysing mechanism. At the milky stage of wheat, TaCAD1 mRNA abundance, protein level and enzyme activity in stem tissues were higher in a lodging-resistant cultivar (H4546) than in lodging-sensitive cultivar (C6001). These properties were correlated to the lignin contents and lodging indices of the two cultivars. These data suggest that TaCAD1 is the predominant CAD in wheat stem for lignin biosynthesis and is critical for lodging resistance.

  15. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  16. Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N

    2014-04-01

    A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13 % and specific activity of 812. 5 nkat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ∼76 and ∼38 kDa, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75 μM(-1) s(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH 8.8 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0 mM Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0 mM EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily. PMID:24532464

  17. Tailoring the properties of thermoplastic starch by blending with cinnamyl alcohol and radiation processing: An insight into the competitive grafting and scission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Bliard, Christophe; Soulestin, Jérémie; Lacrampe, Marie-France; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Coqueret, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    The present paper focuses on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on thermoplastic materials based on destructurized starch including glycerol and water as plasticizers to assess the potentiality of cinnamyl alcohol as reactive additive capable of counterbalancing the degradation of the polysaccharide by inducing interchain covalent linkages. The tensile properties at break of test specimens of controlled composition submitted to EB irradiation at doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy revealed the presence of competitive chain scission and bridging in samples containing cinnamyl alcohol at a relative concentration of 2.5% with regard to dry starch. The occurrence of crosslinking under particular conditions was evidenced by gel fraction measurements. The treatment under radiation was also applied to model blends including maltodextrin as a model for starch and the other ingredients to gain an insight into the radiation induced mechanisms at the molecular level. The presence of cinnamyl alcohol is found to limit degradation. Size exclusion chromatography and gel fraction allowed to monitor the effects and confirmed unambiguously the attachment of UV-absorbing chromophores onto the maltodextrin main chain. The combination of the obtained results demonstrates the possibility of altering in a favorable way the tensile properties of plasticized starch by applying high energy radiation to properly formulated blends including aromatic compounds like cinnamyl alcohol.

  18. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction. PMID:24644103

  19. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction.

  20. Esters of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with cinnamyl alcohol are potent lipoxygenase inhibitors with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Tziona, Paraskevi; Kourounakis, Panos N; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-11-15

    Novel esters of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, α-lipoic acid and indol-3-acetic acid with cinnamyl alcohol were synthesised by a straightforward method and at high yields (60-98%). They reduced acute inflammation more than the parent acids and are potent inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase. Selected structures decreased plasma lipidemic indices in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia to rats. Therefore, the synthesised compounds may add to the current knowledge about agents acting against various inflammatory disorders.

  1. Esters of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with cinnamyl alcohol are potent lipoxygenase inhibitors with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Tziona, Paraskevi; Kourounakis, Panos N; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-11-15

    Novel esters of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, α-lipoic acid and indol-3-acetic acid with cinnamyl alcohol were synthesised by a straightforward method and at high yields (60-98%). They reduced acute inflammation more than the parent acids and are potent inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase. Selected structures decreased plasma lipidemic indices in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia to rats. Therefore, the synthesised compounds may add to the current knowledge about agents acting against various inflammatory disorders. PMID:26494261

  2. Downregulation of Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Switchgrass by RNA Silencing Results in Enhanced Glucose Release after Cellulase Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Aaron J.; Sarath, Gautam; Chow, Elaine K.; Dien, Bruce S.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switchgrass, RNA mediated silencing of CAD was induced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cv. “Alamo” with an inverted repeat construct containing a fragment derived from the coding sequence of PviCAD2. The resulting primary transformants accumulated less CAD RNA transcript and protein than control transformants and were demonstrated to be stably transformed with between 1 and 5 copies of the T-DNA. CAD activity against coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in stems of silenced lines was significantly reduced as was overall lignin and cutin. Glucose release from ground samples pretreated with ammonium hydroxide and digested with cellulases was greater than in control transformants. When stained with the lignin and cutin specific stain phloroglucinol-HCl the staining intensity of one line indicated greater incorporation of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes in the lignin. PMID:21298014

  3. Molecular cloning, functional analysis of three cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes in the leaves of tea plant, Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Qiang; Jiang, Zheng-Zhong; Tang, Lei; Li, Ye-Yun; Wei, Chao-Ling; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-02-15

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) is considered to be a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, but little was known about CADs in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A full-length cDNA sequence (CsCAD2) was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Ectropis oblique feeding-induced tea plants, and another two full-length cDNA sequences (CsCAD1 and CsCAD3) were obtained from a transcriptome obtained by deep sequencing. However, they showed only 20-54% identities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to three different families. DNA gel blotting analysis revealed that two copies of CsCAD1 and CsCAD2 genes existed in tea genome, but CsCAD3 likely had only one copy. Recombinant proteins of these CsCADs were produced in Escherichia coli. The activity of purified recombinant CsCAD2 protein was up to 0.43 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, the other two recombinant proteins had lower activities, probably due to incomplete refolding. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that while CsCAD3 was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after E. oblique attack and mechanical damage, CsCAD1 and CsCAD2 showed only moderate or no changes in transcript levels. Treatment of defence-related hormones methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) elevated the expression of CsCAD1 and CsCAD2, but decreased the transcript abundance of CsCAD3. The transcript levels of CsCAD2 did not change after applying abscisic acid (ABA), whereas CsCAD1 and CsCAD3 were induced. These results suggested that these three CsCAD genes in tea plants may play a role in defense against insects and pathogens and adaptation to abiotic stresses and these genes likely have divergant functions.

  4. Unusual NADPH conformation in the crystal structure of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori in complex with NADP(H) and substrate docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Hye; Zhuang, Ningning; Chen, Cong; Song, Jae-Young; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Kon Ho

    2012-02-17

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a zinc- and NADPH-dependent dehydrogenase catalyzing the reversible conversion of p-hydroxycinnamaldehydes to their corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A CAD homolog from Helicobacter pylori (HpCAD) possesses broad substrate specificities like the plant CADs and additionally a dismutation activity converting benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. We have determined the crystal structure of HpCAD complexed with NADP(H) at 2.18Å resolution to get a better understanding of this class of CAD outside of plants. The structure of HpCAD is highly homologous to the sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase and the plant CAD with well-conserved residues involved in catalysis and zinc binding. However, the NADP(H) binding mode of the HpCAD has been found to be significantly different from those of plant CADs.

  5. Chiral capillary electrophoresis applied to the determination of phenylglycidol enantiomers obtained from cinnamyl alcohol by asymmetric epoxidation using new titanium(IV) alkoxide compounds as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Crego, Antonio L; Sierra, Isabel; Fajardo, Mariano; Marina, M Luisa

    2004-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of phenylglycidol enantiomers in the presence of an excess of cinnamyl alcohol was developed. The effects of the nature, pH and concentration of the buffer, the nature and concentration of chiral selector, the addition of methanol or acetonitrile, and the capillary temperature on the chiral resolution of phenylglycidol enantiomers were studied. Separations were achieved using 20 mM succinylated beta-cyclodextrin dissolved in a 10 mM borate buffer (pH 10.0). Chiral resolution for the phenylglycidol enantiomers in the optimized electrophoretic conditions was higher than 2.0 with an analysis time less than 7 min. The method developed was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision (instrumental repeatability, method repeatability, intermediate precision), the limits of detection and quantitation, and accuracy. Limits of detection of 6.5 mg/L and 8.3 mg/L for (2S,3S)-(-)-3-phenylglycidol ((S,S)-PG) and (2R,3R)-(+)-3-phenylglycidol ((R,R)-PG), respectively, were obtained. The method was applied to study the asymmetric epoxidation of cinnamyl alcohol with titanium(IV) alkoxide compounds as catalysts in order to evaluate their catalytic activity and stereoselectivity of the epoxidation processes.

  6. Loss of function of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 leads to unconventional lignin and a temperature-sensitive growth defect in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiao; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Zhou, Rui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Fu, Chunxiang; Jackson, Lisa A.; Hahn, Michael G.; Kim, Hoon; Chen, Fang; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the capacity of the cell wall polymer lignin to incorporate unnatural monomer units. We have identified Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutants of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) that show reduced lignin autofluorescence under UV microscopy and red coloration in interfascicular fibers. The phenotype is caused by insertion of retrotransposons into a gene annotated as encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, here designated M. truncatula CAD1. NMR analysis indicated that the lignin is derived almost exclusively from coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde and is therefore strikingly different from classical lignins, which are derived mainly from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Despite such a major alteration in lignin structure, the plants appear normal under standard conditions in the greenhouse or growth chamber. However, the plants are dwarfed when grown at 30 °C. Glycome profiling revealed an increased extractability of some xylan and pectin epitopes from the cell walls of the cad1-1 mutant but decreased extractability of others, suggesting that aldehyde-dominant lignin significantly alters cell wall structure. PMID:23901113

  7. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nickolas A; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  8. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  9. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  10. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit.

  11. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  12. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  13. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticide plant floral... From Tolerances § 180.1127 Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds... biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol,...

  14. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  15. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2011-12-01

    The cinnamyl phenylpropyl fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures that have similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. A toxicological and dermatological review of these fragrance ingredients is presented. The common characteristic structural element of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials is an aryl substituted primary alcohol/aldehyde/ester. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.14% to 0.72%; systemic exposures vary from 0.0002 to 0.0280 mg/kg/day. Human dermatological studies show that these materials are not generally irritants or sensitizers at lower exposures from consumer products. Reactions (0.9%) in fragrance sensitive patients were observed with 3-phenyl-1-propanol at 5% in petrolatum. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials had low acute toxicity and no significant toxicity in repeat dose oral or dermal toxicity studies. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity in bacteria and mammalian cell line assays was observed. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl alcohol materials participate in the same beta oxidation pathways as their parent cinnamic acid derivatives, including common routes of absorption, distribution, and metabolic detoxification, and exhibit similar toxicological endpoints. Based on the review of available data, it is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.

  16. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  17. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  18. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    PubMed

    Curran, T A; Gawley, E; Casey, P; Gill, M; Crumlish, N

    2009-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  19. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  20. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  1. Young Adult Children of Alcoholic Fathers: Depressive Experiences, Coping Styles, and Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…

  2. Depression, alcohol abuse, and generational differences in Mazahua women in a rural Mexican village.

    PubMed

    Nance, Douglas C

    2004-01-01

    This first study of depression and alcohol abuse in indigenous women in Mexico focuses on Mazahua women in a rural village. Women between the ages of 15 and 55 were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory, an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse survey, and a socioeconomic survey. Unexpected results showed that although alcohol abuse was absent, these women experience depression a generation earlier than the international and national averages for women, with an overall incidence about twice as great. Depression was associated with spouse's emigration, infidelity, or alcoholism. Sharp intergenerational differences were found in identity and socioeconomic status. PMID:15371136

  3. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  4. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  5. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique versus Comorbid Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youths were surveyed when they were 10 years…

  6. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  7. [Clinico-nosographic considerations on the relation of depression and alcoholism in a population of 450 hospitalized alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Angelini, G; Bogetto, F; Borio, R; Meluzzi, A; Mucci, P; Patria, D; Ricciardi, G; Torta, R

    1990-01-01

    The presence of depressive symptomatology in alcoholics has frequently been encountered in clinical practice, but the relationship running between the two pathologies remains a subject for discussion. The methodological difficulty of this evaluation is seen in a major discordance of reported data. Against this background, a group of subjects hospitalized in a neuropsychiatric environment has been assessed for incidence of alcoholic and depressive pathologies and their possible correlations. Of 428 hospitalizations for alcoholism, 350 (82%) presented a depressive pathology. These patients were distinguished by DSM III into three groups [a) adaptation disturbance with depressed mood; b) dysthymic disturbance; c) atypical depression]. Within these groups, the incidence of prior stress-inducing psychosocial events was assessed according to the criterion of growing seriousness of DSM III. The results after statistical processing are discussed and compared with reported data.

  8. Maternal and paternal alcoholism and depressive mood in college students: parental relationships as mediators of ACOA-depressive mood link.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R; Trinh, Scott; Klostermann, Keith; Krakowski, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined whether suspecting one's mother versus father of alcohol abuse was associated with parent-offspring relationships, and the degree to which parent-child relationships were associated with depressive symptoms. As compared to non-ACOAs (n=288), ACOAs (n=100) reported more negative parent-child relationships (i.e., greater alienation, poorer communication, less trust, greater emotional longing, and more negative attitudes toward the parent) and increased depressive symptoms on the POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). A closer look revealed that suspected maternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative mother-child relationships, whereas suspected paternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative father-child relationships. Both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse predicted depressive symptoms.

  9. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  10. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  11. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  12. [Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Dallos Bareño, Carlos Manuel; González Rueda, Silvia Juliana; Sánchez Herrera, Zayda Marcela; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs). Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations were found between alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.41-7.83), poor self-perceived academic achievement (PR = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.16-5.37), and smoking (PR = 2.47; 95%CI: 1.13-5.40). The authors conclude that there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse in Colombian high school students. Preventive programs are needed to identify early depressive disorders and alcohol abuse. PMID:16158145

  13. Effects of Parental Alcoholism, Sense of Belonging, and Resilience on Depressive Symptoms: A Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunhwa; Williams, Reg A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships between parental alcoholism, sense of belonging, resilience, and depressive symptoms in Koreans in the U.S. Data from 206 Koreans (Mean age = 28.4 years; 59.8% females) living in a Midwestern state were collected in 2009, using a web-based survey, which included Children of Alcoholic Screening Test, Sense of Belonging Instrument, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Path analysis results revealed sense of belonging as the most powerful, and resilience as the second important factor, resisting depressive symptoms associated with parental alcoholism. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are discussed. PMID:23302055

  14. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-II<14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  15. Alcohol use and depressive symptoms among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Wells, K B

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with depressive symptoms in several studies. Using data from a community survey, this study examined whether this relationship (a) can be accounted for by ethnic or sociodemographic differences among persons who engage in various levels of alcohol use; and (b) differs for Mexican Americans (N = 1244) and non-Hispanic Whites (N = 1149). Using large quantities of alcohol, and, among men, daily drinking, were associated with depressed mood. These associations were similar for Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites, and associations of quantity and frequency with depression were independent of each other. Among women, the cultural and demographic characteristics of high-quantity drinkers and abstainers (both of whom tended to be Mexican Americans) accounted for the association of alcohol use with depression. Among men, there was some suggestion that unemployment and unmarried status mediated the association of alcohol quantity with depression. People who drank greater quantities of alcohol per occasion reported more somatic depressive symptoms, and more frequent male drinkers reported more of most types of depressive symptoms. PMID:2222577

  16. Parental Monitoring Affects the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, while depressed mood, peer substance use and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Methods Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. Conclusions This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems, and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink. PMID:25023093

  17. Trajectories of alcohol use and consequences in college women with and without depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Abar, Caitlin C; O'Brien, Kimberly; Clark, Gabrielle; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    College students with depressed mood face heightened risk for experiencing drinking-related negative consequences. However, few studies have examined prospective patterns of alcohol consequences among depressed students. In the present investigation, we assessed how first-year college women's trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol consequences differed as a function of depressed mood at college entry. Participants were 233 heavy drinking incoming first-year college females (61% White) at a mid-sized West Coast University. Participants completed an online baseline survey, attended a single brief group intervention session, and completed 1- and 6-month post-intervention follow-up surveys. Depressed mood, alcohol consumption, and alcohol consequences were assessed at each time point. We employed latent growth curve analyses. Females with depressed mood, versus without depressed mood, experienced greater levels of alcohol consequences overall, particularly during transitions to college. However, contrary to hypotheses, participants with depressed mood (vs. without) exhibited significantly steeper declining trends in consequences, controlling for treatment condition, age, race, and ethnicity, and despite stable drinking levels, depressed mood, and use of protective behaviors over time. Potential explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Investigating biases of attention and memory for alcohol-related and negative words in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression after day-clinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fridrici, Christina; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kremer, Georg; Kissler, Johanna; Beblo, Thomas

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression compared to healthy controls. We assumed that both groups of alcohol-dependents would show attentional and memory biases for alcohol-related words. For the alcohol-dependents with depression, we additionally expected both types of biases for negative words. Alcohol-dependents without co-morbidity (Alc) and alcohol-dependents with major depression (D-Alc) as well as control participants with a moderate consumption of alcohol (Con) completed an alcohol Stroop task and a directed forgetting paradigm using word stimuli from three categories: neutral, negative, and alcohol-related. Stroop effects showed that not only alcohol-dependents but also control participants were more distracted by alcohol-related than by negative words. In the directed forgetting procedure, all participants showed a significant effect for each word-category, including alcohol-related and negative words. The D-Alc-group memorized more alcohol-related than negative to-be-remembered words. The results do not corroborate the hypothesis of more pronounced attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents. However, in alcohol-dependents with depression a memory bias for alcohol-related material was found, suggesting that this group may be more pre-occupied with alcohol than patients without such co-morbidity.

  19. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Braitman, Abby; Henson, James M; Schroeder, Valarie; Ladage, Jessica; Gumienny, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Relationships among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and parent and peer relations and depressive mood were examined among 136 ACOAs and 436 non-ACOAs. As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported less positive relationships to mothers, fathers, and peers, and more depressive mood; however, more positive relationships to parents and peers significantly reduced the strength of the association between ACOA categorization and depressive mood. Examination of data from ACOAs alone revealed that maternal alcoholism was related to less positive relationships to their mothers and to their peers; however, paternal alcoholism did not predict the quality of the relationship to fathers, mothers, or peers. Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs. PMID:20553514

  20. Risk of Depressive Disorder following Non-Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Hung, Yi-Ping; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Yu-Wen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among non-alcoholic patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 52 725 participants (10 545 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 42 180 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 11 years to determine the rates of newly onset depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in cirrhotic patients. Results During the 11-year follow-up period, 395 (3.75%) non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 1 183 (2.80%) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and control patients was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57–1.98, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients were 1.75 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.56–1.96, P<.001) compared with the control patients. The hazard ratios for patients younger than 60 years old (1.31) and female (1.25) indicated that each is an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients than among patients without cirrhosis. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24533141

  1. Monoamine oxidases in major depressive disorder and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jeremy; Johnson, Shakevia; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Monoamine oxidases play an integral role in brain function. Both monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) regulate neurochemistry by degrading monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine). Any alteration in MAO levels can have devastating effects on the brain and behavior by lowering or raising neurotransmitter levels and producing toxic reactive oxygen species. In this review article, MAO is examined in terms of function and genetic organization, with special focus on recent discoveries related to the transcriptional regulation of MAO. In recent studies, transcriptional regulation involves a repressor protein, R1, for MAO-A and an activator protein, KLF11 (a Krüppel-like factor; also referred to as transforming growth factor-beta early inducible gene 2, TIEG2), for both MAO-A and MAO-B, by binding to Sp/KLF sites in the core promoters of MAO and regulating MAO gene expression. Furthermore, KLF11 may influence MAO-B expression and augment glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) to upregulate MAO-B transcription upon exposure to ethanol. Finally, we review recent progress in MAO research and highlight the roles that MAOs play in several psychiatric conditions, including chronic stress, major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Further research in this area is needed to better understand MAOs, their transcription factors and signaling pathways in psychiatric illnesses in order to develop new strategies for pharmacological advancement.

  2. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  3. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  5. Depression and Parentification among Adults as Related to Parental Workaholism and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jane J.; Robinson, Bryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines relationships among levels of depression and parentification in undergraduate students. Children of workaholics scored significantly higher on measures of depression and parentification. Children of alcoholics scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the measure of parentification. (Contains 56 references and 2 tables.)…

  6. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  7. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  8. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  9. Female Rats Exposed to Stress and Alcohol Show Impaired Memory and Increased Depressive-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, J.L.; Luine, V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6hr/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0 g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females. PMID:24096191

  10. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  11. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  12. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  13. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  14. Integration of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) into a college orientation program: depression and alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Macpherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Lejuez, C W

    2011-10-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into college orientation programs to provide a more comprehensive orientation experience. Data are presented from an initial pilot study in which 71 first-semester freshman at the University of Maryland participated in a 15-week, 2 hr per week orientation class (n = 37 in the behavioral activation-enhanced orientation classes and n = 34 in the control orientation as usual classes). Students' depression and alcohol use were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Results indicated a Time × Group interaction such that problem drinking (but not consumption) was significantly reduced across assessments in the behavioral activation classes and largely unchanged in the standard classes. No difference was observed in depression scores; however, fairly low depression scores across the 3 time points may have limited the opportunity to observe any meaningful impact of the orientation classes on depression. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of their findings for preventing adjustment problems among incoming college students and future directions.

  15. [Therapeutic effects of tianeptine in patients with depression and anxiety disorders with or without associated alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marey, C; Ganry, H; Delalleau, B; Kamoun, A

    1991-11-14

    Tianeptine is a new tricyclic antidepressant. Double blind studies comparing tianeptine with imipramine and amitriptyline have shown the effectiveness of tianeptine's antidepressor action, its properties of non-specific symptoms related to behaviour disorders (anxiety, inhibition ...) and its action on somatic complaints expressed by depressed patients. Tianeptine is an effective antidepressant in cases of depression with anxiety or alcoholism and also leads to good therapeutic response in cases of dysthemia. In depressions with melancholy and endogenous criteria, the expected percentage of responding patients has been observed with tianeptine. A reinforcement of the therapeutic effect has been demonstrated after 6 months of treatment. Its excellent clinical and parclinical acceptability, especially in long term treatment of patients at risk such as elderly depressed patients or alcoholic patients, makes tianeptine a first intention antidepressant.

  16. Long-term administration of tianeptine in depressed patients after alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Malka, R; Lôo, H; Ganry, H; Souche, A; Marey, C; Kamoun, A

    1992-02-01

    Alcohol interferes with the central metabolism of the catecholamines and especially with indolamines (5-HT). Thus, the use of an antidepressant such as tianeptine, whose main neurochemical effect is to increase the reuptake of 5-HT, seems to be particularly indicated for the continued treatment of depressed patients after alcohol withdrawal. This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and acceptability during long-term administration of tianeptine in depressed patients (major depressive episode or dysthymic disorder) in a multicentre trial, after withdrawal from alcohol abuse or dependence. The results relate to 130 depressed patients, who abstained from alcohol and received treatment for a year. Only one patient dropped-out because of side-effects, and medication was interrupted in 5% of subjects because of alcoholic relapses. Prescribed in the long term, tianeptine did not produce orthostatic hypotension, changes in bodyweight, or alterations in the ECG. All changes found in haematological and biochemical investigations suggested an improvement in patients' physical state. This, and other studies, indicate that tianeptine appears to have the potential to be a safe antidepressant, which might be particularly useful in those patients who are susceptible to the side-effects of psychotropic drugs.

  17. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  18. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol or substance use disorders. Method We followed for five years 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), and had no prior diagnoses of alcohol or substance use disorders. TADS initial treatments were cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO). We used both the original TADS treatment response rating and a more restrictive symptom count rating. During follow-up, diagnostic interviews were completed at six or 12 month intervals to assess onset of alcohol (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD), MDD recovery and recurrence. Results Achieving a positive response to MDD treatment was unrelated to subsequent AUD, but predicted lower rate of subsequent SUD, regardless of the measure of positive response (11.65% versus 24.72%; or 10.0% versus 24.5%, respectively). Type of initial MDD treatment was not related to either outcome. Prior to depression treatment, greater involvement with alcohol or drugs predicted later alcohol or substance use disorders, as did older age (for AUD) and more comorbid disorders (for SUD). Among those with recurrent MDD and AUD, AUD preceded MDD recurrence in 24 of 25 cases. Conclusion Effective short-term adolescent depression treatment significantly reduces the rate of subsequent substance use, but not alcohol use, disorders. Alcohol or drug use should be assessed prior to adolescent MDD treatment and monitored even after MDD recovery. PMID:22250853

  19. Effects of developmental alcohol exposure on potentiation and depression of visual cortex responses

    PubMed Central

    Lantz, Crystal L.; Sipe, Grayson O.; Wong, Elissa L.; Majewska, Ania K.; Medina, Alexandre E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuronal plasticity deficits are thought to underlie abnormal neurodevelopment in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in animal models of this condition. Previously, we found that alcohol exposure during a period that is similar to the last months of gestation in humans disrupts ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), as measured in superficial cortical layers. We hypothesize that exposure to alcohol can differentially affect the potentiation and depression of responses that are necessary for activity dependent sprouting and pruning of neuronal networks. ODP is an established paradigm that allows the assessment of activity-dependent depression and potentiation of responses in vivo. Methods Mouse pups were exposed to 3.6 – 5g/kg of ethanol in saline daily or every other day between postnatal days 4 and 9. Visual cortex plasticity was then assessed during the critical period for ODP using two techniques that separately record in layers 4 (visual evoked potentials, VEPs) and 2/3 (optical imaging of intrinsic signals, OI). Results We discovered a layer-specific effect of early alcohol exposure. Recording of VEPs, from layer 4, showed that while the potentiation component of ODP (Pc-ODP) was disrupted in animals treated with alcohol when compared to saline controls, the depression component of ODP (Dc-ODP) was unaltered. In contrast, OI, from layers 2/3, showed that Dc-ODP was markedly disrupted in alcohol treated animals when compared to controls. Conclusions Combined with our previous work, these findings strongly suggest that developmental alcohol exposure has a distinct and layer-specific effect on the potentiation and depression of cortical responses after monocular deprivation. PMID:26108422

  20. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  1. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53% male, M[subscript age] = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different…

  2. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  3. Marital Therapy and Spouse Involvement in the Treatment of Depression, Agoraphobia, and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology, focusing on depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each disorder, examines relation between marital dynamics and disorder and discusses empirical efforts to evaluate impact of marital therapy or spouse involvement on disorder. Summarizes…

  4. Witnessing Violence across the Life Course, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol Use among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Sha Juan; Krause, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether witnessing a very violent act at any point in the life course is associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use in late life. The data come from a nationwide probability sample of older adults (N = 1,498). The findings reveal that witnessing violence is associated with more symptoms of depression…

  5. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Cinnamyl Long Chain Aroma Esters.

    PubMed

    Worzakowska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamyl long chain aroma esters were prepared by using the conventional and microwave-assisted methods. The esterification reaction of naturally occurring 3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-ol and different chain lengths acidic and diol reagents was carried out at the temperature of 140 °C under solvent free conditions. As acidic reagents, oxolane-2,5-dione, oxane-2,6-dione, hexanedioic acid and decanedioic acid were applied. Ethane-1,2-diol and 2,2'-[oxybis(2,1-ethandiyloxy)]diethanol were used as diol reagents. The synthesis of high molecular mass cinnamyl esters under conventional method conditions requires a long time to obtain high yields. The studies confirm that by using microwave irradiation, it is possible to reduce the reaction times to only 10-20 min. The structures of prepared esters were confirmed on the basis of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In addition, the newly obtained cinnamyl long chain esters were tested for their thermal properties. The TG studies proved the high thermal resistance of the obtained esters under inert and oxidative conditions.

  7. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  8. PTSD symptoms and pain in Canadian military veterans: the mediating roles of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Kara C; Konnert, Candace; Wong, May; O'Neill, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain are often comorbid among veterans. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pain among 113 treated male Canadian veterans. Measures of PTSD, pain, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and alcohol use were collected as part of the initial assessment. The bootstrapped resampling analyses were consistent with the hypothesis of mediation for anxiety and depression, but not alcohol use. The confidence intervals did not include zero and the indirect effect of PTSD on pain through anxiety was .04, CI [.03, .07]. The indirect effect of PTSD on pain through depression was .04, CI [.02, .07]. These findings suggest that PTSD and pain symptoms among veterans may be related through the underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression, thus emphasizing the importance of targeting anxiety and depression symptoms when treating comorbid PTSD and pain patients.

  9. Tianeptine and amitriptyline. Controlled double-blind trial in depressed alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Lôo, H; Malka, R; Defrance, R; Barrucand, D; Benard, J Y; Niox-Rivière, H; Raab, A; Sarda, A; Vachonfrance, G; Kamoun, A

    1988-01-01

    129 chronic alcoholic patients, withdrawn from alcohol and presenting major depression or dysthymic disorder, were treated for 4-8 weeks under double-blind conditions either with a new antidepressant, tianeptine (37.5 mg per day), or with amitriptyline (75 mg per day). Both groups presented steady improvement of the symptoms of depression during treatment, as scored on the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist self-evaluation; for the latter scale, the improvement was significantly greater in the tianeptine group. In addition to the improvement of mood, tianeptine also produced significant reduction of the somatic complaints of the depressed patients. Furthermore, tianeptine possesses anxiolytic activity, as shown by the change of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale global score, similar to that produced by amitriptyline. The anxiolytic activity of tianeptine was not accompanied by any impairment of vigilance, unlike that of amitriptyline. Tianeptine produced rare, mild anticholinergic effects. The results obtained show that tianeptine is an effective anxiolytic antidepressant, with better safety than amitriptyline, suitable for use in the treatment of mood disorders following alcohol withdrawal.

  10. Functional Limitation, Pain, and Alcohol Use: Exploring Gender Differences in the Mediating Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study considered the processes linking functional limitation and pain with depressive symptoms and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking) over a 3-year period. Method: Data were drawn from a two-wave Miami-Dade County community study of people with physical disabilities (N = 559). Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations among functional limitation, bodily pain, and the alcohol-related outcomes considered, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. Results: When the effects of the sociodemographic control variables were controlled for, depressive symptoms partly explained the effects of Wave 1 functional limitation and bodily pain on problematic drinking at Wave 2. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than for women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate clear linkages between two physical health indicators, depressive symptoms and drinking, and highlight the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding these associations. PMID:26402362

  11. The Associations between Self-Consciousness, Depressive State and Craving to Drink among Alcohol Dependent Patients Undergoing Protracted Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Denoël, Catherine; Hebborn, Ludger; Derely, Marc; Desseilles, Martin; Luminet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Context In order to understand how certain personality traits influence the relation between depression symptoms and craving for alcohol, trait self-consciousness (trait SC) was examined during a withdrawal and detoxification program. Methods Craving (Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale), depressive state (Beck Depression Inventory) and trait SC (Revised Self-Consciousness Scale) were assessed in alcohol-dependent inpatients (DSM-IV, N = 30) both at the beginning (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: day 14 to18) of protracted withdrawal during rehabilitation. Results A significant decrease in craving and depressive symptoms was observed from T1 to T2, while SC scores remained stable. At both times, strong positive correlations were observed between craving and depression. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that trait SC significantly moderated the impact of depression on cravings for alcohol. Limitations This study was performed on a relatively small sample size. Administration of medications during detoxification treatment can also be a confounding factor. Finally, craving could have been evaluated through other types of measurements. Conclusions During protracted withdrawal, alcohol craving decreased with the same magnitude as depressive mood. Depressive symptoms were related to alcohol craving but only among patients with high trait SC scores. Our results suggest that metacognitive approaches targeting SC could decrease craving and, in turn, prevent future relapses. PMID:24013131

  12. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N; Barnett, Nancy P

    2015-10-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59% female, 33% non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period. PMID:26036995

  13. Alcohol Use, Depression, and High-Risk Occupations Among Young Adults in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Polshkova, Svitlana; Chaban, Oleg; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-06-01

    This study examined alcohol consumption in relation to anxiety, depression, and involvement with high risk occupations (HRO; e.g., coal miners), among young adults in the Ukraine (aged 18-25) (N = 192; 60.9% male; 100% Caucasian). Participants were grouped on the basis of drinking status: (1) current drinkers (CDs; n = 132) or (2) nondrinkers (NDs; n = 60). Questionnaires assessed frequency of alcohol use, motives for drinking, problem identification, as well as anxiety and depression (i.e., Hamilton scales). Bivariate analyses showed that CDs were more likely than NDs to be single, have a HRO, and have greater anxiety and depression; for example, 91.7% of CDs had a HRO as compared to 56.7% of NDs. Drinking status was not significantly related to age or gender. Among CDs, common motives for use included: to reduce anxiety and fears (60.6%), because my friends use alcohol (75.0%), to fight stress (78.8%), and to increase self-esteem (64.4%). Among CDs, past month drinking days were: 25% 1-2 days, 37.9% 3-7 days, 25% 8-21 days, and 12.1% 22-30 days. Regarding problem identification, 29.5% reported not having a problem, 34.8% reported possibly having a problem, 21.9% reported having a problem but not needing help, and 13.6% reported having a problem/needing help. Young adults involved in HRO may be a particularly high risk population given increased likelihood of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Early intervention strategies that incorporate motivational interviewing approaches to address coping and social motives for use may be beneficial to address substance use and mental health problems. PMID:27144438

  14. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838

  15. Mirtazapine in comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Chung, Tammy; Douaihy, Antoine B; Kirisci, Levent; Glance, Jody; Kmiec, Julie; FitzGerald, Douglas; Wesesky, Maribeth A; Salloum, Ihsan

    2016-08-30

    This was a first double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the novel antidepressant medication mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and the level of alcohol consumption of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and an alcohol use disorder (MDD/AUD). The results of two previous studies of mirtazapine in MDD/AUD subjects had suggested efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing their level of depressive symptoms, but level of alcohol consumption had not been assessed in those studies. All subjects in this 12-week pilot study were randomized to either mirtazapine or placebo, and also received motivational enhancement therapy. Between-group analyses involving the outcome measures of depressive symptoms, level of alcohol consumption, and level of alcohol craving indicated no significant differences between groups, possibly because of limited sample size. However, within-group t tests in the mirtazapine group showed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms by week 2, also noted at all subsequent assessments (weeks 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) during the 12-week study. In contrast, no significant decrease in depressive symptoms was noted in the placebo group until week 8. No evidence of efficacy was found for mirtazapine for decreasing level of alcohol consumption in MDD /AUD subjects. PMID:27327217

  16. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

    PubMed

    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  17. Continuum beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.

  18. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075

  19. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard. PMID:27450908

  20. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  1. Urocortins: CRF's siblings and their potential role in anxiety, depression and alcohol drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, Andrey E; Tsoory, Michael M; Kozicz, Tamas; Thiele, Todd E; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Chen, Alon; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Giardino, William J; Kaur, Simranjit

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that stress, anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse-related disorders are in large part controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. However, evidence is accumulating that some of the actions on these receptors are mediated not by CRF, but by a family of related Urocortin (Ucn) peptides Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3. The initial narrow focus on CRF as the potential main player acting on CRF receptors appears outdated. Instead it is suggested that CRF and the individual Ucns act in a complementary and brain region-specific fashion to regulate anxiety-related behaviors and alcohol consumption. This review, based on a symposium held in 2011 at the research meeting on "Alcoholism and Stress" in Volterra, Italy, highlights recent evidence for regulation of these behaviors by Ucns. In studies on stress and anxiety, the roles of Ucns, and in particular Ucn1, appear more visible in experiments analyzing adaptation to stressors rather than testing basal anxiety states. Based on these studies, we propose that the contribution of Ucn1 to regulating mood follows a U-like pattern with both high and low activity of Ucn1 contributing to high anxiety states. In studies on alcohol use disorders, the CRF system appears to regulate not only dependence-induced drinking, but also binge drinking and even basal consumption of alcohol. While dependence-induced and binge drinking rely on the actions of CRF on CRFR1 receptors, alcohol consumption in models of these behaviors is inhibited by actions of Ucns on CRFR2. In contrast, alcohol preference is positively influenced by actions of Ucn1, which is capable of acting on both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Because of complex distribution of Ucns in the nervous system, advances in this field will critically depend on development of new tools allowing site-specific analyses of the roles of Ucns and CRF. PMID:22444954

  2. Friendship context matters: examining the domain specificity of alcohol and depression socialization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J

    2012-10-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53 % male, M (age) = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different friendship contexts were distinguished based on two dimensions referring to the level (i.e., best friendships and friendship networks) and reciprocity (i.e., unilateral and reciprocal) of the relationships. Social network and dyadic analyses were applied in a complementary manner to estimate peer socialization effects across the different friendship contexts. Results showed that within friendship networks both male and female adolescents' alcohol misuse was affected by friends' alcohol misuse, regardless of whether the relationship was reciprocated or not. Conversely, peer socialization of depressive symptoms only emerged within very best friendship dyads of female adolescents. Findings suggest that the effects of peer socialization depend on the friendship context and specific types of behaviors. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. [Neuro-electrophysiologic studies in abstinent and depressed alcoholic patients treated with tianeptine].

    PubMed

    Macher, J P; Minot, R; Duval, F; Luthringer, R; Toussaint, M; Schaltenbrand, N

    1991-11-14

    A concerted study of the clinical and electrophysiologic effects of tianeptine was conducted in alcoholic patients hospitalized for 5 weeks for alcohol withdrawal cures and subsequent depression. Because of the well known manifestations of infraclinical cognition impairment, sleep disorders and greater susceptibility to undesirable effects of psychotropic drugs, which hinder health care in this type of patient, the authors investigated changes in cognitive functions and the effect of tianeptine on sleep organization and daytime vigilance. Results after 4 weeks treatment (3 times 12.5 mg/day) included: besides its antidepressant effect, tianeptine reduces the manifestations of anxiety, without sedation effects, either clinical or electrophysiologic; tianeptine has no deleterious effect on cognitive functions, on the contrary, it appears to favour recovery when they are impaired; tianeptine does not modify sleep structure, notably in paradoxal sleep; tianeptine is an antidepressant which has a good acceptability, even for a population at "risk".

  4. Racial Differences in the Transactional Relationship Between Depression and Alcohol Use From Elementary School to Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this investigation was to test hypothesized reverse prospective relationships between alcohol consumption and depressive symptomatology as a function of race among youth. Method: In a two-wave prospective study, 328 European American, 328 African American, and 144 Hispanic American youth were studied at the end of fifth grade (last year of elementary school) and the end of sixth grade (first year of middle school). Results: A positive correlation was observed between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among all youth. However, the predictive relationship differed based on race. For European American and Hispanic American youth, depressive symptom levels at the end of elementary school predicted alcohol consumption at the end of the first year of middle school, but the converse relationship was not observed. For African American youth, the opposite pattern was found. Alcohol consumption at the end of elementary school predicted depressive symptom levels at the end of the first year of middle school, and the converse relationship was not observed. Conclusions: These findings suggest the possibility that etiological relationships between depression and alcohol use vary by race, thus highlighting the importance of considering race when studying the risk process. PMID:26402361

  5. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention. PMID:26278235

  6. Synthesis of Diphenylhexatriene by the Pd-Catalyzed Dimerization of Cinnamyl Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Mesganaw, Tehetena; Im, G.-Yoon J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2013-01-01

    A mild and operationally-simple method to synthesize diphenylhexatriene (DPH) is reported. The method relies on the Pd-catalyzed dimerization of cinnamyl acetate and provides efficient access to DPH in a single step. PMID:23414259

  7. Determination of cinnamyl anthranilate in perfume, cologne, and toilet water by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Demers, F X; Yates, R L; Davis, H M

    1987-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of cinnamyl anthranilate in perfumes and other fragrance compositions. The method was evaluated by conducting recovery studies of 10 different commercial fragrance compositions to which cinnamyl anthranilate had been added at levels of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL. Recoveries ranged from 91 to 103% with a mean of 97% and a standard deviation of +/- 3.3%.

  8. Extending the utility of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts: Direct arylation of heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anthony R; Chartoire, Anthony; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2012-01-01

    Summary The use of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts in the direct arylation of heterocycles has been investigated. Among four different precatalysts, [Pd(SIPr)(cinnamyl)Cl] proved to be the most efficient promoter of the reaction. The C–H functionalization of sulfur- or nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved at low catalyst loadings. These catalyst charges range from 0.1 to 0.01 mol % palladium. PMID:23209496

  9. Depressive and aggressive responses to frustration: development of a questionnaire and its validation in a sample of male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Baars, M Y; Müller, M J; Gallhofer, B; Netter, P

    2011-01-01

    Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.

  10. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ashlee A.; Neale, Michael C.; Silberg, Judy L.; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual’s substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups PMID:27046165

  11. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups. PMID:27046165

  12. The relationship of alcohol-use disorders and depressive symptoms to tryptophan metabolism: cross-sectional data from a Nepalese alcohol treatment sample

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Martinez, Priscilla; Hestad, Knut; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism results in increased production of potentially depressogenic tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan availability for serotonin synthesis. Since alcohol consumption affects tryptophan metabolism and disposition, we determined serum levels of kynurenine, tryptophan and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KT ratio) in alcohol-use disorder (AUD) patients and compared their levels considering abstinence duration, AUD severity and comorbid depression. Methods The study sample included 169 AUD inpatients from eight alcohol treatment facilities in Kathmandu, Nepal. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to generate the AUD diagnosis. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) captured AUD severity and patterns of alcohol use. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 was used to reveal current depressive symptoms. Serum kynurenine and tryptophan levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and tryptophan degradation was measured by KT ratio (kynurenine/tryptophan × 103). Results Patients with above average AUDIT scores had higher mean serum levels of kynurenine (2.1μM±0.7 vs 1.8 μM ±0.6, p= 0.006) and KT ratios (48.6±17.6 vs 40.4±14.3, p=0.002) than those with below average scores. Patients with current depressive symptoms had higher mean tryptophan concentrations (49.9 μM ±13 vs 45.7 μM±14.1, p= 0.047) and lower KT ratios (41.4 μM ±14 vs 47.5 μM ±17.6, p=0.028) compared to patients whose reported depressive symptoms were below the standard cut-off. Higher tryptophan levels and lower KT ratios in the depressed group was specific to patients with longer abstinence and higher AUD severity. Conclusions Depression-related deregulation in tryptophan metabolism was found to depend on length of abstinence and on AUD severity. Together, results suggest that in AUD populations, peripheral tryptophan metabolism is subject to interactions

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  14. The Relation of Parental Depression and Self Esteem to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Andrew M.; And Others

    Preliminary results from a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine the family life of children reared in a home with an alcoholic father are reported. Analysis is restricted to 15 families from a larger study in which the target child was a 3-year-old male. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Progress Evaluation…

  15. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  16. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  17. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  18. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  19. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  1. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076099

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    PubMed

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects.

  5. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  7. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  9. Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder Among Spouses of Men Who Use Alcohol in a Rural Community in Central Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasinghe, Dewasmika; Abeysinghe, Ranil; Siriwardhana, Prabhash; Dassanayake, Tharaka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among spouses of men who use alcohol in two rural areas in Sri Lanka, and to examine whether the severity of alcohol-related problems (ARPs) in men and presence of alcohol-related domestic violence are associated with MDD among these women. Method: In a cross-sectional study, ARPs among men were assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire filled in by men, and domestic violence and husbands' drinking pattern data obtained from the women. MDD among the women was ascertained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Disorders for major depression. Using logistic regression we examined whether age, past history of depression, different indices of ARPs and domestic violence were associated with current MDD among the women. Results: Point prevalence of MDD in the sample was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.93, 40.73%). Once adjusted for other factors, morning drinking of the spouse (odds ratio = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.25, 13.47; P = 0.019) and increasing age (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09; P = 0.003) significantly increased the odds of MDD. Being subjected to domestic violence/arguments also had a trend to be associated with MDD among women, but was not significant (odds ratio = 2.29, 95% CI: 0.95, 5.48; P = 0.062). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDD among spouses of men who use alcohol is markedly higher than that has been observed among Sri Lankan women in previous studies. The prevalence of MDD in women seems to increase when their husbands are morning drinkers, and with increasing age. PMID:25589089

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  11. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  12. Influence of gender on ethanol-induced ventricular myocyte contractile depression in transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinhong; Esberg, Lucy B; Ye, Gang; Borgerding, Anthony J; Ren, Bonnie H; Aberle, Nicholas S; Epstein, Paul N; Ren, Jun

    2003-03-01

    Acute ethanol exposure depresses ventricular contractility and contributes to alcoholic cardiomyopathy in both men and women chronically consuming ethanol. However, a gender-related difference in the severity of myopathy exists with female being more sensitive to ethanol-induced tissue damage. Acetaldehyde (ACA), the major oxidized product of ethanol, has been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis and gender-related difference of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, possibly due to its direct cardiac effect and interaction with estrogen. This study was designed to compare the effects of cardiac overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which converts ethanol into ACA, on the cardiac contractile response to ethanol in ventricular myocytes isolated from age-matched adult male and female transgenic (ADH) and wild-type (FVB) mice. Mechanical properties were measured with an IonOptix SoftEdge system. ACA production was assessed by gas chromatography. The ADH myocytes from both genders exhibited similar mechanical properties but a higher efficacy to produce ACA compared to FVB myocytes. Exposure to ethanol (80-640 mg/dl) for 60 min elicited concentration-dependent decrease of cell shortening in both FVB and ADH groups. The ethanol-induced depression on cell shortening was significantly augmented in female but not male ADH group. ADH transgene did not exacerbate the ethanol-induced inhibition of maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening in either gender. In addition, neither ethanol nor ADH transgene affect the duration of shortening and relengthening in male or female mice. These data suggest that females may be more sensitive to ACA-induced cardiac contractile depression than male, which may attribute to the gender-related difference of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  13. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups. PMID:25819701

  14. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  15. Depression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

  16. Alcohol and drug consumption, depressive features, and family violence as associated with complaints to the Prosecutor's Office in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rey, Guillermina Natera; García, Francisco Juárez; Icaza, María Elena Medina-Mora; Sainz, Marcela Tiburcio

    2007-01-01

    The article is aimed at reporting the characteristics of the population detected at State Prosecutors' Offices including the two such offices that existed in the city selected for the study, one located in a general hospital for the inspection of violence-related cases (n = 156); and the second in the facility where all detainees are taken when arrested (n = 129), and where victims can file a complaint (n = 186). A household survey undertaken among the population 18 to 65 years of age (n = 887) was used as a group of reference. Both studies were undertaken in Pachuca City, the capital of Hidalgo, located 100 km from Mexico City during the second half of 1996. Face-to-face questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic data, drug use and drinking patterns, depressive symptomatology, and family violence. Discriminant and logistic regression analysis were undertaken. The age group from 18 to 24 displayed the highest number of legal complaints and arrests (OR = 1.773). The likelihood for appearing at a State Prosecutor's Office was higher for those living in an atmosphere of threats and injuries within the family (OR = 19) and for those that reported alcohol consumption on the day of the event (OR = 14). Extremely high rates of family violence were obtained in this sample, increasing the likelihood of arriving at the Prosecutor's Office either because arrested or for being a victim. Results confirm the relationship between alcohol use, depression, and violence, reinforcing the need to prevent alcohol abuse, especially among youth.

  17. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  18. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  19. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  20. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.

  1. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  2. Sub-diagnostic Alcohol Use by Depressed Men and Women Seeking Outpatient Psychiatric Services: Consumption Patterns and Motivation to Reduce Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Eisendrath, Stuart; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined alcohol use patterns among men and women with depression seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment, including factors associated with recent heavy episodic drinking and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption. Methods The sample consisted of 1183 patients ages 18 and over who completed a self-administered, computerized intake questionnaire and who scored ≥ 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Additional measures included current and past alcohol questions based on the Addiction Severity Index, heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks on one or more occasions in the past year), alcohol-related problems on the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST), and motivation to reduce drinking using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results Among those who consumed any alcohol in the past year (73.9% of the sample), heavy episodic drinking in the past year was reported by 47.5% of men and 32.5% of women. In logistic regression, prior-year heavy episodic drinking was associated with younger age (p=.011), male gender (p=.001) and cigarette smoking (p=.002). Among patients reporting heavy episodic drinking, motivation to reduce alcohol consumption was associated with older age (p=.008), greater usual quantity of alcohol consumed (p<.001), and higher SMAST score (p<.001). Conclusions In contrast to prior clinical studies, we examined sub-diagnostic alcohol use and related problems among psychiatric outpatients with depression. Patients reporting greater drinking quantities and alcohol-related problems also express more motivation to reduce drinking, providing intervention opportunities for mental health providers that should not be overlooked. PMID:21223306

  3. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  4. Prevalence of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, Alcohol Intake and Nicotine Consumption in Rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Torsten; Behere, Prakash; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization. Methods The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ), and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15–21) was detected in 1862 (39.6%) individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women), and major depression (CESD sum score >21) in 613 (13.0%) individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women). Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2%) participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1%) individuals. There were 887 (18.9%) smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8%) subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0%) participants; 283 (6.0%) subjects had an AUDIT score ≥8 (hazardous drinking), and 108 (4.63%) subjects a score ≥13 (women) or ≥15 (men) (alcohol dependence). Conclusions In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India. PMID:25409441

  5. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. Depression.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Myrna

    2009-04-01

    This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had.

  8. Depression.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Myrna

    2009-04-01

    This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had. PMID:19344866

  9. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  10. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  11. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  12. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Methods Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). Results The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=–0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Conclusions Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both

  13. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. Methods 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females) from Germany (n = 654), Poland (n = 561), Bulgaria (n = 688), the UK (n = 311) and Slovakia (n = 315) completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen’s perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Results Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week), but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith) was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. Conclusion The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress. PMID:22640549

  14. Understanding PTSD comorbidity and suicidal behavior: associations among histories of alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sasha M; Bujarski, Sarah; Babson, Kimberly A; Dutton, Courtney E; Feldner, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an elevated risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts and actions. However, a relative dearth of research has examined factors that may impact this relation, such as common co-occurring disorders. Utilizing the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication data, the current study examined comparisons between comorbid PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) in relation to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that comorbid MDD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicidal ideation, while comorbid AD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicide attempt history. Results indicated that only PTSD-AD was significantly associated with an elevated likelihood of endorsing histories of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. These findings suggest that AD may be a critical risk factor for acquiring the capability for suicide attempts.

  15. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

    PubMed

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  16. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  17. Catalytic enantioselective aziridoarylation of aryl cinnamyl ethers toward synthesis of trans-3-amino-4-arylchromans.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Saumen; Sinha, Debarshi

    2011-09-16

    Catalytic enantioselective one-pot aziridoarylation reaction of aryl cinnamyl ethers has been demonstrated in detail. Combination of suitable copper catalyst and chiral bis-oxazoline ligand was found to be very efficient for asymmetric aziridination followed by intramolecular arylation (Friedel-Crafts) reaction to provide a general and direct method for the synthesis of trans-3-amino-4-arylchromans with high regio-, diastereo- (dr > 99:1), and enantioselectivity (up to 95% ee) with moderate yield. trans-3-Amino-4-arylchroman is an advanced intermediate for the synthesis of chromenoisoquinoline compounds such as doxanthrine, a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine-D(1) receptor. PMID:21797274

  18. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  19. Depression.

    PubMed

    Tallo, Donato

    2014-04-15

    Reading the CPD article was beneficial to my professional nursing practice and development. I gained a greater understanding of how depression is likely to exacerbate the effects of a physical illness or complicate the treatment of other health conditions. PMID:24712633

  20. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Zakeri, Samaneh; Khoshdast, Sadieh; Yousefian, Fatemeh T.; Rastegar, Monireh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Kahdouee, Shamsi; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Kazemi, S. Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ), have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip) 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200) and 4 (LPS + NS 400) were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip), respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days), and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001). The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01). In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01) while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001). Furthermore, in the LPS group, the

  1. Evaluating a Brief, Internet-Based Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help

  2. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in relation to comorbid depression and cytokine levels in Nepalese men with alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Aukrust, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegenerative and inflammatory processes are involved separately in major depression (MD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). Little is known about the nature of this relationship in the context of comorbid AUD and depression disorders. In this study, we determined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels in patients with AUD and tested whether BDNF levels were related to history of major depression, recent depressive symptoms, AUD severity, and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Nepalese male AUD inpatients (N=152) abstinent from alcohol for an average of 34 days were administered structured interviews to assess depression symptoms and pattern and extent of alcohol use, and to generate research diagnoses for AUD and MD. AUD severity was assessed by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Serum BDNF and cytokines were measured using ELISA and multiplex technology, respectively. Although serum BDNF levels were unrelated to MD history, patients with recent depressive symptoms (n=42) had lower (mean±SD) BDNF serum levels compared to those without (n=110) (21.6±8.1 ng/mL vs. 26.0±9.6 ng/mL; p=0.010), and patients with higher AUD severity and binge-drinking patterns had higher mean serum BDNF levels compared to lower AUD severity and non-binging (25.9±9.7 ng/mL vs. 22.1±8.7 ng/mL; p=0.022 and 25.7±9.3 vs. 21.8±9.7 ng/mL; p=0.029, respectively). Positive correlations were present between BDNF and TNF-α (r=0.39, p<0.001) and IL-6 (r=0.2, p=0.027). In particular, TNF-α levels were predictive of BDNF levels after controlling for confounders (B=0.3 [95% CI=0.2-0.5], p<0.001). These findings show that in alcohol-using populations, peripheral BDNF levels are related to severity of AUD as well as presence of depressive symptoms. The significant associations between inflammatory and neurotrophic factors may have implications for neuroadaptive changes during recovery from AUD.

  3. The importance of depression and alcohol use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: risk factors for delirium and poorer quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Joanne M; Denson, Linley A; Baker, Robert A; Tully, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether depression, anxiety and stress increase the risk for delirium and poor quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Methods A total of 180 CABG patients (mean age of 63.5 ± 10.1 years, 82.2% males) completed baseline and postoperative self-report questionnaires to assess distress and QOL. Incident delirium was diagnosed postoperatively with a structured clinical interview and patients were monitored every day post-operatively for confusion and disturbance in consciousness. Results Delirium developed in 63 persons (35% of sample). After adjustment for covariates, delirium was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.13, P = 0.003], anxiety (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13, P = 0.01) and stress (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.09, P = 0.03). Preoperative depression scores were associated with poorer QOL including bodily pain (β = −0.39, P = 0.013), vitality (β = −0.32, P = 0.020), social functioning (β = −0.51, P ≤ 0.001), emotional role function (β = −0.44, P = 0.003) and general health (β = −0.33, P = 0.038). Among the covariates, harmful levels of alcohol use was consistently associated with poorer QOL. Conclusions Depression and harmful levels of alcohol use were consistently associated with poorer QOL whereas depression, anxiety and stress were associated with delirium risk. These findings point to further research examining depression and harmful levels of alcohol use in coronary heart disease populations undergoing coronary revascularization. PMID:26918013

  4. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  5. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  6. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  7. Do importance of religious faith and healthy lifestyle modify the relationships between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption? A survey of students across seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Kevin K.; Sheema, S.; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.; Laughlin, Mary H.; Spence, Nathan E.; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exon III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD. PMID:18558427

  9. Supramolecular structures based on regioisomers of cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins – new media for capillary separation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkovics, Gabor; Hodek, Ondrej; Havlikova, Martina; Bosakova, Zuzana; Coufal, Pavel; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Eva; Darcsi, Andras; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the preparation and application of supramolecular structures based on mono-cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins (Cin-α-CD). Pure regioisomers of Cin-α-CD having the cinnamyl moiety at the 2-O- or at the 3-O-position, respectively, were prepared, characterized and applied in capillary electrophoresis as additives to the background electrolyte. These new monomer units with a potential to self-organize into supramolecular structures were synthesized via a straightforward one-step synthetic procedure and purified using preparative reversed-phase chromatography allowing a large scale separation of the regioisomers. The ability of the monomers to self-assemble was proved by various methods including NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The light scattering experiments showed that the monomer units have distinguishable ability to form supramolecular structures in different solvents and the size distribution of the aggregates in water can be easily modulated using different external stimuli, such as temperature or competitive guest molecules. The obtained results indicated that the two regioisomers of Cin-α-CD formed different supramolecular assemblies highlighting the fact that the position of the cinnamyl group plays an important role in the intermolecular complex formation. PMID:26877812

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Associated Clinical Characteristics in Outpatients Seeking Community-based Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Katherine; Walker, Robrina; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Greer, Tracy L.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Nunes, Edward V.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders are common and associated with poorer treatment engagement, retention, and outcomes. This study examines the presence of depressive symptoms and the demographic and clinical correlates in a diverse sample of substance abuse treatment-seekers to better characterize patients with co-occurring depressive symptoms and substance use disorders and understand potential treatment needs. Methods Baseline data from a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted, web-delivered psychosocial intervention were analyzed. Participants (N=507) were recruited from 10 geographically diverse outpatient drug treatment programs. Assessments included the self-report Patient Health Questionnaire, and measures of coping strategies, social functioning, physical health status, and substance use. Results One-fifth (21%; n=106) of the sample screened positive for depression; those screening positive for depression were significantly more likely to screen positive for anxiety (66.9%) and PTSD (42.9%). After controlling for anxiety and PTSD symptoms, presence of depressive symptoms remained significantly associated with fewer coping strategies (p = .001), greater impairment in social adjustment (p < .001), and poorer health status, (p < .001), but not to days of drug use in the last 90 days (p = .14). Conclusions Depression is a clinically significant problem among substance abusers and, in this study, patients who screened positive for depression were more likely to have co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and PTSD. Additionally, the presence of depressive symptoms was associated with fewer coping strategies and poorer social adjustment. Coping skills are a significant predictor of addiction outcomes and it may be especially important to screen for and enhance coping among depressed patients. Evidence-based interventions that target coping skills and global functioning among substance abusers with depressive symptoms may

  12. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  13. Differential activity by polymorphic variants of a remote enhancer that supports galanin expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala: implications for obesity, depression and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Scott; Lear, Marissa; Shanley, Lynne; Hing, Benjamin; Baizan-Edge, Amanda; Herwig, Annika; Quinn, John P; Breen, Gerome; McGuffin, Peter; Starkey, Andrew; Barrett, Perry; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2011-10-01

    The expression of the galanin gene (GAL) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in the amygdala of higher vertebrates suggests the requirement for highly conserved, but unidentified, regulatory sequences that are critical to allow the galanin gene to control alcohol and fat intake and modulate mood. We used comparative genomics to identify a highly conserved sequence that lay 42 kb 5' of the human GAL transcriptional start site that we called GAL5.1. GAL5.1 activated promoter activity in neurones of the PVN, arcuate nucleus and amygdala that also expressed the galanin peptide. Analysis in neuroblastoma cells demonstrated that GAL5.1 acted as an enhancer of promoter activity after PKC activation. GAL5.1 contained two polymorphisms; rs2513280(C/G) and rs2513281(A/G), that occurred in two allelic combinations (GG or CA) where the dominant GG alelle occurred in 70-83 % of the human population. Intriguingly, both SNPs were found to be in LD (R(2) of 0.687) with another SNP (rs2156464) previously associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recreation of these alleles in reporter constructs and subsequent magnetofection into primary rat hypothalamic neurones showed that the CA allele was 40 % less active than the GG allele. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the weaker allele may affect food and alcohol preference. The linkage of the SNPs analysed in this study with a SNP previously associated with MDD together with the functioning of GAL5.1 as a PVN and amygdala specific enhancer represent a significant advance in our ability to understand alcoholism, obesity and major depressive disorder.

  14. Understanding differences in alcohol consumption and depressed mood between U.S.- and foreign-born Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Cheng J; Hsu, Sharon H; Mittmann, Angela J; Litt, Dana; Geisner, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    The number and proportion of foreign-born individuals in the U.S. population has increased in recent decades. From 1970 to 2007, the foreign-born population more than tripled to approximately 37 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 , 2008 ). Foreign-born students are a key subpopulation of college students. About 23% of U.S. undergraduate college students in 2007-2008 were either born outside of the United States (10%) or were children of at least one first-generation immigrant parent (13%; National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education [NCES], 2012 ). Asian students constitute the majority (30%) of foreign-born undergraduates. Although foreign-born Asian students compose nearly one-quarter of the college population, limited research has examined how rates of alcohol use and depression differ between foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian college students (Gonzalez, Reynolds, & Skewes, 2011 ; Ralston & Palfai, 2012 ). The limited research is worrisome given their increasing rates of college enrollment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ), alcohol consumption (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010 ), alcohol abuse and dependence (Grant et al., 2004 ), and underutilization of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001 ). Collectively, these factors point to the need for further research tailored to Asian college drinkers. PMID:26422663

  15. Understanding differences in alcohol consumption and depressed mood between U.S.- and foreign-born Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jih-Cheng J; Hsu, Sharon H; Mittmann, Angela J; Litt, Dana; Geisner, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    The number and proportion of foreign-born individuals in the U.S. population has increased in recent decades. From 1970 to 2007, the foreign-born population more than tripled to approximately 37 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 , 2008 ). Foreign-born students are a key subpopulation of college students. About 23% of U.S. undergraduate college students in 2007-2008 were either born outside of the United States (10%) or were children of at least one first-generation immigrant parent (13%; National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education [NCES], 2012 ). Asian students constitute the majority (30%) of foreign-born undergraduates. Although foreign-born Asian students compose nearly one-quarter of the college population, limited research has examined how rates of alcohol use and depression differ between foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian college students (Gonzalez, Reynolds, & Skewes, 2011 ; Ralston & Palfai, 2012 ). The limited research is worrisome given their increasing rates of college enrollment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ), alcohol consumption (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010 ), alcohol abuse and dependence (Grant et al., 2004 ), and underutilization of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001 ). Collectively, these factors point to the need for further research tailored to Asian college drinkers.

  16. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action. PMID:26379135

  17. Treatment Contact Coverage for Probable Depressive and Probable Alcohol Use Disorders in Four Low- and Middle-Income Country Districts: The PRIME Cross-Sectional Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Breuer, Erica; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhin, Girmay; Kigozi, Fred; Shidhaye, Rahul; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Context A robust evidence base is now emerging that indicates that treatment for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUD) delivered in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be effective. However, the coverage of services for these conditions in most LMIC settings remains unknown. Objective To describe the methods of a repeat cross-sectional survey to determine changes in treatment contact coverage for probable depression and for probable AUD in four LMIC districts, and to present the baseline findings regarding treatment contact coverage. Methods Population-based cross-sectional surveys with structured questionnaires, which included validated screening tools to identify probable cases. We defined contact coverage as being the proportion of cases who sought professional help in the past 12 months. Setting Sodo District, Ethiopia; Sehore District, India; Chitwan District, Nepal; and Kamuli District, Uganda Participants 8036 adults residing in these districts between May 2013 and May 2014 Main Outcome Measures Treatment contact coverage was defined as having sought care from a specialist, generalist, or other health care provider for symptoms related to depression or AUD. Results The proportion of adults who screened positive for depression over the past 12 months ranged from 11.2% in Nepal to 29.7% in India and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged between 8.1% in Nepal to 23.5% in India. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable depression was 23.7%. The proportion of adults who screened positive for AUD over the past 12 months ranged from 1.7% in Uganda to 13.9% in Ethiopia and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged from 2.8% in India to 5.1% in Nepal. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable AUD was 13.1%. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with and contribute to the limited evidence base which indicates low treatment contact coverage for depression and for AUD in LMIC. The planned follow up

  18. Adolescents at Risk: Depression, Low Academic Performance, Violence, and Alcohol Increase Bolivian Teenagers' Risk of Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Kirk A.; De La Cruz, Natalie G.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Clark, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence of depression and suicidal tendencies as well as risk factors for attempted suicide among students in Bolivia. Adolescents 13-18 years old (182 females, 394 males) from randomly selected schools in La Paz completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Frequencies and logistic regression were used to identify…

  19. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or "binge" drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship…

  20. Phosphine Oxide-Sc(OTf)3 Catalyzed Highly Regio- and Enantioselective Bromoaminocyclization of (E)-Cinnamyl Tosylcarbamates. An Approach to a Class of Synthetically Versatile Functionalized Molecules.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongjie; Huang, Hu; Liu, Weigang; Tian, Hua; Shi, Yian

    2016-03-01

    A highly regio- and enantioselective bromoaminocyclization of (E)-cinnamyl tosylcarbamates catalyzed by a chiral phosphine oxide-Sc(OTf)3 complex is described. A wide variety of optically active aryl 5-bromo-1,3-oxazinan-2-ones can be obtained with high yield and enantioselectivity.

  1. Phosphine Oxide-Sc(OTf)3 Catalyzed Highly Regio- and Enantioselective Bromoaminocyclization of (E)-Cinnamyl Tosylcarbamates. An Approach to a Class of Synthetically Versatile Functionalized Molecules.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongjie; Huang, Hu; Liu, Weigang; Tian, Hua; Shi, Yian

    2016-03-01

    A highly regio- and enantioselective bromoaminocyclization of (E)-cinnamyl tosylcarbamates catalyzed by a chiral phosphine oxide-Sc(OTf)3 complex is described. A wide variety of optically active aryl 5-bromo-1,3-oxazinan-2-ones can be obtained with high yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:26894481

  2. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  3. Supportive Text Messages to Reduce Mood Symptoms and Problem Drinking in Patients With Primary Depression or Alcohol Use Disorder: Protocol for an Implementation Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. Objective To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. Methods This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. Results The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. Conclusions The

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity Comparison among Scropoliosides-Catalpol Derivatives with 6-O-Substituted Cinnamyl Moieties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Liuqiang; Ling, Shuang; Qian, Fei; Li, Yiming; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2015-11-03

    We have previously shown that scropolioside B has higher anti-inflammatory activity than catalpol does after the inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IL-1β expression, maturation, and secretion. Various scropoliosides were extracted, isolated, and purified from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. We then compared their anti-inflammatory activities against LPS-induced NF-κB activity, cytokines mRNA expression, IL-1β secretion, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. The inhibitory effects of the scropoliosides varied depending on whether the 6-O-substituted cinnamyl moiety was linked to C'' 2-OH, C''3-OH, or C''4-OH, and on the number of moieties linked, which is closely related to the enhancement of antiinflammatory activity. Among these compounds, scropolioside B had the strongest antiinflammatory effects.

  5. The “S” Allele of the Serotonin Transporter Is Not Associated with Major Depression or Alcohol Use Disorders in a Veteran Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Haas, Gretchen L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Hanusa, Barbara; Walker, Jon D.; Fox, Lauren J.; Daley, Dennis; Douaihy, Antoine; Klima, Gloria; Ferrell, James

    2014-01-01

    The results of some studies suggest that the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) short (S) allele, relative to the long (L) allele, is associated with risk for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), and thus serves as biomarker for those disorders, while results from other studies do not support that conclusion. Persons with an S allele demonstrate a 2- to 2.5 fold decrease in serotonin transcription rate compared to the L-allele, which may increase their risk for MDD. Differences in study populations may help explain the differences in findings between those meta-analyses. To date, there have been no published reports which have addressed the possible association between the S allele and MDD among military veterans. This manuscript describes a first study to assess the possible association of the S allele with MDD or with AUD among a study population of veterans in treatment for a substance use disorder. We hypothesized that the S allele would be associated with MDD in our study sample. Subjects signing informed consent were 101 Veterans recruited from VA behavioral health and substance use treatment clinics in the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, and 91 of those subjects were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. The study sample from whom genetic material was collected included 82 males and 9 females, of whom 53 were white, 38 were black, and one was “other”. Fifty-four members of the study sample (59%) met DSM-IV criteria for an MDD on the SCID. Forty-five of the subjects demonstrated one or two S alleles, while 46 did not do so. The presence of the S allele of the serotonin transporter was not found to be significantly associated with the diagnosis of major depressive disorder or with alcohol use disorders in our sample. Those findings, in combination with other recent negative findings from other researchers involving non-veterans, raise questions regarding the clinical utility of utilizing genetics

  6. Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: disentangling person and time-level effects.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Tate, Susan R; Roesch, Scott C; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-12-01

    Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps < .05) and PDDRG (ps < .05). Within-person, time-level effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps < .05) but not PDDRG. Controlled environments moderated person-level social network effects (ps < .05), such that greater time in controlled settings attenuated the association between a heavier drinking/using network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment.

  7. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It can help you better handle stress and depression. Some studies show it may even help you live longer. Follow healthy habits. Get enough sleep and eat a healthy diet. Avoid alcohol, marijuana, and other recreational drugs.

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  9. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  10. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies.

  11. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies. PMID:26454404

  12. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobain, Bev

    This guide provides adolescents with information on depression. An introduction discusses symptoms of depression and lists famous people who were known to be depressed. Part 1, "What's Wrong," explores how it feels to be depressed, the causes and types of depression, and the connections between depression, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. A…

  13. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Protective effects of voluntary physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Brocardo, Patricia S; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can damage the developing nervous system, producing long-lasting impairments in both brain structure and function. In this study we analyzed how exposure to this teratogen during the period of brain development affects the intracellular redox state in the brain as well as the development of anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we also tested whether aerobic exercise might have therapeutic potential for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) by increasing neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or by alleviating ethanol-induced behavioral deficits. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol across all three-trimester equivalents (i.e., throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed and control animals were assigned to either sedentary or running groups at postnatal day (PND) 48. Runners had free access to a running wheel for 12 days and at PND 60 anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed. Perinatal ethanol exposure resulted in the occurrence of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adult rats without affecting their locomotor activity. Voluntary wheel running reversed the depressive-like behaviors in ethanol-exposed males, but not in ethanol-exposed females. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of ethanol-exposed rats, and there was a concomitant reduction in the levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. Voluntary exercise was able to reverse the deficits in glutathione both in ethanol-exposed males and females. Thus, while voluntary physical exercise increased glutathione levels in both sexes, its effects at the behavioral level were sex dependent, with only ethanol-exposed male runners showing a decrease in depressive-like behaviors.

  14. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation.

    PubMed

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the α-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the β-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets. PMID:27236926

  15. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  18. Predictors of Depression in Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Walsh, Gordon W.

    1993-01-01

    Interviewed 145 adolescent street youth in Toronto, Canada, to examine association of depression with alcohol and drug use and related problems, social supports, self-esteem, family background, and alcohol and drug use among family members. Results indicated that best predictors of depression among street youth were self-esteem and length of time…

  19. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state" responses to arrest and…

  20. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  1. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  2. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  3. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  4. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  5. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  6. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  7. [Masked depression].

    PubMed

    Preradović, M; Griva, D; Eror, S

    1991-01-01

    The study comprised 25 patients with masked depression and 30 patients with endogenous depression. According to the general characteristics both groups were homogenous and accordingly, comparable. Together with clinical evaluation of depressive syndrome, psychological management was applied. Rorschach test, Thematic Apperception Test and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used in the study. In the clinical picture of masked depressions somatovegetative disorders dominated and depressive behavior in endogenous depression. The frequence of suicid does not differ between patients with masked and endogenous depression.

  8. Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research is giving people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:22895696

  9. Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura L; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research tells us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research gives people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area.

  10. Synthesis of novel diazatricyclodecanes (DTDs). Effects of structural variation at the C3' allyl end and at the phenyl ring of the cinnamyl chain on mu-receptor affinity and opioid antinociception.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Cignarella, Giorgio; Ruiu, Stefania; Loriga, Giovanni; Murineddu, Gabriele; Villa, Stefania; Grella, Giuseppe Enrico; Cossu, Gregorio; Fratta, Walter

    2003-09-01

    Two series of analogues of 9-propionyl-10-cinnamyl-9,10-diazatricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane (1a) and 2-propionyl-7-cinnamyl-2,7-diazatricyclo[4.4.0.0(3,8)]decane (2a), in which the cinnamyl moiety was replaced by various aralkenyl chains, 1b-l and 2b-l, respectively, have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to bind to the opioid mu-, delta- and kappa-receptors. The binding data indicated that compounds 1b,d,e,h and 2b,d,e,f,h,i showed a mu-affinity in the low nanomolar range with moderate or negligible affinity towards delta- and kappa-receptors. Selected DTDs, the pairs 1,2b, 1,2e and 1,2h, were also evaluated for analgesic effect. In the hot plate test, only 1b given ip was found to have similar opioid antinociception and chronic tolerance as morphine.

  11. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  12. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  13. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  14. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  15. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  16. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  17. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  18. Perspectives on Alcohol and Medication Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Kalman; Smith, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Although health consequences of alcohol consumption with certain drugs are generally appreciated, diversity of interactions is not. In addition to central nervous system depression, combination of alcohol with other drugs may result in hypoglycemic reactions, cardiovascular complications, and other severe or unanticipated reactions. Personnel…

  19. Geometric specificity of alcohol dehydrogenases and its potential for separation of trans and cis isomers of unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed Central

    Klibanov, A M; Giannousis, P P

    1982-01-01

    The geometric specificity of three different alcohol dehydrogenases (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) (from yeast, from horse liver, and from Leuconostoc mesenteroides) in the reduction of trans- and cis-cinnamaldehydes has been investigated. All three enzymes display a remarkable trans specificity: they react with the trans isomer 7 to 647 times faster than with its cis counterpart. Experiments with the enzymatic reduction of 3-phenylpropionaldehyde, a saturated analog of cinnamaldehyde, have revealed that whereas trans-cinnamaldehyde possesses the "right" configuration for the active centers of the alcohol dehydrogenases, the cis isomer apparently does not fit the active centers well. All three alcohol dehydrogenases studied also exhibit a marked trans specificity in the reaction with alpha-methylcinnamaldehyde. The geometric specificity of alcohol dehydrogenases can be used for the production of otherwise hard to synthesize cis isomers of unsaturated aldehydes from their readily available trans counterparts: trans-cinnamaldehyde was irradiated with ultraviolet light (which converted it to a mixture of trans and cis isomers) then treated with NADH and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (which selectively reduces only trans aldehyde into the alcohol), and finally the mixture of cis-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamyl alcohol was separated easily by preparative column chromatography. PMID:7048306

  20. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  1. Client Attitudes toward Alcohol Use Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Stewart, Scott H.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Because psychiatric illnesses and problematic alcohol use frequently co-occur and heavy alcohol use can exacerbate depression and anxiety, mental health clinicians should perform alcohol-use screenings. The aim of this study was to determine if psychiatric patients would be accepting of their mental health clinician screening them for heavy…

  2. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  3. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  4. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  5. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  6. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  7. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  8. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  9. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  10. Depressive symptoms, negative urgency and substance use initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Farrahi, Layla; Glazier, Shannon; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show depressive symptoms are associated with substance use in adolescents, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. This study investigated negative urgency – the disposition to rash action during emotional states – as a factor explaining relations between depressive symptoms and use of several substances. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 476 adolescents (mean age 14.5 years) completed self-report surveys. Regression models and products of coefficient analyses examined the overall relation of depressive symptoms to substance use and negative urgency as a statistical mediator of this association Results Depression levels associated with increased likelihood of lifetime use of cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, inhalants, prescription painkillers, and any substance. Relations between depression levels and lifetime use of alcohol, inhalants, and any substance were accounted for (i.e., statistically mediated) by negative urgency. In adolescents endorsing lifetime use, depression levels associated with younger age of first use of other forms of tobacco and alcohol as well as use frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and composite frequency. Negative urgency accounted for the covariance between depression level and age of first use of alcohol, but did not for other forms of tobacco or frequency of use of any substances. Conclusions Depression levels are associated with lifetime use of a variety of substances in early adolescence and targeting this risk factor with preventive efforts may be useful in reducing risk. Negative urgency may be an important target for interventions aimed at alcohol and inhalant use. PMID:25280962

  11. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  12. The morbidity and mortality of clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, J

    1993-01-01

    Clinical depression is associated with social, occupational and physical impairment and mortality. Furthermore, data are reviewed which have related the severity of depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, psychic anxiety, panic attacks, alcohol abuse, insomnia and diminished concentration in depressed patients, to suicide within 1 year. By contrast, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and prior suicide attempts were related to suicide within 2-10 years after examination, but did not correlate with suicide within the first year of follow-up. It is concluded that clinical depression continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, despite progress which has been made in its treatment. PMID:8277138

  13. Depression and Drinking Behavior among Women and Men: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes latent variable cross-lagged models of the relation between depressive symptoms and drinking behavior separately for men (n=951) and women (n=621). Among women, heavier alcohol consumption predicted less depressive symptomology one and three years later, whereas among men, having more depressive symptoms predicted less alcohol consumption…

  14. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  16. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  17. [Atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Escande, M; Boucard, J

    1999-04-01

    The principal atypical aspects of depressive disease are: minor and attenued aspects, monosymptomatic and atypical aspects (food disorders and sleep disorders), masqued aspects (somatoform, anxious, characterial and addict disorders), atypical aspects of child (anxious nevrotical disorder), pseudo-demented and characterial aspects of aged subjects. Facing to these aspects, the diagnosis of depression is evoqued on: the recent and fast advent of these disorders, their morning predominance, their recurrent character, the state of attenued depressive symptoms (anhedonia), the positive responsiveness to treatment.

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  19. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  20. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients. PMID:27030835

  1. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  4. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  5. [Depression and risk behavior in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Heger, Johanna Pia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period which is associated with a heightened risk for the development of depressive disorders. Risk-behaviors like alcohol or illicit drug abuse, excessive use of media, school absenteeism and lack of sleep are also frequently occurring during this period; it is often suggested that such behaviors may be associated with mental health problems. This article includes a selective overview of literature to investigate the relation between depression and risk-behavior in adolescence; these results are compared with the results from a representative sample of German pupils who were examined in the context of the European school study SEYLE. Data from a school-based sample of 1,434 pupils with a mean age of 14.7 years (SD = 0.8) was used. Most risk-behaviors tend to be associated with increased likelihood for the development of depression and are correlated with the severity of depressive symptomatology. In this sample, alcohol abuse, smoking, media use, lack of physical activity, risky sexual behavior, school absenteeism, and sleeping problems showed an impact on the level of depression which was consistent with previous research. Illicit drug abuse showed no significant impact on depressive symptoms of young people. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the directional relationship between depression and risk behavior in adolescence. The potential value of adolescent risk-behavior as a possible warning sign for early detection of depressive symptoms also warrants further investigation. PMID:24707767

  6. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  7. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  8. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  9. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  10. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  11. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... If depression is very severe, you may have hallucinations and delusions (false beliefs). This condition is called ... relieve your symptoms. If you have delusions or hallucinations, your provider may prescribe additional medicines. Tell your ...

  12. Depression, substance abuse and other contextual predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among Haitians.

    PubMed

    Malow, Robert; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Attonito, Jennifer; Koenig, Serena P; Raviola, Giuseppe; Sévère, Patrice; Pape, Jean W

    2013-05-01

    Haiti has the highest number of individuals living with HIV in the Caribbean. Due to Haiti's resource-poor environment and inadequate mental health and substance abuse services, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be especially difficult. This study examined associations among demographics, maladaptive coping, partner conflict, alcohol problems, depression, and negative attitudes about medications and their impact on adherence among 194 HIV-positive Haitians. In a mediated directional structural equation model, depression and negative attitudes about ART directly predicted poorer adherence. Greater partner conflict, maladaptive coping and alcohol problems predicted more depression. Maladaptive coping predicted a negative attitude about ART. Alcohol problems predicted partner conflict and maladaptive coping. Significant indirect effects on adherence mediated through both depression and negative attitudes about ART include negative effects of female gender, alcohol problems and maladaptive coping. Results highlight the importance of integrated care for depression, alcohol use and other psychosocial problems to increase ART adherence.

  13. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  14. Parent-Child Interactions in Families with Alcoholic Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Theodore; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Observed adolescent offspring (n=121) of alcoholic, depressed, and nondistressed fathers during problem-solving discussions with fathers, mothers, and both parents together. Found that nondistressed father-child dyads differed from clinical samples in showing higher rates of congeniality and problem solving, whereas impact of alcohol consumption…

  15. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  16. Academic Performance, Popularity, and Depression Predict Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany M.; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors completed a questionnaire on their feelings and activities, including their use of drugs. Adolescents with a low grade point average, high popularity, and high depression were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and smoke marijuana than were their peers. Cigarette and alcohol use predicted marijuana use,…

  17. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R.J.; Edwards, M.C.; Curran, P.J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of two independent, longitudinal studies, we showed that children with either antisocial alcoholic parents or two alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother-, father- and adolescent-reports of symptoms, child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17), and the two independent studies examined. Multi-alcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it. PMID:17696709

  18. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  19. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  20. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology].

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Corradini, P; Zocchi, M; Camarri, F

    1989-07-31

    Metadoxine is an active drug for treatment of acute and chronic alcohol intoxication, affecting both liver and brain function. The authors reviewed the international pharmacological and clinical literature on the drug which shows the potential usefulness of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol-induced diseases. The case report concerns the results in 20 chronic alcoholics, admitted to the hospital for acute alcohol intake treated with metadoxine (one 500 mg tablet twice daily). Biohumoral hepatopathy parameters and clinical parameters of neuropsychic behaviour were examined simultaneously. Compared with a control group of patients undergoing traditional therapy (sedative and multi-vitamin drugs), metadoxine showed a significant improvement of the values of gamma-GT, GPT, blood ammonia, blood alcohol and of neuropsychic and behavioural parameters such as agitation, tremor, asterixis, sopor and depression. No side-effects or unfavourable reactions occurred during metadoxine treatment, which confirms the safety of this molecule. PMID:2529084

  3. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    blood rate. More recent studies suggest that the explanation to keep is more related to the lower gastric metabolism in women (lower ADH activity), than the difference of gastric volume or alcohol hepatic oxidation. Regarding to comorbidity, in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey, 65% of women, versus 44% of men, with abuse and/or dependence to alcohol had at least one another life-time psychiatric disorder (mainly depression and anxiety disorders), compared to 36% of the overall women of the studied sample. On the other hand, the alcohol dependence is, more often than in men, secondary to other psychiatric disorders, essentially depressive episodes, but less associated to antisocial behaviours. Among the different etiopathogenic factors involved in the alcohol dependence occurrence, genetic factors seem to have a determinant impact. According to the previous family, separation/adoption and twins studies performed, genetic factors could explain 50 to 60% of the alcoholism vulnerability in both men and women. In this context, and whereas we assist to the development of etiopathogenic models with new therapeutic perspectives in alcohol dependence, it seems necessary not to neglect female alcoholism specificities. PMID:12506262

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  6. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  7. Protein engineering of alcohol dehydrogenase--1. Effects of two amino acid changes in the active site of yeast ADH-1.

    PubMed

    Murali, C; Creaser, E H

    1986-01-01

    One of the promises held out by protein engineering is the ability to alter predictably the properties of an enzyme to enable it to find new substrates or catalyse existing substrates more efficiently, such manipulations being of interest both enzymologically and, potentially, industrially. It has been postulated that in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH-1) certain amino acids such as Trp 93 and Thr 48 constrict the active site due to their bulky side chains and thus impede catalysis of molecules larger than ethanol. To study effects of enlarging the active site we have made two changes into YADH-1, replacing Trp 93 with Phe and Thr 48 with Ser. Kinetic experiments showed that this enzyme had marked increases in reaction velocity for the n-alcohols propanol, butanol, pentanol, hexanol, heptanol, octanol and cinnamyl alcohol compared to the parent, agreeing with the prediction that expanding the active site should facilitate the oxidation of larger alcohols. The substrate affinities were slightly reduced in the altered enzyme, possibly due to its having reduced hydrophobicity at Phe 93.

  8. Determinants of problem drinking and depression among Latino Day laborers.

    PubMed

    Bacio, Guadalupe; Moore, Alison; Karno, Mitchell; Ray, Lara

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about alcohol misuse and depression among Latino day laborers despite the fact that they encounter multiple stressors (e.g., job instability, unsafe work environments). A structural equation model tested the relationships among laborer stress, social support, health status, current alcohol misuse, and depression. A sample of 89 male, urban Latino day laborers completed measures assessing these constructs in 2011. Stress was negatively related to physical health status, which was associated with depression. Findings suggest that stressors specific to being a day laborer resulting from their work and living conditions generate and maintain health disparities in this vulnerable population. PMID:24779503

  9. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  10. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  14. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  15. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... daylight are shorter; for example, during winter months. Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is ... to a Therapist Anxiety Disorders Cutting Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Why Am I So Sad? Sadness and Depression ...

  16. [The efficacy and mechanisms of action of lerivon in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Ivanets, N N; Anokhina, I P; Kogan, B M; Chirko, V V; Nebarakova, T P; Rusinov, A V

    1996-01-01

    Clinico-biological examination of 50 alcoholic patients was carried out. 30 patients were treated with lerivon (L) during 1 month. 15 control patients received amitriptylin for 1 month and 15 patients received relanium for 7 days. It was determined that L was quite effective in treatment of depression in alcoholic patients. The main L effects were anxiolytic, antidepressive and hypnotic. The drug also decreased alcohol addiction, had vegetostabilising and sedative effects. The conclusion was made on pathogenetic action of L in alcoholism: It influences upon dopaminergic mediation in catecholamine system. Administration of L permitted to normalize neurochemical processes underlying alcohol addiction and depression. L was well tolerated. Side effects complications, drug addiction were not registered.

  17. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  18. Differences among Adult COAs and Adult Non-COAs on Levels of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…

  19. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  20. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  1. Alcohol questionnaires and HDL: screening scores as scaled markers of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas; Williams, Emily C; Bryson, Chris L; Rubinsky, Anna D; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-09-01

    Improving the quality of alcohol-related care requires practical approaches to assessing alcohol consumption to guide management and monitor outcomes. Given the increasing use of alcohol screening questionnaires to identify alcohol misuse it would be ideal if scores on screening questionnaires were also indicators of average alcohol consumption. However, the questionnaires were not designed for this purpose and include dimensions of drinking that may not reflect average consumption (e.g. heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems). In a general population sample, scores on the AUDIT-C screen correlated with reports of alcohol consumption in detailed interviews, but the relationship is unknown for clinical populations and other questionnaires. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is a biomarker routinely obtained in clinical care and is known to rise with average alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study of 11,175 male U.S. Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in a primary care study used HDL as an objective biomarker to evaluate whether average alcohol consumption increased as scores increased on 3 brief alcohol screens - the AUDIT-C, AUDIT Question #3 (a single-item screen), and the CAGE questionnaire. Mean HDL progressively increased as screening scores increased for the AUDIT-C and AUDIT Question #3: about 12 mg/dL from the lowest to the highest scores. The association was much weaker for the CAGE questionnaire. Results were minimally affected by adjustment for covariates (e.g. age, race, medical comorbidity, smoking, medication count, and depression) but the association was modified (p = 0.008) and mildly attenuated by adherent use of lipid-lowering medications. This study using HDL as a biomarker of average alcohol consumption adds to evidence that some alcohol screening scores may also serve as scaled markers of average alcohol consumption.

  2. Emotional Distress, Alcohol Use, and Bidirectional Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874

  3. A Model for Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Cynthia D.; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract With the awareness of maternal depression as a prevalent public health issue and its important link to child physical and mental health, attention has turned to how healthcare providers can respond effectively. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are strongly related to depression, particularly for low-income women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends psychosocial screening of pregnant women at least once per trimester, yet screening is uncommonly done. Research suggests that a collaborative care approach improves identification, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of care. This article presents The Perinatal Mental Health Model, a community-based model that developed screening and referral partnerships for use in community obstetric settings in order to specifically address the psychosocial needs of culturally diverse, low-income mothers. PMID:20718624

  4. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  5. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism.

  6. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  7. Comparison of the catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of (η(5)-Cp)Pd(IPr)Cl with (η(3)-cinnamyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) and (η(3)-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl).

    PubMed

    Melvin, Patrick R; Hazari, Nilay; Lant, Hannah M C; Peczak, Ian L; Shah, Hemali P

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of the type (η(3)-allyl)Pd(L)(Cl) and (η(3)-indenyl)Pd(L)(Cl) are highly active precatalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Even though allyl and indenyl ligands are similar to cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligands, there have been no detailed comparative studies exploring the activity of precatalysts of the type (η(5)-Cp)Pd(L)(Cl) for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Here, we compare the catalytic activity of (η(5)-Cp)Pd(IPr)(Cl) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene, Cp) with two commercially available catalysts (η(3)-cinnamyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) (Cin) and (η(3)-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) ( (tBu) Ind). We show that Cp gives slightly better catalytic activity than Cin, but significantly inferior activity than (tBu) Ind. This order of activity is rationalized by comparing the rates at which the precatalysts are activated to the monoligated Pd(0) active species along with the tendency of the starting precatalysts to comproportionate with monoligated Pd(0) to form inactive Pd(I) dimers. As part of this work the Cp supported Pd(I) dimer (μ-Cp)(μ-Cl)Pd2(IPr)2 (Cp (Dim) ) was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. It does not readily disproportionate to form monoligated Pd(0) and consequently Cp (Dim) is a poor catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

  8. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  9. [Fatigue and depression].

    PubMed

    Hell, Daniel

    2015-04-22

    Fatigue is characterised in an overview of the literature as a specific phenomenon of depression. Its differential diagnosis is discussed. Distinctions and correspondences to burnout are elaborated. Fatigue is not an obligatory symptom of depressive episodes, although it can contribute to depressive developments. The importance of fatigue in depressive episodes and its therapy is shown with the help of a circular model of depression.

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  11. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  12. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  13. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  14. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  15. Presence of alcohol in suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Bilban, M; Skibin, L

    2005-01-17

    A number of studies have established a strong connection between acute inebriation, alcohol addiction and suicides, as the last act of alcoholism or an act of desperation in an alcoholic's family, an act of escape from restraints in state of depression or as a way of self-destruction. In recent years in average 600 people per year committed suicide. Slovenia is a country with extremely high and variable suicide tendencies and harmful alcohol use levels, as well as a high level of alcohol-related troubles. The aim of our research was to ascertain some typical features, especially those connected to the inebriation of suicide victims from a wider Ljubljana region. Autopsies were carried out on the victims in the period between 1995 and 1999. There were 508 (31.2%) suicides among all the analyzed violent deaths; 73.2% of them were men. The average age of the victims was 46.5 years. Most suicides were committed at home (50.0%). 25.4% were completely sober in the moment of the act, while in all other cases inebriation was established, the average value being 9.57 g/kg. Men were drunk in 87.1% of cases, women only in 12.9% and the given alcohol levels were substantially higher with men (0.65:0.26 g/kg). The share of inebriated persons decreases with age-reaching its peak in the 35-54 age group. Regarding the method, the predominant ones are intoxication and the use of firearms, which is a typical way of committing suicide among men, while women rather choose jumping from great heights and drowning. Alcohol was present in as many as 55.7% of suicides with intoxication and in 68.8% of all suicides committed by using firearms, while the highest alcohol levels were found in those who died from cutting their veins (2.01 g/kg). Based on this and on other research, more effort should be focused on alcohol abuse prevention, making all people aware of the consequences of alcohol abuse, the possibilities of treatment and their availability as well as possible co-morbid depressions

  16. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrated a significant predictor of depression, including alcohol (β = .16, p= .03), hallucinogens (β = − .17, p =.021), and ecstasy (β = − .14, p= .05). The study findings indicate a need to consider the role of specific substances with regard to symptoms of depression. The results are discussed in the context of transition planning for jail inmates. PMID:27133518

  17. Variation of types of alcoholism: review and subtypes identified in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism, as it has been hypothesized, is caused by a highly heterogeneous genetic load. Since 1960, many reports have used the bio-psycho-social approach to subtype alcoholism; however, no subtypes have been genetically validated. We reviewed and compared the major single-gene, multiple-gene, and gene-to-gene interaction studies on alcoholism published during the past quarter-century, including many recent studies that have made contributions to the subtyping of alcoholism. Four subtypes of alcoholism have been reported: [1] pure alcoholism, [2] anxiety/depression alcoholism, [3] antisocial alcoholism, and [4] mixed alcoholism. Most of the important studies focused on three genes: DRD2, MAOA, and ALDH2. Therefore, our review focuses on these three genes.

  18. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  19. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  20. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  1. Gender differences in psychiatric morbidity among alcohol misusers.

    PubMed

    Dunne, F J; Galatopoulos, C; Schipperheijn, J M

    1993-01-01

    Sociodemographic characteristics, patterns and effects of alcohol abuse, and psychiatric morbidity were compared in 121 men and 121 women using structured interviews, and diagnostic criteria according to the DSM-III and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were applied. Women were more likely to be binge drinkers, to have premorbid anxiety, and to be diagnosed with primary depression. Men cited social reasons for drinking, whereas women were more likely to drink to alleviate anxiety. Women also were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric disorder and/or alcohol misuse. More women were drinking at home alone than men, but almost as many were drinking openly with their spouses or friends.

  2. Postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret; Salisbury, Amy; Zlotnick, Caron

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 15% of mothers. Recent research has identified several psychosocial and biologic risk factors for PPD. The negative short-term and long-term effects on child development are well-established. PPD is under recognized and under treated. The obstetrician and pediatrician can serve important roles in screening for and treating PPD. Treatment options include psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Obstacles to compliance with treatment recommendations include access to psychotherapists and concerns of breastfeeding mothers about exposure of the infant to antidepressant medication. Further research is needed to examine systematically the short-term and long-term effect of medication exposure through breastmilk on infant and child development. PMID:19318144

  3. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Irritability and Bidirectional Associations With Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Irritability is a dimensional trait in typical development and a common presenting symptom in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of irritability or how child irritability interacts with maternal depression. The present study (1) identifies classes of irritability trajectories from toddlerhood to middle childhood; (2) characterizes maternal depression and other family, social environment, and child variables within each irritability trajectory class; and (3) as a more exploratory analysis, examines bidirectional associations between maternal depression and child irritability. Method 4,898 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study reported on irritability symptoms at ages 3, 5, and 9, assessed with items from the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental major depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form at child ages 1, 3, 5, 9. Results A latent class growth analysis identified five irritability classes: low decreasing; moderate decreasing; high steady; initially very high, then decreasing; and high increasing. Children with more severe irritability trajectories are more likely to have mothers with recurrent depression, and, with the exception of the most severe (high increasing irritability) class, were more likely to have mothers who were exposed to violence. Moreover, paternal depression and alcohol use, as well as maternal drug and alcohol use, were also risk factors for membership in the more severe irritability classes. A latent auto-regressive cross-lag model showed that child irritability at ages 3 and 5 is associated with increased mother depression at 5 and 9, respectively. Conversely, mother depression at child ages 1 and 3 is associated with increased child irritability at 3 and 5. Conclusion Irritability development across toddlerhood and middle childhood has five main trajectory types, which differ on

  5. Stress, depression, substance abuse, and racism.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1994-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the special needs of American Indian populations. Some of these studies have special impact on Indian veterans. These can be grouped for consideration around cultural and personal identity problems. These problems are multifaceted and interacting. They bear directly on the community and individual self-esteem. The four major points of these problems are stress, depression, alcohol/drug dependence, and racism.

  6. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  9. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  10. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population.

  11. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  12. Troublesome triad: trauma, insomnia, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lande, R Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between combat related trauma, insomnia, and alcohol misuse. The author reviewed the standardized tests results from 39 active duty service members, all of whom had recent deployments to either Iraq or Afghanistan. The battery of self-test instruments assessed the effects of military trauma, anxiety, depression, alcohol use, and insomnia. Among the study subjects, the entire group reported significant sleep problems, with bedtime arousals impeding sleep initiation. Male subjects' reported an average AUDIT score of 8.62. Service members with higher trauma scores also reported greater misuse of alcohol. The high trauma scores also correlated with specific pre-sleep cognitive and somatic factors. The findings of this study lend support for the use of standardized instruments for assessing sleep problems, along with similar tests for trauma and substance misuse, which together should help identify high risk military patients. PMID:23244556

  13. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is clearly deleterious to the brain, provoking acute and chronic mental disorders, ranging from intoxication with impairment of cognition, to delirium tremens, halluosis, and dementia. In contrast, the main health consequences of nicotine, notably cancer and cardiovascular disases, lie outside the realm of psychiatry However, the mes of nicotine dependence and motivation to smoke or quit are of concern to psychiatrists. PMID:22033899

  14. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael K; Burkhardt, Christin; Juckel, Georg; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models. Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and the Banger score were obtained to estimate the severity of withdrawal. In addition, the Beck depression inventory was used to estimate the influence of depressive symptoms on pain perception. The data presented provide substantial evidence that subjects undergoing alcohol withdrawal show increased heat pain sensitivity. Interestingly, this effect was observed both on the left hand and sternum. Pain thresholds and tolerances of electric stimuli did not differ between groups. However, in a subgroup analysis, a higher sensitivity for electrical pain thresholds and tolerances was observed in those patients that were identified to require pharmacological treatment for withdrawal according to disease severity. Furthermore, the perceived painful thermal and electrical sensation was substantially influenced by the affective state of patients. No differences were found between patients of the abstained group and control subjects for any pain parameter. In conclusion, we demonstrate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia upon thermal stimulation in patients. Since the influence of affective symptoms on pain perception during withdrawal is remarkable, we assume that peripheral and central mechanisms might account for this finding, which should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  15. Point-prevalence of depression and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Sanabria, Alicia Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to assess levels of depressive symptoms and associated risk factors in a sample of students in Bogotá, Colombia. A convenient sample (N = 254) of students at the University Antonio Nariño, Bogotá was invited to complete an online survey that contained questions associated with common risk factors for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Chi-square was used to analyze comparisons between demographic and risk factors and severity of depression, and comparisons between those depressed and not depressed. Odds Ratios and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were computed through logistic regression model developed for each independent variable. The point-prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 36.2%; women 47.3% and men 21.3%. Risk factors associated with depression included being a woman, having a previous diagnosis, suicidal ideation and (or) intent, sleep problems, a recent loss, and a history of family depression and alcoholism. The study confirms the high incidence of depression and associated risk factors in students. The results demonstrate a need for prevention measures, early detection and early intervention. PMID:24839729

  16. Depression in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

  17. Depression and stress in street youth.

    PubMed

    Ayerst, S L

    1999-01-01

    The present study explored stress and depression levels in Canadian street youth, as well as the methods they used to cope. Twenty-seven street youth and 27 nonrunaway peers responded to a questionnaire investigating history of running away, depression level, coping strategies, family history, and stress. Analyses revealed that stress and depression were positively correlated for the street youth, and that these youth had higher levels, compared with nonrunaways, of both. There were also differences in coping strategies: street youth were more likely to engage in acts of self-harm and to use drugs and alcohol, while nonrunaways more frequently resorted to productive problem solving and disclosure/discussion with someone they trust.

  18. Dopamine, depression and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Eric; Chenu, Franck; Renard, Caroline E; Bourin, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Abstract The relationship between depression and dopamine deficiency in the mesolimbic pathway has been hypothesized for many years. The experimental studies with animal models of depression and the human studies implicate the role of the dopamine system in depression. Not only do dopaminergic receptor agonists, but also antagonists such as olanzapine exhibit antidepressant effects associated with standard antidepressants in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This paradoxical result suggests that further investigations are necessary to understand the role played by dopamine in depression.

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  20. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  1. Examining a Brief Suicide Screening Tool in Older Adults Engaging in Risky Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Pfaff, Jon J.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse increases risk of suicidal behavior in older adults. The Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) and its relation to suicide attempt history was examined to see if it differed for older adults as a function of their alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used in a sample (N = 1,061)…

  2. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  3. Dimensions of Perfectionism, Hopelessness, and Attempted Suicide in a Sample of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul L.; Norton, G. Ron; Flett, Gordon L.; Callander, Lois; Cowan, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Compares assessment results of inpatients with alcoholism who have made a serious suicide attempt and a matched sample of inpatients with alcoholism who have no history of suicide attempts. Discriminant function analysis reveals that depression, social hopelessness, and socially prescribed perfectionism are unique discriminators of suicide groups.…

  4. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  5. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  6. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  7. Substance Use, Self-Esteem, and Depression among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuki, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of self-esteem and depression with alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use was tested in a California statewide sample of more than 4,300 Asian American high school students comprising five subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese. Estimated prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among…

  8. Parental Familial Vulnerability, Family Environment, and Their Interactions as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Thalia C.; Liang, Holan; Plomin, Robert; Sham, Pak; Sterne, Abram; Williamson, Richard; Purcell, Shaun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Familial risk for depression results from both biological and social influences. These may also be associated with other characteristics, including alcohol use, smoking, and body mass index (BMI), and with environmental risks such as social problems, life events, and educational level, all of which may be associated with depression in…

  9. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  10. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  11. Dispositional Mindfulness, Spirituality, and Substance Use in Predicting Depressive Symptoms in a Treatment-Seeking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Gawrysiak, Michael J.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is imperative that research identifies factors related to depression among individuals in substance use treatment, as depression is associated with substance use relapse. Dispositional mindfulness and spirituality may bear an important role in the relationship between depression and substance use. Method Using preexisting patient medical records (N = 105), the current study investigated dispositional mindfulness and spirituality in relation to depressive symptom clusters (affective, cognitive, and physiological) among men in residential substance use treatment. The mean age of the sample was 41.03 (standard deviation = 10.75). Results Findings demonstrated that dispositional mindfulness and spirituality were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. After controlling for age, alcohol use, and drug use, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the depression clusters. Spirituality only remained associated with the cognitive depression cluster. Conclusion Mindfulness-based interventions may hold promise as an effective intervention for reducing substance use and concurrent depressive symptoms. PMID:25522300

  12. Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-02-01

    This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse/dependence with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Le Fauve, Charlene E; Litten, Raye Z; Randall, Carrie L; Moak, Darlene H; Salloum, Ihsan M; Green, Alan I

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting RSA in Fort Lauderdale, FL. It was organized and cochaired by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Carrie L. Randall. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Raye Z. Litten; (2) Treatment of co-occurring alcohol use and anxiety disorders, by Carrie L. Randall and Sarah W. Book; (3) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependent patients with comorbid depression, by Darlene H. Moak; (4) Efficacy of valproate in bipolar alcoholics: a double blind, placebo-controlled study, by Ihsan M. Salloum, Jack R. Cornelius, Dennis C. Daley, Levent Kirisci, Johnathan Himmelhoch, and Michael E. Thase; (5) Alcoholism and schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotics, by Alan I. Green, Robert E. Drake, Suzannah V. Zimmet, Rael D. Strous, Melinda Salomon, and Mark Brenner; and (6) Conclusions, by Charlene E. Le Fauve; discussant, Raye Z. Litten. Alcohol-dependent individuals have exceptionally high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Although this population is more likely to seek alcoholism treatment than noncomorbid alcoholics, the prognosis for treatment is often poor, particularly among patients with more severe psychiatric illnesses. Development of effective interventions to treat this population is in the early stages of research. Although the interaction between the psychiatric condition and alcoholism is complex, progress has been made. The NIAAA has supported a number of state-of-the-art pharmacological and behavioral trials in a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of these trials have been completed and are presented here. The symposium presented some new research findings from clinical studies with the aim of facilitating the development of treatments that improve alcohol and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. The panel focused on social anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and

  14. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control. PMID:27367491

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  17. Effect of Depression on Risky Drinking and Response to a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Intervention.

    PubMed

    Montag, Annika C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Alcaraz, John E; Clapp, John D; Allison, Matthew A; Calac, Dan J; Hull, Andrew D; Gorman, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-08-01

    We assessed alcohol consumption and depression in 234 American Indian/Alaska Native women (aged 18-45 years) in Southern California. Women were randomized to intervention or assessment alone and followed for 6 months (2011-2013). Depression was associated with risk factors for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). Both treatment groups reduced drinking (P < .001). Depressed, but not nondepressed, women reduced drinking in response to SBIRT above the reduction in response to assessment alone. Screening for depression may assist in allocating women to specific AEP prevention interventions. PMID:26066915

  18. Effect of Depression on Risky Drinking and Response to a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Intervention.

    PubMed

    Montag, Annika C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Alcaraz, John E; Clapp, John D; Allison, Matthew A; Calac, Dan J; Hull, Andrew D; Gorman, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-08-01

    We assessed alcohol consumption and depression in 234 American Indian/Alaska Native women (aged 18-45 years) in Southern California. Women were randomized to intervention or assessment alone and followed for 6 months (2011-2013). Depression was associated with risk factors for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). Both treatment groups reduced drinking (P < .001). Depressed, but not nondepressed, women reduced drinking in response to SBIRT above the reduction in response to assessment alone. Screening for depression may assist in allocating women to specific AEP prevention interventions.

  19. Effect of Depression on Risky Drinking and Response to a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Annika C.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Alcaraz, John E.; Clapp, John D.; Allison, Matthew A.; Calac, Dan J.; Hull, Andrew D.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons

    2015-01-01

    We assessed alcohol consumption and depression in 234 American Indian/Alaska Native women (aged 18–45 years) in Southern California. Women were randomized to intervention or assessment alone and followed for 6 months (2011–2013). Depression was associated with risk factors for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). Both treatment groups reduced drinking (P < .001). Depressed, but not nondepressed, women reduced drinking in response to SBIRT above the reduction in response to assessment alone. Screening for depression may assist in allocating women to specific AEP prevention interventions. PMID:26066915

  20. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  1. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  2. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  3. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  4. Model: A Dual Focused Intervention for Depression and Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaught, Eileen; Wodarski, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how adolescents are affected by depression and alcohol dependence and offers a treatment plan for a dual diagnosis. The plan consists of an adolescent group and family program to facilitate and maintain behavioral changes in treatment. The benefits of this treatment and rationale for its application are discussed. (LSR)

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression.We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models.The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58-1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer.Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted.

  7. Pilot study on depression among secondary school students in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Adlina, S; Suthahar, A; Ramli, M; Edariah, A B; Soe, Soe Aye; Mohd Ariff, F; Narimah, A H H; Nuraliza, A S; Karuthan, C

    2007-08-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study of 2048 subjects was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and factors influencing depression among students in secondary school from urban and rural areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The children's depression inventory (CDI) developed by Maria Kovacs was used in this study. Students who participated in this study come from two urban schools and three rural schools. It was found that in the yield for scores for five factors were 9.2% have negative mood, 5% have interpersonal problems, 8.3% have ineffectiveness, 9.8% have anhedonia and 10.6% have negative self esteem. Following the interpretive guidelines for the T-scores, it was found that 10.3% of the students were much above average in the depression scale. This study also found that: 1% of students were smoking, 1.6% of students were gum sniffling, 0.9% took drugs, 4.1% took alcohol and 9.9% took things from other people. Females were more depressed than males. The Chinese students were more depressed compared to Indian students. Students whose parents had no formal education or had only primary education were more depressed than students whose parents had secondary, college or university education. Depression increased with increasing number of siblings. Depression contributed to the habit of drug abuse, gum sniffing and stealing but not to smoking and alcohol abuse. Suicidal tendencies were more likely among the depressed students. It is imperative that not only caregivers but also teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge, attitude and skills to assist secondary school children cope with their emotions, handle conflicts and manage stress early so that a more productive society will develop in the future. PMID:18246911

  8. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  9. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  10. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  11. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  12. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  14. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  15. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  16. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  17. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  18. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  19. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  20. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  1. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  2. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  5. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  6. Affective temperaments in alcohol and opiate addictions.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Nallet, Audrey; Weber, Béatrice; Favre, Sophie; Voide, Raphael; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Temperament is considered as a biological disposition reflected by relatively stable features related to mood and reactivity to external and internal stimuli, including variability in emotional reactions. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that affective temperaments might differ according to co-occurring mood disorders among patients with alcohol and/or opiate dependence; to explore the relationship between temperaments and dual substance use disorders (SUDs, alcohol and other drugs). Ninety-two patients attending an alcohol addiction treatment facility and 47 patients in an opiate addiction treatment facility were assessed for SUDs, mood disorders and affective temperaments using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego 39-item auto-questionnaire. Comparison of patients with bipolar disorder, depressive unipolar disorder and no (or substance-induced) mood disorder revealed significant differences for the cyclothymic subscale, with highest scores among patients with bipolar disorder. No difference was observed for the depressive, irritable, hyperthymic and anxious subscales. After adjustment for age, gender and bipolar disorder, irritable temperament was a significant risk factor for past or present history of drug use disorders in patients treated for alcohol addiction (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.93). Anxious temperament was a significant risk factor for history of alcohol use disorders in patients treated for opiate addiction (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.36-7.99), whereas the hyperthymic subscale appeared as a significant protective factor (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The results highlight the need to consider temperamental aspects in further research to improve the long-term outcome of patient with addictive disorders, who often present complex comorbidity patterns.

  7. Learning about depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... once in a while. Clinical depression is a mood disorder. It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, ... Accessed October 31, 2014. Fava M, Cassano P. Mood disorders: Major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. In: Stern ...

  8. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  9. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... on treatment for heart disease iv . The annual economic cost of depression in 1995 was $600 per ... Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how ...

  10. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your depression or making it worse. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used for severe depression that is ... does not respond to medication or therapy. Although ECT once had a bad reputation, it has greatly ...

  11. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  12. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  13. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  14. DEPRESSION IN WILSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, R. S.; Swamy, H. S.; Sreenivas, K. N.; John, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY This study comprise of 23 patients of Wilson's Disease, who were assessed individually by a psychiatrist and neurologist separately. Clinically discernable psychiatric symptoms were detected in 11 patients. Depressed affect was the commonest finding in the series. While four out of five young patients showed depressive symptomatology, none of the six patients showed any depression. All four patients who had severely depressed affect were also patients who had most severe extrapyramidal features. PMID:22058523

  15. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  16. Prevention of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor, Jennifer; Wadsworth, Martha

    Substantial numbers of children and adolescents experience symptoms of sadness, dysphoria, and other characteristics associated with depression. The nature of depression in children and adolescents has presented challenges in identification and definition. This chapter reviews research on depression in children and adolescents. Three current…

  17. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  20. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  1. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  4. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF family alcoholism study.

    PubMed

    Gizer, Ian R; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2nd Edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1,204 first-degree relatives recruited for the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25 to .49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, the scales measuring antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and addictive behavior led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when used as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol-dependence phenotype.

  5. Alcohol Use Predicts Number of Sexual Partners for Female but not Male STI Clinic Patients.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol-sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46 % female, 67 % African American) from a public sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction.

  6. [Depressive syndromes in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Branik, E

    1990-04-01

    First the difficulties with the concept of depression, its definition and with the classification and heterogeneity of the depressive syndromes are pointed out. The particular clinical importance of depressive states, especially of adolescents, is shown by means of epidemiological data. A case report illustrates the classification problems and a part of the typical conflicts and psychic demands in adolescence. Then follows a short survey on the conception of depressive states in psychoanalysis, with special reference to this age group. The evaluation of the given studies calls for interdisciplinary research, in order to tackle the still unsolved questions concerning depressive conditions and to improve the coordination of separate findings. PMID:2352911

  7. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  8. [Depression and psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is very frequently associated with psoriasis and depression is observed in numerous patients with psoriasis. Early detection and treatment are very important. The links between psoriasis and depression are not only psychopathological. Biological factors could also explain this association. There is a vicious circle psoriasis-alteration of quality of life-depression, but psoriasis improvement is not always followed by an improvement of depression. A contrario, it is obvious that a depressive patient has a bad observance of treatment.

  9. Effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Cicero, T J; Badger, T M

    1977-05-01

    The effects of acute and chronic alcohol administration on serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were examined in the male rat. Chronic alcohol administration resulted in depressed serum testosterone and LH levels when alcohol-fed rats were compared with rats maintained, ad libitum, on rat chow and water. However, neither testosterone nor LH levels were significantly lower in alcohol-treated rats when comparisons were made to pair-fed control animals, indicating that the nutritional deficits imposed by the chronic alcohol-feeding regimen contributed heavily to the observed reductions in the two hormones. To avoid the problems associated with a chronic drug delivery model, we injected rats with a single acute injection of alcohol. LH levels dropped significantly within 2 hours after the injection of a 2.5 g/kg dose of alcohol and remained depressed, at a level between 25 and 30% of control values, from 2 to 4 hours. By 6 hours after the injection, LH levels had returned to base-line levels. Testosterone levels were also reduced by alcohol, but this drop was not significant until at least 3 hours after the injection. Testosterone levels did not return to control levels throughout the 6-hour course of the experiment. Dose-response determinations revealed that alcohol produced a biphasic effect on serum testosterone and LH: low doses of alcohol significantly increased testosterone and LH, whereas high doses decreased the levels of both hormones. The results of these studies suggest that the ability of alcohol to depress serum testosterone levels, and thus produce symptoms of hypogonadism in the male of several species, is due to a primary effect of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary aspect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  10. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  11. Basic concepts of depression.

    PubMed

    Paykel, Eugene S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century, as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1980s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed.

  12. [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Eri; Tayama, Masaya; Saito, Toshikazu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker. PMID:24427900

  13. Transcription factor AP2 beta involved in severe female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Niklas; Göktürk, Camilla; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W; Oreland, Lars; Hallman, Jarmila

    2009-12-11

    Susceptibility to alcoholism and antisocial behavior exhibits an evident link to monoaminergic neurotransmission. The serotonin system in particular, which is associated with regulation of mood and behavior, has an influence on personality characters that are firmly connected to risk of developing alcoholism and antisocial behavior, such as impulsiveness, and aggression. The transcription factor TFAP2b has repeatedly been shown to be involved in monoaminergic transmission, likely due to a regulatory effect on genes that are fundamental to this system, e.g. monoamine oxidase type A, and the serotonin transporter. Recent research has identified a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding TFAP2B that regulates its level of expression. In the present study we have compared a sample of female alcoholics (n=107), sentenced to institutional care for their severe addiction, contrasted against a control sample of adolescent females (n=875). The results showed that parental alcohol misuse was significantly more common among the alcoholic females, and also that parental alcohol misuse was associated with a reduction in age of alcohol debut. We also addressed the question of whether a functional TFAP2b polymorphism was associated with alcoholism. Results showed that the high-functioning allele was significantly more common among the female alcoholics, compared to the non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, the results also indicated that psychosocial factors, in terms of parental alcohol misuse, depression or psychiatric disorder, had an influence on the association. It was observed that the genetic association was restricted to the subset of cases that had not experienced these negative psychosocial factors.

  14. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  15. Prevalence of Depression and Depression Care for Populations Registered in Primary Care in Two Remote Cities in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depression has been widely studied in high-income countries and in large cities of low-income countries; however, little is known about the prevalence and treatment gap of depression in remote areas of the Amazonian region in Brazil. Objectives The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of depression in adults registered with the Family Health Strategy in two remote cities in the Brazilian Amazon and to investigate the proportion of individuals with depression that received mental health care. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of an adult population registered with primary care clinics in the cities of Coari and Tefé, State of Amazon, Brazil. Depression was defined as a score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Depression care was evaluated by asking participants with depression if they received antidepressants and/or had been seen by a health professional at a community mental health center in the three months prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between depression and exposure variables. Results The overall prevalence of depression was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2–21.1), with 22.2% (95% CI: 19.3–25.0) among women and 16.0% (95% CI: 13.4–18.5) among men. The prevalence of depression in Coari and Tefé were 18.3% (CI 95% 15.7–21.0) and 19.9% (95% CI:17.2–22.7), respectively. Being a woman, lacking social support, increasing exposure to stressful life events and having a higher number medical comorbidities were consistently associated with depression. Lower educational attainment and income, tobacco use, and risky alcohol use were also associated with depression in the unadjusted analyses. Only 11.5% of those with depression were receiving antidepressants and/or visited the mental health care facility during the three months prior to the interview. Conclusion Approximately one in five adults in our sample had depression. A high

  16. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  17. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  18. Alcoholic Liver Disease and the Mitochondrial Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Sykora, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to severely compromise mitochondrial protein synthesis. Hepatic mitochondria isolated from alcoholic animals contain decreased levels of respiratory complexes and display depressed respiration rates when compared to pair-fed controls. One underlying mechanism for this involves ethanol-elicited alterations in the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial ribosome. Ethanol feeding results in ribosomal changes that include decreased sedimentation rates, larger hydrodynamic volumes, increased levels of unassociated subunits and changes in the levels of specific ribosomal proteins. The methods presented in this chapter detail how to isolate mitochondrial ribosomes, determine ribosomal activity, separate ribosomes into nucleic acid and protein, and perform two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoretic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate and subsequently identify mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:18369931

  19. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  20. Alcohol effects on drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Seitz, H K

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with drugs and xenobiotics is complex because ethanol can affect any of the following steps; absorption, plasma protein binding, hepatic blood flow, distribution, hepatic uptake of drugs, and phase I and II hepatic metabolism. The ingestion of ethanol can lead to malabsorption of a variety of nutrients and can modify the absorption of various drugs. High concentrations of ethanol in conjunction with aspirin causes gastric mucosal damage. The principal effect of acute ethanol ingestion on drug metabolism is inhibition of microsomal drug metabolism. The synergistic effects of ethanol on central nervous system depressants can be explained by this mechanism. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption increases mixed function oxidation and drug metabolism. The cross tolerance between ethanol and sedatives in chronic alcoholics may be due to this effect of alcohol. In addition, enhanced production of hepatotoxic products from certain drugs and xenobiotics and an increased activation of procarcinogens to carcinogens can result from this microsomal induction. The increased susceptibility to hepatotoxins and the enhanced carcinogenesis in the alcoholic may be explained by this fact. Other effects of the interaction between drugs and ethanol are the result of changes in organ susceptibility, best demonstrated for the central nervous system. Subsequently, the presence of liver disease has a great effect on drug metabolism in alcoholics.

  1. Depression and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Matthias R; Fuchs, Gerd; Gemende, Irene; Herting, Birgit; Oehlwein, Christian; Reichmann, Heinz; Rieke, Jürgen; Volkmann, Jens

    2004-09-01

    Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), reduces quality of life independent of motor symptoms and seems to be underrated and undertreated. Characteristics of symptoms differ from major depression. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, diagnosis is based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feeling of emptiness. Available rating scales for major depression may not be adequate to correctly measure severity of depression in PD. Anxiety and depression may manifest as first symptoms of PD many years before motor symptoms. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the etiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer, selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, SNRI) appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to have a favorable side effect profile. Recent controlled studies show antidepressant effects of pramipexole in bipolar II depression. New dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole appear to ameliorate depressive symptoms in PD in addition to effects on motor symptoms. There is a lack of appropriate rating scales and controlled studies regarding depression in PD.

  2. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  3. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  4. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  5. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  6. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  7. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  8. Caregiving, alcohol use, and mental health symptoms among HMO members.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A

    2001-08-01

    Using data from a survey of 5841 HMO members, we examined alcohol consumption, depression and anxiety symptoms, and health services use among 689 informal caregivers. Characteristics of caregivers included whom they cared for, types of care provided, number of people cared for, and whether care was provided in the caregiver's home. Outcome measures in hierarchical linear and logistic stepwise regression models included indicators of alcohol drinking pattern, symptoms of anxiety and depression, role limits due to emotional problems and self-reported doctor's visits. Adjusting for age and gender differences, caregivers reported more bodily pain, worse role functioning related to emotional problems, were more likely to screen as depressed, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety. Older caregivers, and those with greater vitality, had better mental health outcomes; caregivers with higher levels of education reported better psychological well-being and less interference with role functioning due to emotional problems. Caregivers did not make more doctor's visits than non-caregivers. No caregiving characteristics were consistently associated with both mental health and alcohol consumption outcomes. The relationship of the care recipient to the caregiver predicted mental health outcomes better than either the type of care, number cared for, or location of care. Both the type of care and relationship to the care provider were associated with alcohol consumption, and several gender interactions were identified. Our results confirm previous findings of greater mental health problems among caregivers, yet suggest that caregivers may not be seeking services commensurate to their needs. PMID:11488517

  9. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  10. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06-1.18).Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use. PMID:27661013

  11. Combined MI + CBT for Depressive Symptoms and Binge Drinking Among Young Adults: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Palm, Kathleen M.; Dalton, Elizabeth; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    There are high rates of comorbidity between heavy drinking and depressive symptoms among college students, often resulting in severe alcohol-related consequences. No empirically supported treatment exists that concurrently addresses both of these problems in this population. Research with college students has demonstrated that brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Thus, a program combining BMI and CBT-D appears ideal for college students with co-occurring binge drinking and depressive symptoms. This manuscript presents the rationale and format of a BMI + CBT-D treatment protocol for this population, and provides a case example of a female college student who received the protocol and experienced improvement in depressive symptoms, a reduction in alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences, and an increase in readiness to change alcohol consumption. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25170188

  12. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  13. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  15. Psoriasis: depression, anxiety, smoking, and drinking habits.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer; Koo, John

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can negatively impact many aspects of quality of life. Patients with psoriasis may suffer from pain and discomfort from the disease as well as psychological and social difficulties including stigmatization, embarrassment, and social inhibition. Anxiety, depression, smoking, and alcohol abuse have been found to have a higher prevalence among psoriasis patients than healthy controls. These comorbidities have also been found to have a directly negative impact on psoriasis. Awareness of the relationship between psoriasis, psychiatric disorders, and substance abuse is important for dermatologists, as these comorbidities can lead to poor compliance and treatment outcomes.

  16. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  17. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  19. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  20. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  1. Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Suicide under the Influence of Alcohol in a Polish Sample

    PubMed Central

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Wojnar, Marcin; Matsumoto, Halina; Barry, Kristen Lawton; Ploski, Rafal; Blow, Frederic C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Despite the large number of suicides that occur with intoxication, little is known about the unique predictors of suicide after alcohol consumption. The goal of this study was to examine clinical and genetic risk factors for alcohol-related suicide. Methods: Data on 162 suicide victims were obtained from post-mortem examinations, police and prosecution inquiries, autopsy protocols and available medical records. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the central serotonin system and the renin–angiotensin system related genes previously found to be associated with suicide, alcohol dependence or depression were genotyped. Results: The strongest predictor of suicide under the influence of alcohol was alcohol dependence (OR = 4.63). Those who did not drink alcohol before suicide were more likely to have a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in their medical record and more often had the TT genotype of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene. Conclusions: Suicide under the influence of alcohol is strongly connected with alcohol dependence. The TPH2 gene may play an important role in suicide vulnerability especially in individuals who did not drink alcohol before suicide. PMID:19734157

  2. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  3. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  4. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  5. Depression in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Wasylenki, D.

    1980-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is very common and may be difficult to diagnose. Because of its varied presentation and its frequent association with physical illness it will be encountered increasingly by all physicians as the elderly population expands. Depression, though treatable, is often not treated, and suicide rates are high among depressed elderly persons. Diagnostic difficulties lie in distinguishing depression from organic brain syndromes, from so-called masked depressions and from normal grief reactions. Pharmacologic treatment is effective, but care must be taken to recognize side effects and to use adequate doses. Psychologic approaches should focus on reducing feelings of helplessness and failing self-esteem. The importance of the losses borne by elderly persons in the pathogenesis of depression continues to be of theoretical and practical interest. PMID:6989463

  6. Ethiopathogenesis of Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, M; Berardelli, I; Biondi, M

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of depressive disorders is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology such as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine alterations, genetics, life events and their appraisal. Some of these components are strictly linked. Subjects with a family member affected by mood disorders are more prone to suffer from depressive disorders. It is also true that receiving feedbacks of indifference or neglect during childhood from one parent who suffer from depression may represent a factor of vulnerability. Indeed, reaction to a specific negative event may determine an increased allostasis which lead to a depressive episode. Thus, a psychological cause does not exclude a neurobiological cascade. Whereas in other cases recurrent depressive episodes appear in absence of any negative life event. This review provides a set of data regarding the current etiopathogenesis models of depression, with a particular attention to the neurobiological correlates and vulnerability factors. PMID:25614753

  7. Depression and marital interaction.

    PubMed

    Feldman, L B

    1976-12-01

    A family-systems model of depression is presented and discussed. In this model, the intrapsychic concept of cognitive schema and the interpersonal concepts of social stimulation and social reingorcement are integrated within a systems-theory perspective. The effects of positive and negative feedback are delineated, and a concept of depression-triggering and depression-maintaining feedback loops is described. A clinical illustration is utilized to exemplify the theoretical model.

  8. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  9. Depression after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.

  10. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  11. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  12. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  13. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  14. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  16. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  18. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  19. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  20. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  1. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  2. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    .98–2.16). Having higher Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06–1.18). Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use. PMID:27661013

  3. Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy interactive toxicity beliefs and daily medication adherence and alcohol use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy (ART) interactive toxicity beliefs reflect perceived adverse outcomes of mixing alcohol and ART. Previous research has shown a significant relationship between alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and ART non-adherence, over and above other correlates of non-adherence such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)symptoms and frequency of alcohol use. Most past studies have collected data over extended periods and have not determined if alcohol use and missed medications occur at the day-level among people holding interactive toxicity beliefs. Previous daily analyses, however, have been limited by self-reported adherence and relatively short periods of observation. To address these gaps in the literature, men and women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, were enrolled in a 45-day observational cohort study. Daily alcohol use was collected using two-way interactive text message surveys and daily adherence was collected via the Wisepill device. Fifty-seven participants completed a measure of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and contributed 2565 days of daily data. Participants who endorsed high levels of interactive toxicity beliefs had significantly more days when they missed doses of medication. Alcohol-antiretroviral toxicity beliefs predicted missing doses of medication on days when participants were drinking and on days when they were not drinking. Multilevel multivariate regressions showed that these toxicity beliefs predicted daily missed doses of medication over and above quantity of alcohol consumed, depression and general medication concerns. This study replicates and extends previous literature and indicates the necessity of addressing alcohol-ART toxicity beliefs within adherence interventions.

  4. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  5. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  6. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  7. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  8. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  9. A prospective study of stress and alcohol craving in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tartter, Molly A; Ray, Lara A

    2012-06-01

    Recent work has examined the relationship between stress and relapse to alcohol use in clinical populations. Few prospective studies, however, have examined stress as a precipitant of alcohol problems. The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of stress reactivity and alcohol craving in the etiology of alcohol problems in a sample of 41 (mean age=20.8), heavy-drinking, young adults. Participants completed a guided imagery exposure to stressful life events, followed by exposure to a neutral imagery control. Following the exposure, participants completed an alcohol cue exposure paradigm. Measures of negative mood (Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression/dejection scale), tension (POMS tension/anxiety scale) and alcohol craving (measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ)) were used as indicators of reactivity to stress and to alcohol cues. Polymorphisms of the corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and of the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene were examined as moderators of this relationship. Results revealed that stress-induced negative mood predicted negative consequences of drinking (scores on the Drinker's Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R)), whereas stress and cue-induced alcohol craving did not predict alcohol use or problems. Additionally, the CRH-BP genotype was found to moderate the relationship between stress-induced negative affect and the negative consequences of drinking. The current study supports and extends laboratory research describing phenotypes of stress-induced alcohol craving.

  10. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  11. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part I. Epidemiology of dual diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a review of the literature on the comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. A condition when alcohol dependence is accompanied by another mental disorder is much more common than it is commonly believed. It is estimated that more than one third of people diagnosed with mental disorders, abuses or is dependent on psychoactive substances, especially alcohol; among alcohol-dependent patients 37% suffer from other mental disorders. Alcohol dependence is associated with increased risk of mood disorders - more than three times higher, depression - almost four times higher, bipolar disorder - more than six times higher, anxiety disorders in general - more than twice, generalized anxiety disorder - more than four times higher, panic disorders - almost double, posttraumatic stress disorder - more than twice. Underestimating of comorbidity is an important problem during treatment of such population of patients. Social skills training can improve a stress management and decrease alcohol and drug use among dual diagnosed patients.

  12. Inhibitory effects of pretreatment with radon on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m(3) radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  13. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  14. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248

  15. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248

  16. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  17. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  18. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  19. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent and has a great impact on both mother and infant. There are empirically validated treatments for both postpartum depression and depression during pregnancy. Primary among these is interpersonal psychotherapy, which has been shown to be effective for postpartum women across the spectrum from mild to severe depression. At present, interpersonal psychotherapy is the best validated treatment for postpartum depression and should be considered first-line treatment, especially for depressed breastfeeding women. PMID:22473762

  20. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  1. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

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  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-06

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  4. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-09-21

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  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-05

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  6. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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  7. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-14

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  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

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  9. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

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  10. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

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  11. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  12. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

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  13. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  15. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  16. Relationship Between the Thyroid Axis and Alcohol Craving

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Elie G.; Lee, Mary R.; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Swift, Robert M.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A few studies have suggested a relationship between thyroid hormones and alcohol dependence (AD) such as a blunted increase of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), lower levels of circulating free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels and down regulation of the TRH receptors. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between the hormones of the thyroid axis and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: Forty-two treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals enrolled in a 12-week treatment study were considered. The Timeline Follow Back (TLFB) was used to assess the number of drinks consumed during the 12-week period. Blood levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, fT3 and fT4) were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate craving for alcohol [Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and its two subscales ODS for obsessions and CDS for compulsions] as well as anxiety [State and Trait Inventory (STAI)], depression [the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung)] and aggression [the Aggressive Questionnaire (AQ)]. Results: At baseline, we found significant positive correlations between fT3 and OCDS (r = 0.358, P = 0.029) and CDS (r = 0.405, P = 0.013) and negative correlations between TSH levels and STAI (r = −0.342, P = 0.031), and AQ (r = −0.35, P = 0.027). At the end of the 12-week study period, abstinent patients had a greater change in TSH than those who relapsed (−0.4 vs. −0.25, F(1,24) = 5.4, P = 0.029). Conclusion: If confirmed in larger samples, these findings could suggest that the thyroid axis might represent a biomarker of alcohol craving and drinking. PMID:25433251

  17. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  18. Socio-environmental risks for untreated depression among formerly incarcerated Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Muñoz-Laboy; Nancy, Worthington; Ashley, Perry; Vincent, Guilamo-Ramos; Leopoldo, Cabassa; Jane, Lee; Nicolette, Severson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the levels of untreated depression and the socio-environmental factors associated with it among formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM). Methods Cross-sectional survey with 259 FILM ages 18 to 49 who were released from prison/jail within the prior five years. Depression was measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Backward elimination was used to determine the best regression models. Results 26.9% of the study sample reported depression. Low familism, residing farther away from family members, low utilization of health and social services, high levels of loneliness and high lifetime and current frequency of alcohol use were also associated with depression. Discussion Depression is a major problem among FILM. Addressing untreated depression among FILM must be a public health priority. PMID:23508876

  19. Depression and Apathy Among People Living with HIV: Implications for Treatment of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Nicole E.; Burrell, Larry E.; Dotson, Vonetta M.; Cook, Robert L.; Malloy, Paul; Devlin, Kathryn; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression and apathy are common among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, in PLWH, it is unclear whether depression and apathy are distinct conditions, which contribute to different patterns of disruption to cognitive processing and brain systems. Understanding these conditions may enable the development of prognostic indicators for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study examined substance use behavior and cognitive deficits, associated with depression and apathy, in 120 PLWH, using hierarchical regression analyses. Higher levels of depression were associated with a history of alcohol dependence and greater deficits in processing speed, motor and global cognitive functioning. Higher levels of apathy were associated with a history of cocaine dependence. It is recommended that PLWH get screened appropriately for apathy and depression, in order to receive the appropriate treatment, considering the comorbidities associated with each condition. Future research should examine the neurological correlates of apathy and depression in PLWH. PMID:25533921

  20. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  1. [Depression in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shin; Nagayama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Depression affects Parkinson's disease (PD) patient's QOL. Although it changes with the diagnostic criteria used, the frequency of depression in PD is approximately 10-30%. Anhedonia is characteristic in PD. According to research on anhedonia in PD using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), the positive ratio of anhedonia is high in PD. The SHAPS score significantly correlates with the severity of PD and duration of the disease. An examination of the literature on depression before the development of motor symptoms of PD revealed that the risk of PD is high in patients with a history of depression. Pathologically, the substantia nigra is affected in the later stages and raphe nuclei are affected in the early stages. This suggests that depression is a prodromal symptom of PD.

  2. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  3. Community interventions against depression.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, C R

    2007-11-01

    Depression appears to be the common psychiatric dosorder in any given community. Depression in different forms may affect 10% of the population at any given time. The paucity of mental health power has made people to ignore the presence of depression and its impact on individual's capacity of functioning. If we have to plan community based interventions some strategies are to be adopted. In primary healthcare systems short training of all categories of personnel in PHC and regular supply of free medicines are essential. With the experiences of general practitioners and their involvement, patients with depression can be approached for help. So also school and college teachers, trained counselors, religious and spiritual leaders can be involved in the processes. Family members can take care of patients. Stress management techniques, helpline, crisis intervention can be other methods to help the patients suffering from depression.

  4. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  5. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  6. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series JOINT COMMISSION LAUNCHES EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN ON ADULT DEPRESSION Educational Brochure Provides Guidance on Recognizing and Treating Depression [PDF] DBSA 2013–2017 STRATEGIC PLAN Learn how ...

  7. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  8. Depression in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fiest, Kirsten M.; Dykeman, Jonathan; Patten, Scott B.; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Bulloch, Andrew G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression in persons with epilepsy (PWE) and the strength of association between these 2 conditions. Methods: The MEDLINE (1948–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), and PsycINFO (1806–2012) databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and conference abstracts were searched. Content experts were also consulted. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and extracted data. For inclusion, studies were population-based, original research, and reported on epilepsy and depression. Estimates of depression prevalence among PWE and of the association between epilepsy and depression (estimated with reported odds ratios [ORs]) are provided. Results: Of 7,106 abstracts screened, 23 articles reported on 14 unique data sources. Nine studies reported on 29,891 PWE who had an overall prevalence of active (current or past-year) depression of 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.6%–28.31%). Five of the 14 studies reported on 1,217,024 participants with an overall OR of active depression of 2.77 (95% CI 2.09–3.67) in PWE. For lifetime depression, 4 studies reported on 5,454 PWE, with an overall prevalence of 13.0% (95% CI 5.1–33.1), and 3 studies reported on 4,195 participants with an overall OR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.07–4.51) for PWE. Conclusions: Epilepsy was significantly associated with depression and depression was observed to be highly prevalent in PWE. These findings highlight the importance of proper identification and management of depression in PWE. PMID:23175727

  9. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  10. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  11. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  12. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  13. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  14. [Genetic predisposition for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, D P

    2000-04-01

    A number of socio-economic, cultural, biobehavioral factors and ethnic/gender differences are among the strongest determinants of drinking patterns in a society. Both epidemiological and clinical studies have implicated the excessive use of alcohol in the risk of developing a variety of organ, neuronal and metabolic disorders. Alcohol abuse related metabolic derangements affect almost all body organs and their functions. Race and gender differences in drinking patterns may play an important role in the development of medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse. The incidence of alcoholism in a community is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption and covariates with the relative price and availability of alcoholic drinks. The majority of the family, twin and adoption studies suggest that alcoholism is familial, a significant proportion of which can be attributed to genetic factors. The question is how much of the variance is explained by genetic factors and to what degree is this genetically mediated disorder moderated by personal characteristics. Among the most salient personal characteristics moderating, the genetic vulnerability may be factors such as age, ethnicity, and presence of psychiatric co morbidity. Cultural factors and familial environmental factors are most likely predictors as well.

  15. Mother-infant and father-infant attachment among alcoholic families.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina Das; Edwards, Ellen Peterson; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the association between fathers' alcoholism and other risk factors such as parental depression, family conflict, infant temperament, and parent-infant attachment. The quality of parent-infant interactions was hypothesized to be a proximal mediator of the associations among alcoholism and other risk factors and attachment. The participants were 223 families (104 nonalcoholic families and 119 alcoholic families) with 12-month-old infants recruited through birth records. Infants in families with two parents with alcohol problem had significantly higher rates of insecure attachment with both parents. Structural Equations Modeling indicated that the fathers' alcohol problem was associated with lower paternal sensitivity (higher negative affect, lower positive engagement, and lower sensitive responding) during father-infant play interactions, and this in tum was associated with higher risk for infant attachment insecurity with fathers. The association between the fathers' alcohol problem and infant attachment security with the mother was mediated by matemal depression, and matemal alcohol problems and family conflict were associated with maternal sensitivity during play interactions. These results indicate that the fathers' alcoholism is associated with higher family risk including the quality of the parent-infant relationship; infant attachment develops in a family context; and this context has a significant association with attachment security.

  16. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships.

  17. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships. PMID:25766414

  18. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  19. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  20. Reciprocal Relations between Internalizing Symptoms and Frequency of Alcohol Use: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-origin Youth

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Krystal H.; Atherton, Olivia E.; Quintana, Alina; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Alcohol consumption and internalizing symptoms, which often co-occur, pose considerable risk to the developing adolescent and have lasting public health consequences. Previous research has documented concurrent associations between alcohol use and symptoms of anxiety and depression, but the dearth of longitudinal research, particularly for ethnic minority youth, raises questions about the replicability and causal direction of these effects. The goal of the present research was to clarify these issues, and investigate whether different facets of anxiety and depression are uniquely associated with alcohol use in adolescence. Method The present research examined cross-lagged relations between frequency of alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) assessed at ages 14 and 16. Results Alcohol use at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in overall internalizing symptoms, and overall internalizing symptoms at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in alcohol use. Reciprocal effects were consistently found for the general distress and anxious arousal facets, but not for anhedonic depression and a scale measuring the cognitive aspects of anxiety. Conclusions The findings provide evidence of reciprocal relations between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, but also highlight the danger of treating all symptoms of anxiety and depression as interchangeable components of a single broad domain. Instead, symptoms common to both anxiety and depressive disorders (e.g., general distress) have the most robust reciprocal relations with alcohol use. Thus, intervention programs aimed at reducing early alcohol use by Mexican-origin youth should target this component of the internalizing domain. PMID:26999352