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Sample records for depressed cinnamyl alcohol

  1. Silver nano particle formation on Ar plasma - treated cinnamyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, S.; Marschewski, M.; Wegewitz, L.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.; Vioel, W.

    2012-02-01

    Metastable induced electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy are employed to study the adsorption of silver on cinnamyl alcohol films prepared on Au(111) substrates by thermal evaporation. Additionally, the impact of an Ar atmosphere dielectric barrier discharge plasma applied to the cinnamyl alcohol film preliminary to the Ag adsorption is investigated. In both cases silver nano particles with an average diameter of 9 nm are formed. These particles do not interact chemically with the underlying cinnamyl alcohol film. We do not find any influence of the preliminary Ar plasma-treatment on the adsorption behavior at all.

  2. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  3. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents.

  4. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  5. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  6. Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda Prakash; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2011-10-01

    A cDNA encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzing conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to corresponding cinnamyl alcohols, was cloned from secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. The cloned cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Temperature and Zn(2+) ion played crucial role in expression and activity of enzyme, such that, at 18°C and at 2 mM Zn(2+) the CAD was maximally expressed as active enzyme in soluble fraction. The expressed protein was purified 14.78-folds to homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose column with specific activity of 346 nkat/mg protein. The purified enzyme exhibited lowest Km with cinnamyl alcohol (12.2 μM) followed by coniferyl (18.1 μM) and sinapyl alcohol (23.8 μM). Enzyme exhibited high substrate inhibition with cinnamyl (beyond 20 μM) and coniferyl (beyond 100 μM) alcohols. The in silico analysis of CAD protein exhibited four characteristic consensus sequences, GHEXXGXXXXXGXXV; C(100), C(103), C(106), C(114); GXGXXG and C(47), S(49), H(69), L(95), C(163), I(300) involved in catalytic Zn(2+) binding, structural Zn(2+) binding, NADP(+) binding and substrate binding, respectively. Tertiary structure, generated using Modeller 9v5, exhibited a trilobed structure with bulged out structural Zn(2+) binding domain. The catalytic Zn(2+) binding, substrate binding and NADP(+) binding domains formed a pocket protected by two major lobes. The enzyme catalysis, sequence homology and 3-D model, all supported that the cloned CAD belongs to alcohol dehydrogenase family of plants.

  7. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  8. DOWNREGULATION OF CINNAMYL-ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE IN SWITCHGRASS BY RNA SILENCING RESULTS IN ENHANCED GLUCOSE RELEASE AFTER CELLULASE TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switch...

  9. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD.

  10. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases from a liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Yu; Han, Xiaojuan; Lou, Hongxiang; Cheng, Aixia

    2013-09-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) (EC 1.1.1.195) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. It catalyzes cinnamyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols, the last step in monolignol biosynthesis. Almost all CAD members of land plants could be divided into three classes according to the phylogenetic analysis, together with gene structure and function. In the present investigation, two cDNAs encoding CADs were obtained from a Chinese liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum thallus library and were designated as PaCAD1 and PaCAD2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 belonged to Class II. Full length cDNAs were heterologously expressed in E. coli and the recombinant PaCAD proteins displayed high activity levels using p-coumaryl, caffeyl, coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl and sinapyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols. The enzyme kinetics results showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 used coniferyl aldehyde as the favourite substrate and showed high catalytic efficiency towards p-coumaryl aldehyde but lowest catalytic efficiency towards 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In accord with the higher lignin content in the thallus than in the callus, the expression level of PaCAD2 was also higher in thallus than in the callus. The expression of PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 was induced by Methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment. This suggested that these two PaCADs played twin roles in lignin biosynthesis and the defencedefence of abiotic stress in P. appendiculatum. This is the first time that the CADs in liverworts have been functionally characterized.

  11. Radicals and molecular products from the gas-phase pyrolysis of lignin model compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Xu, Meng-xia; Wu, Ang-jian; Pechagin, Mikhail; Asatryan, Rubik

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results on detection and identification of intermediate radicals and molecular products from gas-phase pyrolysis of cinnamyl alcohol (CnA), the simplest non-phenolic lignin model compound, over the temperature range of 400–800 °C are reported. The low temperature matrix isolation – electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI-EPR) experiments along with the theoretical calculations, provided evidences on the generation of the intermediate carbon and oxygen centered as well as oxygen-linked, conjugated radicals. A mechanistic analysis is performed based on density functional theory to explain formation of the major products from CnA pyrolysis; cinnamaldehyde, indene, styrene, benzaldehyde, 1-propynyl benzene, and 2-propenyl benzene. The evaluated bond dissociation patterns and unimolecular decomposition pathways involve dehydrogenation, dehydration, 1,3-sigmatropic H-migration, 1,2-hydrogen shift, C—O and C—C bond cleavage processes. PMID:28344372

  12. Electron beam irradiation of maltodextrin and cinnamyl alcohol mixtures: influence of glycerol on cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Khandal, Dhriti; Aggarwal, Manjeet; Suri, Gunjan; Coqueret, Xavier

    2015-03-06

    The influence of glycerol on the electron beam-induced changes in maltodextrins-cinnamyl alcohol (CA) blends is examined with respect to its influence on the degree of chain scission, grafting, and cross-linking. The study is relevant to radiation-induced polysaccharide modification, specifically in the perspective of using blended starch as a thermoplastic material, where glycerol is commonly used as a plasticizer. In the absence of CA, glycerol protects maltodextrin from chromophore formation onto the main chain, but also induces more chain scission. The presence of CA provides efficient radiation-protection against scission. Glycerol is shown to affect the interaction between maltodextrin and CA, most likely in the form of an inclusion complex when glycerol is absent. The global behavior under radiation is therefore governed by the physical interactions between the blend constituents rather than on the role of glycerol role as a plasticizer, or as an OH˙ radical scavenger.

  13. Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions. PMID:23028019

  14. Purification and Characterization of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoforms from the Periderm of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S. W.; Boudet, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) isoforms were purified from the periderm (containing both suberized and lignified cell layers) of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook stems. Two isoforms (CAD 1P and CAD 2P) were initially characterized, and the major form, CAD 2P, was resolved into three further isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography. Crude extracts contained two aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and one aromatic ADH, which was later resolved into two further isoforms. Aliphatic ADHs did not use hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates, whereas both aromatic ADH isoforms used coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol as substrates but with a much lower specific activity when compared with benzyl alcohol. The minor form, CAD 1P, was a monomer with a molecular weight of 34,000 that did not co-elute with either aromatic or aliphatic ADH activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis demonstrated that this protein was very similar to another CAD isoform purified from Eucalyptus xylem tissue. CAD 2P had a native molecular weight of approximately 84,000 and was a dimer consisting of two heterogenous subunits (with molecular weights of 42,000 and 44,000). These subunits were differentially combined to give the heterodimer and two homodimers. SDS-PAGE, western blots, and nondenaturing PAGE indicated that the CAD 2P heterodimer was very similar to the main CAD isoform previously purified in our laboratory from differentiating xylem tissue of E. gunnii (D. Goffner, I. Joffroy, J. Grima-Pettenati, C. Halpin, M.E. Knight, W. Schuch, A.M. Boudet [1992] Planta 188: 48-53). Kinetic data indicated that the different CAD 2P isoforms may be implicated in the preferential production of different monolignols used in the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. PMID:12232063

  15. Selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol with carbon nanotubes supported Pt-Co catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Ren-Xian

    2008-02-01

    The Pt-Co catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared by wet impregnation and the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) over the catalysts has been studied in ethanol at different reaction conditions. The results show that Pt-0.17 wt%Co/CNTs catalyst exhibits the highest activity and selectivity at a reaction temperature of 60 °C under a pressure of around 2.5 MPa, and 92.4% for the conversion of CMA and 93.6% for the selectivity of CMA to CMO, respectively. The selective hydrogenation for the C dbnd O double bond in CMA would be improved as increasing the H 2 pressure, and the selective hydrogenation for the C dbnd C double bond in CMA is enhanced as increasing the reaction temperature. In addition, these catalysts have also been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H 2-temperature programmed reduction (H 2-TPR) and H 2-temperature programmed desorption (H 2-TPD) techniques. The results show that Pt particles are dispersed more homogeneously on the outer surface of the nanotubes, while the strong interaction between Pt and Co would improve the increasing of activated hydrogen number because of the hydrogen spillover from reduced Pt 0 onto CNTs and increase the catalytic activity and selectivity of CMA to CMO.

  16. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenation activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.

  17. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenationmore » activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.« less

  18. Improved paper pulp from plants with suppressed cinnamoyl-CoA reductase or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ann; Holt, Karen; Piquemal, Joël; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Boudet, Alain; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Petit-Conil, Michel; Schuch, Wolfgang; Halpin, Claire

    2002-10-01

    Transgenic plants severely suppressed in the activity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were produced by introduction of a partial sense CCR transgene into tobacco. Five transgenic lines with CCR activities ranging from 2 to 48% of wild-type values were selected for further study. Some lines showed a range of aberrant phenotypes including reduced growth, and all had changes to lignin structure making the polymer more susceptible to alkali extraction. The most severely CCR-suppressed line also had significantly decreased lignin content and an increased proportion of free phenolic groups in non-condensed lignin. These changes are likely to make the lignin easier to extract during chemical pulping. Direct Kraft pulping trials confirmed this. More lignin could be removed from the transgenic wood than from wild-type wood at the same alkali charge. A similar improvement in pulping efficiency was recently shown for poplar trees expressing an antisense cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Pulping experiments performed here on CAD-antisense tobacco plants produced near-identical results--the modified lignin was more easily removed during pulping without any adverse effects on the quality of the pulp or paper produced. These results suggest that pulping experiments performed in tobacco can be predictive of the results that will be obtained in trees such as poplar, extending the utility of the tobacco model. On the basis of our results on CCR manipulation in tobacco, we predict that CCR-suppressed trees may show pulping benefits. However, it is likely that CCR-suppression will not be the optimal target for genetic manipulation of pulping character due to the potential associated growth defects.

  19. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in melon (Cucumis melo L.): bioinformatic analysis and expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development.

  20. The Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development. PMID:25019207

  1. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  2. Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N

    2014-04-01

    A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13 % and specific activity of 812. 5 nkat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ∼76 and ∼38 kDa, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75 μM(-1) s(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH 8.8 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0 mM Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0 mM EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily.

  3. Tailoring the properties of thermoplastic starch by blending with cinnamyl alcohol and radiation processing: An insight into the competitive grafting and scission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Bliard, Christophe; Soulestin, Jérémie; Lacrampe, Marie-France; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Coqueret, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    The present paper focuses on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on thermoplastic materials based on destructurized starch including glycerol and water as plasticizers to assess the potentiality of cinnamyl alcohol as reactive additive capable of counterbalancing the degradation of the polysaccharide by inducing interchain covalent linkages. The tensile properties at break of test specimens of controlled composition submitted to EB irradiation at doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy revealed the presence of competitive chain scission and bridging in samples containing cinnamyl alcohol at a relative concentration of 2.5% with regard to dry starch. The occurrence of crosslinking under particular conditions was evidenced by gel fraction measurements. The treatment under radiation was also applied to model blends including maltodextrin as a model for starch and the other ingredients to gain an insight into the radiation induced mechanisms at the molecular level. The presence of cinnamyl alcohol is found to limit degradation. Size exclusion chromatography and gel fraction allowed to monitor the effects and confirmed unambiguously the attachment of UV-absorbing chromophores onto the maltodextrin main chain. The combination of the obtained results demonstrates the possibility of altering in a favorable way the tensile properties of plasticized starch by applying high energy radiation to properly formulated blends including aromatic compounds like cinnamyl alcohol.

  4. Vibrational spectra and assignments of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and 3-phenyl-1-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    The complex conformational behavior of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and its saturated analogue 3-phenyl-1-propanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G **, MP2 and MP4(SDQ) levels of theory. The unsaturated 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol was predicted to exist in Cg and Gg1 conformational mixture as a result of competitive conjugation and hyperconjugation interactions in the molecule. The saturated 3-phenyl-1-propanol was predicted to exist predominantly in a Ggg structure as a result of predominant steric hindrances in the alcohol. Only the one predominant form was identified in the infrared and Raman spectra of both alcohols. The excellent agreement between the calculated wavenumbers and the observed ones in the infrared and Raman spectra supports the conclusion that each of the two alcohols is present in one predominant form in the condensed phases. The vibrational frequencies of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol and 3-phenyl-1-propanol in their lowest energy forms were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  5. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction.

  6. Esters of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with cinnamyl alcohol are potent lipoxygenase inhibitors with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Tziona, Paraskevi; Kourounakis, Panos N; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-11-15

    Novel esters of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, α-lipoic acid and indol-3-acetic acid with cinnamyl alcohol were synthesised by a straightforward method and at high yields (60-98%). They reduced acute inflammation more than the parent acids and are potent inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase. Selected structures decreased plasma lipidemic indices in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia to rats. Therefore, the synthesised compounds may add to the current knowledge about agents acting against various inflammatory disorders.

  7. Expression Pattern of Two Paralogs Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and Characterization of the Corresponding Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cβ. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units. PMID:12805615

  8. Downregulation of Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Switchgrass by RNA Silencing Results in Enhanced Glucose Release after Cellulase Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Aaron J.; Sarath, Gautam; Chow, Elaine K.; Dien, Bruce S.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switchgrass, RNA mediated silencing of CAD was induced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cv. “Alamo” with an inverted repeat construct containing a fragment derived from the coding sequence of PviCAD2. The resulting primary transformants accumulated less CAD RNA transcript and protein than control transformants and were demonstrated to be stably transformed with between 1 and 5 copies of the T-DNA. CAD activity against coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in stems of silenced lines was significantly reduced as was overall lignin and cutin. Glucose release from ground samples pretreated with ammonium hydroxide and digested with cellulases was greater than in control transformants. When stained with the lignin and cutin specific stain phloroglucinol-HCl the staining intensity of one line indicated greater incorporation of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes in the lignin. PMID:21298014

  9. Expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and their putative homologues during Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development: lessons for database annotations?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kye-Won; Cho, Man-Ho; Franceschi, Vincent R; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-07-01

    A major goal currently in Arabidopsis research is determination of the (biochemical) function of each of its approximately 27,000 genes. To date, however, 12% of its genes actually have known biochemical roles. In this study, we considered it instructive to identify the gene expression patterns of nine (so-called AtCAD1-9) of 17 genes originally annotated by The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) homologues [see Costa, M.A., Collins, R.E., Anterola, A.M., Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis N.G., 2003. An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.]. In agreement with our biochemical studies in vitro [Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G.A., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C.-H., Lewis, N.G., 2004. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.], and analysis of a double mutant [Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin A., 2005. Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17, 2059-2076.], both AtCAD5 (At4g34230) and AtCAD4 (At3g19450) were found to have expression patterns consistent with development/formation of different forms of the lignified vascular apparatus, e.g. lignifying stem tissues, bases of trichomes, hydathodes, abscission zones of siliques, etc. Expression was also observed in various non-lignifying zones (e.g. root caps) indicative of, perhaps, a role in plant defense. In addition, expression patterns of the four CAD-like homologues were investigated, i.e. AtCAD2 (At2g21730), AtCAD3 (At2g21890), AtCAD7 (At4g37980) and AtCAD8 (At4g37990), each of which previously had been demonstrated to have low CAD

  10. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  11. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat. PMID:27899932

  12. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Gregory; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise; Séguin, Armand

    2005-01-01

    During lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes are believed to be converted into their corresponding alcohols by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and by sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively. This work clearly shows that CAD-C and CAD-D act as the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis thaliana by supplying both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. An Arabidopsis CAD double mutant (cad-c cad-d) resulted in a phenotype with a limp floral stem at maturity as well as modifications in the pattern of lignin staining. Lignin content of the mutant stem was reduced by 40%, with a 94% reduction, relative to the wild type, in conventional β-O-4–linked guaiacyl and syringyl units and incorportion of coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that both xylem vessels and fibers were affected. GeneChip data and real-time PCR analysis revealed that transcription of CAD homologs and other genes mainly involved in cell wall integrity were also altered in the double mutant. In addition, molecular complementation of the double mutant by tissue-specific expression of CAD derived from various species suggests different abilities of these genes/proteins to produce syringyl-lignin moieties but does not indicate a requirement for any specific SAD gene. PMID:15937231

  13. Alcohol misuse and depression in women criminals.

    PubMed

    Martin, R L; Cloninger, C R; Guze, S B

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of alcohol misuse and major depressive syndromes was examined in 66 convicted women felons. At an initial (index) evaluation and during a 6-yr follow-up, alcohol misuse and depression, although both highly prevalent, were not significantly related. Alcohol misusing and nonmisusing depressives had similar rates of treatment for depression. Follow-up alcohol misuse, occurring in one-quarter of those reinterviewed, was not predicted by an index history of depression even among index alcohol misusers. Nonsignificant trends did suggest some association between the two symptom groups. Depressive subjects with a history of alcohol misuse had a greater rate of depression during follow-up than nonmisusing index depressives. Follow-up misusers had a greater rate of follow-up depression than nonmisusers. Alcohol-related depression could not be discounted simply as a consequence of alcohol misuse. Depression in the context of alcohol misuse was highly predictive of future depression and suicide attempts. The relative independence of alcohol misuse and depression in this group underscores the complexity of their interaction, especially in a population with multiple disorders such as women criminals. The contention that phenomenologically defined major depressive disorders are heterogeneous is supported.

  14. Lignin and lignans in plant defence: insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus.

    PubMed

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Barakat, Abdelali; Lakomy, Piotr; Smoliński, Dariusz J; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella. The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes (PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

  15. Structural Studies of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase and Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Key Enzymes of Monolignol Biosynthesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V.; Mühlemann, Joëlle K.; Bomati, Erin K.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A.; Noel, Joseph P.; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. PMID:25217505

  16. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  17. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  18. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit.

  19. Disrupting the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene (BdCAD1) leads to altered lignification and improved saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Madeleine; Bouchabke-Coussa, Oumaya; Voorend, Wannes; Antelme, Sébastien; Cézard, Laurent; Legée, Frédéric; Lebris, Philippe; Legay, Sylvain; Whitehead, Caragh; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gomez, Leonardo D; Jouanin, Lise; Lapierre, Catherine; Sibout, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been proposed as a model for grasses, but there is limited knowledge regarding its lignins and no data on lignin-related mutants. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes involved in lignification are promising targets to improve the cellulose-to-ethanol conversion process. Down-regulation of CAD often induces a reddish coloration of lignified tissues. Based on this observation, we screened a chemically induced population of Brachypodium mutants (Bd21-3 background) for red culm coloration. We identified two mutants (Bd4179 and Bd7591), with mutations in the BdCAD1 gene. The mature stems of these mutants displayed reduced CAD activity and lower lignin content. Their lignins were enriched in 8-O-4- and 4-O-5-coupled sinapaldehyde units, as well as resistant inter-unit bonds and free phenolic groups. By contrast, there was no increase in coniferaldehyde end groups. Moreover, the amount of sinapic acid ester-linked to cell walls was measured for the first time in a lignin-related CAD grass mutant. Functional complementation of the Bd4179 mutant with the wild-type BdCAD1 allele restored the wild-type phenotype and lignification. Saccharification assays revealed that Bd4179 and Bd7591 lines were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than wild-type plants. Here, we have demonstrated that BdCAD1 is involved in lignification of Brachypodium. We have shown that a single nucleotide change in BdCAD1 reduces the lignin level and increases the degree of branching of lignins through incorporation of sinapaldehyde. These changes make saccharification of cells walls pre-treated with alkaline easier without compromising plant growth.

  20. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  1. Alcohol Use, Partner Violence, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Le Roux, Ingrid; Stein, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant South African women with histories of drinking alcohol, abuse by violent partners, depression, and living with HIV are likely to have their post-birth trajectories over 36 months significantly influenced by these risks. Design All pregnant women in 24 Cape Town neighborhoods were recruited into a cluster RCT by neighborhood to either: (1) a standard care condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=594 mothers); or (2) a home-visiting intervention condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=644 mothers). Setting/participants Pregnant women residing in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa. Intervention Home visiting included prenatal and postnatal visits by community health workers (Mentor Mothers) focusing on general maternal and child health, HIV/tuberculosis, alcohol use, and nutrition. Main outcome measures Mothers were assessed in pregnancy and at 18 and 36 months post birth: 80.6% of mothers completed all assessments between 2009 and 2014 and were included in these analyses performed in 2014. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined alcohol use, partner violence, and depression at the baseline and 18-month interviews as predictors of maternal outcomes at 36 months post birth. Results Relative to standard care, intervention mothers were significantly less likely to report depressive symptoms and more positive quality of life at 36 months. Alcohol use was significantly related to use over time, but was also related to depression and HIV status at each assessment and partner violence at 36 months. Conclusions Alcohol, partner violence, and depression are significantly related over time. A home-visiting intervention improved the emotional health of low-income mothers even when depression was not initially targeted. PMID:26231855

  2. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  3. The Effect of Brief Alcohol Intervention on Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Georgiana; Moberg, D. Paul; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on secondary results from the Healthy Moms Study, a clinical trial to test the efficacy of brief intervention on reducing alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in postpartum women. Study Design and Methods Data from a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2002 and 2005 with a sample of Wisconsin women was analyzed. This report presents comparison data on depressive symptomatology between postpartum women drinking above recommended levels who received a brief alcohol intervention and those who received no intervention. Results At six month follow-up, there was a significant reduction in mean depression scores compared to baseline in the women who received the alcohol intervention (p <.001). There was not a significant reduction in depressive symptomatology in the control group. Mean level of depression at six months was significantly predicted by baseline depression and the intervention (p=.018). Alcohol use at either baseline or follow-up was not a predictive factor in determining mean depressive symptomatology. Clinical Implications The results of the Healthy Moms Study support the importance of both alcohol and depression screening during the postpartum period. Brief alcohol intervention during this time may also positively affect depressive symptomatology. PMID:19713798

  4. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  5. Attributional Patterns of Alcoholic, Depressed and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Pamela D.; Rich, Alexander R.

    Efforts to understand mediating and maintaining factors associated with dysfunction of alcoholics have produced competing explanations and conflicting, overlapping constructs. To clarify the relationship between mental health and attributional patterns among women, the attributional patterns of alcoholic, depressed, and control females in response…

  6. Whole-Cell Biocatalytic Synthesis of Cinnamyl Acetate with a Novel Esterase from the DNA Library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Secundo, Francesco; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2017-02-28

    Cinnamyl acetate has a wide application in the flavor and fragrance industry because of its sweet, balsamic, and floral odor. Up to now, lipases have been mainly used in enzyme-mediated synthesis of cinnamyl acetate, whereas esterases are used in only a few cases. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes is often a disadvantage, which leads to increases of the production costs. In this paper, a genomic DNA library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus was constructed, and a novel esterase (EstK1) was identified. After expression in Escherichia coli, the whole-cell catalyst of EstK1 displayed high transesterification activity to produce cinnamyl acetate in nonaqueous systems. Furthermore, under optimal conditions (vinyl acetate as acyl donor, isooctane as solvent, molar ratio 1:4, temperature 40 °C), the conversion ratio of cinnamyl alcohol could be up to 94.1% at 1 h, and it reached an even higher level (97.1%) at 2 h.

  7. Effects of Depression on Treatment Motivation in Male Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  8. Depressed affect as a predictor of increased desire for alcohol in current drinkers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Greeley, J; Swift, W; Heather, N

    1992-07-01

    Male drinkers (n = 45) were asked to rate their desire for a drink of alcohol when presented with the sight, smell and taste of their preferred alcoholic beverage and of a lemon cordial drink. The subjects' level of depressed affect on that day and their average daily consumption of alcohol over the last 30 days were measured prior to exposure to these cues. Both level of depressed affect and log of mean daily alcohol consumption predicted increased desire for alcohol when alcohol cues were present, accounting for 40% of the variance in desire. When presented with the lemon cordial cues only 14% of the variance in desire for alcohol was explained by these variables. Also, Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated between heavy drinkers' (n = 19) ratings of self-efficacy to resist drinking and desire for alcohol in the presence of the alcohol cues. There were significant negative correlations between desire for alcohol and self-efficacy ratings on the 'urges and temptations' and 'positive social situations' subscales of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39. Several alternative accounts of these findings are discussed.

  9. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.

  10. Young Adult Children of Alcoholic Fathers: Depressive Experiences, Coping Styles, and Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…

  11. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... of depressants, including alcohol and the illegal drugs GHB and Rohypnol , come in liquid or powder form ... by prescription only. Some depressants, including Rohypnol and GHB, are illegal in the United States. Illegal possession ...

  12. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  13. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  14. Sweet preferences and analgesia during childhood: effects of family history of alcoholism and depression

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Lehmann-Castor, Sara M.; Yourshaw, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether depression and family history of alcoholism are associated with heightened sweet preferences in children, before they have experienced alcohol or tobacco and at a time during the life-span when sweets are particularly salient. Design Between- and within-subject experimental study. Participants Children, 5–12 years old (n = 300), formed four groups based on family history of alcohol dependence up to second-degree relatives [positive (FHP) versus negative (FHN)] and depressive symptoms as determined by the Pictorial Depression Scale [depressed (PDEP) versus non-depressed (NDEP)]. Measurements Children were tested individually to measure sucrose preferences, sweet food liking and, for a subset of the children, the analgesic properties of sucrose versus water during the cold pressor test. Findings The co-occurrence of having a family history of alcoholism and self-reports of depressive symptomatology was associated significantly with a preference for a more concentrated sucrose solution, while depressive symptomatology alone was associated with greater liking for sweet-tasting foods and candies and increased pain sensitivity. Depression antagonized the analgesic properties of sucrose. Conclusions While children as a group innately like sweets and feel better after eating them, the present study reveals significant contributions of family history of alcoholism and depression to this effect. Whether the heightened sweet preference and the use of sweets to alleviate depression are markers for developing alcohol-related problems or responses that are protective are important areas for future research. PMID:20148789

  15. Meta-analysis of depression and substance use among individuals with alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Pinquart, Martin; Gamble, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships of depression with alcohol and drug use and impairment were examined. Additional analyses were conducted to examine moderators of these associations. Empirical reports on adults with alcohol abuse or dependence published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 1986 that contained data on depression and substance use variable(s) were obtained using a systematic search. The search yielded 74 studies including 58 reports from clinical venues, 10 that were community-based, and 6 with subjects from both settings. As hypothesized, the analyses showed that depression is associated with concurrent alcohol use and impairment and drug use and impairment. Effect sizes were small. Depression was also related to future alcohol use and impairment, an earlier age of onset of an AUD, and higher treatment participation. Age moderated the association between depression and alcohol use and impairment such that the association was stronger in older samples. PMID:19150207

  16. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  17. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-II<14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  18. Associations between alcohol-use and depression symptoms in adolescence: Examining gender differences and pathways over time.

    PubMed

    Danzo, Sarah; Connell, Arin M; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Several studies examining alcohol use and depression in youth have focused on documenting prevalence of overlap, or temporal ordering in longitudinal samples. Fewer studies have examined pathways connecting alcohol use and depression over time. This study examined gender differences between depression and alcohol use across adolescence while examining peer and family pathways as possible mediators of effects. Data was collected longitudinally from 593 families from three urban public middle schools in the United States. Participants were recruited in 6th grade and followed through 9th grade. We examined gender differences using a nested model comparison approach. Results indicated the association between depression and alcohol use differs by gender. For males, depression and alcohol use were independent across adolescence, and no significant indirect pathways were observed. For females, bidirectional effects were found between alcohol use and depression, as well as an indirect effect from depression to alcohol use via peer deviance.

  19. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Braitman, Abby; Henson, James M; Schroeder, Valarie; Ladage, Jessica; Gumienny, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Relationships among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and parent and peer relations and depressive mood were examined among 136 ACOAs and 436 non-ACOAs. As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported less positive relationships to mothers, fathers, and peers, and more depressive mood; however, more positive relationships to parents and peers significantly reduced the strength of the association between ACOA categorization and depressive mood. Examination of data from ACOAs alone revealed that maternal alcoholism was related to less positive relationships to their mothers and to their peers; however, paternal alcoholism did not predict the quality of the relationship to fathers, mothers, or peers. Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs.

  20. Relations between depression, alcohol and gender in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, Juliana de Almeida; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira; da Silva, Giovanni Gurgel Aciole; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    As part of the GENACIS project, this paper sought to assess the prevalence of depression in an urban sample in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the association between depression and alcohol abuse according to gender. To achieve this, an epidemiological survey was conducted using a stratified probability sample, including 2,083 adults. CIDI SF was used to identify depression. The Rao Scott test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. The response rate was 74.9%. Females (58.3%) under 40 years of age (52%) were predominant. The prevalence of depression was 28.3% for women and 12.7% for men. Most men declared being drinkers (61.1%) in the last year. Depression was associated with an alcohol drinking pattern, mostly binge drinking, in addition to the occurrence of problems derived from alcohol use. Most women declared being abstainers (69.5%). Depression was associated with cohabiting with spouses with alcohol-related problems. Results reveal that the association between depression and alcohol consumption is distinct between genders.

  1. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  3. Depression and Parentification among Adults as Related to Parental Workaholism and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jane J.; Robinson, Bryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines relationships among levels of depression and parentification in undergraduate students. Children of workaholics scored significantly higher on measures of depression and parentification. Children of alcoholics scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the measure of parentification. (Contains 56 references and 2 tables.)…

  4. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Wood, D. Scott; Daley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This was a first pilot study evaluating the acute phase (8-week) efficacy of the antidepressant medication mirtazapine for the treatment of depressive symptoms and drinking of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence (MDD/AD). We hypothesized that mirtazapine would demonstrate within-group efficacy for the treatment of both depressive symptoms and drinking in these subjects. Methods We conducted a first open label study of the second generation antidepressant mirtazapine in 12 adult outpatient subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder/alcohol dependence. The pharmacological profile of that medication is unique among antidepressants, unrelated to tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results Mirtazapine was well tolerated in this treatment population. Self-reported depressive symptoms decreased from 31.8 to 8.3 on the Beck Depression Inventory, a 74.0% decrease (p<0.001), and drinking decreased from 33.9 to 13.3 drinks per week, a 60.8% decrease (p<0.05). None of the subjects were employed full-time at baseline, but 9 of the 12 (75%) were employed full-time at end-of-study. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest efficacy for mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol use of comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Double-blind studies are warranted to further clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in this population. PMID:23230395

  5. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  6. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  7. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  8. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  9. Depressive Symptoms Anticipate Changes in the Frequency of Alcohol Intoxication Among Low-Accepted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Ashley D.; Laursen, Brett; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is strong evidence that depression anticipates later drinking problems among adults. These associations have not been consistently documented during adolescence, perhaps because little attention has been given to individual differences in peer relationships, which are the primary setting for adolescent alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between depressive affect and alcohol misuse as moderated by peer group acceptance. Method: A community sample of 1,048 Swedish youth provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and intoxication frequency at annual intervals across the middle school years (seventh grade: M = 13.21 years old; eighth grade: M = 14.27 years old; ninth grade: M = 15.26 years old). Peer nominations provided a measure of individual acceptance. Results: Growth curve analyses revealed differences in the extent to which initial levels of depressive symptoms predicted the slope of increase in intoxication frequency. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at the outset anticipated sharp increases in intoxication frequency from seventh to ninth grades for low-accepted youth but not for average- or high-accepted youth. Conclusions: poor peer relations and depressive affect are vulnerabilities that set the stage for escalating adolescent alcohol misuse. Across the middle school years, when most youth have their first experiences with alcohol, peer difficulties exacerbated the tendency of depressed youth to drink to excess. PMID:26098034

  10. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  11. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  12. A sustained depressive state promotes a guanfacine reversible susceptibility to alcohol seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Riga, Danai; Schmitz, Leanne J M; van der Harst, Johanneke E; van Mourik, Yvar; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    High rates of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are reported. Preclinical models examining effects of primary depression on secondary AUD are currently absent, preventing adequate testing of drug treatment. Here, we combined social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) and operant alcohol self-administration (SA) paradigms to assess causality between these two neuropsychiatric disorders. We then exploited guanfacine, an FDA-approved adrenergic agent reported to reduce drug craving in humans, against SDPS-induced modulation of operant alcohol SA. Wistar rats were socially defeated and isolated for a period of ≥9 weeks, during which depression-like symptomatology (cognitive and social behavioral symptoms) was assessed. Subsequently, animals were subjected to a 5-month operant alcohol SA paradigm, examining acquisition, motivation, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The effects of guanfacine on motivation and relapse were measured at >6 months following defeat. SDPS rats exhibited significant disruption of social and cognitive behavior, including short-term spatial and long-term social memory, several months following defeat. Notably, SDPS increased motivation to obtain alcohol, and cue-induced relapse vulnerability. Guanfacine reversed the SDPS-induced effects on motivation and relapse. Together, our model mimics core symptomatology of a sustained depressive-like state and a subsequent vulnerability to alcohol abuse. We show that SDPS is strongly associated with an enhanced motivation for alcohol intake and relapse. Finally, we show that the clinically employed drug guanfacine has potential as a novel treatment option in comorbid patients, as it effectively reduced the enhanced sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol-associated stimuli.

  13. Alcohol use and depression during adolescence and young adulthood: a summary and interpretation of mixed findings

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, P; Shapero, B; Archibald, A; Dale, C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and alcohol misuse are common among adolescents and young adults and are associated with significant personal and societal problems. Similarly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms are prevalent in this population and when they co-occur with alcohol misuse lead to even more severe consequences. Numerous studies have investigated the association between depressive symptoms, AUD and various drinking behaviors presenting an unclear picture. In this review we summarize studies among adolescents and young adults that have examined these relationships. From this review it emerges that several factors affect results, including study design (cross-sectional vs longitudinal), participants’ age (adolescents vs young adults), severity of problems considered (AUD vs heavy drinking; MDD vs depressive symptoms), and gender. Adolescents with AUD are at higher risk for MDD in particular at a younger age. During adolescence, several drinking behaviors, including weekly alcohol use and heavy drinking, increase the risk for depressive symptoms and MDD, while during young adulthood primarily AUD, but not other drinking behaviors, is associated with increased risk for MDD. Gender may have an effect on the association between depression and drinking behaviors but its role is still unclear. Some evidence suggests that the association between AUD and MDD is bidirectional such that mood problems contribute to the onset of alcohol problems and vice-versa. More longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in young adults and to clarify the effect of gender on these associations. To date, findings suggest the critical need to reduce any alcohol use at a young age and to treat both depressive symptoms and AUD to prevent the occurrence of comorbid disorders. PMID:27162708

  14. Reduced connexin 43 immunolabeling in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence and depression.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders.

  15. Reduced Connexin 43 Immunolabeling in the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Alcohol Dependence and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A.; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders. PMID:24774648

  16. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.

  17. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  18. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  19. Witnessing Violence across the Life Course, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol Use among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Sha Juan; Krause, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether witnessing a very violent act at any point in the life course is associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use in late life. The data come from a nationwide probability sample of older adults (N = 1,498). The findings reveal that witnessing violence is associated with more symptoms of depression…

  20. Marital Therapy and Spouse Involvement in the Treatment of Depression, Agoraphobia, and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology, focusing on depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each disorder, examines relation between marital dynamics and disorder and discusses empirical efforts to evaluate impact of marital therapy or spouse involvement on disorder. Summarizes…

  1. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  2. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53% male, M[subscript age] = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different…

  3. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  4. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique Versus Comorbid Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression were examined. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youth were surveyed when they were 10 years-old in 1985 and followed to age 21 years years in 1996 (95% retention). Protective factors were measured at age 14 years years. Young adult disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Alcohol refusal skills, academic skills, school and family bonding, parental rewards, school rewards, and family cohesion at age 14 years years were associated with decreased risk for comorbidity at age 21 years years. PMID:21031140

  5. A changed America? The effects of September 11th on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Johnson, J Aaron; Ducharme, Lori J

    2005-09-01

    In the weeks following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, social commentators argued that America had profoundly "changed." In light of these arguments and the literature on disasters, we examine the immediate and longer-term mental health consequences of September 11th using a national sample of full-time American workers. We model the effects of temporal proximity to the attacks on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Our data revealed a significant increase in the number of depressive symptoms reported during the 4 weeks after the attacks. In the subsequent weeks, levels of depressive symptoms returned to pre-September 11th levels. Contrary to expectations, there was some indication of decreased alcohol consumption after September 11th, although these effects were modest. These analyses provide little support for popular assertions that September 11th resulted in lasting and measurable impacts on Americans' well-being.

  6. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  7. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  8. Is Depressed Mood in Childhood Associated with an Increased Risk for Initiation of Alcohol Use During Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Rosa M.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Anthony, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Using prospective data, we tested the hypothesis that early depressed mood was associated with an increased risk for initiation of alcohol use. In addition, we examined whether these associations varied according to the youths' report that alcohol consumption occurred with or without parental permission. Methods The participants for these analyses were students, ages 9 to 13 years old, participating in a longitudinal study in an urban sample of public schools (n=2311). As part of the prospective annual assessments of the students, in 1990 through 1994, data on depressive mood and alcohol use were gathered. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the level of baseline depressed mood in 1990 and initiation of alcohol use between 1991 through 1994 in the sample of youth at risk for new onset drinking (n=1526). Other characteristics assessed in the analyses included age, sex, race-ethnicity, alcohol use by peers, neighborhood environment, and receipt of subsidized lunch. Results Higher level of early depressed mood was associated with an earlier and increased estimated risk of initiating alcohol use without parental permission for boys but not for girls. Depressed mood was not associated with alcohol use initiation that occurred with parental sanctions. Conclusions Findings from the current study support the hypothesis that among urban youth, early depressed mood influences the initiation of alcohol consumption without parental permission for boys. PMID:17587505

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use are Genetically and Environmentally Correlated Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sihvola, Elina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Moilanen, Irma; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and alcohol use are frequently positively associated during adolescence. This study aimed to assess the heritability of each phenotype across adolescence; to assess potential shared liabilities; to examine changes in the nature of shared liabilities across adolescence; and to investigate potential causal relationships between depressive symptoms and alcohol use. We studied a longitudinally assessed sample of adolescent Finnish twins (N = 1,282) to test hypotheses about genetic and environmental influences on these phenotypes within and across ages, using data from assessments at ages 12, 14, and 17.5 years. The heritability of depressive symptoms is consistent across adolescence (~40–50%), with contributions from common and unique environmental factors. The heritability of alcohol use varies across time (a2 = .25–.44), and age 14 alcohol use is heavily influenced by shared environmental factors. Genetic attenuation and innovation were observed across waves. Modest to moderate genetic (rA = .26–.59) and environmental (rC = .30–.63) correlations between phenotypes exist at all ages, but decrease over time. Tests for causal relationships between traits differed across ages and sexes. Intrapair MZ difference tests provided evidence for reciprocal causation in girls at ages 14 and 17.5. Formal causal models suggested significant causal relationships between the variables in both boys and girls. The association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use during adolescence is likely due to a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences and causal influences. These influences are also temporally dynamic, complicating efforts to understand factors contributing to the relationship between these outcomes. PMID:20890653

  10. Functional Limitation, Pain, and Alcohol Use: Exploring Gender Differences in the Mediating Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study considered the processes linking functional limitation and pain with depressive symptoms and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking) over a 3-year period. Method: Data were drawn from a two-wave Miami-Dade County community study of people with physical disabilities (N = 559). Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations among functional limitation, bodily pain, and the alcohol-related outcomes considered, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. Results: When the effects of the sociodemographic control variables were controlled for, depressive symptoms partly explained the effects of Wave 1 functional limitation and bodily pain on problematic drinking at Wave 2. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than for women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate clear linkages between two physical health indicators, depressive symptoms and drinking, and highlight the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding these associations. PMID:26402362

  11. Depression in bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carmen; Hasin, Deborah S.; Arango, Celso; Oquendo, Maria A.; Vieta, Eduard; Liu, Shangmin; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical features and course of major depressive episodes (MDE) occurring in subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001–2002), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of more than 43,000 adults in the United States, including 5,695 subjects with lifetime MDD, 935 with BD-I and lifetime MDE, and 494 with BD-II and lifetime MDE. Differences on sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features, course, and treatment patterns of MDE were analyzed. Results Most depressive symptoms, family psychiatric history, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were more frequent—and number of depressive symptoms per MDE were higher—among subjects with BD-I, followed by BD-II, and MDD. BD-I individuals experienced a higher number of lifetime MDE, had the worst quality of life, and received significantly more treatment for MDE than BD-II and MDD subjects. Individuals with BD-I and BD-II experienced their first mood episode about 10 years earlier than those with MDD (21.2, 20.5, and 30.4 years, respectively). Conclusions Our results support the existence of a spectrum of severity of MDE, with highest severity for BD-I, followed by BD-II and MDD, suggesting the utility of dimensional assessments in current categorical classifications. PMID:22548900

  12. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N; Barnett, Nancy P

    2015-10-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59% female, 33% non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period.

  13. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression. The actions of alcohol, pentobarbital, bicuculline, and the ampakine CX717, alone and in combination, were measured via 1) ventral root recordings from newborn rat brain stem-spinal cord preparations and 2) plethysmographic recordings from unrestrained newborn and adult rats. We found that ethanol caused a modest suppression of respiratory drive in vitro (50 mM) and in vivo (2 g/kg ip). Pentobarbital induced an ∼50% reduction in respiratory frequency in vitro (50 μM) and in vivo (28 mg/kg for pups and 56 mg/kg for adult rats ip). However, severe life-threatening apnea was induced by the combination of the agents in vitro and in vivo via activation of GABA(A) receptors, which was exacerbated by hypoxic (8% O(2)) conditions. Administration of the ampakine CX717 alleviated a significant component of the respiratory depression in vitro (50-150 μM) and in vivo (30 mg/kg ip). Bicuculline also alleviated ethanol-/pentobarbital-induced respiratory depression but caused seizure activity, whereas CX717 did not. These data demonstrated that ethanol and pentobarbital together caused severe respiratory depression, including lethal apnea, via synergistic actions that blunt chemoreceptive responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and suppress central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The ampakine CX717 markedly reduced the severity of respiratory depression.

  14. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  15. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kylie A; Baker, Amanda L; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-10-09

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  16. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838

  17. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions.

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Carol S.; McKibben, Jodi B.A.; Reissman, Dori B.; Scharf, Ted; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen M.; Shultz, James M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and increased alcohol and/or tobacco use to disaster exposure and work demand in Florida Department of Health workers after the 2004 hurricanes. Methods Participants (N = 2249) completed electronic questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, alcohol and tobacco use, hurricane exposure, and work demand. Results Total mental and behavioral health burden (probable PTSD, probable depression, increased alcohol and/or tobacco use) was 11%. More than 4% had probable PTSD, and 3.8% had probable depression. Among those with probable PTSD, 29.2% had increased alcohol use, and 50% had increased tobacco use. Among those with probable depression, 34% indicated increased alcohol use and 55.6% increased tobacco use. Workers with greater exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.3 and 3.06, respectively). After adjusting for demographics and work demand, those with high exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.21 and 3.13). Those with high exposure had increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 3.01 and 3.40), and those with high work demand indicated increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 1.98 and 2.10). High exposure and work demand predicted increased alcohol and tobacco use, after adjusting for demographics, work demand, and exposure. Conclusions Work-related disaster mental and behavioral health burden indicate the need for additional mental health interventions in the public health disaster workforce. PMID:24618140

  19. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  20. Urocortins: CRF's siblings and their potential role in anxiety, depression and alcohol drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, Andrey E; Tsoory, Michael M; Kozicz, Tamas; Thiele, Todd E; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Chen, Alon; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Giardino, William J; Kaur, Simranjit

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that stress, anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse-related disorders are in large part controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. However, evidence is accumulating that some of the actions on these receptors are mediated not by CRF, but by a family of related Urocortin (Ucn) peptides Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3. The initial narrow focus on CRF as the potential main player acting on CRF receptors appears outdated. Instead it is suggested that CRF and the individual Ucns act in a complementary and brain region-specific fashion to regulate anxiety-related behaviors and alcohol consumption. This review, based on a symposium held in 2011 at the research meeting on "Alcoholism and Stress" in Volterra, Italy, highlights recent evidence for regulation of these behaviors by Ucns. In studies on stress and anxiety, the roles of Ucns, and in particular Ucn1, appear more visible in experiments analyzing adaptation to stressors rather than testing basal anxiety states. Based on these studies, we propose that the contribution of Ucn1 to regulating mood follows a U-like pattern with both high and low activity of Ucn1 contributing to high anxiety states. In studies on alcohol use disorders, the CRF system appears to regulate not only dependence-induced drinking, but also binge drinking and even basal consumption of alcohol. While dependence-induced and binge drinking rely on the actions of CRF on CRFR1 receptors, alcohol consumption in models of these behaviors is inhibited by actions of Ucns on CRFR2. In contrast, alcohol preference is positively influenced by actions of Ucn1, which is capable of acting on both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Because of complex distribution of Ucns in the nervous system, advances in this field will critically depend on development of new tools allowing site-specific analyses of the roles of Ucns and CRF.

  1. A randomized trial of combined citalopram and naltrexone for nonabstinent outpatients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Simon J; Sellman, J Douglas; Foulds, James A; Frampton, Christopher M A; Deering, Daryle; Dunn, Alistair; Berks, John; Nixon, Lee; Cape, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Despite the high rate of co-occurrence of major depression and alcohol dependence, the role of pharmacotherapy in their treatment remains unclear. In the new era of naltrexone for alcohol dependence, it is notable that only 1 study to date has examined the efficacy of antidepressant medication prescribed concurrently with naltrexone. We aimed to determine whether combining naltrexone with citalopram produced better treatment outcomes than naltrexone alone in patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and depression, and to investigate whether either sex or depression type (independent or substance-induced depression) moderated treatment response. Participants were 138 depressed alcohol-dependent adults who were not required to be abstinent at the commencement of the trial. They were randomized to 12 weeks of citalopram or placebo, plus naltrexone and clinical case management. Treatment was well attended, and medications were reasonably well tolerated with high adherence rates. Substantial improvements in both mood and drinking occurred in both groups, with no significant differences between groups on any of the mood or drinking outcome measures, whether or not other variables were controlled for. No interaction effect was found for independent/substance-induced depression status, whereas there was a marginal effect found by sex, with greater improvement in 1 drinking outcome measure (percent days abstinent) in women taking citalopram. These findings suggest that citalopram is not a clinically useful addition to naltrexone and clinical case management in this treatment population. Independent/substance-induced depression status did not predict treatment response. Findings for sex were equivocal.

  2. Neuroimmune Interface in the Comorbidity between Alcohol Use Disorder and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Bidirectional communication links operate between the brain and the body. Afferent immune-to-brain signals are capable of inducing changes in mood and behavior. Chronic heavy alcohol drinking, typical of alcohol use disorder (AUD), is one such factor that provokes an immune response in the periphery that, by means of circulatory cytokines and other neuroimmune mediators, ultimately causes alterations in the brain function. Alcohol can also directly impact the immune functions of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Several lines of research have established the contribution of specific inflammatory mediators in the development and progression of depressive illness. Much of the available evidence in this field stems from cross-sectional data on the immune interactions between isolated AUD and major depression (MD). Given their heterogeneity as disease entities with overlapping symptoms and shared neuroimmune correlates, it is no surprise that systemic and CNS inflammation could be a critical determinant of the frequent comorbidity between AUD and MD. This review presents a summary and analysis of the extant literature on neuroimmune interface in the AUD–MD comorbidity. PMID:28082989

  3. Ethnic discrimination and Latino depression: The mediating role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas; Vallejo, Leticia G

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has established a link between ethnic discrimination and poor mental health, yet the process by which this relationship occurs remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that the potential mechanisms accounting for the negative consequences of ethnic discrimination may be through stress responses and health behaviors (Pascoe & Smart Richman, 2009). The present study sought to examine the role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use in mediating the relationship between ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms. Two aspects of ethnic discrimination were assessed, namely source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination. The sample for the current study included 244 adult Latinos averaging approximately 40 years of age (SD = 15.29; range 18-85). Participants, which were comprised of mainly women (66%, n = 156), completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Multiple mediator analyses revealed that, among U.S.-born but not foreign-born Latinos, both source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination were related to increased traumatic stress symptoms, which, in turn, was associated with depressive symptomatology. The traumatic stress symptoms pathway showed a robust indirect effect while alcohol use was not a statistically significant mediator. These major findings suggest that, while ethnic discrimination has a direct effect on depression, increased traumatic stress can account for this relationship particularly for U.S.-born Latinos. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping framework. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Iron-Catalyzed Allylic Amination Directly from Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, Balakumar; Roy, Moumita; Sundararaju, Basker

    2016-03-14

    Allylic amination, directly from alcohols, has been demonstrated without any Lewis acid activators using an efficient and regiospecific molecular iron catalyst. Various amines and alcohols were employed and the reaction proceeded through the oxidation/reduction (redox) pathway. A direct one-step synthesis of common drugs, such as cinnarizine and nafetifine, was exhibited from cinnamyl alcohol that produced water as side product.

  5. [Depressive symptomatology and alcohol-related problems during the academic training of medical students].

    PubMed

    Valle, Rubén; Sánchez, Elard; Perales, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the frequency of depressive symptomatology (DS) and alcohol-related problems (ARP) during the academic training of medical students from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from first to sixth year of career. The Zung Self-Rating depression scale was used to evaluate DS and the CAGE questionnaire to evaluate ARP. 23.3% of participants had DS, and 7.3% had ARP. We found that the frequency of DS and ARP was higher among students in the first years of career. We recommend it is necessary to take action in the prevention and detection of these disorders from the first years of training of medical students.

  6. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention.

  7. Phobic anxiety and depression as predictor variables for treatment outcome. A LISREL analysis on treated female alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Haver, Brit; Gjestad, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the relationship between phobic anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, treatment and drinking outcome in female alcoholics. A structural equation analysis (LISREL) was used to test the strength and direction of predictor variables, enabling the development of models for the process of change taking place following treatment. Participants were patients attending a specific treatment programme for women with alcohol problems at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. One hundred and twenty female alcoholics consecutively admitted during 1991-1993 were followed up 2 years after treatment. The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) and Symptom Check List-90 were used at intake and follow-up. Duration of problem drinking and depression at follow-up affected drinking outcome directly and negatively, whereas duration of treatment affected drinking outcome directly and positively in all our models. Phobic anxiety on the other hand affected drinking outcome negatively and indirectly, via shorter treatment duration and higher depression at follow-up. Using different outcome variables as an end product resulted in only minor changes. Thus, the model presented is viewed as robust and clinically meaningful. The results underscore the importance of phobic anxiety and recurrent or sustained depression--in addition to the pre-treatment duration of problem drinking--for the drinking outcome among female alcoholics.

  8. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Treatment Response to Brief Intervention for Prevention of Alcohol Exposed Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Hook, Joshua; Hettema, Jennifer; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) plus Feedback condition against a Video Information (VI) condition and an Informational Brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the 3 brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus Feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus Feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials. PMID:23810264

  9. Depressive symptoms moderate treatment response to brief intervention for prevention of alcohol exposed pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, J Kim; Hook, Joshua N; Hettema, Jennifer; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2013-10-01

    The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) plus feedback condition against a video information (VI) condition and an informational brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the three brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials.

  10. Alcohol Problems as a Risk Factor for Post-Disaster Depressed Mood among U.S. Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Kevin C.; Stein, Judith A.; Dobalian, Aram; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andrew B.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol problems may impede adaptive, proactive responses to disaster-related injury and loss, thus prolonging the adverse impact of disasters on mental health. Previous work suggests that veterans of the U.S. armed forces have a relatively high prevalence of alcohol misuse and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to estimate the impact of pre-disaster alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood among veterans, using data that were collected before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. We assessed the impact of alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood in an existing clinical cohort of veterans who experienced the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that struck Northridge in January 1994. One-to-three months after the disaster, interviewers contacted participants by telephone to administer a follow-up questionnaire based on a survey that had been done pre-earthquake. Post-earthquake data were obtained on 1144 male veterans for whom there were pre-earthquake data. We tested a predictive path model of the relationships between latent variables for pre-disaster alcohol problems, functional limitations, and depressed mood on latent variables representing post-disaster “quake impact” and depressive mood. Results showed that veterans who had more alcohol problems before the earthquake experienced more earthquake-related harms and severely depressed mood after the earthquake, compared with those who had fewer alcohol problems. Programs serving veterans with a high prevalence of alcohol problems should consider designing disaster response protocols to locate and assist these patients in the aftermath of disasters. PMID:23106638

  11. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  12. Minority Stress, Depression, Relationship Quality, and Alcohol Use: Associations with Overweight and Obesity Among Partnered Young Adult Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Although lesbian women are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, relatively little research has examined correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of minority stress and depression, relationship quality, and alcohol-use variables to overweight and obesity among lesbians in relationships. Method: Self-identified lesbians (n=737) in current relationships completed measures of demographics, minority stress, depressive symptoms, relationship variables, and alcohol use. Results: Overweight and obesity were associated with more public identification as a lesbian, more depressive symptoms, increased heavy drinking, longer relationship length, and lower relationship consensus. Conclusion: Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should incorporate psychological, relationship, and alcohol use components to reduce overweight and obesity among lesbians. PMID:26788774

  13. Depressive and aggressive responses to frustration: development of a questionnaire and its validation in a sample of male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Baars, M Y; Müller, M J; Gallhofer, B; Netter, P

    2011-01-01

    Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.

  14. Age, alcoholism and depression are associated with low levels of urinary melatonin.

    PubMed Central

    Wetterberg, L; Aperia, B; Gorelick, D A; Gwirtzman, H E; McGuire, M T; Serafetinides, E A; Yuwiler, A

    1992-01-01

    Two normal control populations, separated by 8,000 miles and 24 degrees of latitude, had similar six-month mean values for overnight urinary melatonin concentrations. These values were significantly higher than six-month values for depressed subjects and abstinent alcoholic subjects, while the means for the two clinical populations were similar. Age and urinary melatonin concentration in the control and clinical populations were inversely related, but the slopes of the linear regression equations were ten times steeper for the control populations than for the clinical populations. Differences in age and sex distributions accounted for some of the differences in values between controls and the clinical populations, although controls still differed from the clinical populations, even after sex and age were factored out. The disparate slopes for age and melatonin concentrations may contribute to some of the conflicting findings of studies comparing populations of different ages. The total melatonin content in the samples from alcoholic subjects, but not the depressed subjects, was lower than that for controls. The difference in the urinary melatonin concentration between the controls and the two patient groups was not accounted for by difference in duration of urine collection period, hours of sleep or body weight. PMID:1489763

  15. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  16. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click for more information Depression is more than ... that contribute to depression. Is It Grief or Depression? Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish grief ...

  17. The relationship of alcohol-use disorders and depressive symptoms to tryptophan metabolism: cross-sectional data from a Nepalese alcohol treatment sample

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Martinez, Priscilla; Hestad, Knut; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism results in increased production of potentially depressogenic tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan availability for serotonin synthesis. Since alcohol consumption affects tryptophan metabolism and disposition, we determined serum levels of kynurenine, tryptophan and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KT ratio) in alcohol-use disorder (AUD) patients and compared their levels considering abstinence duration, AUD severity and comorbid depression. Methods The study sample included 169 AUD inpatients from eight alcohol treatment facilities in Kathmandu, Nepal. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to generate the AUD diagnosis. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) captured AUD severity and patterns of alcohol use. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 was used to reveal current depressive symptoms. Serum kynurenine and tryptophan levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and tryptophan degradation was measured by KT ratio (kynurenine/tryptophan × 103). Results Patients with above average AUDIT scores had higher mean serum levels of kynurenine (2.1μM±0.7 vs 1.8 μM ±0.6, p= 0.006) and KT ratios (48.6±17.6 vs 40.4±14.3, p=0.002) than those with below average scores. Patients with current depressive symptoms had higher mean tryptophan concentrations (49.9 μM ±13 vs 45.7 μM±14.1, p= 0.047) and lower KT ratios (41.4 μM ±14 vs 47.5 μM ±17.6, p=0.028) compared to patients whose reported depressive symptoms were below the standard cut-off. Higher tryptophan levels and lower KT ratios in the depressed group was specific to patients with longer abstinence and higher AUD severity. Conclusions Depression-related deregulation in tryptophan metabolism was found to depend on length of abstinence and on AUD severity. Together, results suggest that in AUD populations, peripheral tryptophan metabolism is subject to interactions

  18. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  19. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  20. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  1. Psychosocial conditions on and off the job and psychological ill health: depressive symptoms, impaired psychological wellbeing, heavy consumption of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, H; Bildt, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. Aims: To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Methods: Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Results: Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Conclusions: Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health. PMID:12819282

  2. A narrative review of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and implications for its use in an alcohol-dependent population.

    PubMed

    McPherson, A; Martin, C R

    2010-02-01

    The findings from the present study reveal that the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression in a variety of populations. This realization should enable nurses and other health professionals to utilize the tool with added confidence and assurance. * The main finding was that the BDI would probably be a reliable and valid screening tool in an alcohol-dependent population. This conclusion appears to echo the relationship that alcohol consumption generally has with depression. This finding is important to those practitioners using the BDI in this population in that it provides further evidence to enhance their practical experience. Abstract A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out on contemporary studies to ascertain its suitability for use in an alcohol-dependent population. Three criteria were used for this: factor analysis, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis revealed that its structure is consistent with either two or three factor models, depending on the population. Test-retest results concluded that the correlation coefficient remained above the recommended threshold and internal consistency reliability highlighted alpha coefficient results consistently above suggested scores, leading to the conclusion that the BDI is probably an effective screening tool in an alcohol-dependent population.

  3. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  4. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  5. A Review of the Literature of Mirtazapine in Co-Occurring Depression and an Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, JR; Chung, TA; Douaihy, AB; Kirisci, L; Glance, J; Kmiec, J; Wesesky, MA; FitzGerald, D; Salloum, I

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior medication studies involving individuals with major depression in combination with an alcohol use disorder (MDD/AUD) have mainly focused on SSRI and tricyclic antidepressants, with generally ineffective results. Consequently, effective treatments for that common comorbid condition remain elusive. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant medicine with a unique pharmacological profile, whose effectiveness for treating non-comorbid depression reportedly may exceed that of SSRIs. Objective/Methods We now review the published literature regarding the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of the depression and the pathological alcohol ingestion of individuals with co-occurring MDD/AUD, including a review of four of our own small studies and two studies conducted outside the United States. Results/Conclusions The findings of these studies suggest that mirtazapine is well tolerated among persons with comorbid MDD/AUD. Results also provide some evidence of efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing the level of depression of persons with co-occurring MDD/AUD, and suggest that decreases in depression may occur relatively quickly after starting treatment, but provide no evidence of effectiveness for decreasing the level of alcohol ingestion. Large-scale double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to further clarify the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine among individuals with MDD/AUD.

  6. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  8. Adjunctive aripiprazole therapy with escitalopram in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: Clinical and neuroimaging evidence

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Choi, Jung Eun; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    The effective treatment of depression has been reported to reduce the severity of alcohol use, potentially reflecting improvements in common brain reward circuits. We hypothesized that augmentation therapy of escitalopram with aripiprazole would improve depressive symptoms as well as reduce craving for alcohol and cue-induced brain activity in patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder, compared with treatment with escitalopram alone. Thirty-five subjects with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence were recruited and randomly assigned into 17 aripiprazole + escitalopram and 18 escitalopram only groups. At baseline and following six weeks of treatment, symptoms of depression, craving for alcohol and brain activity were evaluated. During the six week treatment period, Beck Depression Inventory and clinical global index-severity (CGI-S) scores decreased in both the aripiprazole + escitalopram and escitalopram only groups. In addition, following the treatment period, the Korean alcohol urge questionnaire scores in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group were reduced from 23.3±8.4 to 14.3±4.9, compared with those of the escitalopram group of from 21.6±8.4 to 19.3±7.1 (F=13.1, p<0.01). The activity within the anterior cingulate was increased in response to the presentation of alcohol drinking scenes following treatment in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group. The change of brain activity within the left anterior cingulate gyrus in all patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder was negatively correlated with the change in craving for alcohol. These findings suggest that the effects of aripiprazole on anterior cingulate cortex might mediate the successful treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:23325372

  9. Adjunctive aripiprazole therapy with escitalopram in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: clinical and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Choi, Jung Eun; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-03-01

    The effective treatment of depression has been reported to reduce the severity of alcohol use, potentially reflecting improvements in common brain reward circuits. We hypothesized that augmentation therapy of escitalopram with aripiprazole would improve depressive symptoms as well as reduce craving for alcohol and cue-induced brain activity in patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder, compared with treatment with escitalopram alone. Thirty-five subjects with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence were recruited and randomly assigned into 17 aripiprazole + escitalopram and 18 escitalopram only groups. At baseline and following six weeks of treatment, symptoms of depression, craving for alcohol and brain activity were evaluated. During the six week treatment period, Beck Depression Inventory and clinical global index-severity (CGI-S) scores decreased in both the aripiprazole + escitalopram and escitalopram only groups. In addition, following the treatment period, the Korean alcohol urge questionnaire scores in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group were reduced from 23.3±8.4 to 14.3±4.9, compared with those of the escitalopram group of from 21.6±8.4 to 19.3±7.1 (F=13.1, p<0.01). The activity within the anterior cingulate was increased in response to the presentation of alcohol drinking scenes following treatment in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group. The change of brain activity within the left anterior cingulate gyrus in all patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder was negatively correlated with the change in craving for alcohol. These findings suggest that the effects of aripiprazole on anterior cingulate cortex might mediate the successful treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with major depressive disorder.

  10. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Alcohol, Cannabis, Co-occurring Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders with Major Depressive Disorder: Results From a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Crum, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders (AUD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in the United States (US), and are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use/use disorders (AUD+CUD), though understudied, have been found to be associated with greater adverse outcomes than alcohol or cannabis use/use disorders alone. There is a paucity of research on the co-occurring relationships of the two disorders with depression. Methods Data came from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a population-based longitudinal survey of the adult non-institutionalized, civilian population in the US. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between: 1) baseline AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD with incident MDD at follow-up and 2) baseline MDD with incident AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD at follow-up, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results For Aim 1, most of the AUD and CUD were positively associated with MDD. The strongest associations with incident MDD were observed for cannabis dependence (OR=6.61, CI=1.67–26.21) and co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=2.34, CI=1.23–4.48). For Aim 2, baseline MDD was significantly associated with comparatively fewer cases of incident AUD and CUD but the strongest association was observed for new onset co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=4.51, CI=1.31–15.60). Limitations The present study is limited by the potential for social desirability and recall biases. Discussion Positive associations between AUD, CUD and MDD were observed bidirectionally. Findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs and initiatives. PMID:23260381

  11. Serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor for escitalopram treatment of major depressive disorder comorbid with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, Leea H; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Haukka, Jari; Saarikoski, Sirkku T

    2011-03-30

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) is associated with the treatment outcomes of escitalopram for patients with comorbid major depression and alcohol dependence. Eighty treatment-seeking patients were randomly assigned to either receive 20mg of escitalopram or a control of 20mg of the non-serotonergically acting memantine. Depression was measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and alcoholism by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Twenty-nine participants in each treatment group completed the study, and from those DNA was given by 27 in the escitalopram group and 21 in the memantine group. In the escitalopram group linear regression showed that LL genotype predicted greater decrease in MADRS scores compared with the SS/SL genotypes (p=0.04) after a 3month treatment period. Moreover, each L allele associated with MADRS score decrease by 15% (p=0.04) in the escitalopram group. In the memantine group, however, no association between LL genotype and MADRS decrease was detected. AUDIT decrease was not associated with the 5-HTTLPR genotype for either medication. This is the first study in the treatment of depression in dual diagnosis patients to report a significant association between outcomes with escitalopram and the 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism.

  12. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups.

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  15. Neuroendocrinology of a Male-Specific Pattern for Depression Linked to Alcohol Use Disorder and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andreas; Rice, Timothy; Kufert, Yael; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression. Low circulating levels of sex steroids seem to increase the vulnerability for male depression, while concomitant high levels of glucocorticoids further intensify this vulnerability. Interactions of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-related hormones seem to be highly relevant for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. Moreover, genetic variants and the epigenetic profiles of the androgen receptor gene, well-known depression related genes, and HPA axis-related genes were shown to further interact with men’s steroid secretion and thus may further contribute to the proposed male-specific pattern for depression. This mini-review points out the multilevel interactions between the HPG and HPA axis for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. An integration of multilevel interactions within the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience concludes the review. PMID:28096796

  16. Alcohol Impairs Long-Term Depression at the Cerebellar Parallel Fiber–Purkinje Cell Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Belmeguenai, Amor; Botta, Paolo; Weber, John T.; Carta, Mario; De Ruiter, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Hansel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol consumption causes deficits in motor coordination and gait, suggesting an involvement of cerebellar circuits, which play a role in the fine adjustment of movements and in motor learning. It has previously been shown that ethanol modulates inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum and affects synaptic transmission and plasticity at excitatory climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell synapses. However, it has not been examined thus far how acute ethanol application affects long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, which are assumed to mediate forms of cerebellar motor learning. To examine ethanol effects on PF synaptic transmission and plasticity, we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in rat cerebellar slices. We found that ethanol (50 mM) selectively blocked PF–LTD induction, whereas it did not change the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents at PF synapses. In contrast, ethanol application reduced voltage-gated calcium currents and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)–dependent responses in Purkinje cells, both of which are involved in PF–LTD induction. The selectivity of these effects is emphasized by the observation that ethanol did not impair PF–LTP and that PF–LTP could readily be induced in the presence of the group I mGluR antagonist AIDA or the mGluR1a antagonist LY367385. Taken together, these findings identify calcium currents and mGluR1-dependent signaling pathways as potential ethanol targets and suggest that an ethanol-induced blockade of PF–LTD could contribute to the motor coordination deficits resulting from alcohol consumption. PMID:18922952

  17. Relationship between depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected, clinic-attending patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-02-15

    Despite the prevalence of depression and alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, few studies have examined their association together in relation to nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and other psychosocial factors (stigma, demographic characteristics) in relation to nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among clinic-attending, HIV-infected individuals in South Africa (n = 101). Nonadherence was assessed using event-level measurement (missed doses over the past weekend). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that only alcohol use, over and above depressive symptoms and education level, was associated with antiretroviral therapy nonadherence(AOR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.02-1.29; p < .05). Findings point to the independent association of alcohol use and nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy above and beyond depressive symptoms.

  18. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  2. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  3. Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen C; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Stock, Heather; Budde, John; Allen, Rebecca; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kwon, Jennifer M; Wu, William; Dick, Danielle M; Rice, John; Jones, Kevin; Nurnberger, John I; Tischfield, Jay; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor; Crowe, Ray; Schuckit, Mark; Begleiter, Henri; Reich, Theodore; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Several correlated phenotypes, alcohol dependence, major depressive syndrome, and an endophenotype of electrophysiological measurements, event-related oscillations (EROs), have demonstrated linkage on the long arm of chromosome 7. Recently, we reported both linkage and association between polymorphisms in the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) and EROs. In this study, we evaluated whether genetic variation in the CHRM2 gene is also a risk factor for the correlated clinical characteristics of alcoholism and depression. The CHRM2 gene contains a single coding exon and a large 5' untranslated region encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Families were recruited through an alcohol dependent proband, and multiplex pedigrees were selected for genetic analyses. We examined 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the CHRM2 gene in these families. Using the UNPHASED pedigree disequilibrium test (PDTPHASE), three SNPs (one in intron 4 and two in intron 5) showed highly significant association with alcoholism (P=0.004-0.007). Two SNPs (both in intron 4) were significantly associated with major depressive syndrome (P=0.004 and 0.017). Haplotype analyses revealed that the most common haplotype (>40% frequency), T-T-T (rs1824024-rs2061174-rs324650), was under-transmitted to affected individuals with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Different complementary haplotypes were over-transmitted in alcohol dependent and depressed individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that variants within or close to the CHRM2 locus influence risk for two common psychiatric disorders.

  4. Changes in women’s alcoholic, antisocial, and depressive symptomatology over 12 years: A multilevel network of individual, familial, and neighborhood influences

    PubMed Central

    Buu, Anne; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 273 adult women and their families, we examined the effects of women’s psychopathology history, their social support, their husbands’ and children’s symptomatology, family stress, and neighborhood environment on their alcohol problems, antisocial behavior, and depression over a 12-year period during their ‘30s and early ‘40s. Women’s alcohol problems and antisocial behavior decreased but their depression symptoms increased over time. Women’s disorder history and their partners’ parallel symptomatology were associated with their symptoms. For women’s antisocial behavior, their own history of alcoholism and their partners’ alcohol problems were also significant risk factors. Higher levels of social support were associated with lower levels of depression in women. Children’s externalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ alcohol problems and antisocial behavior, whereas children’s internalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ depression. Neighborhood residential instability was associated with higher levels of alcoholic and depressive symptomatology in women. Intervention efforts might target women with young children by improving social support, educational or professional training opportunity, access to family counseling, and neighborhood environment. PMID:21262058

  5. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at ... are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  7. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is ... alone. Others with moderate to severe depression might benefit from antidepressants. It may take a few weeks ...

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, ...

  9. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis, get help quickly. Reprints Share Depression Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... a serious but treatable mood disorder. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or low sometimes, but these ...

  10. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  11. Depression, alcohol use, and stigma in younger versus older HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.

  12. A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial that Combines Sertraline and Naltrexone for Treating Co-Occurring Depression and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Dundon, William D.; Xie, Hu; Gallis, Thea L.; Dackis, Charles A.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Empirical evidence has only weakly supported antidepressant treatment for patients with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence. While some studies have demonstrated that antidepressants reduce these patients’ depressive symptoms, most studies have not found antidepressants helpful in reducing excessive drinking in these patients. We provide results from a double blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of combining approved medications for depression (sertraline) and alcohol dependence (naltrexone) for treating patients with both disorders. METHODS 170 depressed, alcohol-dependent patients were randomized for 14 weeks to sertraline (200mg/day), naltrexone (100mg/day), the combination, or placebo, while receiving weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. RESULTS The sertraline + naltrexone combination produced a higher alcohol abstinence rate (53.7%; p = .001; odds ratio = 3.7), and a longer delay before relapse to heavy drinking (98 median days; p = .003; d = .54), than the other treatments: naltrexone (21.3% abstinent, 29 days), sertraline (27.5% abstinent, 23 days), or placebo (23.1% abstinent, 26 days). There also was a trend for more patients in the medication combination group not to be depressed by the end of treatment (83.3%; p = .014; odds ratio = 3.6), compared to the other treatments. The serious adverse event rate was 25.9%, with fewer reported by the medication combination group (11.9%; p < .02) than the other treatments. CONCLUSION More depressed, alcohol-dependent patients taking the sertraline + naltrexone combination achieved abstinence from alcohol, delayed relapse to heavy drinking, reported fewer serious adverse events, and tended not to be depressed by the end of treatment. PMID:20231324

  13. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  14. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.

  15. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in patients with bipolar disorder, mixed or depressed phase, and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Domingo Davila, S.; Nakamura, Alyson; Carmody, Thomas J.; Rush, A. John; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci; Adinoff, Bryon; Caetano, Raul; Swann, Alan C; Sunderajan, Prabha; Bret, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is common in bipolar disorder (BPD) and associated with treatment non-adherence, violence, and hospitalization. Quetiapine is a standard treatment for BPD. We previously reported improvement in depressive symptoms, but not alcohol use, with quetiapine in BPD and alcohol dependence. However, mean alcohol use was low and a larger effect size on alcohol-related measures was observed in those with higher levels of alcohol consumption. In this study, efficacy of quetiapine in patients with BPD and alcohol dependence was examined in patients with higher mean baseline alcohol use than in the prior study. Methods Ninety outpatients with bipolar I or II disorders, depressed or mixed mood state, and current alcohol dependence were randomized to 12 weeks of sustained release quetiapine (to 600 mg/day) add-on therapy or placebo. Drinking was quantified using the Timeline Follow Back method. Additional assessment tools included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), liver enzymes, and side effects. Alcohol use and mood were analyzed using a declining-effects random-regression model. Results Baseline and demographic characteristics in the two groups were similar. No significant between-group differences were observed on the primary outcome measure of drinks/day or other alcohol-related or mood measures (p>.05). Overall side effect burden, glucose and cholesterol were similar in the two groups. However, a significant weight increase was observed with quetiapine at week 6 (+2.9 lbs [SE 1.4] quetiapine vs. −2.0 lbs [SE 1.4], p=.03), but not at week 12. Scores on the Barnes Akathisia Scale increased significantly more (p=.04) with quetiapine (+0.40 (SE 0.3)) than placebo (−0.52 (SE 0.3)) at week 6 but not week 12. Retention (survival) in the study was similar in the groups. Conclusions Findings suggest that

  17. Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Camchong, Jazmin; Cardenas, Valerie A; Stenger, Andy

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs.

  18. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  19. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  20. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  2. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  3. Exercise interventions for smokers with a history of alcoholism: exercise adherence rates and effect of depression on adherence.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A; Vickers, Kristin S; Martin, John E; Williams, Carl D

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the adherence rates and the effect of depression on adherence in two studies conducted among smokers with a past history of alcoholism. In both studies, subjects participated in a 12-session group-based exercise intervention for smoking cessation. The target quit date (TQD) was Session 8. Participants in Study 1 were 73 smokers (43% female). Exercise instructions began at Session 8 and continued through Session 12. Mean frequency and number of minutes of exercise decreased during the 4 weeks of exercise treatment (P<.001). Study 2, conducted with 18 smokers (50% female), examined the feasibility of commencing exercise at Session 1, well before the TQD. The mean number of minutes exercised increased from Sessions 1 to 12 (P=.013). In both studies, average session attendance was high (82%). Combining subjects from both studies, depressed smokers at baseline reported greater mean frequency of exercise per week than nondepressed smokers (P=.05). The results suggest that depressed smokers can be engaged in an exercise program. Further research is needed to determine if commencing exercise early during treatment, prior to the TQD, improves adherence.

  4. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other drugs to add to the other drugs ’ high or to deal with their side effects. Abusers take higher doses than people taking the drugs under a doctor ’ s supervision for therapeutic purposes. Depressants ...

  5. Multi-Substance Use among Treatment-seeking Smokers: Synergistic Effects of Coping Motives for Cannabis and Alcohol Use and Social Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of coping motives for cannabis and alcohol use on the relation between social anxiety/depressive symptoms and severity of substance use for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis among treatment-seeking smokers who also use cannabis and alcohol. Methods The sample included 197 daily cigarette smokers (MAge 34.81 yrs, SD = 13.43) who reported using cannabis and alcohol. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted wherein separate models were constructed for each dependent variable. Among individuals with higher social anxiety, alcohol coping motives were associated with heavier drinking, and this was more pronounced among those low in depressive symptoms. Similarly, those at greater risk for nicotine dependence were anxious individuals with lower depressive symptoms who endorse coping-oriented motives for using cannabis. Further, among those with higher social anxiety, cannabis coping motives were associated with marginally greater drinking, particularly for those high in depressive symptoms. Conclusions The present findings support the perspective that among multi-substance users, the interplay between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping-oriented motives for using one substance (e.g., cannabis or alcohol) may pose difficulties in refraining from other substances (e.g., tobacco). This observation highlights the importance of tailoring multi-substance treatments to specific needs of multi-users for whom single-substance interventions may be less effective. Findings also support previous work exploring the benefits of concurrently treating co-occurring substance use and lend credence to the perspective that motivation to use substances for coping reasons is of central theoretical and clinical relevance. PMID:26846421

  6. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  7. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  8. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Methods Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). Results The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=–0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Conclusions Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both

  9. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    PubMed

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  10. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

    PubMed

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  11. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  12. Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for dissociative identity disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brianna E; Macfie, Jenny; Elledge, L Christian

    2016-09-30

    We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment. Significant symptom improvements were realized posttreatment across all measured domains of functioning, including dissociative symptoms, alcohol abuse, depression, anxiety, and emotion regulation skills. Moreover, the client no longer met criteria for DID, major depressive disorder, or alcohol abuse. Results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of trauma-focused, phase-based treatment for DID for cases of complex trauma with comorbid disorders.

  13. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  14. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... crime punishable by hefty fines and jail time. How Can Someone Quit? Quitting depressants can be very difficult. A person who tries to stop taking the drugs can have tremors, breathing problems, and seizures, go into a coma, or even die. Because the body's systems get used to the ...

  15. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Zakeri, Samaneh; Khoshdast, Sadieh; Yousefian, Fatemeh T.; Rastegar, Monireh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Kahdouee, Shamsi; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Kazemi, S. Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ), have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip) 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200) and 4 (LPS + NS 400) were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip), respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days), and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001). The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01). In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01) while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001). Furthermore, in the LPS group, the

  16. Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mezey, E; Potter, J J; Diehl, A M

    1986-01-15

    Hepatocytes harvested from castrated rats retained a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) activity than hepatocytes harvested from normal rats during 7 days of culture. Dihydrotestosterone (1 microM) decreased the enzyme activity, after 2 and 5 days of culture, in hepatocytes from castrated and control animals respectively. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the enzyme activity to similar values in both groups of hepatocytes by the end of 7 days of culture. Testosterone (1 microM) had no effect on the enzyme activity in normal hepatocytes and only a transitory effect in decreasing the enzyme activity in hepatocytes from castrated animals. The increases in alcohol dehydrogenase activity after castration and their suppression by dihydrotestosterone were associated with parallel changes in the rate of ethanol elimination. Additions of substrates of the malate-aspartate shuttle or dinitrophenol did not modify ethanol elimination. These observations indicate that dihydrotestosterone has a direct suppressant effect on hepatocyte alcohol dehydrogenase and that the enzyme activity is a major determinant of the rate of ethanol elimination.

  17. Depression.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  18. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in relation to comorbid depression and cytokine levels in Nepalese men with alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Aukrust, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegenerative and inflammatory processes are involved separately in major depression (MD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). Little is known about the nature of this relationship in the context of comorbid AUD and depression disorders. In this study, we determined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels in patients with AUD and tested whether BDNF levels were related to history of major depression, recent depressive symptoms, AUD severity, and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Nepalese male AUD inpatients (N=152) abstinent from alcohol for an average of 34 days were administered structured interviews to assess depression symptoms and pattern and extent of alcohol use, and to generate research diagnoses for AUD and MD. AUD severity was assessed by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Serum BDNF and cytokines were measured using ELISA and multiplex technology, respectively. Although serum BDNF levels were unrelated to MD history, patients with recent depressive symptoms (n=42) had lower (mean±SD) BDNF serum levels compared to those without (n=110) (21.6±8.1 ng/mL vs. 26.0±9.6 ng/mL; p=0.010), and patients with higher AUD severity and binge-drinking patterns had higher mean serum BDNF levels compared to lower AUD severity and non-binging (25.9±9.7 ng/mL vs. 22.1±8.7 ng/mL; p=0.022 and 25.7±9.3 vs. 21.8±9.7 ng/mL; p=0.029, respectively). Positive correlations were present between BDNF and TNF-α (r=0.39, p<0.001) and IL-6 (r=0.2, p=0.027). In particular, TNF-α levels were predictive of BDNF levels after controlling for confounders (B=0.3 [95% CI=0.2-0.5], p<0.001). These findings show that in alcohol-using populations, peripheral BDNF levels are related to severity of AUD as well as presence of depressive symptoms. The significant associations between inflammatory and neurotrophic factors may have implications for neuroadaptive changes during recovery from AUD.

  19. The importance of depression and alcohol use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: risk factors for delirium and poorer quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Joanne M; Denson, Linley A; Baker, Robert A; Tully, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether depression, anxiety and stress increase the risk for delirium and poor quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Methods A total of 180 CABG patients (mean age of 63.5 ± 10.1 years, 82.2% males) completed baseline and postoperative self-report questionnaires to assess distress and QOL. Incident delirium was diagnosed postoperatively with a structured clinical interview and patients were monitored every day post-operatively for confusion and disturbance in consciousness. Results Delirium developed in 63 persons (35% of sample). After adjustment for covariates, delirium was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.13, P = 0.003], anxiety (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13, P = 0.01) and stress (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.09, P = 0.03). Preoperative depression scores were associated with poorer QOL including bodily pain (β = −0.39, P = 0.013), vitality (β = −0.32, P = 0.020), social functioning (β = −0.51, P ≤ 0.001), emotional role function (β = −0.44, P = 0.003) and general health (β = −0.33, P = 0.038). Among the covariates, harmful levels of alcohol use was consistently associated with poorer QOL. Conclusions Depression and harmful levels of alcohol use were consistently associated with poorer QOL whereas depression, anxiety and stress were associated with delirium risk. These findings point to further research examining depression and harmful levels of alcohol use in coronary heart disease populations undergoing coronary revascularization. PMID:26918013

  20. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  1. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  2. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  3. Modeling PTSD symptom clusters, alcohol misuse, anger, and depression as they relate to aggression and suicidality in returning U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Suicidal ideation and aggression are common correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. The existing literature has established a strong link between these factors, but a more nuanced understanding of how PTSD influences them is needed. The current study examined the direct and indirect relationships between PTSD symptom clusters and suicidal ideation in general aggression (without a specified target) regarding depression, alcohol misuse, and trait anger. Participants were 359 (92% male) U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. Path analysis results suggested that the PTSD numbing cluster was directly (β = .28, p < .01) and indirectly (β = .17, p = .001) related through depression. The PTSD hyperarousal cluster was indirectly related to suicidal ideation through depression (β = .13, p < .001). The PTSD reexperiencing cluster was directly related to aggression (β = .17, p < .05), whereas the PTSD numbing and hyperarousal clusters were indirectly related to aggression through trait anger (β = .05, p < .05; β = .20, p < .001). These findings indicate that adjunct treatments aimed at stabilizing anger, depression, and alcohol misuse may help clinicians ameliorate the maladaptive patterns often observed in veterans. These results also point to specific manifestations of PTSD and co-occurring conditions that may inform clinicians in their attempts to identify at risk veterans and facilitate preventative interventions.

  4. Do importance of religious faith and healthy lifestyle modify the relationships between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption? A survey of students across seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities.

  5. Chronic intermittent alcohol disrupts the GluN2B-associated proteome and specifically regulates group I mGlu receptor-dependent long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Wills, Tiffany A; Baucum, Anthony J; Holleran, Katherine M; Chen, Yaoyi; Pasek, Johanna G; Delpire, Eric; Tabb, David L; Colbran, Roger J; Winder, Danny G

    2017-03-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are major targets of both acute and chronic alcohol, as well as regulators of plasticity in a number of brain regions. Aberrant plasticity may contribute to the treatment resistance and high relapse rates observed in alcoholics. Recent work suggests that chronic alcohol treatment preferentially modulates both the expression and subcellular localization of NMDARs containing the GluN2B subunit. Signaling through synaptic and extrasynaptic GluN2B-NMDARs has already been implicated in the pathophysiology of various other neurological disorders. NMDARs interact with a large number of proteins at the glutamate synapse, and a better understanding of how alcohol modulates this proteome is needed. We employed a discovery-based proteomic approach in subcellular fractions of hippocampal tissue from chronic intermittent alcohol (CIE)-exposed C57Bl/6J mice to gain insight into alcohol-induced changes in GluN2B signaling complexes. Protein enrichment analyses revealed changes in the association of post-synaptic proteins, including scaffolding, glutamate receptor and PDZ-domain binding proteins with GluN2B. In particular, GluN2B interaction with metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)1/5 receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD)-associated proteins such as Arc and Homer 1 was increased, while GluA2 was decreased. Accordingly, we found a lack of mGlu1/5 -induced LTD while α1 -adrenergic receptor-induced LTD remained intact in hippocampal CA1 following CIE. These data suggest that CIE specifically disrupts mGlu1/5 -LTD, representing a possible connection between NMDAR and mGlu receptor signaling. These studies not only demonstrate a new way in which alcohol can modulate plasticity in the hippocampus but also emphasize the utility of this discovery-based proteomic approach to generate new hypotheses regarding alcohol-related mechanisms.

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Sheema, S; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L; Laughlin, Mary H; Spence, Nathan E; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N; Allan, Andrea M

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exons III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD.

  7. Supramolecular structures based on regioisomers of cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins – new media for capillary separation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkovics, Gabor; Hodek, Ondrej; Havlikova, Martina; Bosakova, Zuzana; Coufal, Pavel; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Eva; Darcsi, Andras; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the preparation and application of supramolecular structures based on mono-cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins (Cin-α-CD). Pure regioisomers of Cin-α-CD having the cinnamyl moiety at the 2-O- or at the 3-O-position, respectively, were prepared, characterized and applied in capillary electrophoresis as additives to the background electrolyte. These new monomer units with a potential to self-organize into supramolecular structures were synthesized via a straightforward one-step synthetic procedure and purified using preparative reversed-phase chromatography allowing a large scale separation of the regioisomers. The ability of the monomers to self-assemble was proved by various methods including NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The light scattering experiments showed that the monomer units have distinguishable ability to form supramolecular structures in different solvents and the size distribution of the aggregates in water can be easily modulated using different external stimuli, such as temperature or competitive guest molecules. The obtained results indicated that the two regioisomers of Cin-α-CD formed different supramolecular assemblies highlighting the fact that the position of the cinnamyl group plays an important role in the intermolecular complex formation. PMID:26877812

  8. Correlates of Depression in Self-Neglecting Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Role of Alcohol Abuse and Pain in Increasing Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C.; Flores, David V.; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. Methods The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n=96), 65-years of age and older with Adult Protective Services substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. Results A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Implications Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults. PMID:26716386

  9. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Treatment Contact Coverage for Probable Depressive and Probable Alcohol Use Disorders in Four Low- and Middle-Income Country Districts: The PRIME Cross-Sectional Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Breuer, Erica; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhin, Girmay; Kigozi, Fred; Shidhaye, Rahul; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Context A robust evidence base is now emerging that indicates that treatment for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUD) delivered in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be effective. However, the coverage of services for these conditions in most LMIC settings remains unknown. Objective To describe the methods of a repeat cross-sectional survey to determine changes in treatment contact coverage for probable depression and for probable AUD in four LMIC districts, and to present the baseline findings regarding treatment contact coverage. Methods Population-based cross-sectional surveys with structured questionnaires, which included validated screening tools to identify probable cases. We defined contact coverage as being the proportion of cases who sought professional help in the past 12 months. Setting Sodo District, Ethiopia; Sehore District, India; Chitwan District, Nepal; and Kamuli District, Uganda Participants 8036 adults residing in these districts between May 2013 and May 2014 Main Outcome Measures Treatment contact coverage was defined as having sought care from a specialist, generalist, or other health care provider for symptoms related to depression or AUD. Results The proportion of adults who screened positive for depression over the past 12 months ranged from 11.2% in Nepal to 29.7% in India and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged between 8.1% in Nepal to 23.5% in India. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable depression was 23.7%. The proportion of adults who screened positive for AUD over the past 12 months ranged from 1.7% in Uganda to 13.9% in Ethiopia and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged from 2.8% in India to 5.1% in Nepal. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable AUD was 13.1%. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with and contribute to the limited evidence base which indicates low treatment contact coverage for depression and for AUD in LMIC. The planned follow up

  12. Adolescents at Risk: Depression, Low Academic Performance, Violence, and Alcohol Increase Bolivian Teenagers' Risk of Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Kirk A.; De La Cruz, Natalie G.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Clark, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence of depression and suicidal tendencies as well as risk factors for attempted suicide among students in Bolivia. Adolescents 13-18 years old (182 females, 394 males) from randomly selected schools in La Paz completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Frequencies and logistic regression were used to identify…

  13. Discovery of a new class of cinnamyl-triazole as potent and selective inhibitors of aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1).

    PubMed

    McNulty, James; Keskar, Kunal; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C

    2014-09-15

    Synthesis of a novel class of natural product inspired cinnamyl-containing 1,4,5-triazole and the potent inhibition of human aromatase (CYP 450 19A1) by select members is described. Structure-activity data generated provides insights into the requirements for potency particularly the inclusion of an aryl bromide or chloride residue as a keto-bioisostere.

  14. Syndemics of depression, alcohol use, and victimisation, and their association with HIV-related sexual risk among men who have sex with men and transgender women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Logie, Carmen H; Samuel, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    We examined the presence and co-occurrence of psychosocial health conditions (depression, frequent alcohol use, and victimisation) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) women in India, and their cumulative association with sexual risk. A survey questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of 600 participants (MSM = 300; TG women = 300) recruited through six non-governmental organisations in four states. Prevalences of the number of psychosocial health conditions among MSM were: none = 31.3%, one = 43%, two = 20%, and three = 5.7%; and among TG women: none = 9%; one = 35.33%, two = 38.33%, and three = 17.33%. In bivariate and multivariate models, these conditions were positively and additively related to sexual risk, providing evidence for a syndemic of psychosocial health conditions among MSM and TG women and their synergistic effect on sexual risk. In addition to the number of syndemic conditions, resilient coping and social support were significant predictors of sexual risk among MSM and TG women, respectively. HIV preventive interventions in India should screen for and address co-occurring psychosocial health conditions - experiences of violence, mental health issues, and alcohol use - among MSM and TG women.

  15. The influence of combat and interpersonal trauma on PTSD, depression, and alcohol misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hassija, Christina M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Maguen, Shira; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of combat and interpersonal trauma exposure in a sample of 115 U.S. women veterans from Gulf War I and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars on 3 postdeployment trauma-related mental health outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PSS), depressive symptom severity (DSS), and alcohol misuse. Patients presenting for healthcare services at a Veterans Affairs postdeployment health specialty clinic completed screening questionnaires that assessed combat exposure, lifetime interpersonal trauma history of childhood neglect, physical, or sexual abuse, and adult sexual and physical assault. In a regression model, combat exposure was the only significant independent variable associated with PSS, DSS, and alcohol misuse (β = .42, .27 and B = 1.58, respectively) even after adding lifetime interpersonal assault exposure to the model. Results highlight the negative effects of combat exposure on treatment-seeking women veterans' postdeployment mental health. Incorporating combat exposure into routine screening procedures for Gulf War and Iraq and Afghanistan war women veterans can aid in mental health treatment planning.

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Offending: Validation and Prediction to Young Adult Alcohol Use, Drug Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended previous work of Wiesner and Capaldi (2003) by examining the validity of differing offending pathways and the prediction from the pathways to substance use and depressive symptoms for 204 young men. Findings from this study indicated good external validity of the offending trajectories. Further, substance use and depressive symptoms in young adulthood (i.e., ages 23-24 through 25-26 years) varied depending on different trajectories of offending from early adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., ages 12-13 through 23-24 years), even after controlling for antisocial propensity, parental criminality, demographic factors, and prior levels of each outcome. Specifically, chronic high-level offenders had higher levels of depressive symptoms and engaged more often in drug use compared with very rare, decreasing low-level, and decreasing high-level offenders. Chronic low-level offenders, in contrast, displayed fewer systematic differences compared with the two decreasing offender groups and the chronic high-level offenders. The findings supported the contention that varying courses of offending may have plausible causal effects on young adult outcomes beyond the effects of an underlying propensity for crime. PMID:15971769

  17. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode with and without atypical features: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Vesga-López, Oriana; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) with and without atypical features. Methods Data were derived from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population, which assessed psychiatric disorders using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Comparison groups were defined based on the presence or absence of hypersomnia or hyperphagia in individuals who meet criteria for lifetime DSM-IV MDE. Results The presence of atypical features during a MDE was associated with greater rates of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol abuse, drug dependence, dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia and any personality disorder (PD), except antisocial PD, than MDE without atypical features. Compared with the later group, MDE with atypical features was associated with female gender, younger age of onset, more MDEs, greater episode severity and disability, higher rates of family history of depression, bipolar I disorder, suicide attempts, and larger mental health treatment-seeking rates. Conclusions Our data provide further evidence for the clinical significance and validity of this depressive specifier. Based on the presence of any of the two reversed vegetative symptoms during an MDE most of the commonly cited validators of atypical depression were confirmed in our study. MDE with atypical features may be more common, severe, and impairing than previously documented. PMID:21939615

  18. How Individuals Feel About the Past, Present, and Future Bears Little Relation to Alcohol-Related Problems, Anxiety, and Depression: A Person-Centered Analysis in a University Sample.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Cole, Jon C

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies using bivariate or correlational analyses have established a relationship between alcohol use, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and scores on a range of temporal psychology measures. Temporal psychology measures variously assess the cognitive or affective (or in some cases, both) engagement with the past, present, and future. Although developed and validated in adolescents, recent research has suggested that the Time Attitudes Scale is internally consistent and reliable in adults also. The present study is the first to apply a person-centered approach to assessing the relationship between scores on the Time Attitudes Scale and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems in adults. Participants were recruited from a University in England. Results support the validity and internal consistency of the Time Attitudes Scale. Meaningful time attitudes profiles emerged, however, taking the sample size into account, the only substantive finding showed that those with a negative time attitudes profile scored higher on depressive symptomatology than those with a positive profile. While elsewhere, Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory scores have been shown to be meaningfully related to anxiety, depression and alcohol use, the present study questions the degree to which the affective dimension of temporal psychology is driving that relationship.

  19. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... related. Depression can cause pain — and pain can cause depression. Sometimes pain and depression create a vicious cycle ... depression worsens feelings of pain. In many people, depression causes unexplained physical symptoms such as back pain or ...

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    A benign and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of allylic alcohols is presented. The generality of this novel process is demonstrated by the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated amides including aliphatic, cinnamyl, and terpene derivatives. The choice of ligand is crucial for optimal carbonylation processes: Whereas in most cases the combination of PdCl2 with Xantphos (L6) gave best results, sterically hindered substrates performed better in the presence of simple triphenylphosphine (L10), and primary anilines gave the best results using cataCXium® PCy (L8). The reactivity of the respective catalyst system is significantly enhanced by addition of small amounts of water. Mechanistic studies and control experiments revealed a tandem allylic alcohol amination/C-N bond carbonylation reaction sequence.

  1. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  2. Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: disentangling person and time-level effects.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Tate, Susan R; Roesch, Scott C; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-12-01

    Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps < .05) and PDDRG (ps < .05). Within-person, time-level effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps < .05) but not PDDRG. Controlled environments moderated person-level social network effects (ps < .05), such that greater time in controlled settings attenuated the association between a heavier drinking/using network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...

  4. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies.

  5. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; de Moor, Marleen H.M.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies. PMID:26454404

  6. 7-endo selenocyclization reactions on chiral 3-prenyl and 3-cinnamyl-2-hydroxymethylperhydro-1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. A way to enantiopure 1,4-oxazepanes.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Javier; Andrés, Celia; Pérez-Encabo, Alfonso

    2015-09-14

    Enantiopure 1,4-oxazepane derivatives have been prepared by selenocyclofunctionalization of chiral 3-prenyl- and 3-cinnamyl-2-hydroxymethyl-substituted perhydro-1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. The 7-endo-cyclization occurs in high yields and diastereoselection. The regio- and stereochemistry of the cyclization products was dependent on the substitution pattern of the double bond, the nature of the hydroxyl group and the experimental conditions.

  7. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobain, Bev

    This guide provides adolescents with information on depression. An introduction discusses symptoms of depression and lists famous people who were known to be depressed. Part 1, "What's Wrong," explores how it feels to be depressed, the causes and types of depression, and the connections between depression, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. A…

  8. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation.

    PubMed

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the α-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the β-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  9. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the $\\alpha$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $\\beta$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  10. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    DOE PAGES

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; ...

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of themore » $$\\alpha$$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $$\\beta$$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.« less

  11. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Protective effects of voluntary physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Brocardo, Patricia S; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can damage the developing nervous system, producing long-lasting impairments in both brain structure and function. In this study we analyzed how exposure to this teratogen during the period of brain development affects the intracellular redox state in the brain as well as the development of anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we also tested whether aerobic exercise might have therapeutic potential for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) by increasing neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or by alleviating ethanol-induced behavioral deficits. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol across all three-trimester equivalents (i.e., throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed and control animals were assigned to either sedentary or running groups at postnatal day (PND) 48. Runners had free access to a running wheel for 12 days and at PND 60 anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed. Perinatal ethanol exposure resulted in the occurrence of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adult rats without affecting their locomotor activity. Voluntary wheel running reversed the depressive-like behaviors in ethanol-exposed males, but not in ethanol-exposed females. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of ethanol-exposed rats, and there was a concomitant reduction in the levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. Voluntary exercise was able to reverse the deficits in glutathione both in ethanol-exposed males and females. Thus, while voluntary physical exercise increased glutathione levels in both sexes, its effects at the behavioral level were sex dependent, with only ethanol-exposed male runners showing a decrease in depressive-like behaviors.

  12. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  13. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  14. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state"…

  15. Effects of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on fatty acid and glucose oxidation in the isolated rat diaphragm using 14C-labelled substrates. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VIII.

    PubMed

    Binder, L; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Beneking, M

    1988-12-01

    The influence of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on the utilization of various substrates in isolated rat hemidiaphragms was investigated in comparison with other hypoglycaemic compounds. The effect of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate was concentration-dependent. At a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, glucose utilization increased from 0.276 +/- 0.043 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.894 +/- 0.303 mumol.g-1.l-1 (p less than 0.05). Pyruvate and lactate utilization were stimulated to a lesser extent, while acetate utilization remained nearly constant. At a concentration of 2 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, the oxidation of palmitate decreased from 0.214 +/- 0.017 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.060 +/- 0.005 mumol.g-1.l-1, while the oxidation of octanoate was not decreased. These findings point to a stimulation of the glycolytic flux by inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.

  16. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  19. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  20. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  1. Influence of 2(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on glucose and palmitate oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VII.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Fink, P C; Oellerich, M

    1987-09-01

    2-(3-Methyl-cinnamyl-hydrozono)-propionate stimulated glucose oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes and the stimulation was similar to that by concanavalin A. Both substances must affect glucose metabolism at two sites, the first site being before the pyruvate dehydrogenase step because of the increase of lactate plus pyruvate concentration. The second site is related to pyruvate oxidation. The hydrazone inhibited the conversion of plamitate to CO2. This effect could have caused an activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, resulting from a decrease acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio. Concanavalin A did not influence fatty acid oxidation. Both substances did not affect the CO2 formation from acetate. Mononuclear leukocytes appear to be a suitable model for the investigation of the influence of hypoglycaemic substances on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in living human cells.

  2. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crying Reduced concentration Appetite problems Trouble sleeping Postpartum depression symptoms Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby ... drugs, which can make mood swings worse Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also ...

  3. Atypical Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  4. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  5. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  6. Inhibition of mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase-mediated uptake of carnitine by 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VI.

    PubMed

    Beneking, M; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Binder, L

    1987-08-01

    The rate of mitochondrial carnitine-carnitine exchange mediated by carnitine acylcarnitine translocase was measured by following the uptake of L-[methyl-14C]carnitine. It was demonstrated that the hypoglycaemic compound 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate causes a concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of the translocase-mediated transport of carnitine in guinea pig liver mitochondria. Apparent initial influx rates were decreased by 20% at 0.3 mmol/1 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, 38% at 0.5 mmol/l, and 75% at 2.0 mmol/l of this compound. This finding may explain the previously observed inhibitory effects of this substance on long-chain fatty acid oxidation, ketone body production and gluconeogenesis.

  7. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  8. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... unrelated to the reason for your appointment Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life ... accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve personal inadequacy or other negative themes Catatonia — depression that ...

  9. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  10. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  11. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  12. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. An Examination of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking Patterns in First Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Mallett, Kimberly; Kilmer, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Depression and alcohol use are often found in college students, particularly during their first year. The current study assessed the interrelationship of alcohol use and specific depression symptoms. A large sample (n = 869) of first year students were invited to participate via the Internet Results indicated that specific depression symptoms correlated with alcohol consumption. Self-reported heavy, problem drinkers experienced significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than all other groups. Our findings higlight the importance of screening for both alcohol use and depressed mood in college students. PMID:22545634

  14. Perspectives on Alcohol and Medication Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Kalman; Smith, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Although health consequences of alcohol consumption with certain drugs are generally appreciated, diversity of interactions is not. In addition to central nervous system depression, combination of alcohol with other drugs may result in hypoglycemic reactions, cardiovascular complications, and other severe or unanticipated reactions. Personnel…

  15. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  16. Client Attitudes toward Alcohol Use Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Stewart, Scott H.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Because psychiatric illnesses and problematic alcohol use frequently co-occur and heavy alcohol use can exacerbate depression and anxiety, mental health clinicians should perform alcohol-use screenings. The aim of this study was to determine if psychiatric patients would be accepting of their mental health clinician screening them for heavy…

  17. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  18. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  19. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  20. Depression Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  1. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  2. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  3. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  4. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  5. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  6. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  8. The disabling nature of comorbid depression among older DUI recipients.

    PubMed

    Oslin, D W; O'Brien, C P; Katz, I R

    1999-01-01

    Alcoholism and depression are two of the most common and disabling mental illnesses in late life. This study is a descriptive report of a sample of 49 adults who had recently been convicted of Driving Under the Influence of alcohol (DUI). A lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence was present in 48 subjects (98%), while a depressive disorder occurred in 24 (49%) of the subjects. Concurrent alcoholism and depression, present in 12 subjects (24.5%), produced greater self-reported disability compared to those subjects with alcoholism alone. One-year longitudinal follow-up was available on 31 subjects (63.3%). Over the course of one year, there were no changes in drinking behavior, depressive symptoms, or self-reported quality of life. These data support previous studies that suggest greater disability in patients with concurrent mental illnesses.

  9. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  10. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  11. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  13. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  14. Agitated Depression in Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711

  15. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  16. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  17. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  18. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  19. Prevalence and correlates of depression and drinking behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults in a suburban emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Rikki; Lau, Chung Hin (Joshua); Blow, Frederic C; Ranney, Megan; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background Both alcohol use and depression are concerning health issues among youth. The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location to access youth with depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Objectives To inform future interventions in the ED, this study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and depressive symptoms among youth seeking ED care. Methods Youth ages 14-20 were recruited from a level-1 trauma ED located in the Midwest as part of a larger ongoing study. Participants completed an electronic screening survey, which included assessment of alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Two logistic regression models were conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms with alcohol consumption and specific alcohol-related consequences. Results Among 3,659 participants, bivariate analysis indicated that individuals screening positive for depression were more likely to be female, non-white, receive public assistance, and report higher scores on both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Regression analyses indicated alcohol consumption, inability to stop drinking once starting, and feelings of guilt or remorse after drinking were significantly positively related to screening positive for depression. Conclusions/Importance Current findings support use of the ED as a location for identifying youth who are experiencing co-morbid alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of brief intervention in the ED that focuses on the co-occurrence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms among youth. PMID:26669633

  20. Double-blind clinical trial of sertraline treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, H M; Volpicelli, J R; Luck, G; Kranzler, H R; Rukstalis, M R; Cnaan, A

    2001-04-01

    Clinical studies that have evaluated serotonergic medications to reduce alcohol consumption have yielded conflicting results. These studies primarily treated patients with alcohol dependence, excluding those with a current depressive disorder, in an effort to differentiate any medication effects directly on drinking from those on mood. Yet despite the exclusion of current depression, a group of alcohol-dependent patients who are not depressed can be highly heterogeneous. For example, this subgroup can include those with a lifetime depressive disorder. If these patients were more sensitive to serotonergic medications than patients without a lifetime depressive disorder, medication effects in a subgroup of patients who were not depressed could be obscured. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of sertraline for treating alcohol dependence in patient groups that were differentiated by the presence or absence of lifetime depression. This study examined the effectiveness of sertraline (200 mg/day) or placebo for 14 weeks in 100 alcohol-dependent subjects with (N = 53) or without (N = 47) a lifetime diagnosis of comorbid depression. Sertraline treatment seemed to provide an advantage in reducing drinking in alcohol-dependent patients without lifetime depression, illustrated best with a measure of drinking frequency during treatment. However, sertraline was no better than placebo in patients with a diagnosis of lifetime comorbid depression, and current depression did not change the results. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be useful in alcohol-dependent patients who are not depressed. Subtyping those with alcohol dependence on the basis of the absence versus the presence of a lifetime depressive disorder may help to resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the treatment of alcohol dependence with serotonergic medications.

  1. Cue Reactivity Is Associated with Duration and Severity of Alcohol Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the progression of substance dependence, drug cue-related brain activation is thought to shift from motivational towards habit pathways. However, a direct association between cue-induced brain activation and dependence duration has not yet been shown. We therefore examined the relationship between alcohol cue-reactivity in the brain, cue-induced subjective craving and alcohol dependence duration and severity. Since alcohol dependence is highly comorbid with depression/anxiety, which may modulate brain responses to alcohol cues, we also examined the relation between comorbid depression/anxiety and cue-reactivity. Methods We compared 30 alcohol dependent patients with 15 healthy controls and 15 depression/anxiety patients during a visual alcohol cue-reactivity task using functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenated level-dependent responses and subjective craving as outcomes. Within the alcohol dependent group we correlated cue-reactivity with alcohol dependence severity and duration, with cue-induced craving and with depression/anxiety levels. Results Alcohol dependent patients showed greater cue-reactivity in motivational brain pathways and stronger subjective craving than depression/anxiety patients and healthy controls. Depression/anxiety was not associated with cue-reactivity, but depression severity in alcohol dependent patients was positively associated with craving. Within alcohol dependence, longer duration of alcohol dependence was associated with stronger cue-related activation of the posterior putamen, a structure involved in habits, whereas higher alcohol dependence severity was associated with lower cue-reactivity in the anterior putamen, an area implicated in goal-directed behavior preceding habit formation. Conclusion Cue-reactivity in alcohol dependence is not modulated by comorbid depression or anxiety. More importantly, the current data confirm the hypothesis of a ventral to dorsal striatal shift of learning processes

  2. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  5. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.

  6. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  7. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  9. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  10. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  11. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  12. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  13. Mood, cue and gender influences on motivation, craving and liking for alcohol in recreational drinkers.

    PubMed

    Willner, P; Field, M; Pitts, K; Reeve, G

    1998-11-01

    The effects of exposure to an alcohol-related cue (drinking low-alcohol beer) and a musical depression/elation mood induction procedure, on craving, motivation and liking for alcohol, were studied in male and female recreational drinkers. Alcohol craving was assessed using the multidimensional desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ), motivation for alcohol was assessed by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) task reinforced with small volumes (25 ml) of low-alcohol beer, and liking for the reinforcers earned in the PR task was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Consumption of a half-pint of low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in male subjects but had no effect or decreased craving in female subjects. Subsequent induction of a depressed mood increased craving scores, relative to elated or neutral mood groups, but these effects were confined to abstinent (non-cued) subjects, both male and female. Performance on the PR task correlated significantly with one of the four factors of the DAQ, negative reinforcement, and was increased by induction of a depressed mood in abstinent female and cued male subjects. Reinforcer liking was unchanged following mood induction in male subjects, but decreased in both groups of female subjects. To summarize, the cue of drinking low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in men but not in women, and induction of a depressed mood increased alcohol craving and motivation, but also decreased alcohol liking. These effects were present to different extents in different cue/gender subgroups, and were partially independent.

  14. [Pediatric depression].

    PubMed

    Eggers, C

    1988-12-01

    In 12 children between 6 and 12 years of age who were treated as inpatients for depression (diagnosed according to the Weinberg-criteria, a child-adapted modification of DSM-III-criteria), a close relationship was found between family pathology, psychodynamics and depression. The conflicts in the interactions between the depressed children and their caregivers became evident in the children's drawings, in the Scenotest and in play therapy. In play therapy the repressed feelings of powerlessness, helplessness, disappointment, resignation and anger came to light. The children had a pseudo-stabilizing function in the family that placed too heavy demands on them, with the result that they became dependent and helpless and tended to despair. A situation developed that can be characterized as "learned helplessness" and that is a useful behavioral-physiological and neurobiological model of depression for different age groups.

  15. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  16. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It's important for new mothers — and those who love them — to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression ... Once she's receiving the care she needs, support, love, and friendship are good medicine, too. Here are ...

  17. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  18. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  19. The relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychopathology: a systematic examination of parental comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Schuckit, Marc A; Nurnberger, John I

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had parents with no psychopathology in regard to any of the measures of psychological symptomatology (substance use, conduct disorder, and depression) or clinical diagnoses (alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, conduct disorder, or depression) assessed. In contrast, adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence and either comorbid drug dependence or depression were more likely to exhibit higher levels of psychological symptomatology. In addition, adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence, depression, and drug dependence were most likely to exhibit psychological problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering parental comorbid psychopathology when examining the relationship between parental alcoholism and offspring adjustment.

  20. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R.J.; Edwards, M.C.; Curran, P.J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of two independent, longitudinal studies, we showed that children with either antisocial alcoholic parents or two alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother-, father- and adolescent-reports of symptoms, child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17), and the two independent studies examined. Multi-alcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it. PMID:17696709

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. Alcohol use, related problems and psychological health in college students.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p < 0.01). Current users were further divided into two groups, moderate and heavy, considering the amount and frequency of alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.

  3. College Women and Alcohol: A Relational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to college women's drinking. For women, drinking is often a way of making friends and establishing intimate relationships. Peer influence is a strong persuader. College women who are careless in using alcohol may encounter additional problems like increased stress, depression, and sexual dysfunction. (SM)

  4. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  7. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  8. Determinants of Problem Drinking and Depression among Latino Day Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Moore, Alison A.; Karno, Mitchell P.; Ray, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about alcohol misuse and depression among Latino day laborers despite the fact that they encounter multiple stressors (e.g. job instability, unsafe work environments). A structural equation model tested the relationships among laborer stress, social support, health status, current alcohol misuse, and depression. A sample of 89 male, urban Latino day laborers completed measures assessing these constructs in 2011. Stress was negatively related to physical health status, which was associated with depression. Findings suggest that stressors specific to being a day laborer resulting from their work and living conditions generate and maintain health disparities in this vulnerable population. PMID:24779503

  9. Suicidal ideation in high school students: depression and other correlates.

    PubMed

    De Man, A F; Leduc, C P

    1995-03-01

    English-Canadian high school students (129 boys, 117 girls) participated in a study of the relationship between suicidal ideation and selected personal variables, stress, and social support. Associations were found between suicidal ideation and the variables of gender, self-esteem, locus of control, depression, drug use, stress, perception of health, family status, academic performance, social support, and anomie. Multiple regression analysis identified depression and alcohol use as best individual predictors among these variables. Semi-partial correlation analyses showed that removal of the effect of depression resulted in a loss of initially significant relationships between suicidal ideation and the other variables except for alcohol use, drug use, and health satisfaction.

  10. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  11. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  14. Externalizing symptoms among children of alcoholic parents: Entry points for an antisocial pathway to alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Hussong, A M; Wirth, R J; Edwards, M C; Curran, P J; Chassin, L A; Zucker, R A

    2007-08-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents, as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. That is, they tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parental alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course, as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of 2 independent, longitudinal studies, they showed that children with either an antisocial alcoholic parent or 2 alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother, father, and adolescent reports of symptoms; child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17); and the 2 independent studies examined. Multialcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it.

  15. [Forensic psychiatry problems in depression].

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Harrer, G

    1985-02-15

    Forensic complications involving criminal or civil law are generally rare in depressive disorders, but are of varied nature and of great consequence to the person concerned. Suicide, which is the problem of greatest practical importance may have far-reaching consequences with regard to legal insurance, apart from the medical responsibility or liability. From the point of view of civil law, moreover, the effects of depression on thought and action, as well as on free will with respect to legal capacity, testifiability, marriageability, actionability and potential considerations of interdiction ought to be examined. Last, but not least, consequences of a socio-legal nature may ensue. The spectrum of possible crimes by depressed subjects essentially comprises disease-characteristic offences, amongst which the desperate deed of extended suicide is foremost, as well as other criminal acts with a less direct connection to the depressive syndrome. Additional factors such as alcohol and medication may further complicate the relationship and also the assessment of culpability. In the forensic judgment of depressed subjects diagnostic classification is not alone decisive, but depends to a greater extent on the nature and severity of the psychopathological state and its influence on motivational aspects.

  16. Depression and Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  17. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  18. [Treatment of alcohol dependence: rational and arguable approaches].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Iu P

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of alcohol dependence consist of alcohol detoxification with withdrawal alleviation and relapse prevention or maintenance therapy. Drugs of choice for alcohol withdrawal cure are benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants are an alternative for them. Relapse prevention and alcohol abuse alleviation are carried out using disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone and nalmefene. Moreover, therapeutic possibilities of memantine, gabapentine, pregabalin, baclofen, modafinil, ondansetron D-cycloserine and aripiprazole are studying nowadays. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including fluvoxamine for alcohol patients is of great importance due to frequent comorbidity of alcoholism, depression and anxiety. There are some doubtful methods of alcoholism treatment accepted in Russian addictive medicine such as clearance detoxification and use of antipsychotics for craving elimination.

  19. Comparison of problematic internet and alcohol use and attachment styles among industrial workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Eun; Kim, Nam-Seok; Jang, Eun-Young

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this article is to fully understand Internet addiction, we aimed to compare the attachment styles and psychopathologies associated with problematic Internet use with those related to alcohol use. Through the participation of 141 male participants, the present study assessed problematic Internet and alcohol use, attachment, psychopathology, and demographic data via the use of self-rating questionnaires. We explored the significant predictors among avoidant and anxious attachments, depression, anxiety, and phobia to explain problematic Internet and alcohol use. The results showed that anxious attachment, depression, and anxiety could explain problematic alcohol use. In contrast, both anxious and avoidant attachment as well as depression and phobia explained problematic Internet use. Additionally, depression moderated the effects of avoidant attachment on problematic Internet use. We demonstrated that the interaction of attachment and psychopathology predicts problematic Internet use originating from an earlier stage of life than that associated with problematic alcohol use.

  20. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  1. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  2. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  3. Effects of alcohol and lorazepam during extinction of alcohol self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anne; Duka, Theodora; Stephens, David N

    2003-09-01

    Systemic injections of alcohol have previously been reported to 'prime' or to reinstate self-administration of alcohol in rats, and it has been suggested that the priming effects of drugs are related to their stimulus properties. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of lorazepam, which cross-generalizes with alcohol in animal drug-discrimination studies, in rats trained to self-administer 7% alcohol in an operant paradigm. Once animals were trained, extinction tests were carried out twice weekly, before which rats were injected with either vehicle, alcohol (0.063-0.5 g/kg, i.p.) or lorazepam (0.03-0.25 mg/kg, i.p.). Alcohol did not increase responding for alcohol during extinction. Doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg reduced alcohol-appropriate lever pressing (p < 0.05 versus 0 g/kg), with the largest dose also suppressing general activity (p < 0.02 versus 0 g/kg). Lorazepam also reduced alcohol-appropriate responding, in a behaviourally specific manner; doses of 0.03 mg/kg and above decreased lever pressing (p < 0.05 versus 0 mg/kg), whereas general activity was depressed at 0.06 mg/kg and larger doses (p < 0.05 versus 0 mg/kg). Although lorazepam mimicked the effect of alcohol at doses predicted to do so on the basis of their relative potency in drug discrimination studies, neither alcohol nor lorazepam primed rats to respond for alcohol. By contrast, the pattern of results suggested that, in this model, they 'satiated' or substituted for alcohol, resulting in a reduced motivation to respond.

  4. Effects of Alcoholism Severity and Smoking on Executive Neurocognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.M.; Buu, A.; Adams, K.M.; Nigg, J.T.; Puttler, L.I.; Jester, J.M.; Zucker, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented and include impairments in memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of these deficits is unclear, but could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that may predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbid abuse of substances other than alcohol. For example, cigarette smoking occurs at a much higher rate among persons with alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance. Until recently, the negative effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism have been ignored. Methods The effects of alcoholism and smoking are examined in a community recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (N=240) using standard neuropsychological measures and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism severity was measured as an average of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 yrs). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Results Both alcoholism and smoking were negatively correlated with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was negatively correlated with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was negatively correlated with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism are significant predictors of executive function composite. However; when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer a significant predictor. Conclusions Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism on EF was not independent of IQ, suggesting that the alcoholism effect was generalized, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more

  5. The role of neuroimmune signaling in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Lawrimore, Colleen J; Walter, T Jordan; Coleman, Leon G

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol consumption and stress increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules. Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, and neurons respond to alcohol, signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), miRNAs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and their associated receptors involved in signaling between microglia, other glia and neurons. Repeated cycles of alcohol and stress cause a progressive, persistent induction of HMGB1, miRNA and TLR receptors in brain that appear to underlie the progressive and persistent loss of behavioral control, increased impulsivity and anxiety, as well as craving, coupled with increasing ventral striatal responses that promote reward seeking behavior and increase risk of developing alcohol use disorders. Studies employing anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and innate immune antagonists further link innate immune gene expression to addiction-like behaviors. Innate immune molecules are novel targets for addiction and affective disorders therapies.

  6. Emotional Distress, Alcohol Use, and Bidirectional Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874

  7. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  8. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    may be alleviated through the use of high-drinking rodent lines. Additionally, satiety, one common mechanism of devaluing reinforcers, is not recommended for alcohol research because the psychoactive effects of alcohol depress response rates, mimicking devaluation effects. Overall, further research of habit formation and potentially related perseverative behaviors could be invaluable in discovering genetic variance, traits that correlate with persistent alcohol seeking, implicated neural structures and processes of alcohol use, and eventually novel pharmacological treatment for alcoholism.

  9. Parent's alcoholism severity and family topic avoidance about alcohol as predictors of perceived stigma among adult children of alcoholics: Implications for emotional and psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Haverfield, Marie C; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is a highly stigmatized condition, with both alcohol-dependent individuals and family members of the afflicted experiencing stigmatization. This study examined the severity of a parent's alcoholism and family topic avoidance about alcohol as two factors that are associated with family members' perceptions of stigma. Three dimensions of stigma were considered: discrimination stigma, disclosure stigma, and positive aspect stigma. In addition, this study assessed associations between perceived stigmatization and individuals' experiences of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience. Adult children of alcoholics (N = 622) were surveyed about family conditions, perceived stigma, and their emotional and psychological well-being. Regression analyses revealed that the severity of a parent's alcoholism predicted all three types of stigma for females, but not for males. In addition, family topic avoidance about alcohol predicted all types of stigma for males and discrimination stigma and positive aspect stigma for females. With few exceptions, the three types of stigma predicted depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and resilience for both male and female adult children of alcoholics. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for promoting a family environment that mitigates stigma and encourages emotional and psychological well-being. In 2012, approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide were due to the harmful use of alcohol (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Individuals who abuse alcohol are susceptible to a variety of negative health outcomes (Rehm et al., 2009) and display inappropriate social behaviors (Klingemann, 2001; Schomerus et al., 2011a). General societal perceptions tend to characterize alcohol-dependent individuals as irresponsible and lacking in self-control (Schomerus et al., 2011b). Research in the United Kingdom found that 54% of the population believes alcohol-dependent individuals are personally to blame for their own

  10. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  11. Comparison of the catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of (η(5)-Cp)Pd(IPr)Cl with (η(3)-cinnamyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) and (η(3)-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl).

    PubMed

    Melvin, Patrick R; Hazari, Nilay; Lant, Hannah M C; Peczak, Ian L; Shah, Hemali P

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of the type (η(3)-allyl)Pd(L)(Cl) and (η(3)-indenyl)Pd(L)(Cl) are highly active precatalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Even though allyl and indenyl ligands are similar to cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ligands, there have been no detailed comparative studies exploring the activity of precatalysts of the type (η(5)-Cp)Pd(L)(Cl) for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Here, we compare the catalytic activity of (η(5)-Cp)Pd(IPr)(Cl) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene, Cp) with two commercially available catalysts (η(3)-cinnamyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) (Cin) and (η(3)-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) ( (tBu) Ind). We show that Cp gives slightly better catalytic activity than Cin, but significantly inferior activity than (tBu) Ind. This order of activity is rationalized by comparing the rates at which the precatalysts are activated to the monoligated Pd(0) active species along with the tendency of the starting precatalysts to comproportionate with monoligated Pd(0) to form inactive Pd(I) dimers. As part of this work the Cp supported Pd(I) dimer (μ-Cp)(μ-Cl)Pd2(IPr)2 (Cp (Dim) ) was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. It does not readily disproportionate to form monoligated Pd(0) and consequently Cp (Dim) is a poor catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

  12. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  16. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  17. Major depression, dysthymia and depressive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1994-12-01

    The separation of persistent depression into meaningful and useful subcategories, including major depression, dysthymia, recurrent brief depression, and depressive personality disorder, is the subject of much debate. Depressions can be grouped on the basis of their type and severity of symptoms, aetiology, clinical course, or their association with other psychiatric illnesses. Several investigators have conducted epidemiologic and family studies to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders, their diagnostic stability over time, and the amount of overlap among the disorders. Although progress has been made toward a better understanding of the different disorders, insufficient evidence exists to support the hypothesis that these disorders are separate and distinct from one another. However, preliminary data suggest that depressive personality disorder is separate from the other disorders. Additionally, several questions have been raised, particularly the extent to which differentiation between the depressive disorders, specifically major depression and dysthymia, has an impact on treatment decisions.

  18. OLDER MALES, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Areheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the question, how do older men who drink alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measures of cognitive function, memory, affect, and health? Of the nonprobability sample of male participants (N = 60), 35 (58%) of the males reported some degree of alcohol consumption. Eleven men had one or more drinks per day, 14 had one or more drinks per week, and 9 were occasional drinkers. The drinkers reported significantly less depression, had higher self-reported general health and vitality, and had higher cognitive performance, cognitive flexibility, and verbal memory, and greater knowledge of memory processes. PMID:16546934

  19. Alcohol abuse in sickle cell disease: the Pisces Project.

    PubMed

    Levenson, James L; McClish, Donna K; Dahman, Bassam A; Penberthy, Lynne T; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Smith, Wally R

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is common in patients with chronic painful medical disorders, but it has not been studied in sickle cell disease (SCD). In a prospective cohort study of SCD adults, 31.4% were identified as abusing alcohol. There were no significant differences between alcohol abusers and nonabusers on demographics, biological variables, depression, anxiety, measures of crisis and noncrisis pain, or opioid use, but abusers reported more pain relief from opioids than nonabusers did. Alcohol abusers had fewer unscheduled clinic visits, emergency room visits, hospital days, and any health care utilization for SCD, but this was only significant for emergency room visits. Quality of life was similar between both groups, except that alcohol abusers unexpectedly had better overall physical summary scores. Alcohol abusers were more likely to report coping by ignoring pain, diverting attention, and using particular self-statements.

  20. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  1. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  2. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  3. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  4. Depression and College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  5. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  6. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  7. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  8. Variation of types of alcoholism: review and subtypes identified in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-01-03

    Alcoholism, as it has been hypothesized, is caused by a highly heterogeneous genetic load. Since 1960, many reports have used the bio-psycho-social approach to subtype alcoholism; however, no subtypes have been genetically validated. We reviewed and compared the major single-gene, multiple-gene, and gene-to-gene interaction studies on alcoholism published during the past quarter-century, including many recent studies that have made contributions to the subtyping of alcoholism. Four subtypes of alcoholism have been reported: [1] pure alcoholism, [2] anxiety/depression alcoholism, [3] antisocial alcoholism, and [4] mixed alcoholism. Most of the important studies focused on three genes: DRD2, MAOA, and ALDH2. Therefore, our review focuses on these three genes.

  9. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  10. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  11. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrated a significant predictor of depression, including alcohol (β = .16, p= .03), hallucinogens (β = − .17, p =.021), and ecstasy (β = − .14, p= .05). The study findings indicate a need to consider the role of specific substances with regard to symptoms of depression. The results are discussed in the context of transition planning for jail inmates. PMID:27133518

  12. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with self-neglect associated with severe depression.

    PubMed

    Cocksedge, Karen A; Flynn, Adrian

    2014-02-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency and commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, but we describe the first case report resulting from self-neglect associated with depression.

  13. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  16. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  17. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  18. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  19. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  20. Phenylthiocarbamide tasting and family history of depression, revisited: low rates of depression in families of supertasters.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Perez, Marisol

    2004-04-15

    Past studies suggest that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste status is related to vulnerability to depression, such that those sensitive to PTC are more vulnerable. We questioned this, reasoning that those insensitive to PTC may be more vulnerable (because they may have lower hedonic tone and higher risk for alcohol abuse). Forty-two volunteers responded to questionnaires regarding family history of depression, and were assigned to supertaster, taster, or non-taster categories based on taste reactions to a 3.80 x 1.43 cm piece of commercially prepared paper treated with PTC. Supertasters were significantly less likely to report first-degree relatives with a history of depression than were tasters and non-tasters. Supertasters may be afforded some protection from depression; elucidating the mechanisms of this protection is a potentially interesting avenue for future research.

  1. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  2. Diminished adrenocorticotropin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in nondepressed, actively drinking male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Berman, J D; Cook, D M; Buchman, M; Keith, L D

    1990-09-01

    Although changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function have frequently been reported in alcoholics, the majority of studies have used recently detoxified subjects in whom abstinence phenomena and clinical depression may contribute to observed stress axis alterations. To isolate the primary effects of alcohol dependence on the stress axis, the ACTH and cortisol responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured in seven actively drinking male alcoholics recruited from the general public through a newspaper advertisement along with eight age-matched male controls. The alcoholic subjects met current American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, were stably employed, and had no concurrent psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, or psychometric evidence of depression. While relatively young (30.0 yr; range, 22-48 yr), they had lengthy histories of alcohol-related problems (11.9 yr; range, 5-30 yr). Insulin administration resulted in similar nadirs in blood sugar in both alcoholic and control groups. However, the plasma ACTH response was markedly blunted in the alcoholics (P = 0.040, by Mann-Whitney U test). There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased cortisol levels in the alcoholic group. The findings suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in alcoholics is a primary results of chronic ethanol exposure rather than a confounding effect of clinical depression or recent detoxification.

  3. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  4. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is clearly deleterious to the brain, provoking acute and chronic mental disorders, ranging from intoxication with impairment of cognition, to delirium tremens, halluosis, and dementia. In contrast, the main health consequences of nicotine, notably cancer and cardiovascular disases, lie outside the realm of psychiatry However, the mes of nicotine dependence and motivation to smoke or quit are of concern to psychiatrists. PMID:22033899

  5. Breast cancer and depression.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Wendy; Stout, Steven C; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Major depression and depressive symptoms, although commonly encountered in patients with medical illnesses, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in women with breast cancer. Depression and its associated symptoms diminish quality of life, adversely affect compliance with medical therapies, and reduce survival. Treatment of depression in women with breast cancer improves their dysphoria and other depressive symptoms, enhances quality of life, and may increase longevity. In this review, studies that investigate pathophysiologic alterations in patients with cancer and comorbid depression are discussed, and the few studies on treatment of depression and related symptoms in women with breast cancer are examined.

  6. Depression and suicidality in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Viesselman, J O; Roig, M

    1985-04-01

    The first 95 patients admitted to an inpatient Eating Disorders Program and diagnosed as having bulimia (binge eating only), bulimarexia (binging and purging), and anorexia nervosa (food restriction only) were evaluated for depression, suicidality, and family history. Major depression was found in 80% of patients; 20% had made suicide attempts in their life; and 40% of those attempting suicide made potentially lethal attempts. Patients with anorexia and bulimarexia tended to be younger, single, and Protestant. Patients with bulimarexia had overeating, oversleeping, more preoccupation with suicide, and more depression in their mothers. Patients with anorexia had more relatives with anorexia and bulimarexia, and patients with bulimia had more relatives with obesity. These findings suggest that eating disorders are unique disorders and not variants of affective disorder or alcoholism.

  7. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers are associated with depression and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas; de Castro, Márcia Regina Pizzo; Vargas, Mateus Mendonça; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Bortolasci, Chiara Cristina; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael

    2013-06-07

    To determine if oxidative stress and inflammation are linked with major depressive disorder, nicotine dependence and both disorders combined. This study comprised 150 smokers and 191 never smokers. The instruments were: a socio-demographic questionnaire, diagnoses of mood disorder and nicotine dependence according to DSM-IV, (SCID-IV), and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Laboratory assessments included: nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), fibrinogen concentrations, homocysteine, erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assayed from blood specimens. Statistically significant differences were found among depressed smokers who had more severe depressive symptoms, a higher risk of alcohol consumption, more suicide attempts, and more disability for work than non-depressed never smokers. Depressed smokers had significantly higher levels of NOx, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, AOPP, ESR and lower levels of TRAP compared to non-depressed never smokers. Depressed smokers had significant levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers after adjusting for gender, age, years of education, disability for work, and laboratory measures. The levels of NOx, lipid hydroperoxides, AOPP, and fibrinogen were substantially higher, whereas levels of TRAP were lower in depressed smokers compared to non-depressed never smokers. (1) Depressed smokers exhibited altered concentrations of NOx, lipid hydroperoxides, AOPP, TRAP, and fibrinogen. (2) Depressed smokers were more unable to work, showed more severe depressive symptoms and attempted suicide more frequently.

  8. Malnutrition and hospital prognosis in the alcoholic patient.

    PubMed

    Bienia, R; Ratcliff, S; Barbour, G L; Kummer, M

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional status of 65 alcoholic patients admitted to the Medical Service of a Veterans Administration Hospital was evaluated and compared to that 87 nonalcoholic patients admitted during the same period of time. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in the alcoholic population (36.9%) when compared to the nonalcoholic population (43.7%). The death rate and incidence of infection were similar in both populations as was the prevalence of anemia, depressed total lymphocyte count, and skin test anergy. Malnutrition, however, correlated with an increased death rate and incidence of infection, regardless of whether the patient was an alcoholic or not.

  9. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  10. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  11. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  12. Substance Use, Self-Esteem, and Depression among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuki, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of self-esteem and depression with alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use was tested in a California statewide sample of more than 4,300 Asian American high school students comprising five subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese. Estimated prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among…

  13. Acculturation, hazardous drinking and depressive symptomatology among Hispanics enrolled in a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina S.; Almeida, Joanna; Colby, Suzanne M.; Tavares, Tonya; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Hispanics in the U.S., lower acculturation level has been found to be protective against alcohol abuse and depression. However, this relationship may not hold within at-risk samples. The prevalence and co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms and their relationship to acculturation were examined among Hispanics enrolled in a study to reduce heavy drinking. At enrollment, all participants reported past-month heavy drinking (one or more occasions of >4/5 drinks for females/males, and average weekly consumption >7/14 drinks per week). We explored whether gender moderated the effects of acculturation on hazardous drinking and depressive symptoms. Methods Participants (N = 100) completed measures at baseline. Results Eighty-nine percent of participants met criteria for hazardous alcohol use as assessed by the AUDIT and of those, 55% (n=49) also reported elevated depressive symptoms. Of those who reported elevated depressive symptoms, nearly all (94%) met AUDIT criteria for hazardous drinking. Acculturation was not related to hazardous drinking or depressive symptoms in the full sample. Highly acculturated women reported more hazardous drinking than less acculturated women. Acculturation was not associated with hazardous drinking in men, but less acculturated men reported higher levels of depression than highly acculturated men. Discussion Depression should be assessed in alcohol interventions for Hispanics. Alcohol interventions should be tailored for acculturation level and gender to improve relevance and efficacy. Clinical Trial Registration #NCT01996280. PMID:26819573

  14. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  15. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  16. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  18. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control.

  19. Increased alcohol consumption in rats after subchronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Orio, Laura; Gorriti, Miguel Á; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    The use of antidepressants for alcoholism in humans has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Despite the existence of an important co-morbidity for depression and alcoholism, some studies suggest that the use of antidepressants could worsen the prognosis of alcoholism. However, there is a lack of studies in animal models exploring this phenomenon. In the present study, we show how the 15-d treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or venlafaxine (50 mg/kg) affected alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) and subsequent alcohol consumption. Initially, fluoxetine reduced ADE and venlafaxine did not affect it. However, in the following days, both antidepressants increased alcohol consumption, an effect that was found to last at least 5 wk. Fluoxetine treatment was shown to cause a locomotor sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the presence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. In summary, antidepressant treatment may increase alcohol consumption in rats after a period of alcohol deprivation and this could be related to alterations in the reward circuitry. This finding confirms in an animal model previous reports in humans that may limit the use of antidepressants for alcoholism.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  1. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  2. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  3. Effect of Depression on Risky Drinking and Response to a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Intervention.

    PubMed

    Montag, Annika C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Alcaraz, John E; Clapp, John D; Allison, Matthew A; Calac, Dan J; Hull, Andrew D; Gorman, Jessica R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-08-01

    We assessed alcohol consumption and depression in 234 American Indian/Alaska Native women (aged 18-45 years) in Southern California. Women were randomized to intervention or assessment alone and followed for 6 months (2011-2013). Depression was associated with risk factors for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP). Both treatment groups reduced drinking (P < .001). Depressed, but not nondepressed, women reduced drinking in response to SBIRT above the reduction in response to assessment alone. Screening for depression may assist in allocating women to specific AEP prevention interventions.

  4. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  7. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  9. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  10. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  11. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  12. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  13. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  14. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  15. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  16. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  17. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression.We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models.The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58-1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer.Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted.

  18. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C; Bryan, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies.

  19. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  20. Pilot study on depression among secondary school students in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Adlina, S; Suthahar, A; Ramli, M; Edariah, A B; Soe, Soe Aye; Mohd Ariff, F; Narimah, A H H; Nuraliza, A S; Karuthan, C

    2007-08-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study of 2048 subjects was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and factors influencing depression among students in secondary school from urban and rural areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The children's depression inventory (CDI) developed by Maria Kovacs was used in this study. Students who participated in this study come from two urban schools and three rural schools. It was found that in the yield for scores for five factors were 9.2% have negative mood, 5% have interpersonal problems, 8.3% have ineffectiveness, 9.8% have anhedonia and 10.6% have negative self esteem. Following the interpretive guidelines for the T-scores, it was found that 10.3% of the students were much above average in the depression scale. This study also found that: 1% of students were smoking, 1.6% of students were gum sniffling, 0.9% took drugs, 4.1% took alcohol and 9.9% took things from other people. Females were more depressed than males. The Chinese students were more depressed compared to Indian students. Students whose parents had no formal education or had only primary education were more depressed than students whose parents had secondary, college or university education. Depression increased with increasing number of siblings. Depression contributed to the habit of drug abuse, gum sniffing and stealing but not to smoking and alcohol abuse. Suicidal tendencies were more likely among the depressed students. It is imperative that not only caregivers but also teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge, attitude and skills to assist secondary school children cope with their emotions, handle conflicts and manage stress early so that a more productive society will develop in the future.

  1. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  2. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  3. Depression in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages - an Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ariel Cesar de; Silva, Michele Eugênio da; Matos, Bárbara Magueta; Bottino, Cassio Machado de Campos; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel; Cohrs, Frederico Molina; Bottino, Sara Mota Borges

    2016-12-01

    Objective To assess depression, domestic violence and the use of substances in women with recurrent miscarriages. Methods The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were used to assess violence, depression and the use of substances among women with recurrent miscarriages. The population corresponded to patients receiving prenatal care from June to August 2014. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the multivariable relationship between depression and sociodemographic, psychosocial and medical characteristics (p < 0,10). Results The prevalence of depression was of 41.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.3-55.7%). One third of the pregnant women (32.6%) reported emotional or physical violence, and 13% were classified as abusing or addicted to tobacco according to ASSIST. History of psychiatric diseases was associated with depression (p = 0.005). Violence during life demonstrated a modest association (p = 0.073) with depression, as well as the number of miscarriages (p = 0.071). Conclusion Depression is a frequent disease among pregnant women with recurrent miscarriages. The results of this investigation suggest that a systematic assessment of depression and its associated conditions, such as domestic violence and the use of substances, should be part of the prenatal follow-up visits for women with recurrent miscarriages.

  4. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  5. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  6. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  7. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  8. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  9. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  10. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  11. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  12. Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical and Mental Health Outcomes and Course of Depression among Depressed Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbourne, Cathy Donald; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data from 604 depressed patients in The Medical Outcomes Study showed improvements in measures of functioning and well-being associated with patients who were employed, drank less alcohol, had active coping styles and higher levels of social support, who had active and less avoidant coping styles, who were physically active, and who had fewer…

  13. Characteristics of bulimic women with and without alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Bulik, C M; Sullivan, P F; McKee, M; Weltzin, T E; Kaye, W H

    1994-01-01

    We compared the characteristics of hospitalized women with bulimia nervosa alone (N = 19) and with bulimia nervosa plus alcohol abuse (N = 13) using standard measures of depression, eating disorders, general psychiatric symptomatology, and temperament. Bulimic women with alcohol abuse had significantly higher lowest past weight, but did not differ from women with bulimia alone on age, age of onset of bulimia, current weight, and highest past weight. There were no differences in clinical symptoms of bulimia, depression, or general psychiatric symptomatology. On Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), bulimic women with alcohol abuse scored significantly higher on Total Novelty Seeking, on the Novelty Seeking Subscale Disorderliness, and on the Reward Dependence Subscale Attachment. Implications for understanding the relation between bulimia and substance abuse are discussed.

  14. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  15. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  16. Depression and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2003-01-01

    Depressive disorders are common among 20% to 32% of people with HIV disease but are frequently unrecognized. Major depression is a recurring and disabling illness that typically responds to medications, cognitive psychotherapy, education, and social support. A large percentage of the emotional distress and major depression associated with HIV disease results from immunosuppression, treatment, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the disease. People with a history of intravenous drug use also have increased rates of depressive disorders. Untreated depression along with other comorbid conditions may increase costly clinic visits, hospitalizations, substance abuse, and risky behaviors and may reduce adherence to treatment and quality of life. HIV clinicians need not have psychiatric expertise to play a major role in depression. Screening tools improve case finding and encourage early treatment. Effective treatments can reduce major depression in 80% to 90% of patients. Clinicians who mistake depressive signs and symptoms for those of HIV disease make a common error that increases morbidity and mortality.

  17. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... apartments, condominiums; civilians living in housing on military bases, etc.) and persons in non-institutional group quarters ( ...

  18. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... health condition, such as bipolar disorder, which can cause or worsen depression and may require different treatment; dysthymia, a mild ... better Consider physical health conditions that can sometimes cause or worsen depression, such as thyroid disorders, chronic pain or heart ...

  19. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors. [5] Suicide Depression is a significant predictor of suicide in ...

  20. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... those suffering from severe depression will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a ...

  1. Depression and Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  2. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  3. Learning about depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  4. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  5. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  7. Role of the endocannabinoid system in depression and suicide.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K Yaragudri; Hungund, Basalingappa L

    2006-10-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of neuropsychiatric disorder and is a major cause of suicide worldwide. The prefrontal cortex is a crucial brain region that is thought to be involved in the regulation of mood, aggression and/or impulsivity and decision making, which are altered in suicidality. Evidence of the role of the endocannabinoid (EC) system in the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is beginning to emerge. The behavioral effects of ECs are believed to be mediated through the central cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Alterations in the levels of ECs, and in the density and coupling efficacy of CB1 receptors, have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of depressed and alcoholic suicide victims. These findings support our hypothesis that altered EC function contributes to the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior. Here, we provide a brief overview of the role of the EC system in alcoholism, depression and suicide, and discuss possible therapeutic interventions and directions for future research.

  8. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  9. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  10. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  11. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  12. Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  13. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depression KidsHealth > For Teens > Depression Print A A A ... Help Yourself en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...

  14. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  15. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  16. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  17. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  18. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  19. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  1. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF family alcoholism study.

    PubMed

    Gizer, Ian R; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2nd Edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1,204 first-degree relatives recruited for the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25 to .49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, the scales measuring antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and addictive behavior led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when used as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol-dependence phenotype.

  2. Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Youth With and Without Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Maggie H.; Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of alcohol and tobacco use in youth with and without chronic pain and to identify risk factors for use. Methods Participants included 186 youth (95 mixed chronic pain; 91 without chronic pain; 12–18 years old) who reported current alcohol and tobacco use, pain intensity, activity limitations, loneliness, and depressive symptoms. Results Adolescents with chronic pain were less likely to use alcohol compared with adolescents without chronic pain (7.4% vs. 22%), and as likely to use tobacco (9% vs. 8%). Across groups, youth with higher depressive symptoms, less loneliness, and fewer activity limitations were more likely to endorse alcohol and tobacco use. Exploratory analyses revealed that risk factors for substance use differed among youth with and without chronic pain. Conclusions Chronic pain may not increase risk for tobacco and alcohol use in adolescents. Research is needed to understand use of other substances in this medically vulnerable population. PMID:25617047

  3. Bidirectional relationship between alcohol intake and sensitivity to social defeat: association with Tacr1 and Avp expression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Britta S; Sequeira, Michelle K; Schank, Jesse R

    2017-02-01

    While epidemiological studies show that alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with affective disorders, the causal direction of this association is unclear. We examined this relationship using mouse models including social defeat stress (SDS), social interaction (SI) and voluntary alcohol consumption. C57BL6/J mice exposed to SDS segregate into two subpopulations, those that express depressive-like phenotypes ('susceptible') and those that do not ('resilient'). First, we stratified SDS-exposed mice and measured their voluntary alcohol consumption. Next, we determined whether SI behavior in alcohol-naïve mice could predict alcohol intake. Finally, we assessed the effect of binge-like alcohol exposure on sensitivity to SDS. We quantified Tacr1 (neurokinin-1 receptor gene) and Avp (vasopressin peptide gene) mRNA in brain regions involved in depression, addiction and social behavior. We found that susceptible mice consumed more alcohol compared with resilient mice, suggesting that depression-like phenotypes associate with increased alcohol intake. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between SI and alcohol intake in stress- and alcohol-naïve mice, suggesting that individual differences in SI associate with alcohol preference. Finally, alcohol pre-treatment increased sensitivity to SDS, indicating that alcohol exposure alters sensitivity to social stress. Quantification of mRNA revealed that increased expression of Tacr1 and Avp generally associated with decreased SI and increased alcohol intake. C57BL6/J mice are an inbred strain; thus, it is likely that individual differences in behavior and gene expression are driven by epigenetic factors. Collectively, these results support a bidirectional relationship between alcohol exposure and susceptibility to stress that is associated with variations in neuropeptide expression.

  4. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Yashika; Kuhad, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Depression is the most debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with significant impact on socio-occupational and well being of individual. The exact pathophysiology of depression is still enigmatic though various theories have been put forwarded. There are evidences showing that mitochondrial dysfunction in various brain regions is associated with depression. Recent findings have sparked renewed appreciation for the role of mitochondria in many intracellular processes coupled to synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. New insights in depression pathophysiology are revolving around the impairment of neuroplasticity. Mitochondria have potential role in ATP production, intracellular Ca2+ signalling to establish membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and to execute the complex processes of neurotransmission and plasticity. So understanding the various concepts of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of depression indubitably helps to generate novel and more targeted therapeutic approaches for depression treatment. Objective The review was aimed to give a comprehensive insight on role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. Result Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the mitochondrial functions might act as potential target for the treatment of depression. Conclusion Literature cited in this review highly supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. As impairment in the mitochondrial functions lead to the generation of various insults that exaggerate the pathogenesis of depression. So, it is useful to study mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to mood disorders, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and enhancing the functions of mitochondria might show promiscuous effects in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26923778

  5. Improving Australians' depression literacy.

    PubMed

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2002-10-07

    Community awareness and understanding of depression ("depression literacy") underpins successful implementation of prevention, early intervention and treatment programs. Improving depression literacy is a major goal of beyondblue: the national depression initiative. Although other countries have previously attempted to address this issue, there is little evidence to indicate that those attempts have achieved their aims. Work in other areas of health promotion, such as the widely used PRECEDE model, offers a useful framework from which to develop effective depression literacy initiatives in Australia. This model proposes that effective health promotion strategies should focus not on health actions per se, but on the knowledge and attitudes that encourage or impede individuals from taking such actions. We identify the goals of an effective depression literacy campaign and a range of educational strategies for achieving change in each of these areas. Applying these strategies may give a stronger basis for improving depression literacy than previous initiatives.

  6. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  7. Transcription factor AP2 beta involved in severe female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Niklas; Göktürk, Camilla; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W; Oreland, Lars; Hallman, Jarmila

    2009-12-11

    Susceptibility to alcoholism and antisocial behavior exhibits an evident link to monoaminergic neurotransmission. The serotonin system in particular, which is associated with regulation of mood and behavior, has an influence on personality characters that are firmly connected to risk of developing alcoholism and antisocial behavior, such as impulsiveness, and aggression. The transcription factor TFAP2b has repeatedly been shown to be involved in monoaminergic transmission, likely due to a regulatory effect on genes that are fundamental to this system, e.g. monoamine oxidase type A, and the serotonin transporter. Recent research has identified a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding TFAP2B that regulates its level of expression. In the present study we have compared a sample of female alcoholics (n=107), sentenced to institutional care for their severe addiction, contrasted against a control sample of adolescent females (n=875). The results showed that parental alcohol misuse was significantly more common among the alcoholic females, and also that parental alcohol misuse was associated with a reduction in age of alcohol debut. We also addressed the question of whether a functional TFAP2b polymorphism was associated with alcoholism. Results showed that the high-functioning allele was significantly more common among the female alcoholics, compared to the non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, the results also indicated that psychosocial factors, in terms of parental alcohol misuse, depression or psychiatric disorder, had an influence on the association. It was observed that the genetic association was restricted to the subset of cases that had not experienced these negative psychosocial factors.

  8. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  9. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  10. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  11. The self as mediator in the psychopathology of female children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Drozd, L M; Dalenberg, C J

    1994-12-01

    Theoreticians long have argued for the centrality of strength or poverty of self-definitions in the prediction and understanding of psychopathology. In this research an empirical measure of strength of self-definition was developed based on the work of Hazel Markus. Consistency of self-description and resistance to challenge for this self-description were found to be related to reported alcoholism, trust, and life satisfaction/depression in children of alcoholics. In fact, nearly all variance in life satisfaction and alcoholism differentiating children of alcoholics (COA) from non-COA groups was controlled by the self variables. Clinical and theoretical implications of the significant findings were discussed.

  12. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  13. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  14. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  15. Prevalence of Depression and Depression Care for Populations Registered in Primary Care in Two Remote Cities in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depression has been widely studied in high-income countries and in large cities of low-income countries; however, little is known about the prevalence and treatment gap of depression in remote areas of the Amazonian region in Brazil. Objectives The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of depression in adults registered with the Family Health Strategy in two remote cities in the Brazilian Amazon and to investigate the proportion of individuals with depression that received mental health care. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of an adult population registered with primary care clinics in the cities of Coari and Tefé, State of Amazon, Brazil. Depression was defined as a score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Depression care was evaluated by asking participants with depression if they received antidepressants and/or had been seen by a health professional at a community mental health center in the three months prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between depression and exposure variables. Results The overall prevalence of depression was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2–21.1), with 22.2% (95% CI: 19.3–25.0) among women and 16.0% (95% CI: 13.4–18.5) among men. The prevalence of depression in Coari and Tefé were 18.3% (CI 95% 15.7–21.0) and 19.9% (95% CI:17.2–22.7), respectively. Being a woman, lacking social support, increasing exposure to stressful life events and having a higher number medical comorbidities were consistently associated with depression. Lower educational attainment and income, tobacco use, and risky alcohol use were also associated with depression in the unadjusted analyses. Only 11.5% of those with depression were receiving antidepressants and/or visited the mental health care facility during the three months prior to the interview. Conclusion Approximately one in five adults in our sample had depression. A high

  16. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  17. Fatal poisoning by alcohol and heroin.

    PubMed

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2007-09-01

    Drug abuse with alcohol consumption have been on the rise in Split-Dalmatian County for a while now. This article reports two separate cases with three deaths due to fatal combinations of heroin and alcohol. The first case of poisoning is related to a young couple, a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman, who were found dead in a car, surrounded by cans of a variety alcoholic drinks. Two needles were found beside the bodies as well. The victims were registered drug abusers who had been in withdrawal programs. The second case was a 29-year-old man who was found dead in a house. Three fresh injection marks were visible on his right arm, and two needles were near his body. He was not known as a drug addict, but he had tried to commit suicide recently. Carboxyhaemoglobin was found in blood samples of both victims from the first case. The concentration was 25% and that could contribute to their death. In both described cases blood alcohol concentration was higher then 1.60 g kg(-1). Toxicology tests were positive for heroin, meconin, acetaminophen, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, noscapine and papaverine. Ethanol, being a respiratory depressant, combined with morphine drastically increases the risk of rapid death due to respiration failure.

  18. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  19. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06-1.18).Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use.

  20. The children of alcoholics life-events schedule: a stress scale for children of alcohol-abusing parents.

    PubMed

    Roosa, M W; Sandler, I N; Gehring, M; Beals, J; Cappo, L

    1988-09-01

    Children of alcoholic parents have been shown to be at risk for the development of mental health problems. However, there is little empirical research that would allow one to determine which of these children are most at risk. Hypothesizing that the amount of parental drinking-related stress a child experiences may be a factor that discriminates those children of alcoholics who are most at risk from others, the Children of Alcoholics Life-Events Schedule (COALES) was developed. Using samples of high-school students, the COALES was found to have satisfactory test-retest reliability, internal-consistency reliability and construct and concurrent validity. Children who self-identified as having an alcoholic parent reported higher levels of negative events and lower levels of positive events than did their peers from nonalcoholic homes. Scores on the positive- and negative-event subscales were significantly correlated with the children's scores on measures of anxiety and depression.

  1. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  2. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  3. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  4. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  5. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  6. Combined MI + CBT for Depressive Symptoms and Binge Drinking Among Young Adults: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Palm, Kathleen M.; Dalton, Elizabeth; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    There are high rates of comorbidity between heavy drinking and depressive symptoms among college students, often resulting in severe alcohol-related consequences. No empirically supported treatment exists that concurrently addresses both of these problems in this population. Research with college students has demonstrated that brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Thus, a program combining BMI and CBT-D appears ideal for college students with co-occurring binge drinking and depressive symptoms. This manuscript presents the rationale and format of a BMI + CBT-D treatment protocol for this population, and provides a case example of a female college student who received the protocol and experienced improvement in depressive symptoms, a reduction in alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences, and an increase in readiness to change alcohol consumption. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25170188

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  8. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  9. Optical properties of a thermocapillary depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyĭ, B. A.; Tarasov, O. A.

    2002-04-01

    An axisymmetrical thermocapillary depression is induced by a He-Ne laser beam in a plane-parallel layer of a transparent liquid on an absorbing substrate. The focal length of the central part of this depression in the form of a concave mirror is studied as a function of thickness of the benzyl-alcohol layer and beam power. At a laser power of 3.5-16.5 mW, the focal length increases almost linearly with the layer thickness changing from 200 to 1000 µm. In this range of thicknesses, an increase in the beam power leads to a decrease in the focal length following a power law with an exponent close to -0.8.

  10. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  12. Current perspectives on the diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, A A

    2001-09-01

    Each year in America approximately 6 million people suffer from depression at a cost of more than $16 billion. People who are depressed have more medical illnesses than those without depression and make greater use of healthcare services. In a 15-month period after having been diagnosed with depression, sufferers are 4 times more likely to die as those who do not have depression. Almost 60% of suicides have their roots in major depression, and 15% of those admitted to a psychiatric hospital for depression eventually kill themselves. Although depression is highly treatable, only one third of sufferers receive suitable treatment. The reason for underdiagnosis is 2-fold. Physicians may fail to recognize depression and sufferers may actively deny it. A family history of depression is an important cause in those who suffer recurrent episodes. Major depressive disorder is the most common type of depression and, unless treated, resolves by itself in 6 months to a year less than 40% of the time. Depressive symptoms can be found in as many as 30% of those who abuse alcohol, so abstinence is crucial to treatment. Contrary to popular belief, depression is not a normal part of aging, although it can occur in elderly people who have severe medical and psychosocial problems. The goal of pharmacotherapy is the reduction and ultimate removal of all signs and symptoms of depression. More than 2 dozen drugs with 7 distinct mechanisms of action are available to treat depression, with the clinical goal being remission. Whereas psychotherapy is a treatment option, by itself it tends to be effective in only a limited group of highly motivated individuals who have less severe forms of depression. As a result, treatment outcomes are better when pharmacologic antidepressant treatment and psychotherapy are combined.

  13. Predicting adolescent substance use: the effects of depressed mood and positive expectancies.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L; Shamblen, Stephen R

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether sixth-graders' depressed mood and positive substance use expectancies predicted increases over the next two years in students' lifetime and 30-day cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, and whether sixth graders' positive substance use expectancies moderated the relationship between baseline depressed mood and changes over the next two years in the use of these substances. Study data came from a randomized controlled trial of Project ALERT, a school-based substance use prevention program, in which students from 34 schools completed self-report surveys as sixth (n=5782), seventh (n=5065), and eighth graders (n=4940). Primary analyses were performed using Hierarchical Nonlinear Modeling. Over time, there were significant effects of baseline positive expectancies on each of the six measures of substance use. Baseline depressed mood predicted increases over time only for lifetime use of cigarettes and alcohol, and for 30-day alcohol use. Positive expectancies significantly moderated the effects of adolescent depressed mood only on lifetime marijuana use. Although depressed mood predicted substance use for half of our variables, our results suggest that positive expectancies are a more consistent predictor of adolescent substance use, and that they may moderate the effects of depressed mood on marijuana, but not cigarette or alcohol, use. Substance use prevention programs may benefit from addressing adolescents' perceptions about the positive consequences of drug use.

  14. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  15. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  16. Vitamin D and depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient proven to be important for bone health. It has other physiological functions, and there are plausible reasons for investigating vitamin D in depressive disorders. Some cross-sectional clinical and epidemiologic studies, but not all studies, have found that low levels of vitamin D are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms or with a depression diagnosis. However, cross-sectional studies cannot establish causality, and the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Due to the poor quality of the treatment studies, the effectiveness of vitamin D for depression cannot be adequately assessed. Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression.

  17. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  18. Tryptophan metabolism in depression

    PubMed Central

    Curzon, G.; Bridges, P. K.

    1970-01-01

    Psychiatric patients suffering from endogenous depression and a control group without endogenous depression were given oral loads of L-tryptophan and urinary excretion determined of the tryptophan metabolites on the pyrrolase pathway: kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Female endogenously depressed subjects excreted significantly more kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine but not the subsequent metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid than did female control subjects. Variability of excretion of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine at different times by the same subject was much greater in the endogenously depressed than in the control group. There was no consistent temporal relationship between excretion of metabolites and severity of the depressive illness. The possible significance of the findings in relation to defective tryptophan metabolism in the brain in endogenous depression is commented upon. PMID:5478953

  19. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  20. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  1. Interaction of paracetamol in chronic alcoholic patients. Importance for odontologists.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    For social, cultural and historical motives alcohol (ethanol or isopenthanol) is considered to be just a beverage rather than a liquor. However, from a pharmatherapeutic point of view alcohol is a depressor of the central nervous system. The effects of alcohol consumption can range from raised loquacity to drunkenness, loss of consciousness and death as a result of insufficient respiration. Probably the most frequent pharmacological interaction is the combination of alcohol with other depressors of the central nervous system which increases the depression even further. Some medicaments which more frequently produce an interaction are antihistamines, analgesics, antidepressants and medicaments for coughs, common cold and influenza. Paracetamol or acetaminophen is an analgesic medicament similar to acetylsalicylic acid lacking anticoagulatory properties and gastric irritation. However, its major drawback is hepatic toxicity as a result of a toxic metabolite produced in the liver by cytochrome P-450, principally cytochrome CYP2E1, which is detoxified under normal conditions by hepatic glutathione. Ethanol is also detoxified by CYP2E1, which is an inducer of ethanol such that chronic ingestion increases the level of this enzyme. When the ingestion of alcohol is stopped, CYP2E1 is greatly increased and only metabolises the paracetamol giving rise to high quantities of hepatotoxic metabolites so that the hepatic glutathione is unable to detoxify resulting in irreversible hepatic damage. Therefore for odontologists it is important that in chronic alcoholic patients the consumption of alcohol should not be suspended on prescribing paracetamol.

  2. Drinking to cope as a statistical mediator in the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes among underage college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Bradizza, Clara M; Collins, R Lorraine

    2009-09-01

    Etiological models of alcohol use that highlight the role of negative affect and depression have not been applied to the association of suicidality and alcohol use. The authors examined whether a motivational model of alcohol use could be applied to understand the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes in a sample of underage college drinkers who had a history of passive suicidal ideation (n = 91). In this cross-sectional study, regression analyses were conducted to examine whether drinking to cope with negative affect statistically mediated or was an intervening variable in the association between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes. Results revealed that drinking to cope was a significant intervening variable in the relationships between suicidal ideation and alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems, even while controlling for depression. These results suggest that the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes may be due to individuals using alcohol to regulate or escape the distress associated with suicidal ideation. Consideration of alcohol-related models can improve the conceptualization of research on suicidality and alcohol use.

  3. Drinking to Cope as a Statistical Mediator in the Relationship Between Suicidal Ideation and Alcohol Outcomes Among Underage College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Collins, R. Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Etiological models of alcohol use that highlight the role of negative affect and depression have not been applied to research on the association of suicidality and alcohol use. We sought to rectify this oversight by examining whether a motivational model of alcohol use could be applied to understanding the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes in a sample of underage college drinkers who had a history of passive suicidal ideation (n = 91). In this cross-sectional study, regression analyses were conducted to examine whether drinking to cope with negative affect statistically mediated or was an intervening variable in the association between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes. The results revealed that drinking to cope was a significant intervening variable in the relationships between suicidal ideation and alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems, even while controlling for depression. These results suggest that the relationship between suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes may be due to individuals using alcohol to regulate or escape the distress associated with suicidal ideation. Consideration of alcohol-related models can improve the conceptualization of research on suicidality and alcohol use. PMID:19769428

  4. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  5. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Quit Community Helping Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in ...

  6. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome showing various progress: A case report].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Chihiro; Nara, Keinosuke; Kinoshita, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Ken; Asai, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We experienced a case showing various psychotic symptoms following cessation of alcohol consumption. The symptoms included depressive state, delusion, confusion, psychomotor excitement and delirium, all of which disappeared in about two months. At first, we regarded all the symptoms as alcoholic hallucinosis, by a clinical standpoint, in spite of no auditory hallucination in this case. However, taking the overall clinical course into consideration, withdrawal syndrome could have been affected by some factors. One of the possibilities is that delusion might have been induced by aripiprazole. There still may be some other unknown influential factors on withdrawal, which are indicated by previous papers.

  7. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    .98–2.16). Having higher Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06–1.18). Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use. PMID:27661013

  8. Risk factors for treatment failure in smokers: relationship to alcohol use and to lifetime history of an alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; McKee, Sherry A; Toll, Benjamin A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L; Makuch, Robert W; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of two types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to three levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate, or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol usexAUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and, to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.

  9. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to 3 levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol use × AUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking. PMID:19023831

  10. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  11. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  15. Alcoholism in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…

  16. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  17. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  18. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless men on parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; Albarran, Cynthia; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N =157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated that 40% of the participants were classified as experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10). Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the following were predictors of depressive symptoms (p <.05): physical abuse in childhood, non-residential alcohol treatment, violent behaviors, low self-esteem, and disengagement coping. Being Mexican-American, Mexican, American Indian, or Asian, and not displaying cognitive problems was inversely related to depressive symptoms in the final model (B =-2.39, p <.05). Findings support proper use of both prison and community assessment services to at-risk individuals eligible for parole to increase self-esteem and coping.

  19. Premenstrual depression predicts future major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Graze, K K; Nee, J; Endicott, J

    1990-02-01

    To assess the power of premenstrual changes as a risk factor for future major depressive disorder (MDD), we conducted a follow-up study of 36 women who had volunteered for menstrual cycle studies. Scores on the depressive subscale of the Premenstrual Assessment Form (PAF) at initial evaluation were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.35) with the occurrence of MDD during the follow-up period. Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the PAF scores had predictive value above and beyond 2 known risk factors for MDD, family history of depression and prior personal history of depression. The Premenstrual Change Index, a score derived from prospective daily self-ratings of severity of dysphoric symptoms, was also correlated with interval MDD, but did not enhance the predictive power of the PAF score. We conclude that the assessment of premenstrual depression has validity in identifying women at risk for future MDD, even when a retrospective instrument, PAF, is utilized for such assessment.

  20. Depression and suicide ideation among students accessing campus health care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Sara; Wiegel, Jennifer R; Mundt, Marlon; Brown, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Heiligenstein, Eric; Harahan, Brian; Fleming, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicide are of increasing concern on college campuses. This article presents data from the College Health Intervention Projects on the frequency of depression and suicide ideation among 1,622 college students who accessed primary care services in 4 university clinics in the Midwest, Northwest, and Canada. Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and other measures related to exercise patterns, alcohol use, sensation seeking, and violence. The frequency of depression was similar for men (25%) and women (26%). Thought of suicide was higher for men (13%) than women (10%). Tobacco use, emotional abuse, and unwanted sexual encounters were all associated with screening positive for depression. "Days of exercise per week" was inversely associated with screening positive for depression. Because the majority of students access campus-based student health centers, medical providers can serve a key role in early identification and intervention. With every 4th student reporting symptoms of depression and every 10th student having suicidal thoughts, such interventions are needed.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  2. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Belfer, I; Hipp, H; Bollettino, A; McKnight, C; Evans, C; Virkkunen, M; Albaugh, B; Max, M B; Goldman, D; Enoch, M A

    2007-07-01

    The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in the periphery and the central nervous system and mediates diverse physiological processes and behaviors including alcohol abuse, depression and anxiety. Four genes encoding galanin and its receptors have been identified (GAL, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3). Recently we found that GAL haplotypes were associated with alcoholism, raising the possibility that genetic variation in GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3 might also alter alcoholism risk. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by genotyping SNP panels in controls from five populations. For the association study with alcoholism, six GALR1, four GALR2 and four GALR3 SNPs were genotyped in a large cohort of Finnish alcoholics and non-alcoholics. GALR3 showed a significant association with alcoholism that was driven by one SNP (rs3,091,367). Moreover, the combination of the GALR3 rs3,091,367 risk allele and GAL risk haplotypes led to a modestly increased odds ratio (OR) for alcoholism (2.4) as compared with the effect of either GAL (1.9) or GALR3 alone (1.4). Likewise, the combination of the GALR3 and GAL risk diplotypes led to an increased OR for alcoholism (4.6) as compared with the effect of either GAL (2.0) or GALR3 alone (1.6). There was no effect of GALR1 or GALR2 on alcoholism risk. This evidence suggests that GALR3 mediates the alcoholism-related actions of galanin.

  3. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  4. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  5. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Naudé, Petrus J W; Comijs, Hannie C; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-03-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a young population and depression severity scales instead of patients with established diagnosis of depressive disorder. We examined the relation between waist circumference and late-life depression using the baseline data of The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO). Psychopathology has been assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1. Adjusted for age, sex, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), drug use, cognition and chronic diseases as well as adjusted for body mass index (BMI), analysis of covariance showed that depressed older patients (n=376) had a significantly lower waist circumference (WC) compared to their non-depressed comparisons (n=130): estimated marginal mean (SE)=93.9 (0.5) versus 97.8 (0.8) cm (F=15.9; df=1467; p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses within the depressed group showed that both, depression severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) as well as duration-related depression characteristics (age of onset, duration of illness, life-time comorbid dysthymia), were associated with the WC. Only the severity of depressive symptoms remained significant after further adjusted for the BMI. Interestingly, a recently discovered adipokine, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), was associated with late-life depression, but only in the subgroup of patients with a pathologically increased WC. Population-based findings on the positive association between obesity and depressive symptoms can thus not be generalised to a clinical sample of depressed older patients. The impact of the WC on course and treatment outcome of late-life depression should be examined in clinical samples

  6. A Comparison of Mental Health and Alcohol Use Between Traditional and Nontraditional Students

    PubMed Central

    Trenz, Rebecca C.; Ecklund-Flores, Lisa; Rapoza, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe differences in life stress, anxiety, depression, and alcohol use between traditional and nontraditional college students. Participants A targeted, stratified sample of college students (N = 1187; Mage = 23.96, SD = 7.30; female 67.2%) completed study surveys in Spring 2011. Methods Participants completed demographic information, Life Stress (CRYSIS), Beck Anxiety Scale, Depression Scale (CESD), and alcohol use (AUDIT-C) during regularly scheduled class times. Results Fifty-three percent (n = 630) of study participants were nontraditional students. Nontraditional students scored significantly higher than traditional students on life stress [t (1182) = -3.05, p < .01], anxiety [t (1175) = -2.20, p < .05], and depression, [t (1174) = -2.22, p < .05]. Nontraditional and traditional students did not differ on alcohol use. Conclusions Interventions for nontraditional college students should address the mental health issues specific to this growing college sub-population. PMID:25942567

  7. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  8. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  11. Dissociative disorders among alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Tamar Gurol, Defne; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2007-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among inpatients with alcohol dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to screen 111 alcohol-dependent patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient unit of a dependency treatment center. Subgroups of 29 patients who scored 30.0 or above and 25 patients who scored below 10.0 were then evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The interviewers were blind to the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 10 (9.0% of the original 111) patients had a dissociative disorder. A considerable number of the remaining patients reported a high level of dissociative experiences. Among the dissociative disorder group, nine patients had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and one patient had depersonalization disorder. Female gender, younger age, history of suicide attempt, childhood emotional and sexual abuse, and neglect were more frequent in the dissociative disorder group than among non-dissociative patients. The dissociative disorder group also had somatization disorder, borderline personality disorder, and lifetime major depression more frequently. For 9 of the 10 dissociative patients, dissociative symptoms started before the onset of alcohol use. Although the probability of having a comorbid dissociative disorder was not higher among alcohol-dependent inpatients than among the general psychiatric inpatients, the dissociative subgroup had distinct features. Many patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis (predominantly men) provided hints of subtle dissociative psychopathology. Implications of comorbid dissociative disorders and dissociative experiences on prevention and treatment of alcohol dependency and the importance of gender-specific characteristics in this relationship require further study.

  12. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  13. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  15. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  16. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  17. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  19. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  20. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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