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Sample records for depressed cinnamyl alcohol

  1. Silver nano particle formation on Ar plasma - treated cinnamyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, S.; Marschewski, M.; Wegewitz, L.; Maus-Friedrichs, W.; Vioel, W.

    2012-02-01

    Metastable induced electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy are employed to study the adsorption of silver on cinnamyl alcohol films prepared on Au(111) substrates by thermal evaporation. Additionally, the impact of an Ar atmosphere dielectric barrier discharge plasma applied to the cinnamyl alcohol film preliminary to the Ag adsorption is investigated. In both cases silver nano particles with an average diameter of 9 nm are formed. These particles do not interact chemically with the underlying cinnamyl alcohol film. We do not find any influence of the preliminary Ar plasma-treatment on the adsorption behavior at all.

  2. LC/MS/MS identification of glycosides produced by biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol in Rhodiola rosea compact callus aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Ari; György, Zsuzsanna; Jalonen, Jorma; Neubauer, Peter; Hohtola, Anja

    2004-10-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol was added to the media of compact callus aggregates (CCA) of Rhodiola rosea for stimulating the production of cinnamyl glycosides. The biotransformation reaction produced high amounts of rosin, while only a very low amount of rosavin was produced. As the consumption rate of cinnamyl alcohol was much higher than production of rosin, the aqueous methanol extracts of compact callus aggregates were studied by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric methods and four new unexpected biotransformation products of cinnamyl alcohol were identified.

  3. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  4. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents.

  5. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  6. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  7. Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda Prakash; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2011-10-01

    A cDNA encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzing conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to corresponding cinnamyl alcohols, was cloned from secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. The cloned cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Temperature and Zn(2+) ion played crucial role in expression and activity of enzyme, such that, at 18°C and at 2 mM Zn(2+) the CAD was maximally expressed as active enzyme in soluble fraction. The expressed protein was purified 14.78-folds to homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose column with specific activity of 346 nkat/mg protein. The purified enzyme exhibited lowest Km with cinnamyl alcohol (12.2 μM) followed by coniferyl (18.1 μM) and sinapyl alcohol (23.8 μM). Enzyme exhibited high substrate inhibition with cinnamyl (beyond 20 μM) and coniferyl (beyond 100 μM) alcohols. The in silico analysis of CAD protein exhibited four characteristic consensus sequences, GHEXXGXXXXXGXXV; C(100), C(103), C(106), C(114); GXGXXG and C(47), S(49), H(69), L(95), C(163), I(300) involved in catalytic Zn(2+) binding, structural Zn(2+) binding, NADP(+) binding and substrate binding, respectively. Tertiary structure, generated using Modeller 9v5, exhibited a trilobed structure with bulged out structural Zn(2+) binding domain. The catalytic Zn(2+) binding, substrate binding and NADP(+) binding domains formed a pocket protected by two major lobes. The enzyme catalysis, sequence homology and 3-D model, all supported that the cloned CAD belongs to alcohol dehydrogenase family of plants.

  8. Isolation and identification of mercapturic acids of cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol from urine of female rats.

    PubMed

    Delbressine, L P; Klippert, P J; Reuvers, J T; Seuttler-Berlage, F

    1981-11-01

    Rats dosed with cinnamic aldehyde (I) excreted two mercapturic acids in the urine. The major one was identified as N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine (V). The minor one was identified as N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-2-carboxy ethyl)cysteine (VI). The ratio appeared to be V : VI = 4 : 1. The hydroxy mercapturic acid (V) was also isolated from urine of rats dosed with cinnamyl alcohol (II). The total mercapturic acid excretion as percentage of the dose was 14.8 +/- 1.9% for cinnamic aldehyde (250 mg/kg) (n = 4) and 8.8 +/- 1.7% for cinnamyl alcohol (n = 4) (125 mg/kg). Inhibition of the alcohol dehydrogenase by pyrazole (206 mg/kg) diminished the thioether excretion of cinnamyl alcohol to 3.3 +/- 1.4% of the dose (n = 8). Cinnamic aldehyde has been proposed to be an intermediate in the mercapturic acid formation of cinnamyl alcohol.

  9. Structure Determination Using 19-F NMR: A Simple Fluorination Experiment of Cinnamyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demendonca, Daniel J.; Digits, Cheryl A.; Navin, Erin W.; Sander, Tanya C.; Hammond, Gerald B.

    1995-08-01

    Described here is the nucleophilic substitution of a hydroxyl group, in cinnamyl alcohol, by fluorine, and analysis of the product using 19-F NMR spectroscopy. This experiment brings important innovations to the teaching of experimental organic chemistry at the undergraduate level. The fluorination of cinnamyl alcohol requires only a mild fluorinating agent and so it provides the student with a direct contact with organofluorine, chemistry. The allylic nucleophilic substitution typified by our experiment will enhance the instruction of nucleophilic substitution in the laboratory, traditionally limited to SN1 or SN2 substitutions. Because the ratio of SN2 to SN2' derived products cannot be determined directly using 1-H NMR spectroscopy but it can be measured easily using 19-F NMR spectroscopy. The experiment gives the student a firsthand experience of the usefulness of NMR spectra of different nuclei.

  10. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  11. Rapid induction by fungal elicitor of the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, a specific enzyme of lignin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grand, C; Sarni, F; Lamb, C J

    1987-11-16

    A fivefold increase in the extractable activity of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism specific for lignin synthesis, was observed within 10 h of treatment of cell-suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with a high-molecular-mass elicitor preparation heat-released from mycelial cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Elicitor caused a rapid, marked but transient increase in the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase with maximum rates 2-3 h after elicitation, concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity. There is a close correspondence between increased polysomal mRNA activity encoding cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, as measured by incorporation of [35S]methionine into immunoprecipitable enzyme subunits in vitro, and the stimulation of enzyme synthesis in vivo in response to elicitor. This marked increase in polysomal mRNA activity represents an increase as a proportion of total cellular mRNA activity, indicating that elicitor does not stimulate synthesis of this enzyme by selective recruitment from the total pool of cellular mRNA. Elicitor stimulation of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase activity and enzyme synthesis is more rapid than previously observed for other proteins involved inducible defense mechanisms, such as enzymes of phytoalexin biosynthesis or the apoproteins of cell-wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins.

  12. A Nonsense Mutation in a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene is Responsible for the Sorghum Brown Midrib-6 Phenotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown midrib 6 (bmr-6) affects phenylpropanoid metabolism resulting in reduced lignin concentrations and altered lignin composition in Sorghum bicolor. Recently, bmr-6 plants were shown to have very limited cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195), the enzyme that catalyzes the c...

  13. DOWNREGULATION OF CINNAMYL-ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE IN SWITCHGRASS BY RNA SILENCING RESULTS IN ENHANCED GLUCOSE RELEASE AFTER CELLULASE TREATMENT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switch...

  14. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD.

  15. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases from a liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Yu; Han, Xiaojuan; Lou, Hongxiang; Cheng, Aixia

    2013-09-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) (EC 1.1.1.195) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. It catalyzes cinnamyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols, the last step in monolignol biosynthesis. Almost all CAD members of land plants could be divided into three classes according to the phylogenetic analysis, together with gene structure and function. In the present investigation, two cDNAs encoding CADs were obtained from a Chinese liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum thallus library and were designated as PaCAD1 and PaCAD2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 belonged to Class II. Full length cDNAs were heterologously expressed in E. coli and the recombinant PaCAD proteins displayed high activity levels using p-coumaryl, caffeyl, coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl and sinapyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols. The enzyme kinetics results showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 used coniferyl aldehyde as the favourite substrate and showed high catalytic efficiency towards p-coumaryl aldehyde but lowest catalytic efficiency towards 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In accord with the higher lignin content in the thallus than in the callus, the expression level of PaCAD2 was also higher in thallus than in the callus. The expression of PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 was induced by Methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment. This suggested that these two PaCADs played twin roles in lignin biosynthesis and the defencedefence of abiotic stress in P. appendiculatum. This is the first time that the CADs in liverworts have been functionally characterized.

  16. Radicals and molecular products from the gas-phase pyrolysis of lignin model compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Xu, Meng-xia; Wu, Ang-jian; Pechagin, Mikhail; Asatryan, Rubik

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results on detection and identification of intermediate radicals and molecular products from gas-phase pyrolysis of cinnamyl alcohol (CnA), the simplest non-phenolic lignin model compound, over the temperature range of 400–800 °C are reported. The low temperature matrix isolation – electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI-EPR) experiments along with the theoretical calculations, provided evidences on the generation of the intermediate carbon and oxygen centered as well as oxygen-linked, conjugated radicals. A mechanistic analysis is performed based on density functional theory to explain formation of the major products from CnA pyrolysis; cinnamaldehyde, indene, styrene, benzaldehyde, 1-propynyl benzene, and 2-propenyl benzene. The evaluated bond dissociation patterns and unimolecular decomposition pathways involve dehydrogenation, dehydration, 1,3-sigmatropic H-migration, 1,2-hydrogen shift, C—O and C—C bond cleavage processes. PMID:28344372

  17. Electron beam irradiation of maltodextrin and cinnamyl alcohol mixtures: influence of glycerol on cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Khandal, Dhriti; Aggarwal, Manjeet; Suri, Gunjan; Coqueret, Xavier

    2015-03-06

    The influence of glycerol on the electron beam-induced changes in maltodextrins-cinnamyl alcohol (CA) blends is examined with respect to its influence on the degree of chain scission, grafting, and cross-linking. The study is relevant to radiation-induced polysaccharide modification, specifically in the perspective of using blended starch as a thermoplastic material, where glycerol is commonly used as a plasticizer. In the absence of CA, glycerol protects maltodextrin from chromophore formation onto the main chain, but also induces more chain scission. The presence of CA provides efficient radiation-protection against scission. Glycerol is shown to affect the interaction between maltodextrin and CA, most likely in the form of an inclusion complex when glycerol is absent. The global behavior under radiation is therefore governed by the physical interactions between the blend constituents rather than on the role of glycerol role as a plasticizer, or as an OH˙ radical scavenger.

  18. Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49 kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions.

  19. Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions. PMID:23028019

  20. Purification and Characterization of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoforms from the Periderm of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S. W.; Boudet, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) isoforms were purified from the periderm (containing both suberized and lignified cell layers) of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook stems. Two isoforms (CAD 1P and CAD 2P) were initially characterized, and the major form, CAD 2P, was resolved into three further isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography. Crude extracts contained two aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and one aromatic ADH, which was later resolved into two further isoforms. Aliphatic ADHs did not use hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates, whereas both aromatic ADH isoforms used coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol as substrates but with a much lower specific activity when compared with benzyl alcohol. The minor form, CAD 1P, was a monomer with a molecular weight of 34,000 that did not co-elute with either aromatic or aliphatic ADH activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis demonstrated that this protein was very similar to another CAD isoform purified from Eucalyptus xylem tissue. CAD 2P had a native molecular weight of approximately 84,000 and was a dimer consisting of two heterogenous subunits (with molecular weights of 42,000 and 44,000). These subunits were differentially combined to give the heterodimer and two homodimers. SDS-PAGE, western blots, and nondenaturing PAGE indicated that the CAD 2P heterodimer was very similar to the main CAD isoform previously purified in our laboratory from differentiating xylem tissue of E. gunnii (D. Goffner, I. Joffroy, J. Grima-Pettenati, C. Halpin, M.E. Knight, W. Schuch, A.M. Boudet [1992] Planta 188: 48-53). Kinetic data indicated that the different CAD 2P isoforms may be implicated in the preferential production of different monolignols used in the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. PMID:12232063

  1. Catalytic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol using Au-Ag nanotubes investigated by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Jean Claudio Santos; Corio, Paola; Rossi, Liane Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed species at the catalyst surface. However, it is quite difficult to combine catalytic and SERS activities on the same material. Here we report the application of well-defined Au-Ag nanotubes as both SERS substrates and catalysts for the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol. The species adsorbed on the catalyst surfaces at different reaction times were analyzed by SERS. The bimetallic nanotubes prepared via a simple galvanic replacement reaction are highly active in the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol, but do not avoid a radical-chain reaction and the cleavage of the carbon-carbon double bond. A comparison between changes in bulk composition and the nature of adsorbed species at the surface of the catalyst over time suggests that cinnamaldehyde is formed on the catalyst surface (metal-catalyzed oxidation) and benzaldehyde is probably formed in the bulk solution via a radical-chain pathway. In the presence of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, the radical-chain reaction is suppressed and the oxidation reaction produces cinnamaldehyde.Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed species at the catalyst surface. However, it is quite difficult to combine catalytic and SERS activities on the same material. Here we report the application of well-defined Au-Ag nanotubes as both SERS substrates and catalysts for the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol. The species adsorbed on the catalyst surfaces at different reaction times were analyzed by SERS. The bimetallic nanotubes prepared via a simple galvanic replacement reaction are highly active in the oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol, but do not avoid a radical-chain reaction and the cleavage of the carbon-carbon double bond. A comparison between changes in bulk composition and the nature of adsorbed species at the surface of the catalyst over time suggests that cinnamaldehyde is formed on the catalyst surface (metal

  2. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenation activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.

  3. Selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol with carbon nanotubes supported Pt-Co catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Ren-Xian

    2008-02-01

    The Pt-Co catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared by wet impregnation and the selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) over the catalysts has been studied in ethanol at different reaction conditions. The results show that Pt-0.17 wt%Co/CNTs catalyst exhibits the highest activity and selectivity at a reaction temperature of 60 °C under a pressure of around 2.5 MPa, and 92.4% for the conversion of CMA and 93.6% for the selectivity of CMA to CMO, respectively. The selective hydrogenation for the C dbnd O double bond in CMA would be improved as increasing the H 2 pressure, and the selective hydrogenation for the C dbnd C double bond in CMA is enhanced as increasing the reaction temperature. In addition, these catalysts have also been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H 2-temperature programmed reduction (H 2-TPR) and H 2-temperature programmed desorption (H 2-TPD) techniques. The results show that Pt particles are dispersed more homogeneously on the outer surface of the nanotubes, while the strong interaction between Pt and Co would improve the increasing of activated hydrogen number because of the hydrogen spillover from reduced Pt 0 onto CNTs and increase the catalytic activity and selectivity of CMA to CMO.

  4. Highly Efficient Selective Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol over Gold Supported on Zinc Oxide Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Hangning; Cullen, David A.; Larese, J. Z.

    2015-11-30

    We used Au/ZnO catalysts for liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde to cinnamyl alcohol and compared with Au/Fe2O3 catalysts. To investigate the influence of the support on the hydrogenation activity and selectivity, three different Au/ZnO catalysts were synthesized, including Au/rod-tetrapod ZnO, Au/porous ZnO, and Au/ZnO-CP prepared using a coprecipitation method. Moreover, the influence of calcination temperature was also systematically investigated in this study. The characterization of Au/ZnO catalysts was performed using ICP, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among all the supported Au catalysts prepared in this study, Au/ZnO-CP exhibits both the highest hydrogenationmore » activity and selectivity. Using a 1.5% Au/ZnO-CP catalyst, 100% selectivity could be achieved with 94.9% conversion. Finally, we find that the Au particle (size and shape), the ZnO support (size and surface texture) and the interaction between Au and ZnO are three important parameters for achieving a highly efficient Au/ZnO catalyst.« less

  5. Different metabolic routes for coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Déjardin, Annabelle; Desmet, Sandrien; Hoengenaert, Lennart; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Laurans, Francoise; Kim, Hoon; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff; Goeminne, Geert; Legee, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout A

    2017-09-06

    In search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and is therefore a prime target. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) by specifically downregulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition. NMR spectroscopy and thioacidolysis revealed a strong increase in sinapaldehyde incorporation into lignin, whereas coniferaldehyde was not markedly increased. Accordingly, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a more than 24,000-fold accumulation of a newly identified compound made from 8-8 coupling of two sinapaldehyde radicals. However, no additional cinnamaldehyde coupling products could be detected. Instead, the CAD1-deficient lines accumulated a range of hydroxycinnamate-derived metabolites of which the most prominent accumulation was observed for a compound that was identified by purification and NMR as syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Our data suggest that upon downregulation of CAD1, coniferaldehyde is converted into ferulic acid and derivatives, whereas sinapaldehyde is either oxidatively coupled into S'(8-8)S' and lignin, or converted to sinapic acid and derivatives. The most prominent sink of the increased flux to hydroxycinnamates is syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Furthermore, low-extent saccharification assays, under different pretreatment conditions, showed strongly increased glucose and xylose release, suggesting that downregulating CAD1 is a promising strategy for improving lignocellulosic biomass for the 'sugar platform' industry. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All

  6. Improved paper pulp from plants with suppressed cinnamoyl-CoA reductase or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ann; Holt, Karen; Piquemal, Joël; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Boudet, Alain; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Petit-Conil, Michel; Schuch, Wolfgang; Halpin, Claire

    2002-10-01

    Transgenic plants severely suppressed in the activity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were produced by introduction of a partial sense CCR transgene into tobacco. Five transgenic lines with CCR activities ranging from 2 to 48% of wild-type values were selected for further study. Some lines showed a range of aberrant phenotypes including reduced growth, and all had changes to lignin structure making the polymer more susceptible to alkali extraction. The most severely CCR-suppressed line also had significantly decreased lignin content and an increased proportion of free phenolic groups in non-condensed lignin. These changes are likely to make the lignin easier to extract during chemical pulping. Direct Kraft pulping trials confirmed this. More lignin could be removed from the transgenic wood than from wild-type wood at the same alkali charge. A similar improvement in pulping efficiency was recently shown for poplar trees expressing an antisense cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Pulping experiments performed here on CAD-antisense tobacco plants produced near-identical results--the modified lignin was more easily removed during pulping without any adverse effects on the quality of the pulp or paper produced. These results suggest that pulping experiments performed in tobacco can be predictive of the results that will be obtained in trees such as poplar, extending the utility of the tobacco model. On the basis of our results on CCR manipulation in tobacco, we predict that CCR-suppressed trees may show pulping benefits. However, it is likely that CCR-suppression will not be the optimal target for genetic manipulation of pulping character due to the potential associated growth defects.

  7. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin is a significant barrier in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired CAD or COMT activity have attracted considerable agronomic interest for their altered lignin composition and improved digestibility. Here, we identified and functionally characterized candidate genes encoding CAD and COMT enzymes in the grass model species Brachypodium distachyon with the aim of improving crops for efficient biofuel production. Results We developed transgenic plants overexpressing artificial microRNA designed to silence BdCAD1 or BdCOMT4. Both transgenes caused altered flowering time and increased stem count and weight. Downregulation of BdCAD1 caused a leaf brown midrib phenotype, the first time this phenotype has been observed in a C3 plant. While acetyl bromide soluble lignin measurements were equivalent in BdCAD1 downregulated and control plants, histochemical staining and thioacidolysis indicated a decrease in lignin syringyl units and reduced syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in the transgenic plants. BdCOMT4 downregulated plants exhibited a reduction in total lignin content and decreased Maule staining of syringyl units in stem. Ethanol yield by microbial fermentation was enhanced in amiR-cad1-8 plants. Conclusion These results have elucidated two key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in B. distachyon that, when perturbed, may result in greater stem biomass yield and bioconversion efficiency. PMID:23902793

  8. Identification of the structure and origin of thioacidolysis marker compounds for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine

    2002-12-06

    Molecular marker compounds, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) deficiency in angiosperms have been structurally identified as indene derivatives. They are shown to derive from hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes that have undergone 8-O-4-cross-coupling during lignification. As such, they are valuable markers for ascertaining plant responses to various levels of CAD down-regulation. Their derivation illustrates that hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes incorporate into angiosperm lignins by endwise coupling reactions in much the same way as normal monolignols do, suggesting that the hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes should be considered authentic lignin precursors.

  9. Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N

    2014-04-01

    A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13 % and specific activity of 812. 5 nkat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ∼76 and ∼38 kDa, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75 μM(-1) s(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH 8.8 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0 mM Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0 mM EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily.

  10. The Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development. PMID:25019207

  11. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Arendt, Malgorzata; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

    2014-02-20

    In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production).Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the "bona-fide" CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber's tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants' development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and organization of cellulose and pectin

  12. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in melon (Cucumis melo L.): bioinformatic analysis and expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development.

  13. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  14. Tailoring the properties of thermoplastic starch by blending with cinnamyl alcohol and radiation processing: An insight into the competitive grafting and scission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Bliard, Christophe; Soulestin, Jérémie; Lacrampe, Marie-France; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Coqueret, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    The present paper focuses on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on thermoplastic materials based on destructurized starch including glycerol and water as plasticizers to assess the potentiality of cinnamyl alcohol as reactive additive capable of counterbalancing the degradation of the polysaccharide by inducing interchain covalent linkages. The tensile properties at break of test specimens of controlled composition submitted to EB irradiation at doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy revealed the presence of competitive chain scission and bridging in samples containing cinnamyl alcohol at a relative concentration of 2.5% with regard to dry starch. The occurrence of crosslinking under particular conditions was evidenced by gel fraction measurements. The treatment under radiation was also applied to model blends including maltodextrin as a model for starch and the other ingredients to gain an insight into the radiation induced mechanisms at the molecular level. The presence of cinnamyl alcohol is found to limit degradation. Size exclusion chromatography and gel fraction allowed to monitor the effects and confirmed unambiguously the attachment of UV-absorbing chromophores onto the maltodextrin main chain. The combination of the obtained results demonstrates the possibility of altering in a favorable way the tensile properties of plasticized starch by applying high energy radiation to properly formulated blends including aromatic compounds like cinnamyl alcohol.

  15. Vibrational spectra and assignments of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and 3-phenyl-1-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    The complex conformational behavior of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and its saturated analogue 3-phenyl-1-propanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G **, MP2 and MP4(SDQ) levels of theory. The unsaturated 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol was predicted to exist in Cg and Gg1 conformational mixture as a result of competitive conjugation and hyperconjugation interactions in the molecule. The saturated 3-phenyl-1-propanol was predicted to exist predominantly in a Ggg structure as a result of predominant steric hindrances in the alcohol. Only the one predominant form was identified in the infrared and Raman spectra of both alcohols. The excellent agreement between the calculated wavenumbers and the observed ones in the infrared and Raman spectra supports the conclusion that each of the two alcohols is present in one predominant form in the condensed phases. The vibrational frequencies of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol and 3-phenyl-1-propanol in their lowest energy forms were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  16. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction.

  17. Esters of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with cinnamyl alcohol are potent lipoxygenase inhibitors with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Tziona, Paraskevi; Kourounakis, Panos N; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-11-15

    Novel esters of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, α-lipoic acid and indol-3-acetic acid with cinnamyl alcohol were synthesised by a straightforward method and at high yields (60-98%). They reduced acute inflammation more than the parent acids and are potent inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase. Selected structures decreased plasma lipidemic indices in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia to rats. Therefore, the synthesised compounds may add to the current knowledge about agents acting against various inflammatory disorders.

  18. Expression Pattern of Two Paralogs Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and Characterization of the Corresponding Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cβ. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units. PMID:12805615

  19. Downregulation of Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Switchgrass by RNA Silencing Results in Enhanced Glucose Release after Cellulase Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Aaron J.; Sarath, Gautam; Chow, Elaine K.; Dien, Bruce S.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switchgrass, RNA mediated silencing of CAD was induced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cv. “Alamo” with an inverted repeat construct containing a fragment derived from the coding sequence of PviCAD2. The resulting primary transformants accumulated less CAD RNA transcript and protein than control transformants and were demonstrated to be stably transformed with between 1 and 5 copies of the T-DNA. CAD activity against coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in stems of silenced lines was significantly reduced as was overall lignin and cutin. Glucose release from ground samples pretreated with ammonium hydroxide and digested with cellulases was greater than in control transformants. When stained with the lignin and cutin specific stain phloroglucinol-HCl the staining intensity of one line indicated greater incorporation of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes in the lignin. PMID:21298014

  20. Expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and their putative homologues during Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development: lessons for database annotations?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kye-Won; Cho, Man-Ho; Franceschi, Vincent R; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-07-01

    A major goal currently in Arabidopsis research is determination of the (biochemical) function of each of its approximately 27,000 genes. To date, however, 12% of its genes actually have known biochemical roles. In this study, we considered it instructive to identify the gene expression patterns of nine (so-called AtCAD1-9) of 17 genes originally annotated by The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) homologues [see Costa, M.A., Collins, R.E., Anterola, A.M., Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis N.G., 2003. An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.]. In agreement with our biochemical studies in vitro [Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G.A., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C.-H., Lewis, N.G., 2004. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.], and analysis of a double mutant [Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin A., 2005. Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17, 2059-2076.], both AtCAD5 (At4g34230) and AtCAD4 (At3g19450) were found to have expression patterns consistent with development/formation of different forms of the lignified vascular apparatus, e.g. lignifying stem tissues, bases of trichomes, hydathodes, abscission zones of siliques, etc. Expression was also observed in various non-lignifying zones (e.g. root caps) indicative of, perhaps, a role in plant defense. In addition, expression patterns of the four CAD-like homologues were investigated, i.e. AtCAD2 (At2g21730), AtCAD3 (At2g21890), AtCAD7 (At4g37980) and AtCAD8 (At4g37990), each of which previously had been demonstrated to have low CAD

  1. Altered lignin biosynthesis improves cellulosic bioethanol production in transgenic maize plants down-regulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Capellades, Montserrat; Encina, Antonio; Wang, Kan; Irar, Sami; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Berenguer, Jordi; Puigdomènech, Pere; Rigau, Joan; Caparrós-Ruiz, David

    2012-07-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme involved in the last step of monolignol biosynthesis. The effect of CAD down-regulation on lignin production was investigated through a transgenic approach in maize. Transgenic CAD-RNAi plants show a different degree of enzymatic reduction depending on the analyzed tissue and show alterations in cell wall composition. Cell walls of CAD-RNAi stems contain a lignin polymer with a slight reduction in the S-to-G ratio without affecting the total lignin content. In addition, these cell walls accumulate higher levels of cellulose and arabinoxylans. In contrast, cell walls of CAD-RNAi midribs present a reduction in the total lignin content and of cell wall polysaccharides. In vitro degradability assays showed that, although to a different extent, the changes induced by the repression of CAD activity produced midribs and stems more degradable than wild-type plants. CAD-RNAi plants grown in the field presented a wild-type phenotype and produced higher amounts of dry biomass. Cellulosic bioethanol assays revealed that CAD-RNAi biomass produced higher levels of ethanol compared to wild-type, making CAD a good target to improve both the nutritional and energetic values of maize lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. A novel cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD)-like reductase contributes to the structural diversity of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in Rauvolfia.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Marcus; Burghard, Marie; Volk, Jascha; Staniek, Agata; Warzecha, Heribert

    2016-03-01

    Based on findings described herein, we contend that the reduction of vomilenine en route to antiarrhythmic ajmaline in planta might proceed via an alternative, novel sequence of biosynthetic steps. In the genus Rauvolfia, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) are formed via complex biosynthetic sequences. Despite the wealth of information about the biochemistry and molecular genetics underlying these processes, many reaction steps involving oxygenases and oxidoreductases are still elusive. Here, we describe molecular cloning and characterization of three cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD)-like reductases from Rauvolfia serpentina cell culture and R. tetraphylla roots. Functional analysis of the recombinant proteins, with a set of MIAs as potential substrates, led to identification of one of the enzymes as a CAD, putatively involved in lignin formation. The two remaining reductases comprise isoenzymes derived from orthologous genes of the investigated alternative Rauvolfia species. Their catalytic activity consists of specific conversion of vomilenine to 19,20-dihydrovomilenine, thus proving their exclusive involvement in MIA biosynthesis. The obtained data suggest the existence of a previously unknown bypass in the biosynthetic route to ajmaline further expanding structural diversity within the MIA family of specialized plant metabolites.

  3. Environmental stresses of field growth allow cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants to compensate for their structural deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants.

  4. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  5. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat. PMID:27899932

  6. Synthesis of cinnamyl alcohol from cinnamaldehyde with Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase as the isolated enzyme and in recombinant E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Angela; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of the aroma chemical cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) by means of enzymatic reduction of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) was investigated using NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus both as an isolated enzyme, and in recombinant Escherichia coli whole cells. The influence of parameters such as reaction time and cofactor, substrate, co-substrate 2-propanol and biocatalyst concentrations on the bioreduction reaction was investigated and an efficient and sustainable one-phase system developed. The reduction of CMA (0.5 g/L, 3.8 mmol/L) by the isolated enzyme occurred in 3 h at 50 °C with 97% conversion, and yielded high purity CMO (≥98%) with a yield of 88% and a productivity of 50 g/genzyme. The reduction of 12.5 g/L (94 mmol/L) CMA by whole cells in 6 h, at 37 °C and no requirement of external cofactor occurred with 97% conversion, 82% yield of 98% pure alcohol and a productivity of 34 mg/gwet cell weight. The results demonstrate the microbial system as a practical and efficient method for larger-scale synthesis of CMO.

  7. Alcoholic patients with secondary depression.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M

    1983-06-01

    This study of alcoholic patients with and without secondary depression showed that the two groups were almost identical in demographic characteristics, early-life antisocial problems, quantity and frequency of drinking, and family history of affective disorder. The depressed patients reported slightly more alcoholism in their first-degree male relatives and tended to have more alcohol-related life problems. The only significant difference between the two groups was that the depressed patients were heavier users of drugs other than alcohol. Thus severe depression in alcoholics may be related to a greater intake of drugs in addition to alcohol.

  8. Cinnamyl Alcohol, the Bioactive Component of Chestnut Flower Absolute, Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells by Downregulating Adipogenic Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    The extract of chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) flower (CCDF) has antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties, but its anti-obesity properties have not been previously examined. In this study, we tested the effect of CCDF absolute on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 cells and determining the bioactive component of CCDF absolute in 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. CCDF absolute (0.1-100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL) did not change 3T3-L1 cell viability. At 50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL and 100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL, the absolute significantly reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells that were induced by culture in medium containing 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine/dexamethasone/insulin (MDI). GC/MS analysis showed that CCDF absolute contains 10 compounds. Among these compounds, cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol) dose-dependently inhibited the increased accumulation of lipid droplets in MDI-contained medium-cultured 3T3-L1 cells at a concentration range of 0.1[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL to 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL that did not cause cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect was significant at 5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL ([Formula: see text] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [Formula: see text]) and 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL ([Formula: see text] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, the enhanced expression of obesity-related proteins (PPAR[Formula: see text], C/EBP[Formula: see text], SREBP-1c, and FAS) in MDI medium-cultivated 3T3-L1 cells was significantly attenuated by the addition of cinnamyl alcohol at 5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL and 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL. These findings demonstrate that cinnamyl alcohol suppresses 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by inhibiting anti-adipogenesis-related proteins, and it may be a main bioactive

  9. Metabolite profiling reveals a role for atypical cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase CAD1 in the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol in tobacco xylem.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Isabelle; Morreel, Kris; Danoun, Saïda; Goeminne, Geert; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Marque, Christiane; Kopka, Joachim; Messens, Eric; Goffner, Deborah; Boerjan, Wout; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Rochange, Soizic

    2005-11-01

    In angiosperms, lignin is built from two main monomers, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol, which are incorporated respectively as G and S units in the polymer. The last step of their synthesis has so far been considered to be performed by a family of dimeric cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CAD2). However, previous studies on Eucalyptus gunnii xylem showed the presence of an additional, structurally unrelated, monomeric CAD form named CAD1. This form reduces coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, but is inactive on sinapaldehyde. In this paper, we report the functional characterization of CAD1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced CAD1 expression were obtained through an RNAi strategy. These plants displayed normal growth and development, and detailed biochemical studies were needed to reveal a role for CAD1. Lignin analyses showed that CAD1 down-regulation does not affect Klason lignin content, and has a moderate impact on G unit content of the non-condensed lignin fraction. However, comparative metabolic profiling of the methanol-soluble phenolic fraction from basal xylem revealed significant differences between CAD1 down-regulated and wild-type plants. Eight compounds were less abundant in CAD1 down-regulated lines, five of which were identified as dimers or trimers of monolignols, each containing at least one moiety derived from coniferyl alcohol. In addition, 3-trans-caffeoyl quinic acid accumulated in the transgenic plants. Together, our results support a significant contribution of CAD1 to the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol in planta, along with the previously characterized CAD2 enzymes.

  10. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Gregory; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise; Séguin, Armand

    2005-01-01

    During lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes are believed to be converted into their corresponding alcohols by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and by sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively. This work clearly shows that CAD-C and CAD-D act as the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis thaliana by supplying both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. An Arabidopsis CAD double mutant (cad-c cad-d) resulted in a phenotype with a limp floral stem at maturity as well as modifications in the pattern of lignin staining. Lignin content of the mutant stem was reduced by 40%, with a 94% reduction, relative to the wild type, in conventional β-O-4–linked guaiacyl and syringyl units and incorportion of coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that both xylem vessels and fibers were affected. GeneChip data and real-time PCR analysis revealed that transcription of CAD homologs and other genes mainly involved in cell wall integrity were also altered in the double mutant. In addition, molecular complementation of the double mutant by tissue-specific expression of CAD derived from various species suggests different abilities of these genes/proteins to produce syringyl-lignin moieties but does not indicate a requirement for any specific SAD gene. PMID:15937231

  11. Loss of function of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 leads to unconventional lignin and a temperature-sensitive growth defect in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiao; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Zhou, Rui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Fu, Chunxiang; Jackson, Lisa A.; Hahn, Michael G.; Kim, Hoon; Chen, Fang; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable debate over the capacity of the cell wall polymer lignin to incorporate unnatural monomer units. We have identified Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutants of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) that show reduced lignin autofluorescence under UV microscopy and red coloration in interfascicular fibers. The phenotype is caused by insertion of retrotransposons into a gene annotated as encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, here designated M. truncatula CAD1. NMR analysis indicated that the lignin is derived almost exclusively from coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde and is therefore strikingly different from classical lignins, which are derived mainly from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Despite such a major alteration in lignin structure, the plants appear normal under standard conditions in the greenhouse or growth chamber. However, the plants are dwarfed when grown at 30 °C. Glycome profiling revealed an increased extractability of some xylan and pectin epitopes from the cell walls of the cad1-1 mutant but decreased extractability of others, suggesting that aldehyde-dominant lignin significantly alters cell wall structure. PMID:23901113

  12. The Enzyme Activity and Substrate Specificity of Two Major Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), SbCAD2 and SbCAD4.

    PubMed

    Jun, Se-Young; Walker, Alexander M; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p-coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, the variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib 6 [bmr6]) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. This first crystal structure of a monocot CAD combined with enzyme kinetic data and a catalytic model supported by site-directed mutagenesis allows full comparison with dicot CADs and elucidates the potential signature sequence for their substrate specificity and activity. The L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 double mutant displayed its substrate preference in the order coniferaldehyde > p-coumaraldehyde > sinapaldehyde, with higher catalytic efficiency than that of both wild-type SbCAD4 and SbCAD2. As SbCAD4 is the only major CAD isoform in bmr6 mutants, replacing SbCAD4 with L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 in bmr6 plants could produce a phenotype that is more amenable to biomass processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  14. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content.

  15. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nickolas A; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Studies of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase and Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Key Enzymes of Monolignol Biosynthesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V.; Mühlemann, Joëlle K.; Bomati, Erin K.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A.; Noel, Joseph P.; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. PMID:25217505

  17. Lignin and lignans in plant defence: insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus.

    PubMed

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Barakat, Abdelali; Lakomy, Piotr; Smoliński, Dariusz J; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella. The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes (PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

  18. Alcohol misuse and depression in women criminals.

    PubMed

    Martin, R L; Cloninger, C R; Guze, S B

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of alcohol misuse and major depressive syndromes was examined in 66 convicted women felons. At an initial (index) evaluation and during a 6-yr follow-up, alcohol misuse and depression, although both highly prevalent, were not significantly related. Alcohol misusing and nonmisusing depressives had similar rates of treatment for depression. Follow-up alcohol misuse, occurring in one-quarter of those reinterviewed, was not predicted by an index history of depression even among index alcohol misusers. Nonsignificant trends did suggest some association between the two symptom groups. Depressive subjects with a history of alcohol misuse had a greater rate of depression during follow-up than nonmisusing index depressives. Follow-up misusers had a greater rate of follow-up depression than nonmisusers. Alcohol-related depression could not be discounted simply as a consequence of alcohol misuse. Depression in the context of alcohol misuse was highly predictive of future depression and suicide attempts. The relative independence of alcohol misuse and depression in this group underscores the complexity of their interaction, especially in a population with multiple disorders such as women criminals. The contention that phenomenologically defined major depressive disorders are heterogeneous is supported.

  19. Correlates of Prolonged Depression among Detoxified Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Miriam R.; And Others

    The majority of depressive symptoms, prevalent among adults (without a history of a depressive disorder) entering alcohol treatment, usually abate within 2 to 3 weeks of abstinence without specific depression-focussed intervention, but some hospitalized alcoholics experience significant depressive symptoms despite sustained abstinence. Such…

  20. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  1. Enzymic synthesis of lignin precursors. Comparison of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol:NADP+ dehydrogenase from spruce (Picea abies L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, T; Grisebach, H

    1981-09-01

    Cambial sap of spruce (Picea abies) proved to be a good source for isolation of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol:NADP+ dehydrogenase. Apparently homogeneous enzymes were obtained by a multistep procedure including dye-ligand chromatography and for the reductase also affinity chromatography on (coenzyme A)-agarose. An improved purification procedure for the reductase from soybean cell cultures is also reported. Molecular weights and subunit composition of reductase and dehydrogenase from spruce are very similar to those of the corresponding enzymes from soybean. Reduction of feruloyl-CoA to coniferaldehyde catalysed by the reductase is a freely reversible reaction with an equilibrium constant of 5.6 x 10(-4) M at pH 6.25. A strong dependence of the Michaelis constants on the type of buffer was found. For reductase the Km-value of feruloyl-CoA in phosphate buffer (5.2 microM) is about 14-times similar than in citrate buffer (73 microM). Pronounced differences in substrate specificities between the enzymes from spruce and soybean were found, which reflect the different lignin composition of gymnosperms and dicotyledenous angiosperms. From the kinetic constants of the enzymes it can be concluded that under physiological conditions feruloyl-CoA is the preferred substrate for the reductase from both sources whereas sinapoyl-CoA is a substrate only for the soybean reductase and sinapyldehyde a substrate only for the soybean dehydrogenase. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA is a poor substrate for the reductase from both spruce and soybean. This result is consistent with the low content of 4-coumaryl alcohol units in gymnosperm and angiosperm lignin.

  2. Disrupting the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene (BdCAD1) leads to altered lignification and improved saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Madeleine; Bouchabke-Coussa, Oumaya; Voorend, Wannes; Antelme, Sébastien; Cézard, Laurent; Legée, Frédéric; Lebris, Philippe; Legay, Sylvain; Whitehead, Caragh; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gomez, Leonardo D; Jouanin, Lise; Lapierre, Catherine; Sibout, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been proposed as a model for grasses, but there is limited knowledge regarding its lignins and no data on lignin-related mutants. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes involved in lignification are promising targets to improve the cellulose-to-ethanol conversion process. Down-regulation of CAD often induces a reddish coloration of lignified tissues. Based on this observation, we screened a chemically induced population of Brachypodium mutants (Bd21-3 background) for red culm coloration. We identified two mutants (Bd4179 and Bd7591), with mutations in the BdCAD1 gene. The mature stems of these mutants displayed reduced CAD activity and lower lignin content. Their lignins were enriched in 8-O-4- and 4-O-5-coupled sinapaldehyde units, as well as resistant inter-unit bonds and free phenolic groups. By contrast, there was no increase in coniferaldehyde end groups. Moreover, the amount of sinapic acid ester-linked to cell walls was measured for the first time in a lignin-related CAD grass mutant. Functional complementation of the Bd4179 mutant with the wild-type BdCAD1 allele restored the wild-type phenotype and lignification. Saccharification assays revealed that Bd4179 and Bd7591 lines were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than wild-type plants. Here, we have demonstrated that BdCAD1 is involved in lignification of Brachypodium. We have shown that a single nucleotide change in BdCAD1 reduces the lignin level and increases the degree of branching of lignins through incorporation of sinapaldehyde. These changes make saccharification of cells walls pre-treated with alkaline easier without compromising plant growth.

  3. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit.

  4. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  6. Treatment of the Depressed Alcoholic Patient

    PubMed Central

    DeVido, Jeffrey J.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and depressive illnesses are highly prevalent, frequently co-occur, and are associated with worse outcomes when paired. The assessment and treatment of patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders and depressive illnesses is wrought with many significant challenges. When it comes to advocating treatment guidelines for this dually diagnosed population, the data are limited, but nonetheless do suggest that an integrated approach to patients presenting with co-occurring AUD and depressive symptoms can be efficacious. In this approach, ongoing evaluation and treatment are provided under one roof according to the evolving needs of each patient. Utilizing antidepressant medications in conjunction with psychosocial therapies may augment overall treatment efficacy; data also suggest that combining and tailoring psychosocial therapies such as motivational enhancement therapies, cognitive therapies, and twelve-step facilitation may further improve treatment outcomes for patients with co-occurring depressive and alcohol use disorders. PMID:22907336

  7. Alcohol Use, Partner Violence, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Le Roux, Ingrid; Stein, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant South African women with histories of drinking alcohol, abuse by violent partners, depression, and living with HIV are likely to have their post-birth trajectories over 36 months significantly influenced by these risks. Design All pregnant women in 24 Cape Town neighborhoods were recruited into a cluster RCT by neighborhood to either: (1) a standard care condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=594 mothers); or (2) a home-visiting intervention condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=644 mothers). Setting/participants Pregnant women residing in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa. Intervention Home visiting included prenatal and postnatal visits by community health workers (Mentor Mothers) focusing on general maternal and child health, HIV/tuberculosis, alcohol use, and nutrition. Main outcome measures Mothers were assessed in pregnancy and at 18 and 36 months post birth: 80.6% of mothers completed all assessments between 2009 and 2014 and were included in these analyses performed in 2014. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined alcohol use, partner violence, and depression at the baseline and 18-month interviews as predictors of maternal outcomes at 36 months post birth. Results Relative to standard care, intervention mothers were significantly less likely to report depressive symptoms and more positive quality of life at 36 months. Alcohol use was significantly related to use over time, but was also related to depression and HIV status at each assessment and partner violence at 36 months. Conclusions Alcohol, partner violence, and depression are significantly related over time. A home-visiting intervention improved the emotional health of low-income mothers even when depression was not initially targeted. PMID:26231855

  8. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  9. Depressives with secondary alcoholism: psychiatric disorders in offspring.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, K R; Weissman, M M; Prusoff, B A; Pauls, D L; Leckman, J F

    1985-05-01

    The risk of psychiatric illness among the offspring of probands with major depression and secondary alcoholism was examined. The offspring aged 6-17 (N = 107) and 18 + (N = 171) of probands with major depression (114 with depression only and 19 with secondary alcoholism) were compared with the offspring aged 6-17 (N = 87) and 18 + (N = 103) of controls (N = 82). Offspring of probands with secondary alcoholism had a threefold greater risk of alcoholism and a fivefold greater risk of antisocial personality-conduct disorder compared with offspring of probands with depression only, and a threefold greater risk of alcoholism and a 20-fold greater risk of antisocial personality-conduct disorder compared with offspring of controls. Familial aggregation of alcoholism was observed only among probands with secondary alcoholism. The presence of secondary alcoholism in depressed probands did not convey additional increase in risk of either major depression or anxiety disorders to offspring beyond that observed among offspring of probands with depression only. This suggests that depression and alcoholism are not alternate forms of expression of the same underlying illness. Assortative mating for alcoholism among parents was related to increased risk of both alcoholism and antisocial personality-conduct disorder but not of major depression among offspring. A linear effect on rates of these disorders according to the number of parents with alcoholism was observed.

  10. The Effect of Brief Alcohol Intervention on Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Georgiana; Moberg, D. Paul; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on secondary results from the Healthy Moms Study, a clinical trial to test the efficacy of brief intervention on reducing alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in postpartum women. Study Design and Methods Data from a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2002 and 2005 with a sample of Wisconsin women was analyzed. This report presents comparison data on depressive symptomatology between postpartum women drinking above recommended levels who received a brief alcohol intervention and those who received no intervention. Results At six month follow-up, there was a significant reduction in mean depression scores compared to baseline in the women who received the alcohol intervention (p <.001). There was not a significant reduction in depressive symptomatology in the control group. Mean level of depression at six months was significantly predicted by baseline depression and the intervention (p=.018). Alcohol use at either baseline or follow-up was not a predictive factor in determining mean depressive symptomatology. Clinical Implications The results of the Healthy Moms Study support the importance of both alcohol and depression screening during the postpartum period. Brief alcohol intervention during this time may also positively affect depressive symptomatology. PMID:19713798

  11. Whole-Cell Biocatalytic Synthesis of Cinnamyl Acetate with a Novel Esterase from the DNA Library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Secundo, Francesco; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2017-02-28

    Cinnamyl acetate has a wide application in the flavor and fragrance industry because of its sweet, balsamic, and floral odor. Up to now, lipases have been mainly used in enzyme-mediated synthesis of cinnamyl acetate, whereas esterases are used in only a few cases. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes is often a disadvantage, which leads to increases of the production costs. In this paper, a genomic DNA library of Acinetobacter hemolyticus was constructed, and a novel esterase (EstK1) was identified. After expression in Escherichia coli, the whole-cell catalyst of EstK1 displayed high transesterification activity to produce cinnamyl acetate in nonaqueous systems. Furthermore, under optimal conditions (vinyl acetate as acyl donor, isooctane as solvent, molar ratio 1:4, temperature 40 °C), the conversion ratio of cinnamyl alcohol could be up to 94.1% at 1 h, and it reached an even higher level (97.1%) at 2 h.

  12. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Mediating Role of Youth Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Novak, Scott P.; Warner, Tara D.; Fishbein, Diana H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on adolescent alcohol use among a sample of Latino/Latina youth aged 10 to 16 years from a high-risk community. Direct and mediating effects of youth depressive symptoms, controlling for levels of concurrent emotion dysregulation, on alcohol use were examined.…

  13. Genetic markers of comorbid depression and alcoholism in women.

    PubMed

    Procopio, Daniela O; Saba, Laura M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto; Skala, Katrin; Schlaff, Golda; Vanderlinden, Lauren; Clapp, Peter; Hoffman, Paula L; Tabakoff, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is often accompanied by comorbid depression. Recent clinical evidence supports the benefit of subtype-specific pharmacotherapy in treating the population of alcohol-dependent subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD). However, in many alcohol-dependent subjects, depression is a reactive response to chronic alcohol use and withdrawal and abates with a period of abstinence. Genetic markers may distinguish alcohol-dependent subjects with MDD not tied chronologically and etiologically to their alcohol consumption. In this work, we investigated the association of adenylyl cyclase genes (ADCY1-9), which are implicated in both AD and mood disorders, with alcoholism and comorbid depression. Subjects from Vienna, Austria (n = 323) were genotyped, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (1,152) encompassing the genetic locations of the 9 ADCY genes were examined. The Vienna cohort contained alcohol-dependent subjects differentiated using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology. In this typology, subjects are segregated into 4 types. Type III alcoholism is distinguished by co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and by affecting predominantly females. We identified 4 haplotypes associated with the phenotype of Type III alcoholism in females. One haplotype was in a genomic area in proximity to ADCY2, but actually within a lincRNA gene, 2 haplotypes were within ADCY5, and 1 haplotype was within the coding region of ADCY8. Three of the 4 haplotypes contributed independently to Type III alcoholism and together generated a positive predictive value of 72% and a negative predictive value of 78% for distinguishing women with a Lesch Type III diagnosis versus women designated as Type I or II alcoholics. Polymorphisms in ADCY8 and ADCY5 and within a lincRNA are associated with an alcohol-dependent phenotype in females, which is distinguished by comorbid signs of depression. Each of these genetic locations can rationally contribute to the polygenic etiology of

  14. Attributional Patterns of Alcoholic, Depressed and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Pamela D.; Rich, Alexander R.

    Efforts to understand mediating and maintaining factors associated with dysfunction of alcoholics have produced competing explanations and conflicting, overlapping constructs. To clarify the relationship between mental health and attributional patterns among women, the attributional patterns of alcoholic, depressed, and control females in response…

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  16. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  17. Ultrasound assisted lipase catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification reaction in a solvent free medium.

    PubMed

    Tomke, Prerana D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-11-01

    Cinnamyl acetate is known for its use as flavor and fragrance material in different industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic etc. This work focuses on ultrasound assisted lipase (Novozym 435) catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification of cinnamyl alcohol and vinyl acetate in non-aqueous, solvent free system. Optimization of various parameters shows that a higher yield of 99.99% can be obtained at cinnamyl alcohol to vinyl acetate ratio of 1:2 with 0.2% of catalyst, at 40°C and 150 rpm, with lower ultrasound power input of 50 W (Ultrasound intensity 0.81 W/cm(2)), at 25 kHz frequency, 50% duty cycle. Further, the time required for the maximum conversion is reduced to 20 min as compared to 60 min of conventional process. Similarly, the enzyme can be successfully reused seven times without loss of enzyme activity. Thus, ultrasound helps to enhance the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of flavors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Depression on Treatment Motivation in Male Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  19. Depressed affect as a predictor of increased desire for alcohol in current drinkers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Greeley, J; Swift, W; Heather, N

    1992-07-01

    Male drinkers (n = 45) were asked to rate their desire for a drink of alcohol when presented with the sight, smell and taste of their preferred alcoholic beverage and of a lemon cordial drink. The subjects' level of depressed affect on that day and their average daily consumption of alcohol over the last 30 days were measured prior to exposure to these cues. Both level of depressed affect and log of mean daily alcohol consumption predicted increased desire for alcohol when alcohol cues were present, accounting for 40% of the variance in desire. When presented with the lemon cordial cues only 14% of the variance in desire for alcohol was explained by these variables. Also, Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated between heavy drinkers' (n = 19) ratings of self-efficacy to resist drinking and desire for alcohol in the presence of the alcohol cues. There were significant negative correlations between desire for alcohol and self-efficacy ratings on the 'urges and temptations' and 'positive social situations' subscales of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39. Several alternative accounts of these findings are discussed.

  20. Alcoholism and depressive disorders in opioid addicts and their family members.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Kosten, T A; Rounsaville, B J

    1991-01-01

    The co-occurrence of alcoholism and depression was examined in 201 opioid addicts and their 877 first-degree relatives using direct interviews and structured family history based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) method. Familial alcoholism was more frequent in alcoholic than nonalcoholic proband addicts, and primary depression was more frequent in relatives of depressed than nondepressed addicts. An association was suggested between secondary, but not primary, depression and alcoholism in females.

  1. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    PubMed

    Curran, T A; Gawley, E; Casey, P; Gill, M; Crumlish, N

    2009-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  2. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.

  3. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  4. Young Adult Children of Alcoholic Fathers: Depressive Experiences, Coping Styles, and Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…

  5. Depression, alcohol abuse, and generational differences in Mazahua women in a rural Mexican village.

    PubMed

    Nance, Douglas C

    2004-01-01

    This first study of depression and alcohol abuse in indigenous women in Mexico focuses on Mazahua women in a rural village. Women between the ages of 15 and 55 were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory, an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse survey, and a socioeconomic survey. Unexpected results showed that although alcohol abuse was absent, these women experience depression a generation earlier than the international and national averages for women, with an overall incidence about twice as great. Depression was associated with spouse's emigration, infidelity, or alcoholism. Sharp intergenerational differences were found in identity and socioeconomic status.

  6. Neuroimmunology of disordered sleep in depression and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Irwin, M

    2001-11-01

    The specific functions of sleep are not known, although sleep is commonly considered a restorative process that is important for the proper functioning of the immune system. Severity of disordered sleep in depressed and alcoholic subjects correlates with declines in natural and cellular immunity and is associated with alterations in the complex cytokine network. Despite evidence that sleep and sleep loss have effects on immune processes and nocturnal secretion of cytokines, the physiological significance of these immune changes is not known. Moreover, in view of basic evidence of a reciprocal interaction between sleep and cytokines, further research is needed to understand whether alterations in cytokines contribute to disordered sleep.

  7. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  8. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... of depressants, including alcohol and the illegal drugs GHB and Rohypnol , come in liquid or powder form ... by prescription only. Some depressants, including Rohypnol and GHB, are illegal in the United States. Illegal possession ...

  9. Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique versus Comorbid Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youths were surveyed when they were 10 years…

  10. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  11. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Maternal and paternal alcoholism and depressive mood in college students: parental relationships as mediators of ACOA-depressive mood link.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R; Trinh, Scott; Klostermann, Keith; Krakowski, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined whether suspecting one's mother versus father of alcohol abuse was associated with parent-offspring relationships, and the degree to which parent-child relationships were associated with depressive symptoms. As compared to non-ACOAs (n=288), ACOAs (n=100) reported more negative parent-child relationships (i.e., greater alienation, poorer communication, less trust, greater emotional longing, and more negative attitudes toward the parent) and increased depressive symptoms on the POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). A closer look revealed that suspected maternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative mother-child relationships, whereas suspected paternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative father-child relationships. Both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse predicted depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sweet preferences and analgesia during childhood: effects of family history of alcoholism and depression

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Lehmann-Castor, Sara M.; Yourshaw, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether depression and family history of alcoholism are associated with heightened sweet preferences in children, before they have experienced alcohol or tobacco and at a time during the life-span when sweets are particularly salient. Design Between- and within-subject experimental study. Participants Children, 5–12 years old (n = 300), formed four groups based on family history of alcohol dependence up to second-degree relatives [positive (FHP) versus negative (FHN)] and depressive symptoms as determined by the Pictorial Depression Scale [depressed (PDEP) versus non-depressed (NDEP)]. Measurements Children were tested individually to measure sucrose preferences, sweet food liking and, for a subset of the children, the analgesic properties of sucrose versus water during the cold pressor test. Findings The co-occurrence of having a family history of alcoholism and self-reports of depressive symptomatology was associated significantly with a preference for a more concentrated sucrose solution, while depressive symptomatology alone was associated with greater liking for sweet-tasting foods and candies and increased pain sensitivity. Depression antagonized the analgesic properties of sucrose. Conclusions While children as a group innately like sweets and feel better after eating them, the present study reveals significant contributions of family history of alcoholism and depression to this effect. Whether the heightened sweet preference and the use of sweets to alleviate depression are markers for developing alcohol-related problems or responses that are protective are important areas for future research. PMID:20148789

  14. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  15. Meta-analysis of depression and substance use among individuals with alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Pinquart, Martin; Gamble, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships of depression with alcohol and drug use and impairment were examined. Additional analyses were conducted to examine moderators of these associations. Empirical reports on adults with alcohol abuse or dependence published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 1986 that contained data on depression and substance use variable(s) were obtained using a systematic search. The search yielded 74 studies including 58 reports from clinical venues, 10 that were community-based, and 6 with subjects from both settings. As hypothesized, the analyses showed that depression is associated with concurrent alcohol use and impairment and drug use and impairment. Effect sizes were small. Depression was also related to future alcohol use and impairment, an earlier age of onset of an AUD, and higher treatment participation. Age moderated the association between depression and alcohol use and impairment such that the association was stronger in older samples. PMID:19150207

  16. Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098

  17. Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol misuse in young adult veterans: The transdiagnostic role of distress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is common among young adult veterans, and is commonly associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, rates of comorbid depression, PTSD, and problem drinking are high in this population. Although distress tolerance, the capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states, has been examined as a potential transdiagnostic factor that accounts for the development of mental health disorders, problem drinking, and the comorbidity between these presenting concerns, its role has not been evaluated in a veteran population. Methods Young adult veterans were recruited for an online survey related to alcohol use. Participants (n = 783) completed self-report measures of alcohol use, depression and PTSD symptoms, and distress tolerance. Mediation models were conducted to examine whether distress tolerance mediated the relationship between (1) probable PTSD, (2) probable depression, and (3) comorbid probable PTSD and depression with alcohol misuse. Moderated mediation models were conducted to examine gender as a moderator. Results Significant bivariate associations were observed among mental health symptoms, distress tolerance, and alcohol misuse. Distress tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between probable depression and PTSD (both alone and in combination) and alcohol misuse. Evidence of moderated mediation was present for probable PTSD and probable comorbid PTSD and depression, such that the indirect effect was stronger among males. Conclusions These results suggest that distress tolerance may be a transdiagnostic factor explaining the comorbidity of depression and PTSD with alcohol misuse in young adult veterans. These findings may inform screening and intervention efforts with this high-risk population. PMID:26948757

  18. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  19. Attributional Style, Depressive Features, and Self-Esteem: Adult Children of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)

  20. Abstinence following Alcohol Drinking Produces Depression-Like Behavior and Reduced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennie R; Schroeder, Jason P; Nixon, Kimberly; Besheer, Joyce; Crews, Fulton T; Hodge, Clyde W

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we report results from a novel preclinical behavioral model showing that abstinence from voluntary alcohol drinking leads to the emergence of depression-like behavior and reductions in neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were allowed to self-administer ethanol (10% v/v) vs H2O in the home cage for 28 days. Alcohol was then removed for 1 or 14 days, and mice were tested in the forced swim test to measure depression-like behavior. After 14 days, but not 1 day of abstinence from alcohol drinking, mice showed a significant increase in depression-like behavior. The significant increase in depression-like behavior during abstinence was associated with a reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus indicating that both the number of proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPC) and immature neurons were reduced, respectively. The number of NPCs that were labeled with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at the beginning of alcohol exposure was not altered indicating that survival of NPCs is not linked to abstinence-induced depression. Chronic treatment (14 days) with the antidepressant desipramine during abstinence prevented both the emergence of depression-like behavior and the reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis indicating that abstinence-induced depression is associated with structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Overall, the results of this study support the conclusion that profound functional (ie

  1. Associations between access to alcohol outlets and alcohol intake and depressive symptoms in women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Karen E; Thornton, Lukar E; Teychenne, Megan; Milte, Catherine; Cerin, Ester; Ball, Kylie

    2017-01-17

    This study examined associations between alcohol outlet access and alcohol intake, depressive symptoms score and risk of depression among women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Data on depressive symptoms, alcohol intake and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained from a sample of 995 adult women from Victoria, Australia who were surveyed as part of the Resilience in Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study. The location of all licensed alcohol outlets in Victoria was obtained from the Victorian Commission for Gambling and Liquor Regulation. Participant and alcohol outlet addresses were geocoded to calculate individual alcohol outlet access, defined as the number of outlets (all and by sub-type) within 0.4 km and 3 km of participants' homes. Separate regression models with clustered standard errors were fitted to examine associations between access and alcohol intake according to national recommended limits for short- and long-term harm, frequency of consumption above long-term harm guidelines, depressive symptoms score and risk of depression. Odds of consumption within short-term harm guidelines (≤4 drinks on any day) decreased with increasing access within 3 km, irrespective of outlet type. Typically, there was no evidence to support associations between access and consumption above long-term harm guidelines (>2 drinks on any day) unless considering frequency of consumption at this level where results showed decreased odds of 'don't drink' versus frequently drinking above long-term harm guidelines (i.e., >2 drinks at least once per week) with increasing access at either distance. Although there was no evidence of an association between any of the alcohol outlet access measures and depressive symptoms score, odds of being at risk of depression decreased with increasing access within 3 km. This study found some evidence to support an association between increasing alcohol outlet densities of all types and

  2. Role of impulsivity in the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C

    2011-08-01

    Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Parental Alcoholism, Sense of Belonging, and Resilience on Depressive Symptoms: A Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunhwa; Williams, Reg A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships between parental alcoholism, sense of belonging, resilience, and depressive symptoms in Koreans in the U.S. Data from 206 Koreans (Mean age = 28.4 years; 59.8% females) living in a Midwestern state were collected in 2009, using a web-based survey, which included Children of Alcoholic Screening Test, Sense of Belonging Instrument, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Path analysis results revealed sense of belonging as the most powerful, and resilience as the second important factor, resisting depressive symptoms associated with parental alcoholism. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are discussed. PMID:23302055

  4. Effects of parental alcoholism, sense of belonging, and resilience on depressive symptoms: a path model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunhwa; Williams, Reg A

    2013-02-01

    This paper explored the relationships between parental alcoholism, sense of belonging, resilience, and depressive symptoms among Koreans in the U.S. Data from 206 Koreans (Mean age = 28.4 years; 59.8% females) living in a Midwestern state were collected in 2009, using a web-based survey, which included Children of Alcoholic Screening Test, Sense of Belonging Instrument, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Path analysis results revealed sense of belonging as the most powerful, and resilience as the second important factor, resisting depressive symptoms associated with parental alcoholism. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  5. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-II<14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between alcohol-use and depression symptoms in adolescence: Examining gender differences and pathways over time

    PubMed Central

    Danzo, Sarah; Connell, Arin M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies examining alcohol use and depression in youth have focused on documenting prevalence of overlap, or temporal ordering in longitudinal samples. Fewer studies have examined pathways connecting alcohol use and depression over time. This study examined gender differences between depression and alcohol use across adolescence while examining peer and family pathways as possible mediators of effects. Data was collected longitudinally from 593 families from three urban public middle schools in the United States. Participants were recruited in 6th grade and followed through 9th grade. We examined gender differences using a nested model comparison approach. Results indicated the association between depression and alcohol use differs by gender. For males, depression and alcohol use were independent across adolescence, and no significant indirect pathways were observed. For females, bidirectional effects were found between alcohol use and depression, as well as an indirect effect from depression to alcohol use via peer deviance. PMID:28167374

  7. Associations between alcohol-use and depression symptoms in adolescence: Examining gender differences and pathways over time.

    PubMed

    Danzo, Sarah; Connell, Arin M; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Several studies examining alcohol use and depression in youth have focused on documenting prevalence of overlap, or temporal ordering in longitudinal samples. Fewer studies have examined pathways connecting alcohol use and depression over time. This study examined gender differences between depression and alcohol use across adolescence while examining peer and family pathways as possible mediators of effects. Data was collected longitudinally from 593 families from three urban public middle schools in the United States. Participants were recruited in 6th grade and followed through 9th grade. We examined gender differences using a nested model comparison approach. Results indicated the association between depression and alcohol use differs by gender. For males, depression and alcohol use were independent across adolescence, and no significant indirect pathways were observed. For females, bidirectional effects were found between alcohol use and depression, as well as an indirect effect from depression to alcohol use via peer deviance.

  8. Changes in depression mediate the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Tonigan, J Scott

    2016-11-28

    Depression may contribute to increased drinking in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance predicts drinking reductions, there is conflicting information regarding the intermediary role played by reductions in depression. We explored whether AA attendance reduces depressive symptoms, the degree to which improvement in depression results in reductions in drinking, and in which subgroups these effects occur. 253 early AA affiliates (63% male) were recruited and assessed at baseline 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. AA attendance and alcohol use outcomes were obtained with the Form 90. Mediation analyses were performed at early (3, 6, and 9 months) and late (12, 18, and 24 months) follow-up to investigate the degree to which reductions in depression mediated the effect of AA attendance on drinking, controlling for concurrent drinking. In addition, a series of moderated mediation analyses were performed using baseline depression severity as a moderator. At early follow-up, reductions in depression (6 months) mediated the effects of AA attendance (3 months) on later drinking (drinks per drinking day) (9 months) (b = -0.02, boot CI [-0.055, -0.0004]), controlling for drinking at 6 months. Baseline depression severity did not moderate the degree to which BDI mediated the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use (ps > .05). These findings provide further evidence that depression reduction is a mechanism by which AA attendance leads to reductions in alcohol use. Improving depression may help reduce alcohol use in individuals with AUD, and AA attendance may be an effective way to achieve that goal.

  9. Alcohol use and suicidality in firefighters: Associations with depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colleen E; Vujanovic, Anka A; Paulus, Daniel J; Bartlett, Brooke; Gallagher, Matthew W; Tran, Jana K

    2017-04-01

    Both suicidality and alcohol use disorders are significant public health concerns among firefighters, and alcohol use is associated with increased suicide risk. In addition, firefighters endorse high rates of symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, the current investigation examined associations between alcohol dependence and suicide risk among a large sample of firefighters. Specifically, this study examined the indirect effects of alcohol dependence on suicidality outcomes via both depression and posttraumatic stress, using structural equation modeling. A total of 2883 male firefighters completed a self-report survey, containing measures of alcohol use, suicidality, PTSD, and depressive symptoms. Results indicated good model fit. The latent alcohol dependence variable was directly related to the latent suicide risk variable. However, when depression and posttraumatic stress latent variables were added into the model, alcohol dependence was no longer associated with suicide risk. Furthermore, alcohol dependence was indirectly related to suicide risk via latent depression and posttraumatic stress variables. Indirect effects were established after controlling for relevant covariates. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression outcome in alcohol dependent patients: an evaluation of the role of independent and substance-induced depression and other predictors.

    PubMed

    Foulds, James A; Douglas Sellman, J; Adamson, Simon J; Boden, Joseph M; Mulder, Roger T; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-03-15

    Depression commonly co-occurs with alcohol use disorders but predictors of depression treatment outcome in patients with both conditions are not well established. Outpatients with alcohol dependence and major depression (n=138) were prescribed naltrexone and randomized to citalopram or placebo for 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week naturalistic outcome phase. General linear mixed models examined predictors of Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score over 24 weeks. Predictors included whether depression was independent or substance-induced, and demographic, alcohol use, and personality variables (Temperament and Character Inventory subscales). Most improvement in drinking and depression occurred between baseline and week 3. During follow-up, patients with substance-induced depression reduced their drinking more and they had better depression outcomes than those with independent depression. However, greater reduction in drinking was associated with better depression outcomes for both independent and substance-induced groups, while antidepressant therapy had no effect for either group. Baseline demographic and alcohol use variables did not predict depression outcomes. Among personality variables, high self-directedness was a strong predictor of better depression outcomes. Subjects were not abstinent at baseline. The influence of naltrexone on depression outcomes could not be tested. Alcohol dependent patients with substance-induced depression have better short term depression outcomes than those with independent depression, but this is largely because they reduce their drinking more during treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Braitman, Abby; Henson, James M; Schroeder, Valarie; Ladage, Jessica; Gumienny, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Relationships among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and parent and peer relations and depressive mood were examined among 136 ACOAs and 436 non-ACOAs. As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported less positive relationships to mothers, fathers, and peers, and more depressive mood; however, more positive relationships to parents and peers significantly reduced the strength of the association between ACOA categorization and depressive mood. Examination of data from ACOAs alone revealed that maternal alcoholism was related to less positive relationships to their mothers and to their peers; however, paternal alcoholism did not predict the quality of the relationship to fathers, mothers, or peers. Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs.

  12. The role of negative emotionality and impulsivity in depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Boschloo, L; Vogelzangs, N; van den Brink, W; Smit, J H; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H

    2013-06-01

    Much is still unclear about the role of personality in the structure of common psychiatric disorders such as depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. This study will therefore examine whether various traits of negative emotionality and impulsivity showed shared or specific associations with these disorders. Method Cross-sectional data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), including individuals with no DSM-IV psychiatric disorder (n = 460), depressive/anxiety disorder only (i.e. depressive and/or anxiety disorder; n = 1398), alcohol dependence only (n = 32) and co-morbid depressive/anxiety disorder plus alcohol dependence (n = 358). Aspects of negative emotionality were neuroticism, hopelessness, rumination, worry and anxiety sensitivity, whereas aspects of impulsivity included disinhibition, thrill/adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility. Aspects of negative emotionality formed a homogeneous dimension, which was unrelated to the more heterogeneous construct of impulsivity. Although all aspects of negative emotionality were associated with alcohol dependence only, associations were much stronger for depressive/anxiety disorder only and co-morbid depressive/anxiety disorder with alcohol dependence. The results for impulsivity traits were less profound and more variable, with disinhibition and boredom susceptibility showing modest associations with both depressive/anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence, whereas low thrill/adventure seeking and high disinhibition were more strongly related with the first and the latter, respectively. Our results suggest that depressive/anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence result from shared as well as specific aetiological pathways as they showed the same associations with all aspects of negative emotionality, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility as well as specific associations with thrill/adventure seeking and disinhibition.

  13. Mood-Related Drinking Motives Mediate the Familial Association Between Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sintov, Nicole D.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Major depression and alcohol dependence co-occur within individuals and families to a higher than expected degree. This study investigated whether mood-related drinking motives mediate the association between major depression and alcohol dependence, and what the genetic and environmental bases are for this relationship. Methods The sample included 5,181 individuals from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, aged 30 and older. Participants completed a clinical interview which assessed lifetime major depression, alcohol dependence, and mood-related drinking motives. Results Mood-related drinking motives significantly explained the depression-alcohol dependence relationship at both the phenotypic and familial levels. Results from twin analyses indicated that for both males and females, the familial factors underlying mood-related drinking motives accounted for virtually all of the familial variance that overlaps between depression and alcohol dependence. Conclusions The results are consistent with an indirect role for mood-related drinking motives in the etiology of depression and alcohol dependence, and suggest that mood-related drinking motives may be a useful index of vulnerability for these conditions. PMID:19426164

  14. Relations between depression, alcohol and gender in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, Juliana de Almeida; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira; da Silva, Giovanni Gurgel Aciole; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    As part of the GENACIS project, this paper sought to assess the prevalence of depression in an urban sample in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the association between depression and alcohol abuse according to gender. To achieve this, an epidemiological survey was conducted using a stratified probability sample, including 2,083 adults. CIDI SF was used to identify depression. The Rao Scott test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. The response rate was 74.9%. Females (58.3%) under 40 years of age (52%) were predominant. The prevalence of depression was 28.3% for women and 12.7% for men. Most men declared being drinkers (61.1%) in the last year. Depression was associated with an alcohol drinking pattern, mostly binge drinking, in addition to the occurrence of problems derived from alcohol use. Most women declared being abstainers (69.5%). Depression was associated with cohabiting with spouses with alcohol-related problems. Results reveal that the association between depression and alcohol consumption is distinct between genders.

  15. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  16. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  17. Depression and Parentification among Adults as Related to Parental Workaholism and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jane J.; Robinson, Bryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines relationships among levels of depression and parentification in undergraduate students. Children of workaholics scored significantly higher on measures of depression and parentification. Children of alcoholics scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the measure of parentification. (Contains 56 references and 2 tables.)…

  18. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  19. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  20. Relationship of Depression, Sociopathy, and Locus of Control to Treatment Outcome in Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caster, David U.; Parsons, Oscar A.

    1977-01-01

    Depression, sociopathy, and Levenson's tridimensional locus of control orientation were studied in four groups of veteran male alcoholics, who varied as to degree of benefit from therapeutic programs, and a group of controls. Higher depression scores were found in those groups that appeared to benefit less from treatment. (Author)

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  2. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Wood, D. Scott; Daley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This was a first pilot study evaluating the acute phase (8-week) efficacy of the antidepressant medication mirtazapine for the treatment of depressive symptoms and drinking of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence (MDD/AD). We hypothesized that mirtazapine would demonstrate within-group efficacy for the treatment of both depressive symptoms and drinking in these subjects. Methods We conducted a first open label study of the second generation antidepressant mirtazapine in 12 adult outpatient subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder/alcohol dependence. The pharmacological profile of that medication is unique among antidepressants, unrelated to tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results Mirtazapine was well tolerated in this treatment population. Self-reported depressive symptoms decreased from 31.8 to 8.3 on the Beck Depression Inventory, a 74.0% decrease (p<0.001), and drinking decreased from 33.9 to 13.3 drinks per week, a 60.8% decrease (p<0.05). None of the subjects were employed full-time at baseline, but 9 of the 12 (75%) were employed full-time at end-of-study. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest efficacy for mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol use of comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Double-blind studies are warranted to further clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in this population. PMID:23230395

  3. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  4. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  5. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  6. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  7. Desipramine blocks alcohol-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in two rat strains.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Bruk; Hauser, Sheketha R; Taylor, Robert E; Tizabi, Yousef

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate significant co-morbid expression of alcoholism, anxiety, and depression. These symptoms are often under-diagnosed and under-treated and can worsen prognostic and treatment outcome for alcoholism. Nonetheless, a causal relationship between alcoholism and these conditions is yet to be established. In this study we sought to determine the effects of daily alcohol administration on the indices of anxiety and depression in two rat strains, one of which exhibits inherent depressive-like characteristics. Moreover, it was of relevance to examine the effects of a clinically useful antidepressant on alcohol-induced behavioral changes. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats derived from Wistar stock show low levels of locomotor activity in an open field and high levels of immobility in the forced swim test (FST) which is considered a measure of their helplessness and hence are considered a putative animal model of depression. Adult female WKY and Wistar rats were exposed for 3 hrs daily to 95% ethanol vapor to achieve a mean blood alcohol level (BAL) of approximately 150 mg/dL. Controls were exposed to air in similar inhalation chambers. Sixteen to 18 hrs following 7 or 14 days of exposure to alcohol, locomotor activity (LCA) in open field, duration of time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze (EPM), reflective of anxiety-like behavior and immobility in FST were evaluated. Alcohol exposure for 7 or 14 days reduced LCA only in Wistar rats but enhanced FST immobility in both strains at both time points. Only 14 day alcohol exposure reduced EPM open arm time in both WKY and Wistar rats. Daily treatment with desipramine (8 mg/kg) blocked all the changes induced by alcohol in both strains. Thus, subchronic (7 day) exposure to alcohol induces depressive-like characteristics in Wistar rats and exacerbates that of WKY rats. Chronic (14 day) exposure, however, also induces an anxiety-like effect in both strains. The depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors

  8. Prevalence of major depressive disorder in Nigerian college students with alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among Nigerian college students with alcohol-related problems (ARP) and compare the estimated prevalence with their counterparts without ARP. A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of students (n=2658) in six colleges in Osun state, Western Nigeria. The students were independently assessed for ARP and MDD with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The current (2 weeks) prevalence of MDD in college students with alcohol dependence is 23.8%; alcohol abuse 17.2% and hazardous use 12.4%. Compared with total abstainers, major depressive disorder is significantly more likely to be associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.42-6.96), alcohol abuse (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.38-3.72) and hazardous use (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.38), but less associated with alcohol users without ARP (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.69-1.25). Nigerian college students with ARP are significantly more at risk of depressive disorders than those without ARP. Early recognition and treatment of depression are important considerations when planning preventive strategies for alcohol-related problems in college students.

  9. Alcohol Involvement as a Function of Co-Occurring Alcohol Use Disorders and Major Depressive Episode: Evidence from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Zucker, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-occurring alcohol use disorder and major depression (C-ALDP) is a major public health problem. Yet, the available evidence is mixed regarding the implications of C-ALDP for alcohol involvement. The purpose of this research was to examine the associations between past 12-month co-occurring AUDs (abuse and dependence) and major depressive episode (MDE) and alcohol involvement in a representative community sample. Design The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) is a national household survey of 43,083 adults ages 18 and older. For the NESARC, the target population is the civilian noninstitutionalized population, 18 years of age and older, living in the United States and the District of Columbia. Methods All NESARC interviews were conducted with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM IV Version (AUDADIS-IV; Grant et al., 2003). Results Prevalence of past 12-month co-occurring AUD (abuse or dependence) and MDE was 1.2%, corresponding to about 2.4 million adults ages 18 and older. Among males with alcohol dependence, comorbid MDE was associated with a greater number of days drinking at home alone. Among females and males with alcohol abuse and dependence, comorbid MDE was associated with higher prevalence of drinking to enhance depressed mood. Comorbid MDE was also associated with lower levels of some drinking behaviors among those with alcohol abuse. Conclusions Co-occurring AUDs and MDE are associated with specific dimensions of alcohol involvement, and this association is more consistent for alcohol dependence than abuse. PMID:21440383

  10. Alcohol involvement as a function of co-occurring alcohol use disorders and major depressive episode: evidence from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Zucker, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    Co-occurring alcohol use disorder and major depression (C-ALDP) is a major public health problem. Yet, the available evidence is mixed regarding the implications of C-ALDP for alcohol involvement. The purpose of this research was to examine the associations between past 12-month co-occurring AUDs (abuse and dependence) and major depressive episode (MDE) and alcohol involvement in a representative community sample. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) is a national household survey of 43,093 adults ages 18 and older. For the NESARC, the target population is the civilian noninstitutionalized population, 18 years of age and older, living in the United States and the District of Columbia. All NESARC interviews were conducted with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule--DSM IV Version (AUDADIS-IV; Grant et al., 2003a). Prevalence of past 12-month co-occurring AUD (abuse or dependence) and MDE was 1.2%, corresponding to about 2.4 million adults ages 18 and older. Among males with alcohol dependence, comorbid MDE was associated with a greater number of days drinking at home alone. Among females and males with alcohol abuse and dependence, comorbid MDE was associated with higher prevalence of drinking to enhance depressed mood. Comorbid MDE was also associated with lower levels of some drinking behaviors among those with alcohol abuse. Co-occurring AUDs and MDE are associated with specific dimensions of alcohol involvement, and this association is more consistent for alcohol dependence than abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Switchgrass contains two cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases involved in lignin formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial polyploid grass with considerable potential as a bioenergy species. Many aspects of its biology and cell wall development are yet to be elucidated. Lignin content of cell walls is one of the key determinants of biomass quality and is a negative trai...

  12. Depressive Symptoms Anticipate Changes in the Frequency of Alcohol Intoxication Among Low-Accepted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Ashley D.; Laursen, Brett; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is strong evidence that depression anticipates later drinking problems among adults. These associations have not been consistently documented during adolescence, perhaps because little attention has been given to individual differences in peer relationships, which are the primary setting for adolescent alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between depressive affect and alcohol misuse as moderated by peer group acceptance. Method: A community sample of 1,048 Swedish youth provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and intoxication frequency at annual intervals across the middle school years (seventh grade: M = 13.21 years old; eighth grade: M = 14.27 years old; ninth grade: M = 15.26 years old). Peer nominations provided a measure of individual acceptance. Results: Growth curve analyses revealed differences in the extent to which initial levels of depressive symptoms predicted the slope of increase in intoxication frequency. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at the outset anticipated sharp increases in intoxication frequency from seventh to ninth grades for low-accepted youth but not for average- or high-accepted youth. Conclusions: poor peer relations and depressive affect are vulnerabilities that set the stage for escalating adolescent alcohol misuse. Across the middle school years, when most youth have their first experiences with alcohol, peer difficulties exacerbated the tendency of depressed youth to drink to excess. PMID:26098034

  13. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  14. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  15. A sustained depressive state promotes a guanfacine reversible susceptibility to alcohol seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Riga, Danai; Schmitz, Leanne J M; van der Harst, Johanneke E; van Mourik, Yvar; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    High rates of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are reported. Preclinical models examining effects of primary depression on secondary AUD are currently absent, preventing adequate testing of drug treatment. Here, we combined social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) and operant alcohol self-administration (SA) paradigms to assess causality between these two neuropsychiatric disorders. We then exploited guanfacine, an FDA-approved adrenergic agent reported to reduce drug craving in humans, against SDPS-induced modulation of operant alcohol SA. Wistar rats were socially defeated and isolated for a period of ≥9 weeks, during which depression-like symptomatology (cognitive and social behavioral symptoms) was assessed. Subsequently, animals were subjected to a 5-month operant alcohol SA paradigm, examining acquisition, motivation, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The effects of guanfacine on motivation and relapse were measured at >6 months following defeat. SDPS rats exhibited significant disruption of social and cognitive behavior, including short-term spatial and long-term social memory, several months following defeat. Notably, SDPS increased motivation to obtain alcohol, and cue-induced relapse vulnerability. Guanfacine reversed the SDPS-induced effects on motivation and relapse. Together, our model mimics core symptomatology of a sustained depressive-like state and a subsequent vulnerability to alcohol abuse. We show that SDPS is strongly associated with an enhanced motivation for alcohol intake and relapse. Finally, we show that the clinically employed drug guanfacine has potential as a novel treatment option in comorbid patients, as it effectively reduced the enhanced sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol-associated stimuli.

  16. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  17. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  18. The Moderating Effect of Women’s Alcohol Misuse on the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives We examined the moderating effect of women’s alcohol misuse on the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and postpartum depression. Methods Self-report data were collected from 122 women. Analyses controlled for women’s baseline depression severity and partner alcohol misuse. Results Women’s alcohol misuse moderated the relationship between psychological IPV victimization and postpartum depression only at high levels of the moderator. Discussion and Conclusions Findings highlight the mental health risk posed by the combination of psychological IPV and alcohol misuse postpartum. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to investigate the understudied topic of women’s postpartum alcohol misuse. PMID:25079047

  19. Alcohol use and depression during adolescence and young adulthood: a summary and interpretation of mixed findings

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, P; Shapero, B; Archibald, A; Dale, C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and alcohol misuse are common among adolescents and young adults and are associated with significant personal and societal problems. Similarly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms are prevalent in this population and when they co-occur with alcohol misuse lead to even more severe consequences. Numerous studies have investigated the association between depressive symptoms, AUD and various drinking behaviors presenting an unclear picture. In this review we summarize studies among adolescents and young adults that have examined these relationships. From this review it emerges that several factors affect results, including study design (cross-sectional vs longitudinal), participants’ age (adolescents vs young adults), severity of problems considered (AUD vs heavy drinking; MDD vs depressive symptoms), and gender. Adolescents with AUD are at higher risk for MDD in particular at a younger age. During adolescence, several drinking behaviors, including weekly alcohol use and heavy drinking, increase the risk for depressive symptoms and MDD, while during young adulthood primarily AUD, but not other drinking behaviors, is associated with increased risk for MDD. Gender may have an effect on the association between depression and drinking behaviors but its role is still unclear. Some evidence suggests that the association between AUD and MDD is bidirectional such that mood problems contribute to the onset of alcohol problems and vice-versa. More longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in young adults and to clarify the effect of gender on these associations. To date, findings suggest the critical need to reduce any alcohol use at a young age and to treat both depressive symptoms and AUD to prevent the occurrence of comorbid disorders. PMID:27162708

  20. Reduced connexin 43 immunolabeling in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence and depression.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders.

  1. Reduced Connexin 43 Immunolabeling in the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Alcohol Dependence and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A.; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders. PMID:24774648

  2. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.

  3. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Cinnamyl Long Chain Aroma Esters.

    PubMed

    Worzakowska, Marta

    2015-06-08

    Cinnamyl long chain aroma esters were prepared by using the conventional and microwave-assisted methods. The esterification reaction of naturally occurring 3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-ol and different chain lengths acidic and diol reagents was carried out at the temperature of 140 °C under solvent free conditions. As acidic reagents, oxolane-2,5-dione, oxane-2,6-dione, hexanedioic acid and decanedioic acid were applied. Ethane-1,2-diol and 2,2'-[oxybis(2,1-ethandiyloxy)]diethanol were used as diol reagents. The synthesis of high molecular mass cinnamyl esters under conventional method conditions requires a long time to obtain high yields. The studies confirm that by using microwave irradiation, it is possible to reduce the reaction times to only 10-20 min. The structures of prepared esters were confirmed on the basis of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In addition, the newly obtained cinnamyl long chain esters were tested for their thermal properties. The TG studies proved the high thermal resistance of the obtained esters under inert and oxidative conditions.

  5. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) Into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Baruch, David E.; Tull, Matthew T.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into college orientation programs to provide a more comprehensive orientation experience. Data are presented from an initial pilot study in which 71 first-semester freshman at the University of Maryland participated in a 15-week, 2 hr per week orientation class (n = 37 in the behavioral activation-enhanced orientation classes and n = 34 in the control orientation as usual classes). Students’ depression and alcohol use were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Results indicated a Time × Group interaction such that problem drinking (but not consumption) was significantly reduced across assessments in the behavioral activation classes and largely unchanged in the standard classes. No difference was observed in depression scores; however, fairly low depression scores across the 3 time points may have limited the opportunity to observe any meaningful impact of the orientation classes on depression. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of their findings for preventing adjustment problems among incoming college students and future directions. PMID:21787070

  6. Integration of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) into a college orientation program: depression and alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Macpherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Lejuez, C W

    2011-10-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into college orientation programs to provide a more comprehensive orientation experience. Data are presented from an initial pilot study in which 71 first-semester freshman at the University of Maryland participated in a 15-week, 2 hr per week orientation class (n = 37 in the behavioral activation-enhanced orientation classes and n = 34 in the control orientation as usual classes). Students' depression and alcohol use were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Results indicated a Time × Group interaction such that problem drinking (but not consumption) was significantly reduced across assessments in the behavioral activation classes and largely unchanged in the standard classes. No difference was observed in depression scores; however, fairly low depression scores across the 3 time points may have limited the opportunity to observe any meaningful impact of the orientation classes on depression. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of their findings for preventing adjustment problems among incoming college students and future directions.

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms and Alcohol Use in Community Violence by Persons With a Psychotic Disorder or Depression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suzanne; Mulvey, Edward P.; Loughran, Thomas A.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have shown a significant but modest association between mental disorders and violence and an increased risk in the presence of co-occurring substance use disorders. Categorical diagnoses, however, have limited utility when assessing dynamic risk state over time. This study used data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study to examine the relationship of symptom levels and alcohol use to violence in repeated observations within two diagnostic groups. Methods Participants with a primary categorical diagnosis of depression (N=386) or a psychotic disorder (N=201) were identified. Subscale scores for affective or positive symptoms from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and self-reported alcohol consumption were tested in panel logistic models over five ten-week intervals for their concurrent and lagged relationship to violence. An interaction term between each type of symptom and alcohol use was also tested. Results In models including the amount of alcohol consumed and symptom levels, a high level of affective symptoms was associated with violence during the next follow-up period only for participants with depression. There was a significant interaction between alcohol use and affective symptoms for participants with depression. Conclusions The relationship of symptoms and alcohol use to community violence should be considered in the context of the individual’s primary diagnosis. Further characterization of interactions between symptoms and substance use in relation to violent behavior may allow for more effective assessment of risk state and interventions for violence prevention. PMID:22388531

  8. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression Versus Relaxation Training for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals With Elevated Depressive Symptoms*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.; Abrams, David; Dubreuil, Maryella; Gordon, Alan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A previous pilot study found positive outcomes among alcohol-dependent individuals with elevated depressive symptoms who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression (CBT-D; n = 19) compared with a relaxation training control (RTC; n = 16). The current study represents a replication of this pilot study using a larger sample size and a longer follow-up assessment period. Method: Patients entering a partial hospital drug and alcohol treatment program who met criteria for alcohol dependence and elevated depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory score ≥ 15) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive eight individual sessions of CBT-D (n = 81) or RTC (n = 84). Results: There were significant improvements in depressive and alcohol use outcomes over time for all participants. Compared with RTC, the CBT-D condition had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, at the 6-week follow-up. However, this effect was inconsistent because there were no differences in the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between conditions at that time point and there were no significant differences at any other follow-up. No significant between-group differences on alcohol use outcomes were found. Conclusions: The current findings did not replicate the positive outcomes observed in the CBT-D condition in our previous pilot study. Possible explanations for why these findings were not replicated are discussed, as are theoretical and clinical implications of using CBT-D in alcohol treatment. PMID:21388602

  10. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression versus relaxation training for alcohol-dependent individuals with elevated depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Palm, Kathleen M; Monti, Peter M; Abrams, David; Dubreuil, Maryella; Gordon, Alan; Miller, Ivan W

    2011-03-01

    A previous pilot study found positive outcomes among alcohol-dependent individuals with elevated depressive symptoms who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression (CBT-D; n = 19) compared with a relaxation training control (RTC; n = 16). The current study represents a replication of this pilot study using a larger sample size and a longer follow-up assessment period. Patients entering a partial hospital drug and alcohol treatment program who met criteria for alcohol dependence and elevated depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory score ≥ 15) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive eight individual sessions of CBT-D (n = 81) or RTC (n = 84). There were significant improvements in depressive and alcohol use outcomes over time for all participants.Compared with RTC, the CBT-D condition had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, at the 6-week follow-up. However, this effect was inconsistent because there were no differences in the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between conditions at that time point and there were no significant differences at any other follow-up. No significant between-group differences on alcohol use outcomes were found. The current findings did not replicate the positive outcomes observed in the CBT-D condition in our previous pilot study. Possible explanations for why these findings were not replicated are discussed, as are theoretical and clinical implications of using CBT-D in alcohol treatment.

  11. Depression, Anxiety, and Alcohol Use in Elite Rugby League Players Over a Competitive Season.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Etienne J; Graham, Kenneth S; Gan, Thomas Y; Moses, Bassam; Ball, Chris; Kuah, Donald E

    2017-01-17

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and rates of alcohol misuse in elite rugby league players in Australasia. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study with repeated measures. Surveys were conducted during the 2015 preseason and in-season. Four hundred four elite rugby league players participated preseason and 278 players in-season. Symptoms of depression were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale, symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with the GAD-7 scale, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption scale was used to assess hazardous alcohol use. The overall prevalence of depression was 12.6% preseason and 10.1% in-season. Generalized anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 14.6% and 10.1% for these 2 periods. Overall, 68.6% of players had hazardous levels of alcohol use preseason, and 62.8% in-season. There was no significant difference for any of the main outcomes between the periods. Players with a history of mental illnesses had 5.62 greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-12.04) of depression than those without during preseason, and 22.08 greater odds (95% CI, 7.77-62.71) in-season. Players reporting ≥3 previous concussions had 2.02 greater odds (95% CI, 1.07-3.82) of depression than those reporting ≤2 in the preseason sample. Rugby league players have a lower prevalence of depression compared with studies of the general population and other athletes, but a higher prevalence of GAD, and high rates of alcohol misuse. Clubs may consider implementing regular screening for these conditions. Further prospective research to determine causality of independent factors is required.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use in public health workers after the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Carol S; McKibben, Jodi B A; Reissman, Dori B; Scharf, Ted; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen M; Shultz, James M; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    We examined the relationship of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and increased alcohol and/or tobacco use to disaster exposure and work demand in Florida Department of Health workers after the 2004 hurricanes. Participants (N = 2249) completed electronic questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, alcohol and tobacco use, hurricane exposure, and work demand. Total mental and behavioral health burden (probable PTSD, probable depression, increased alcohol and/or tobacco use) was 11%. More than 4% had probable PTSD, and 3.8% had probable depression. Among those with probable PTSD, 29.2% had increased alcohol use, and 50% had increased tobacco use. Among those with probable depression, 34% indicated increased alcohol use and 55.6% increased tobacco use. Workers with greater exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.3 and 3.06, respectively). After adjusting for demographics and work demand, those with high exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.21 and 3.13). Those with high exposure had increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 3.01 and 3.40), and those with high work demand indicated increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 1.98 and 2.10). High exposure and work demand predicted increased alcohol and tobacco use, after adjusting for demographics, work demand, and exposure. Work-related disaster mental and behavioral health burden indicate the need for additional mental health interventions in the public health disaster workforce.

  13. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Major Depressive Disorder Across Hispanic National Groups.

    PubMed

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul

    2016-03-01

    There has been consistent epidemiological evidence of the association between drinking, alcohol dependence, and depression. However, most of the research has ignored potential diversity across Hispanic national subgroups. This study examines the prevalence of depression and explores its association with volume of drinking, age at first drink, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence across Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and South/Central American Hispanic national groups. Data from more than 19,000 Hispanic adults were obtained from the 2010 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Survey logistic regression methods were used to test for differences in the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol consumption across national groups. The prevalence of MDD varied significantly across Hispanic national groups (χ(2)  = 67.06, p < 0.001). Puerto Ricans (14%) and Mexican Americans (9%) were most likely to have MDD. Mexican Americans had the highest prevalence of alcohol dependence, volume of consumption, and youngest age at first drink compared to Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and Central/South Americans. Multivariate results suggest that the odds of alcohol dependence were nearly 4 times greater among Hispanics with MDD compared to Hispanics who did not meet the criteria for MDD. Hispanic national origin did not modify the association between MDD and alcohol use. Although significant differences in the prevalence rates of MDD and alcohol-use measures emerged across Hispanic national groups, there was no evidence that the relationships between these measures were different across Hispanic national groups. Further research should investigate the root causes of these variable MDD prevalence rates to inform detection and intervention efforts targeted toward specific national groups. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53% male, M[subscript age] = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different…

  15. Friendship Context Matters: Examining the Domain Specificity of Alcohol and Depression Socialization among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53% male, M[subscript age] = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different…

  16. Witnessing Violence across the Life Course, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol Use among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Sha Juan; Krause, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether witnessing a very violent act at any point in the life course is associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use in late life. The data come from a nationwide probability sample of older adults (N = 1,498). The findings reveal that witnessing violence is associated with more symptoms of depression…

  17. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  18. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  19. Witnessing Violence across the Life Course, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol Use among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Sha Juan; Krause, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether witnessing a very violent act at any point in the life course is associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use in late life. The data come from a nationwide probability sample of older adults (N = 1,498). The findings reveal that witnessing violence is associated with more symptoms of depression…

  20. Marital Therapy and Spouse Involvement in the Treatment of Depression, Agoraphobia, and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology, focusing on depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each disorder, examines relation between marital dynamics and disorder and discusses empirical efforts to evaluate impact of marital therapy or spouse involvement on disorder. Summarizes…

  1. A Model of Depression in Adult Children of Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between levels of depression in a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and non-ACOAs and patterns of parental drinking behaviors, intergenerational family interactions, attachment behaviors, and self-esteem. Drinking behaviors directly influenced family processes and indirectly influenced self-esteem but…

  2. Onset of Alcohol or Substance Use Disorders Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Silva, Susan; Rohde, Paul; Ginsburg, Golda; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Kirchner, Jerry; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Feeny, Norah; Albano, Anne Marie; Lavanier, Sarah; Reinecke, Mark; Jacobs, Rachel; Becker-Weidman, Emily; Weller, Elizabeth; Emslie, Graham; Walkup, John; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Burns, Barbara; Wells, Karen; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested whether positive response to short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who had participated in…

  3. Alcohol and substance abuse, depression and suicide attempts after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Backman, O; Stockeld, D; Rasmussen, F; Näslund, E; Marsk, R

    2016-09-01

    Small studies suggest that subjects who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of suicide, alcohol and substance use disorders. This population-based cohort study aimed to assess the incidence of treatment for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and attempted suicide after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB in Sweden between 2001 and 2010 were included. Incidence of hospital admission for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and suicide attempt was measured, along with the number of drugs prescribed. This cohort was compared with a large age-matched, non-obese reference cohort based on the Swedish population. Inpatient care and prescribed drugs registers were used. Before RYGB surgery, women, but not men, were at higher risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use disorder compared with the reference cohort. After surgery, this was the case for both sexes. The risk of being diagnosed and treated for depression remained raised after surgery. Suicide attempts were significantly increased after RYGB. The adjusted hazard ratio for attempted suicide in the RYGB cohort after surgery compared with the general non-obese population was 2·85 (95 per cent c.i. 2·40 to 3·39). Patients who have undergone RYGB are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use, with an increased rate of attempted suicide compared with a non-obese general population cohort. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A changed America? The effects of September 11th on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Johnson, J Aaron; Ducharme, Lori J

    2005-09-01

    In the weeks following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, social commentators argued that America had profoundly "changed." In light of these arguments and the literature on disasters, we examine the immediate and longer-term mental health consequences of September 11th using a national sample of full-time American workers. We model the effects of temporal proximity to the attacks on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Our data revealed a significant increase in the number of depressive symptoms reported during the 4 weeks after the attacks. In the subsequent weeks, levels of depressive symptoms returned to pre-September 11th levels. Contrary to expectations, there was some indication of decreased alcohol consumption after September 11th, although these effects were modest. These analyses provide little support for popular assertions that September 11th resulted in lasting and measurable impacts on Americans' well-being.

  5. Perinatal alcohol exposure in rat induces long-term depression of respiration after episodic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kervern, Myriam; Dubois, Christophe; Naassila, Mickael; Daoust, Martine; Pierrefiche, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which is responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome and the respiratory network functions, especially respiratory network plasticity (e.g., long-term facilitation) elicited after repeated short-lasting hypoxic episodes. The mechanism of induction of respiratory long-term facilitation involves 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors, which also participate in the response to hypoxia. Because fetal alcohol exposure is known to reduce serotonin centrally, and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure during gestation might impair respiratory long-term facilitation after hypoxic episodes. To analyze the effects of prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure on respiratory long-term facilitation in 5- to 7-day-old rats. Respiratory frequency and amplitude were measured in vivo and in an in vitro rhythmic medullary slice before and after three hypoxia episodes or three applications of a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist in vitro. 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor mRNA was measured from the slice. Alcohol exposure impaired respiratory long-term facilitation and induced long-term depression of respiration in both in vivo and in vitro models. Alcohol altered 5-HT(2A/2C) mRNA expression, although 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist efficacy was not altered in increasing rhythmic activity in slices. However, a higher concentration of 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist was necessary to induce transient facilitation in slices from ethanol-exposed animals, suggesting disturbances in induction and maintenance mechanisms of respiratory long-term facilitation. Respiratory facilitation after repeated hypoxia was converted to long-term depression in rats treated with alcohol in utero. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy may therefore induce long-term maladaptive behavior of the respiratory system in neonates.

  6. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  7. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  8. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons.

    PubMed

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it to that in healthy controls. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 1756 persons with a past-year depressive and/or anxiety disorder and 648 persons without a lifetime depressive and anxiety disorder. The performance of the AUDIT was compared against the gold standard of a CIDI-based diagnosis of past-year alcohol abuse or dependence by means of sensitivity, specificity and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). The AUDIT accurately detected alcohol dependence in depressed and/or anxious men (AUC=0.89) and women (AUC==0.88), with detected cut-off points of ≥9 and ≥6, respectively, comparable to that in healthy controls (men: AUC=0.89; women: AUC=0.94). However, the overall accuracy in detecting alcohol abuse was limited in depressed/anxious men (AUC=0.74) and women (AUC=0.78) and no adequate cut-off points with both acceptable sensitivity and specificity could be identified. Persons with a primary diagnosis of an addiction disorder were excluded and therefore the sample may not be fully representative of the most severely addicted patients. These findings confirm the accuracy of the AUDIT in detecting alcohol dependence, but not alcohol abuse, in depressed and/or anxious persons. Screening for alcohol dependence in this high-risk group could improve identification of persons suffering from this impairing comorbid condition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Depressed Mood in Childhood Associated with an Increased Risk for Initiation of Alcohol Use During Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Rosa M.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Anthony, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Using prospective data, we tested the hypothesis that early depressed mood was associated with an increased risk for initiation of alcohol use. In addition, we examined whether these associations varied according to the youths' report that alcohol consumption occurred with or without parental permission. Methods The participants for these analyses were students, ages 9 to 13 years old, participating in a longitudinal study in an urban sample of public schools (n=2311). As part of the prospective annual assessments of the students, in 1990 through 1994, data on depressive mood and alcohol use were gathered. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the level of baseline depressed mood in 1990 and initiation of alcohol use between 1991 through 1994 in the sample of youth at risk for new onset drinking (n=1526). Other characteristics assessed in the analyses included age, sex, race-ethnicity, alcohol use by peers, neighborhood environment, and receipt of subsidized lunch. Results Higher level of early depressed mood was associated with an earlier and increased estimated risk of initiating alcohol use without parental permission for boys but not for girls. Depressed mood was not associated with alcohol use initiation that occurred with parental sanctions. Conclusions Findings from the current study support the hypothesis that among urban youth, early depressed mood influences the initiation of alcohol consumption without parental permission for boys. PMID:17587505

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use are Genetically and Environmentally Correlated Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sihvola, Elina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Moilanen, Irma; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and alcohol use are frequently positively associated during adolescence. This study aimed to assess the heritability of each phenotype across adolescence; to assess potential shared liabilities; to examine changes in the nature of shared liabilities across adolescence; and to investigate potential causal relationships between depressive symptoms and alcohol use. We studied a longitudinally assessed sample of adolescent Finnish twins (N = 1,282) to test hypotheses about genetic and environmental influences on these phenotypes within and across ages, using data from assessments at ages 12, 14, and 17.5 years. The heritability of depressive symptoms is consistent across adolescence (~40–50%), with contributions from common and unique environmental factors. The heritability of alcohol use varies across time (a2 = .25–.44), and age 14 alcohol use is heavily influenced by shared environmental factors. Genetic attenuation and innovation were observed across waves. Modest to moderate genetic (rA = .26–.59) and environmental (rC = .30–.63) correlations between phenotypes exist at all ages, but decrease over time. Tests for causal relationships between traits differed across ages and sexes. Intrapair MZ difference tests provided evidence for reciprocal causation in girls at ages 14 and 17.5. Formal causal models suggested significant causal relationships between the variables in both boys and girls. The association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use during adolescence is likely due to a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences and causal influences. These influences are also temporally dynamic, complicating efforts to understand factors contributing to the relationship between these outcomes. PMID:20890653

  11. Depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence among patients at a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Botega, Neury José; Mitsuushi, Gabriela Nero; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de; Lima, Daniela Dantas; Fanger, Priscila Caroline; Mauro, Marisa Lúcia Fabrício; Gaspar, Karla Cristina; Silva, Viviane Franco da

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence rates and identify patient characteristics associated with depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence among individuals admitted to a general teaching hospital. Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, we assessed 4,352 consecutive medical and surgical patients admitted over a 13-month period. The patients were also asked to report their daily cigarette smoking habits during the last month. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. The mean age of the sample was 49.3 years, and 56.6% were male. Prevalence rates of depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence were, respectively, 14%, 9.8% and 16.9%. In the multivariate analysis, depression was associated with previous suicide attempts (OR = 8.7), lower level of education (OR = 3.6), prior use of psychotropic medications (OR = 3.1), cancer (OR = 1.7) and pain (OR = 1.7). Alcohol use disorders were associated with male sex (OR = 6.3), smoking (OR = 3.5), admission for an external cause of injury, such as a traffic accident (OR = 2.4), and previous suicide attempts (OR = 2.3). Nicotine dependence was associated with alcohol use disorders (OR = 3.4), young adulthood (OR = 2.3), widowhood (OR = 2.2) and previous suicide attempts (OR = 1.8). This is the largest sample of medical and surgical patients ever surveyed with standardized screening instruments in a general hospital in Brazil. The high prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and the profiles of the patients evaluated in this study underscore the need to develop methods that are more effective for detecting and managing such disorders. Hospital admission should be considered a major opportunity for the detection of psychiatric disorders and the subsequent implementation of the appropriate specific treatment strategies.

  12. Anxiety and depression symptoms and alcohol use among adolescents - a cross sectional study of Norwegian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Espen Lund; Andersson, Helle Wessel; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Pape, Kristine

    2017-05-23

    We investigated the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and alcohol drinking behavior among adolescents, by focusing on the importance of symptom load, as well as gender differences. Data was derived from a cross-sectional school based survey among adolescents in upper secondary schools in Norway. Among other variables adolescents reported on symptoms of anxiety and depression, time of onset and extent of alcohol use. The sample consisted of 6238 adolescents aged 16-18 years. We estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking behaviors in relation to severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Higher levels of depression symptoms were associated with earlier onset of alcohol use, more frequent consumption and intoxications. The associations between anxiety and depression symptoms and early drinking onset were stronger for girls than for boys. Higher levels of anxiety symptoms were only associated with alcohol consumption among girls. Boys and girls with depressive symptoms and girls with anxiety symptoms are more likely to have unhealthy patterns of alcohol drinking. Preventive strategies at all levels could possibly profit from a common approach to mental health and alcohol use, in particular for girls in mid-adolescence.

  13. Functional Limitation, Pain, and Alcohol Use: Exploring Gender Differences in the Mediating Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study considered the processes linking functional limitation and pain with depressive symptoms and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking) over a 3-year period. Method: Data were drawn from a two-wave Miami-Dade County community study of people with physical disabilities (N = 559). Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations among functional limitation, bodily pain, and the alcohol-related outcomes considered, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. Results: When the effects of the sociodemographic control variables were controlled for, depressive symptoms partly explained the effects of Wave 1 functional limitation and bodily pain on problematic drinking at Wave 2. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than for women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate clear linkages between two physical health indicators, depressive symptoms and drinking, and highlight the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding these associations. PMID:26402362

  14. Alcohol and drug abusers subtyped by antisocial personality and primary or secondary depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Epstein, E E; Ginsburg, B E; Hesselbrock, V M; Schwarz, J C

    1994-02-28

    Our data show that when substance abusers are subtyped simultaneously by antisocial personality disorder and the onset of depression relative to alcohol or drug abuse, groups of people with unique personality and affective profiles are identified. The profiles are represented by measures of affect-related personality variables such as trait anxiety, trait depression, histrionic traits, sensation seeking, and novelty seeking. These measures were chosen in an attempt to show that a "low arousal" personality type may be associated with antisocial personality and may thus indirectly be linked to a certain type (i.e., ASP/nondepressed) of substance abuser. By using a multi-symptomatic typological schema (i.e., a constellation of diagnostic categories rather than just one), we can show that different personality or affective profiles are indeed associated with certain subtypes of substance abusers and that depressed people who use drugs or alcohol are different affectively from antisocial types. We also show that the relationship between "low" and "high" arousal personality profile and subtypes based on co-morbid psychopathology is highlighted even more when we take into account the onset of dysthymia or depression that is primary versus secondary to substance abuse. Our findings are in accord with others' descriptions of the "affective arousal" dimensions of personality and are the first to link these dimensions with subtypes based on ASP and depression.

  15. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59 % female, 33 % non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period. PMID:26036995

  16. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N; Barnett, Nancy P

    2015-10-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59% female, 33% non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period.

  17. Depression in bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Carmen; Hasin, Deborah S; Arango, Celso; Oquendo, Maria A; Vieta, Eduard; Liu, Shangmin; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    To compare the clinical features and course of major depressive episodes (MDEs) occurring in subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-2002), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of more than 43000 adults in the USA, including 5695 subjects with lifetime MDD, 935 with BD-I and lifetime MDE, and 494 with BD-II and lifetime MDE. Differences on sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features, course, and treatment patterns of MDE were analyzed. Most depressive symptoms, family psychiatric history, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were more frequent-and number of depressive symptoms per MDE was higher-among subjects with BD-I, followed by BD-II, and MDD. BD-I individuals experienced a higher number of lifetime MDEs, had a poorer quality of life, and received significantly more treatment for MDE than BD-II and MDD subjects. Individuals with BD-I and BD-II experienced their first mood episode about ten years earlier than those with MDD (21.2, 20.5, and 30.4 years, respectively). Our results support the existence of a spectrum of severity of MDE, with highest severity for BD-I, followed by BD-II and MDD, suggesting the utility of dimensional assessments in current categorical classifications. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  18. Depression in bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carmen; Hasin, Deborah S.; Arango, Celso; Oquendo, Maria A.; Vieta, Eduard; Liu, Shangmin; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical features and course of major depressive episodes (MDE) occurring in subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001–2002), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of more than 43,000 adults in the United States, including 5,695 subjects with lifetime MDD, 935 with BD-I and lifetime MDE, and 494 with BD-II and lifetime MDE. Differences on sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features, course, and treatment patterns of MDE were analyzed. Results Most depressive symptoms, family psychiatric history, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were more frequent—and number of depressive symptoms per MDE were higher—among subjects with BD-I, followed by BD-II, and MDD. BD-I individuals experienced a higher number of lifetime MDE, had the worst quality of life, and received significantly more treatment for MDE than BD-II and MDD subjects. Individuals with BD-I and BD-II experienced their first mood episode about 10 years earlier than those with MDD (21.2, 20.5, and 30.4 years, respectively). Conclusions Our results support the existence of a spectrum of severity of MDE, with highest severity for BD-I, followed by BD-II and MDD, suggesting the utility of dimensional assessments in current categorical classifications. PMID:22548900

  19. The associations between self-consciousness, depressive state and craving to drink among alcohol dependent patients undergoing protracted withdrawal.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Denoël, Catherine; Hebborn, Ludger; Derely, Marc; Desseilles, Martin; Luminet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how certain personality traits influence the relation between depression symptoms and craving for alcohol, trait self-consciousness (trait SC) was examined during a withdrawal and detoxification program. Craving (Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale), depressive state (Beck Depression Inventory) and trait SC (Revised Self-Consciousness Scale) were assessed in alcohol-dependent inpatients (DSM-IV, N = 30) both at the beginning (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: day 14 to18) of protracted withdrawal during rehabilitation. A significant decrease in craving and depressive symptoms was observed from T1 to T2, while SC scores remained stable. At both times, strong positive correlations were observed between craving and depression. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that trait SC significantly moderated the impact of depression on cravings for alcohol. This study was performed on a relatively small sample size. Administration of medications during detoxification treatment can also be a confounding factor. Finally, craving could have been evaluated through other types of measurements. During protracted withdrawal, alcohol craving decreased with the same magnitude as depressive mood. Depressive symptoms were related to alcohol craving but only among patients with high trait SC scores. Our results suggest that metacognitive approaches targeting SC could decrease craving and, in turn, prevent future relapses.

  20. The Associations between Self-Consciousness, Depressive State and Craving to Drink among Alcohol Dependent Patients Undergoing Protracted Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Denoël, Catherine; Hebborn, Ludger; Derely, Marc; Desseilles, Martin; Luminet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Context In order to understand how certain personality traits influence the relation between depression symptoms and craving for alcohol, trait self-consciousness (trait SC) was examined during a withdrawal and detoxification program. Methods Craving (Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale), depressive state (Beck Depression Inventory) and trait SC (Revised Self-Consciousness Scale) were assessed in alcohol-dependent inpatients (DSM-IV, N = 30) both at the beginning (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: day 14 to18) of protracted withdrawal during rehabilitation. Results A significant decrease in craving and depressive symptoms was observed from T1 to T2, while SC scores remained stable. At both times, strong positive correlations were observed between craving and depression. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that trait SC significantly moderated the impact of depression on cravings for alcohol. Limitations This study was performed on a relatively small sample size. Administration of medications during detoxification treatment can also be a confounding factor. Finally, craving could have been evaluated through other types of measurements. Conclusions During protracted withdrawal, alcohol craving decreased with the same magnitude as depressive mood. Depressive symptoms were related to alcohol craving but only among patients with high trait SC scores. Our results suggest that metacognitive approaches targeting SC could decrease craving and, in turn, prevent future relapses. PMID:24013131

  1. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression. The actions of alcohol, pentobarbital, bicuculline, and the ampakine CX717, alone and in combination, were measured via 1) ventral root recordings from newborn rat brain stem-spinal cord preparations and 2) plethysmographic recordings from unrestrained newborn and adult rats. We found that ethanol caused a modest suppression of respiratory drive in vitro (50 mM) and in vivo (2 g/kg ip). Pentobarbital induced an ∼50% reduction in respiratory frequency in vitro (50 μM) and in vivo (28 mg/kg for pups and 56 mg/kg for adult rats ip). However, severe life-threatening apnea was induced by the combination of the agents in vitro and in vivo via activation of GABA(A) receptors, which was exacerbated by hypoxic (8% O(2)) conditions. Administration of the ampakine CX717 alleviated a significant component of the respiratory depression in vitro (50-150 μM) and in vivo (30 mg/kg ip). Bicuculline also alleviated ethanol-/pentobarbital-induced respiratory depression but caused seizure activity, whereas CX717 did not. These data demonstrated that ethanol and pentobarbital together caused severe respiratory depression, including lethal apnea, via synergistic actions that blunt chemoreceptive responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and suppress central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The ampakine CX717 markedly reduced the severity of respiratory depression.

  2. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  3. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  4. Prior Delinquency and Depression Differentially Predict Conditional Associations Between Discrete Patterns of Adolescent Religiosity and Adult Alcohol Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyland, Meredith A; Rowatt, Wade C; Latendresse, Shawn J

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that adolescent delinquency and depression are prospectively related to adult alcohol use and that adolescent religiosity may influence these relationships. However, such associations have not been investigated using person-centered approaches that provide nuanced explorations of these constructs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined whether adolescent delinquency and depression differentiated typologies of adult alcohol users and whether these relationships varied across religiosity profiles. Three typologies of self-identified Christian adolescents and 4 types of adult alcohol users were identified via latent profile analysis. Delinquency and depression were related to increased likelihood of membership in heavy drinking or problematic alcohol use profiles, but this relationship was most evident among those likely to be involved in religious practices. These results demonstrate the importance of person-centered approaches in characterizing the influences of internalizing and externalizing behaviors on subsequent patterns of alcohol use. PMID:28469423

  5. Experiences of severe childhood maltreatment, depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Wail; Antfolk, Jan; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of subsequent depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse, but the rate of resilient victims is unknown. Here, we investigated the rate of victims that do not suffer from clinical levels of these problems after severe maltreatment in a population-based sample of 10980 adult participants. Compared to men, women reported more severe emotional and sexual abuse, as well as more severe emotional neglect. For both genders, severe emotional abuse (OR = 3.80 [2.22, 6.52]); severe physical abuse (OR = 3.97 [1.72, 9.16]); severe emotional neglect (OR = 3.36 [1.73, 6.54]); and severe physical neglect (OR = 11.90 [2.66, 53.22]) were associated with depression and anxiety while only severe physical abuse (OR = 3.40 [1.28, 9.03]) was associated with alcohol abuse. Looking at men and women separately, severe emotional abuse (OR = 6.05 [1.62, 22.60] in men; OR = 3.74 [2.06, 6.81] in women) and severe physical abuse (OR = 6.05 [1.62, 22.60] in men; OR = 3.03 [0.99, 9.33] in women) were associated with clinical levels of depression and anxiety. In addition, in women, severe sexual abuse (OR = 2.40 [1.10, 5.21]), emotional neglect (OR = 4.78 [2.40, 9.56]), and severe physical neglect (OR = 9.86 [1.99, 48.93]) were associated with clinical levels of depression and anxiety. Severe emotional abuse in men (OR = 3.86 [0.96, 15.48]) and severe physical abuse in women (OR = 5.18 [1.48, 18.12]) were associated with alcohol abuse. Concerning resilience, the majority of severely maltreated participants did not report clinically significant levels of depression or anxiety (72%), or alcohol abuse (93%) in adulthood. Although the majority of severely abused or neglected individuals did not show clinical levels of depression, anxiety or alcohol use, severe childhood maltreatment increased the risk for showing clinical levels of psychopathology in adulthood.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic injury at 6 months: associations with alcohol use and depression.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ann Marie; Foreman, Michael L; Bennett, Monica M; Petrey, Laura B; Reynolds, Megan; Patel, Sarita; Roden-Foreman, Kenleigh

    2014-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is progressively recognized as a psychological morbidity in injured patients. Participants in a longitudinal study were identified as PTSD positive or PTSD negative at 6 months following injury. Risky alcohol use, depression, demographic, and injury-related variables were explored. This prospective cohort included patients 18 years or older, admitted to our Level I trauma center. Outcome measures included PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Demographic and injury variables were collected. A total of 211 participants enrolled in the study, and 118 participants completed measures at both baseline and 6 months. Of the participants, 25.4% (n = 30) screened positive for PTSD at 6 months. The entire sample showed a decline in risky alcohol use at 6 months (p = 0.0043). All PTSD-positive participants at 6 months were also positive for depression (p < 0.0001). For the entire sample, there was a 10% increase in depression from baseline to 6 months (p = 0.03). However, for those participants who were PTSD positive at 6 months, there was a 53% increase in depression from baseline (p = 0.0002) as compared with the group at 6 months without PTSD. Statistically significant differences were found between PTSD-positive and PTSD-negative participants regarding age (40.1 [15.9] vs. 50.9 [18.2], p = 0.0047), male (77% vs. 50%, p = 0.0109), penetrating injury (30% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001), PTSD history (17% vs. 4%, p = 0.0246), or other psychiatric condition (63% vs. 19%, p ≤ 0.001). PTSD was not associated with risky alcohol use at 6 months. Surprisingly, risky alcohol use declined in both groups. Incidence of PTSD (25.4%, n = 30) and risky alcohol use (25%, n = 29) were equal at 6 months. Although the American College of Surgeons' Committee on Trauma requires brief screening and intervention for risky alcohol use owing to societal impact, reinjury

  7. Characterizing spouse/partner depression and alcohol problems over the course of military deployment.

    PubMed

    Erbes, Christopher R; Kramer, Mark; Arbisi, Paul A; DeGarmo, David; Polusny, Melissa A

    2017-04-01

    Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Partners' mental health was reassessed at 4 months (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) after soldiers deployed, and both spouses/partners and soldiers were reassessed 2-3 months postdeployment (Time 4). Latent class growth modeling of partner depression symptoms over time revealed 4 groups: Resilience (79.9%), Deployment Distress (8.9%), Anticipatory Distress (8.4%), and Post-Deployment Distress (2.7%). Three alcohol misuse trajectories were identified: Resilience (91.3%), Deployment Onset (5.4%), and Deployment Desistance (3.3%). Predeployment predictors of partners' depression symptom trajectories varied by group and included soldier reports of stressors and social support and partner levels of neuroticism, introversion, disconstraint, and reported stressors. Predeployment predictors of alcohol misuse trajectories varied by group, and included soldier levels of alcohol misuse as well as partner neuroticism, disconstraint, and family readiness. Delineating and predicting trajectories of partner adjustment can allow for better targeted interventions toward those most at risk for heightened distress or alcohol problems over the deployment cycle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Iron-Catalyzed Allylic Amination Directly from Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, Balakumar; Roy, Moumita; Sundararaju, Basker

    2016-03-14

    Allylic amination, directly from alcohols, has been demonstrated without any Lewis acid activators using an efficient and regiospecific molecular iron catalyst. Various amines and alcohols were employed and the reaction proceeded through the oxidation/reduction (redox) pathway. A direct one-step synthesis of common drugs, such as cinnarizine and nafetifine, was exhibited from cinnamyl alcohol that produced water as side product.

  9. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kylie A; Baker, Amanda L; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-10-09

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  10. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838

  11. Effect of caregivers' depression and alcohol use on child antiretroviral adherence in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jaspan, Heather B; Mueller, Alexandra D; Myer, Landon; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Orrell, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Pediatric antiretroviral adherence is difficult to assess, and subjective measures are affected by reporting bias, which in turn may depend on psychosocial factors such as alcohol use and depression. We enrolled 56 child-caregiver dyads from Cape Town, South Africa and followed their adherence over 1 month via various methods. The Alcohol Use Disorder Inventory Tool and Beck Depression Inventory 1 were used to assess these factors and their affect on pediatric adherence. The median age of the children was 4 years, and median time on antiretrovirals was 20 months. Increased time on ART was associated with poorer adherence via 3-day recall (3DR; p=0.03). Ethanol use was inversely associated with adherence by both subjective measures, 3DR and visual analogue scale (VAS) (both p<0.01), and with Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) adherence as a continuous variable. In a multivariate analysis predicting MEMS adherence greater than 95%, including variables that were associated with adherence in univariate analyses, having a mother as a caregiver and shorter time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were significantly associated with adherence (odds ratio [OR] 19.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-327 and 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-0.99). Pediatric adherence is affected by caregiver alcohol use, but caregiver relationship to the child is most important. This small study suggests that interventions should aim to keep mothers healthy and alive, as well as alcohol-free.

  12. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Carol S.; McKibben, Jodi B.A.; Reissman, Dori B.; Scharf, Ted; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen M.; Shultz, James M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and increased alcohol and/or tobacco use to disaster exposure and work demand in Florida Department of Health workers after the 2004 hurricanes. Methods Participants (N = 2249) completed electronic questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, alcohol and tobacco use, hurricane exposure, and work demand. Results Total mental and behavioral health burden (probable PTSD, probable depression, increased alcohol and/or tobacco use) was 11%. More than 4% had probable PTSD, and 3.8% had probable depression. Among those with probable PTSD, 29.2% had increased alcohol use, and 50% had increased tobacco use. Among those with probable depression, 34% indicated increased alcohol use and 55.6% increased tobacco use. Workers with greater exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.3 and 3.06, respectively). After adjusting for demographics and work demand, those with high exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.21 and 3.13). Those with high exposure had increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 3.01 and 3.40), and those with high work demand indicated increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 1.98 and 2.10). High exposure and work demand predicted increased alcohol and tobacco use, after adjusting for demographics, work demand, and exposure. Conclusions Work-related disaster mental and behavioral health burden indicate the need for additional mental health interventions in the public health disaster workforce. PMID:24618140

  14. MAOA interacts with the ALDH2 gene in anxiety-depression alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hahn, Cheng-Yi; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Chen, Shih-Heng; Ko, Huei-Chen; Lu, Ru-Band

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is usually comorbid with anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, or both; this comorbidity may increase drinking behavior. We previously hypothesized that anxiety-depressive alcohol dependence (ANX/DEP ALC) was a genetically specific subtype of alcohol dependence. ANX/DEP ALC may be related to dopamine and serotonin, which are catalyzed by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). The aim of this study was to determine whether the interaction between the MAOA and the ALDH2 genes is associated with ANX/DEP ALC. We recruited 383 Han Chinese men in Taiwan: 143 ANX/DEP ALC and 240 healthy controls. The diagnosis of ANX/DEP ALC (alcohol dependence with a past or current history of anxiety, depressive disorder, or both) was made using DSM-IV criteria. Genotypes of ALDH2 and MAOA-uVNTR (variable number of tandem repeat located upstream) were determined using PCR-RFLP. The ALDH2, but not the MAOA-uVNTR, polymorphism was associated with ANX/DEP ALC. After stratifying the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism, we found a stronger association between the ALDH2*1/*2 and *2/*2 genotypes and the controls in the MAOA-uVNTR 4-repeat subgroup. Logistic regression significantly associated the interaction between ALDH2 and MAOA variants with ANX/DEP ALC. We conclude that the MAOA and ALDH2 genes interact in ANX/DEP ALC. Although the MAOA gene alone is not associated with ANX/DEP ALC, we hypothesize that different variants of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms modify the protective effects of the ALDH2*2 allele on ANX/DEP ALC in Han Chinese in Taiwan.

  15. Verbal creativity, depression and alcoholism. An investigation of one hundred American and British writers.

    PubMed

    Post, F

    1996-05-01

    An earlier study of 291 world famous men had shown that only visual artists and creative writers were characterised, in comparison with the general population, by a much higher prevalence of pathological personality traits and alcoholism. Depressive disorders, but not any other psychiatric conditions, had afflicted writers almost twice as often as men with other high creative achievements. The present investigation was undertaken to confirm these findings in a larger and more comprehensive series of writers, and to discover causal factors for confirmed high prevalences of affective conditions and alcoholism in writers. Data were collected from post-mortem biographies and, where applicable, translated into DSM diagnoses. The frequencies of various abnormalities and deviations were compared between poets, prose fiction writers, and playwrights. A high prevalence in writers of affective conditions and of alcoholism was confirmed. That of bipolar affective psychoses exceeded population norms in poets, who in spite of this had a lower prevalence of all kinds of affective disorders, of alcoholism, of personality deviations, and related to this, of psychosexual and marital problems, than prose fiction and play writers. A hypothesis is developed, which links the greater frequency of affective illnesses and alcoholism in playwrights and prose writers, in comparison with poets, to differences in the nature and intensity of their emotional imagination. This hypothesis could be tested by clinical psychologists collaborating with experts in literature on random samples of different kinds of writers.

  16. Urocortins: CRF's siblings and their potential role in anxiety, depression and alcohol drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, Andrey E; Tsoory, Michael M; Kozicz, Tamas; Thiele, Todd E; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Chen, Alon; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Giardino, William J; Kaur, Simranjit

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that stress, anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse-related disorders are in large part controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. However, evidence is accumulating that some of the actions on these receptors are mediated not by CRF, but by a family of related Urocortin (Ucn) peptides Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3. The initial narrow focus on CRF as the potential main player acting on CRF receptors appears outdated. Instead it is suggested that CRF and the individual Ucns act in a complementary and brain region-specific fashion to regulate anxiety-related behaviors and alcohol consumption. This review, based on a symposium held in 2011 at the research meeting on "Alcoholism and Stress" in Volterra, Italy, highlights recent evidence for regulation of these behaviors by Ucns. In studies on stress and anxiety, the roles of Ucns, and in particular Ucn1, appear more visible in experiments analyzing adaptation to stressors rather than testing basal anxiety states. Based on these studies, we propose that the contribution of Ucn1 to regulating mood follows a U-like pattern with both high and low activity of Ucn1 contributing to high anxiety states. In studies on alcohol use disorders, the CRF system appears to regulate not only dependence-induced drinking, but also binge drinking and even basal consumption of alcohol. While dependence-induced and binge drinking rely on the actions of CRF on CRFR1 receptors, alcohol consumption in models of these behaviors is inhibited by actions of Ucns on CRFR2. In contrast, alcohol preference is positively influenced by actions of Ucn1, which is capable of acting on both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Because of complex distribution of Ucns in the nervous system, advances in this field will critically depend on development of new tools allowing site-specific analyses of the roles of Ucns and CRF.

  17. Developing a Fitbit-supported lifestyle physical activity intervention for depressed alcohol dependent women.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Blevins, Claire E; Battle, Cynthia L; Read, Jennifer P; Gordon, Alan L; Stein, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    Women in alcohol treatment are more likely to relapse when in unpleasant, negative emotional states. Given the demonstrated benefits of exercise for decreasing depression, negative affect, and urges to drink, helping women engage in a lifestyle physical activity (LPA) intervention in early recovery may provide them a tool they can utilize "in the moment" in order to cope with negative emotional states and alcohol craving when relapse risk is highest. New digital fitness technologies (e.g., Fitbit activity monitor with web and mobile applications) may facilitate increases in physical activity (PA) through goal setting and self-monitoring. We piloted a 12-week LPA+Fitbit intervention focused on strategically using bouts of PA to cope with affect and alcohol cravings to prevent relapse in 20 depressed women (mean age=39.5years) in alcohol treatment. Participants wore their Fitbit on 73% of days during the intervention period. An average of 9174 steps/day were taken on the days the Fitbit was worn. Participants completed 4.7 of the 6 scheduled phone PA counseling sessions (78%). Among women who completed the intervention (n=15), 44% remained abstinent throughout the entire course of treatment. On average, women were abstinent on 95% of days during the 12-week intervention. Participants reported an increase in using PA to cope with either negative affect or urges to drink from baseline to end of treatment (p<0.05). Further, participants reported high satisfaction with the LPA+Fitbit intervention and with the Fitbit tracker. Further research is needed to evaluate the LPA+Fitbit intervention in a more rigorous randomized controlled trial. If the LPA+Fitbit intervention proves to be helpful during early recovery, this simple, low-cost and easily transported intervention can provide a much-needed alternate coping strategy to help reduce relapse risk among women in alcohol treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  19. Supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder: single-blind randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Ahern, Sinead; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2012-12-10

    Mobile phone text message technology has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). To perform a randomised rater-blinded trial to explore the effects of supportive text messages on mood and abstinence outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid AUD. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive twice daily supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD) in days at three months. NCT0137868. There was a statistically significant difference in three month BDI-II scores between the intervention and control groups; 8.5 (SD=8.0) vs. 16.7 (SD=10.3) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 49)=9.54, p=0.003, η(p)(2)=0.17. The mean difference in change BDI-II scores was -7.9 (95% CI -13.06 to -2.76, Cohen'sd=0.85). There was a trend for a greater CAD in the text message group than the control group: 88.3 (SD=6.2) vs. 79.3 (SD=24.1), t=1.78, df=48, p=0.08. Limitations of the study include the small sample size, the potential for loss of rater blinding and the lack of long term follow-up to determine the longer term effects of the intervention. Supportive text messages have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with comorbid depression and alcohol dependency syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Employment Status, Depression, Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorders in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Mills, Britain; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the association between employment status, depression, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. Methods Data are from a 2013-2014 household random sample of individuals 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Results Bivariate analyses showed that depression was 5 times higher among unemployed males than among those employed fulltime (21% versus 4%), and 2 times higher among unemployed females compared to those employed part-time or fulltime (18% versus 7% and 9%). Employment status was not associated with weekly volume of drinking, but non-participation in the workforce was protective against drinking (OR=2.17; 95CL: 1.03-4.57; p<.05) and binge drinking (OR=.62; 95CL=.39-.97; p<.05). This association could be due to the fact that those not in the work force may not be working due to sickness or disability. Male gender was a factor of risk for being a current drinker (OR=2; 95CL=1.53-2.6; p<.001) and binge drinking (OR=1.69; 95CL=1.29-2.2; p<.001). Male gender was protective against depression (OR=.32; 95CL=.14-.73; p<.05), but males employed only part-time were almost 5 times more likely than females employed fulltime to be depressed (OR=4.66; 95CL=1.25-17.38; p<.05). Conclusions Employment status in Puerto Rico is associated with depression and with current drinking, but not with other alcohol-related outcomes. Perhaps Puerto Rico is a “wet” environment, where drinking is already at a relatively high level that is not affected by employment status. Perhaps the chronic high rate of unemployment in the island have also created familial (e.g. support) and personal level accommodations (e.g., participation in the informal economy) that do not include increased drinking PMID:27038594

  1. A randomized trial of combined citalopram and naltrexone for nonabstinent outpatients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Simon J; Sellman, J Douglas; Foulds, James A; Frampton, Christopher M A; Deering, Daryle; Dunn, Alistair; Berks, John; Nixon, Lee; Cape, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Despite the high rate of co-occurrence of major depression and alcohol dependence, the role of pharmacotherapy in their treatment remains unclear. In the new era of naltrexone for alcohol dependence, it is notable that only 1 study to date has examined the efficacy of antidepressant medication prescribed concurrently with naltrexone. We aimed to determine whether combining naltrexone with citalopram produced better treatment outcomes than naltrexone alone in patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and depression, and to investigate whether either sex or depression type (independent or substance-induced depression) moderated treatment response. Participants were 138 depressed alcohol-dependent adults who were not required to be abstinent at the commencement of the trial. They were randomized to 12 weeks of citalopram or placebo, plus naltrexone and clinical case management. Treatment was well attended, and medications were reasonably well tolerated with high adherence rates. Substantial improvements in both mood and drinking occurred in both groups, with no significant differences between groups on any of the mood or drinking outcome measures, whether or not other variables were controlled for. No interaction effect was found for independent/substance-induced depression status, whereas there was a marginal effect found by sex, with greater improvement in 1 drinking outcome measure (percent days abstinent) in women taking citalopram. These findings suggest that citalopram is not a clinically useful addition to naltrexone and clinical case management in this treatment population. Independent/substance-induced depression status did not predict treatment response. Findings for sex were equivocal.

  2. Neuroimmune Interface in the Comorbidity between Alcohol Use Disorder and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Bidirectional communication links operate between the brain and the body. Afferent immune-to-brain signals are capable of inducing changes in mood and behavior. Chronic heavy alcohol drinking, typical of alcohol use disorder (AUD), is one such factor that provokes an immune response in the periphery that, by means of circulatory cytokines and other neuroimmune mediators, ultimately causes alterations in the brain function. Alcohol can also directly impact the immune functions of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Several lines of research have established the contribution of specific inflammatory mediators in the development and progression of depressive illness. Much of the available evidence in this field stems from cross-sectional data on the immune interactions between isolated AUD and major depression (MD). Given their heterogeneity as disease entities with overlapping symptoms and shared neuroimmune correlates, it is no surprise that systemic and CNS inflammation could be a critical determinant of the frequent comorbidity between AUD and MD. This review presents a summary and analysis of the extant literature on neuroimmune interface in the AUD–MD comorbidity. PMID:28082989

  3. Friendship context matters: examining the domain specificity of alcohol and depression socialization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J

    2012-10-01

    Driven by existing socialization theories, this study describes specific friendship contexts in which peer influence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms occurs. In the fall and spring of the school year, surveys were administered to 704 Italian adolescents (53 % male, M (age) = 15.53) enrolled in Grades 9, 10 and 11. Different friendship contexts were distinguished based on two dimensions referring to the level (i.e., best friendships and friendship networks) and reciprocity (i.e., unilateral and reciprocal) of the relationships. Social network and dyadic analyses were applied in a complementary manner to estimate peer socialization effects across the different friendship contexts. Results showed that within friendship networks both male and female adolescents' alcohol misuse was affected by friends' alcohol misuse, regardless of whether the relationship was reciprocated or not. Conversely, peer socialization of depressive symptoms only emerged within very best friendship dyads of female adolescents. Findings suggest that the effects of peer socialization depend on the friendship context and specific types of behaviors. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Course of Late-Life Depression With Alcoholism Following Combination Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Raman; Ross, Jennifer; Charles, O'Brien; Oslin, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The comorbidity of alcoholism and depression increases the complexity of treatment and is associated with severe disability and morbidity. However, long-term treatment algorithms have been understudied. Method: This study examined the natural course of 74 depressed alcoholics over 6 to 12 months following a 12-week acute-phase trial of sertraline (Zoloft), naltrexone (Revia), and compliance enhancement therapy. Subjects were monitored for long-term outcomes based on their acute-phase trial response. Results: Fifty-four subjects followed up at 6 months, and 50 subjects remained at the 12-month visit. Full responders at the end of the 12-week acute-phase trial sustained better overall outcomes (6 months: χ2 = 19.9, 4 df, p = .001; 12 months: = 11.7, 4 df, p = .020) and better drinking and depression outcomes, as compared with partial responders and nonresponders over a 6-month and 12-month period. Conclusions: Initial full responders sustain better overall treatment outcomes at 6 and 12 months, compared with partial responders and nonresponders. The defined outcome categories incorporate meaningful and practical measures of severity and can help predict treatment outcomes in clinical practice, thereby allowing timely interventions. Future studies should focus on maintenance strategies for full responders and treatment adaptations for partial responders and nonresponders. PMID:19261235

  5. Ethnic discrimination and Latino depression: The mediating role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas; Vallejo, Leticia G

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has established a link between ethnic discrimination and poor mental health, yet the process by which this relationship occurs remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that the potential mechanisms accounting for the negative consequences of ethnic discrimination may be through stress responses and health behaviors (Pascoe & Smart Richman, 2009). The present study sought to examine the role of traumatic stress symptoms and alcohol use in mediating the relationship between ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms. Two aspects of ethnic discrimination were assessed, namely source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination. The sample for the current study included 244 adult Latinos averaging approximately 40 years of age (SD = 15.29; range 18-85). Participants, which were comprised of mainly women (66%, n = 156), completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Multiple mediator analyses revealed that, among U.S.-born but not foreign-born Latinos, both source of discrimination and reaction to discrimination were related to increased traumatic stress symptoms, which, in turn, was associated with depressive symptomatology. The traumatic stress symptoms pathway showed a robust indirect effect while alcohol use was not a statistically significant mediator. These major findings suggest that, while ethnic discrimination has a direct effect on depression, increased traumatic stress can account for this relationship particularly for U.S.-born Latinos. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping framework. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Adults with mild to moderate depression exhibit more alcohol related problems compared to the general adult population: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Åhlin, Julia; Hallgren, Mats; Öjehagen, Agneta; Källmén, Håkan; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-06-09

    Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden. Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n = 663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age. Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol. Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression.

  7. Associations of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oo, Khine Zin; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is understood to control mood and drug response. Carrying a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTT) may increase the risk of major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Previous estimates of the association of the S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence have been inconsistent. For the systematic review, we used PubMed MEDLINE and Discovery of The University of Melbourne to search for all relevant case-control studies investigating the associations of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Summary odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. To investigate whether year of publication, study population or diagnostic criteria used were potential sources of heterogeneity, we performed meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. We included 23 studies of major depressive disorder without alcohol dependence containing 3392 cases and 5093 controls, and 11 studies of alcohol dependence without major depressive disorder containing 2079 cases and 2273 controls. The summary OR for homozygote carriers of the S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism compared with heterozygote and non-carriers combined (SS vs SL+LL genotype) was 1.33 (95% CI = [1.19, 1.48]) for major depressive disorder and 1.18 (95% CI = [1.01, 1.38]) for alcohol dependence. The summary OR per S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism was 1.16 (95% CI = [1.08, 1.23]) for major depressive disorder and 1.12 (95% CI = [1.01, 1.23]) for alcohol dependence. Meta-regression models showed that the associations did not substantially change after adjusting for year of publication, study population and diagnostic criteria used. There was no evidence for publication bias of the studies included in our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis confirms that individuals with the homozygous S allele of 5HTTLPR

  8. [Depressive symptomatology and alcohol-related problems during the academic training of medical students].

    PubMed

    Valle, Rubén; Sánchez, Elard; Perales, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the frequency of depressive symptomatology (DS) and alcohol-related problems (ARP) during the academic training of medical students from Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from first to sixth year of career. The Zung Self-Rating depression scale was used to evaluate DS and the CAGE questionnaire to evaluate ARP. 23.3% of participants had DS, and 7.3% had ARP. We found that the frequency of DS and ARP was higher among students in the first years of career. We recommend it is necessary to take action in the prevention and detection of these disorders from the first years of training of medical students.

  9. Phobic anxiety and depression as predictor variables for treatment outcome. A LISREL analysis on treated female alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Haver, Brit; Gjestad, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the relationship between phobic anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, treatment and drinking outcome in female alcoholics. A structural equation analysis (LISREL) was used to test the strength and direction of predictor variables, enabling the development of models for the process of change taking place following treatment. Participants were patients attending a specific treatment programme for women with alcohol problems at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. One hundred and twenty female alcoholics consecutively admitted during 1991-1993 were followed up 2 years after treatment. The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) and Symptom Check List-90 were used at intake and follow-up. Duration of problem drinking and depression at follow-up affected drinking outcome directly and negatively, whereas duration of treatment affected drinking outcome directly and positively in all our models. Phobic anxiety on the other hand affected drinking outcome negatively and indirectly, via shorter treatment duration and higher depression at follow-up. Using different outcome variables as an end product resulted in only minor changes. Thus, the model presented is viewed as robust and clinically meaningful. The results underscore the importance of phobic anxiety and recurrent or sustained depression--in addition to the pre-treatment duration of problem drinking--for the drinking outcome among female alcoholics.

  10. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention.

  11. Trends in Alcohol Use among Adolescents from 2000 to 2011: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Depression.

    PubMed

    Torikka, Antti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Luukkaala, Tiina; Rimpelä, Arja

    2017-01-01

    To assess temporal trends of adolescent alcohol use in Finland from 2000 to 2011, according to socio-economic status and depression. Classroom self-administered questionnaires concerning health, health behaviours and school experiences were administered biennially from 2000-2001 to 2010-2011 to nationwide samples of 14- to 16-year-olds (n = 618,084). Alcohol use was measured as the frequencies of drinking and drunkenness. Socioeconomic status was measured using parental education and unemployment. Depression was measured using a Finnish modification of the Beck Depression Inventory. Cross-tabulations and a logistic regression analysis were applied. Over the study period, rates of frequent drinking and frequent drunkenness decreased among both boys and girls. Low levels of parental education and unemployment as well as adolescent depression increased the likelihoods of frequent drinking and drunkenness. Unlike the general decreasing trend observed for alcohol use, the likelihoods of frequent drinking and drunkenness increased among adolescents who were depressed and had unemployed parents with low levels of education. The prevalence of frequent drunkenness was 75.8% among the boys in this group during 2008-2011, whereas the corresponding prevalence was 2.3% for boys without depression and with highly educated, employed parents. The corresponding figures for girls were 41.7% and 1.4%, respectively. The overall decreasing trend in frequent alcohol use was not observed among socioeconomically deprived adolescents with depression. Thus, alcohol prevention programmes should treat these youth as special targets. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol Problems as a Risk Factor for Post-Disaster Depressed Mood among U.S. Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Heslin, Kevin C.; Stein, Judith A.; Dobalian, Aram; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andrew B.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol problems may impede adaptive, proactive responses to disaster-related injury and loss, thus prolonging the adverse impact of disasters on mental health. Previous work suggests that veterans of the U.S. armed forces have a relatively high prevalence of alcohol misuse and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to estimate the impact of pre-disaster alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood among veterans, using data that were collected before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. We assessed the impact of alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood in an existing clinical cohort of veterans who experienced the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that struck Northridge in January 1994. One-to-three months after the disaster, interviewers contacted participants by telephone to administer a follow-up questionnaire based on a survey that had been done pre-earthquake. Post-earthquake data were obtained on 1144 male veterans for whom there were pre-earthquake data. We tested a predictive path model of the relationships between latent variables for pre-disaster alcohol problems, functional limitations, and depressed mood on latent variables representing post-disaster “quake impact” and depressive mood. Results showed that veterans who had more alcohol problems before the earthquake experienced more earthquake-related harms and severely depressed mood after the earthquake, compared with those who had fewer alcohol problems. Programs serving veterans with a high prevalence of alcohol problems should consider designing disaster response protocols to locate and assist these patients in the aftermath of disasters. PMID:23106638

  13. Effects of depressive symptoms and coping motives on naturalistic trends in negative and positive alcohol-related consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Depressive symptoms and drinking to cope with negative affect increase the likelihood for drinking-related negative consequences among college students. However, less is known about their influence on the naturalistic trajectories of alcohol-related consequences. In the current study, we examined how positive and negative drinking-related consequences changed as a function of depressive symptoms and drinking motives (coping, conformity, social, enhancement). Method Participants (N = 652; 58% female) were college student drinkers assessed biweekly during the first two years of college. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine means of and linear change in positive and negative consequences related to depression and motives, controlling for level of drinking. Results Consistent with hypotheses, negative and positive consequences decreased over the course of freshman and sophomore years. Higher levels of depression were associated with a faster decline in negative consequences during freshman year. Coping motives predicted average levels of negative and positive consequences across all years, with the effects of coping motives on consequences most pronounced at low levels of depression during sophomore year. Conclusions These findings indicate that screening students for depression and drinking to cope, independent of alcohol consumption, may help identify students at risk for experiencing negative alcohol consequences and that these factors should be addressed in targeted alcohol interventions. PMID:27610590

  14. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Treatment Response to Brief Intervention for Prevention of Alcohol Exposed Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Hook, Joshua; Hettema, Jennifer; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) plus Feedback condition against a Video Information (VI) condition and an Informational Brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the 3 brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus Feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus Feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials. PMID:23810264

  15. Depressive symptoms moderate treatment response to brief intervention for prevention of alcohol exposed pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, J Kim; Hook, Joshua N; Hettema, Jennifer; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2013-10-01

    The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) plus feedback condition against a video information (VI) condition and an informational brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the three brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials.

  16. Employment Status, Depression, Drinking, and Alcohol Use Disorder in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between employment status, depression, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. Data are from a 2013 to 2014 household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Bivariate analyses showed that depression was 5 times higher among unemployed males than among those employed full time (21% vs. 4%) and 2 times higher among unemployed females compared to those employed part time or full time (18% vs. 7% and 9%). Employment status was not associated with weekly volume of drinking, but nonparticipation in the workforce was protective against drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 4.57; p < 0.05) and binge drinking (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.97; p < 0.05). This association could be due to the fact that those not in the work force may not be working due to sickness or disability. Male gender was a factor of risk for being a current drinker (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.6; p < 0.001) and binge drinking (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.29 to 2.2; p < 0.001). Male gender was protective against depression (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.73; p < 0.01), but males employed only part time were almost 5 times more likely than females employed full time to be depressed (OR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.25 to 17.38; p < 0.05). Employment status in Puerto Rico is associated with depression and with current drinking, but not with other alcohol-related outcomes. Perhaps Puerto Rico is a "wet" environment, where drinking is already at a relatively high level that is not affected by employment status. Perhaps the chronic high rate of unemployment in the island has also created familial (e.g., support) and personal level accommodations (e.g., participation in the informal economy) that do not include increased drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  18. Minority Stress, Depression, Relationship Quality, and Alcohol Use: Associations with Overweight and Obesity Among Partnered Young Adult Lesbians.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Although lesbian women are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, relatively little research has examined correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of minority stress and depression, relationship quality, and alcohol-use variables to overweight and obesity among lesbians in relationships. Self-identified lesbians (n=737) in current relationships completed measures of demographics, minority stress, depressive symptoms, relationship variables, and alcohol use. Overweight and obesity were associated with more public identification as a lesbian, more depressive symptoms, increased heavy drinking, longer relationship length, and lower relationship consensus. Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should incorporate psychological, relationship, and alcohol use components to reduce overweight and obesity among lesbians.

  19. Minority Stress, Depression, Relationship Quality, and Alcohol Use: Associations with Overweight and Obesity Among Partnered Young Adult Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Although lesbian women are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, relatively little research has examined correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of minority stress and depression, relationship quality, and alcohol-use variables to overweight and obesity among lesbians in relationships. Method: Self-identified lesbians (n=737) in current relationships completed measures of demographics, minority stress, depressive symptoms, relationship variables, and alcohol use. Results: Overweight and obesity were associated with more public identification as a lesbian, more depressive symptoms, increased heavy drinking, longer relationship length, and lower relationship consensus. Conclusion: Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should incorporate psychological, relationship, and alcohol use components to reduce overweight and obesity among lesbians. PMID:26788774

  20. Age, alcoholism and depression are associated with low levels of urinary melatonin.

    PubMed Central

    Wetterberg, L; Aperia, B; Gorelick, D A; Gwirtzman, H E; McGuire, M T; Serafetinides, E A; Yuwiler, A

    1992-01-01

    Two normal control populations, separated by 8,000 miles and 24 degrees of latitude, had similar six-month mean values for overnight urinary melatonin concentrations. These values were significantly higher than six-month values for depressed subjects and abstinent alcoholic subjects, while the means for the two clinical populations were similar. Age and urinary melatonin concentration in the control and clinical populations were inversely related, but the slopes of the linear regression equations were ten times steeper for the control populations than for the clinical populations. Differences in age and sex distributions accounted for some of the differences in values between controls and the clinical populations, although controls still differed from the clinical populations, even after sex and age were factored out. The disparate slopes for age and melatonin concentrations may contribute to some of the conflicting findings of studies comparing populations of different ages. The total melatonin content in the samples from alcoholic subjects, but not the depressed subjects, was lower than that for controls. The difference in the urinary melatonin concentration between the controls and the two patient groups was not accounted for by difference in duration of urine collection period, hours of sleep or body weight. PMID:1489763

  1. Depressive and aggressive responses to frustration: development of a questionnaire and its validation in a sample of male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Baars, M Y; Müller, M J; Gallhofer, B; Netter, P

    2011-01-01

    Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.

  2. Genome-wide linkage scan of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the UCSF family alcoholism study.

    PubMed

    Gizer, Ian R; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Feiler, Heidi S; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that the rates of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use are increased among individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence relative to those who are not. Thus, the present study conducted genome-wide linkage scans of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the University of California at San Francisco Family Alcoholism Study. Antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and impulsive substance use were assessed using three scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2nd ed.: the Antisocial Practices content scale, the Depression content scale, and the revised MacAndrew Alcoholism scale. Linkage analyses were carried out using a variance components approach. Suggestive evidence of linkage to three genomic regions independent of alcohol and cannabis dependence diagnostic status was observed: the Antisocial Practices content scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 13 at 11 cM, the MacAndrew Alcoholism scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 15 at 47 cM, and all three scales showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 17 at 57-58 cM. Each of these regions has shown previous evidence of linkage and association to substance dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia, thus suggesting potentially broad relations between these regions and psychopathology.

  3. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms, Smoking, and Recent Alcohol Use in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ian M.; Culhane, Jennifer F.; Webb, David A.; Coyne, James C.; Hogan, Vijaya; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived discrimination is associated with poor mental health and health-compromising behaviors in a range of vulnerable populations, but this link has not been assessed among pregnant women. We aimed to determine whether perceived discrimination was associated with these important targets of maternal health care among low-income pregnant women. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 4,454 multi-ethnic, low-income, inner-city women at their first prenatal visit at public health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, from 1999 to 2004. Perceived chronic everyday discrimination (moderate and high levels) in addition to experiences of major discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D ≥23), smoking in pregnancy (current), and recent alcohol use (12 months before pregnancy) were assessed by patient self-report. Results Moderate everyday discrimination was reported by 873 (20%) women, high everyday discrimination by 238 (5%) women, and an experience of major discrimination by 789 (18%) women. Everyday discrimination was independently associated with depressive symptomatology (moderate = PR 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-1.79, high = PR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49-2.21); smoking (moderate = PR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36, high = PR 1.41, 95% CI 1.15-1.74); and recent alcohol use (moderate = PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.12-1.36). However, major discrimination was not independently associated with these outcomes. Conclusions This study demonstrated that perceived chronic everyday discrimination, but not major discrimination, was associated with depressive symptoms and health-compromising behaviors independent of potential confounders, including race and ethnicity, among pregnant low-income women. (BIRTH 37:2 June 2010) PMID:20557531

  5. Naturally occurring limonene to cinnamyl-type gamma-butyrolactone substituted aldol condensation derivatives as antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Pushpinder; Das, Pralay; Chaudhary, Abha; Singh, Bikram

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the synthesis of gamma-butyrolactone substituted cinnamyl type Aldol condensation products under milder proline and triethylamine basic conditions. The antioxidant activity of all the synthesized compounds was assessed using three different assays. The cinnamyl type derivatives of gamma-butyrolactone bearing an -OH group in the benzene ring exhibited excellent antioxidant activity.

  6. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  7. Coupling and reactions of 5- hydroxyconiferyl alcohol in lignin formation

    Treesearch

    Thomas Elder; Laura Berstis; Gregg T. Beckham; Michael F. Crowley

    2016-01-01

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-...

  8. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.

  9. Gender Differences in the Relationships Among Major Depressive Disorder, Heavy Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Treatment Engagement Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E.; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. Method: The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Results: Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. Conclusions: The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment. PMID:27340967

  10. The relationship of alcohol-use disorders and depressive symptoms to tryptophan metabolism: cross-sectional data from a Nepalese alcohol treatment sample

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Martinez, Priscilla; Hestad, Knut; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism results in increased production of potentially depressogenic tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan availability for serotonin synthesis. Since alcohol consumption affects tryptophan metabolism and disposition, we determined serum levels of kynurenine, tryptophan and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KT ratio) in alcohol-use disorder (AUD) patients and compared their levels considering abstinence duration, AUD severity and comorbid depression. Methods The study sample included 169 AUD inpatients from eight alcohol treatment facilities in Kathmandu, Nepal. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to generate the AUD diagnosis. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) captured AUD severity and patterns of alcohol use. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 was used to reveal current depressive symptoms. Serum kynurenine and tryptophan levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and tryptophan degradation was measured by KT ratio (kynurenine/tryptophan × 103). Results Patients with above average AUDIT scores had higher mean serum levels of kynurenine (2.1μM±0.7 vs 1.8 μM ±0.6, p= 0.006) and KT ratios (48.6±17.6 vs 40.4±14.3, p=0.002) than those with below average scores. Patients with current depressive symptoms had higher mean tryptophan concentrations (49.9 μM ±13 vs 45.7 μM±14.1, p= 0.047) and lower KT ratios (41.4 μM ±14 vs 47.5 μM ±17.6, p=0.028) compared to patients whose reported depressive symptoms were below the standard cut-off. Higher tryptophan levels and lower KT ratios in the depressed group was specific to patients with longer abstinence and higher AUD severity. Conclusions Depression-related deregulation in tryptophan metabolism was found to depend on length of abstinence and on AUD severity. Together, results suggest that in AUD populations, peripheral tryptophan metabolism is subject to interactions

  11. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  12. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  13. A narrative review of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and implications for its use in an alcohol-dependent population.

    PubMed

    McPherson, A; Martin, C R

    2010-02-01

    The findings from the present study reveal that the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring depression in a variety of populations. This realization should enable nurses and other health professionals to utilize the tool with added confidence and assurance. * The main finding was that the BDI would probably be a reliable and valid screening tool in an alcohol-dependent population. This conclusion appears to echo the relationship that alcohol consumption generally has with depression. This finding is important to those practitioners using the BDI in this population in that it provides further evidence to enhance their practical experience. Abstract A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out on contemporary studies to ascertain its suitability for use in an alcohol-dependent population. Three criteria were used for this: factor analysis, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis revealed that its structure is consistent with either two or three factor models, depending on the population. Test-retest results concluded that the correlation coefficient remained above the recommended threshold and internal consistency reliability highlighted alpha coefficient results consistently above suggested scores, leading to the conclusion that the BDI is probably an effective screening tool in an alcohol-dependent population.

  14. Psychosocial conditions on and off the job and psychological ill health: depressive symptoms, impaired psychological wellbeing, heavy consumption of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, H; Bildt, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. Aims: To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Methods: Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Results: Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Conclusions: Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health. PMID:12819282

  15. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  16. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  17. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  18. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  19. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  20. Genome-wide Linkage Scan of Antisocial Behavior, Depression and Impulsive Substance Use in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizer, Ian R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vieten, Cassandra; Feiler, Heidi S.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that rates of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use are increased among individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence relative to those who are not. Thus, the present study conducted genome-wide linkage scans of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the University of California at San Francisco Family Alcoholism Study. METHODS Antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and impulsive substance use were assessed using three scales from the MMPI-2, the Antisocial Practices content scale (ASP), the Depression content scale (DEP), and the revised MacAndrew Alcoholism scale (MAC-R). Linkage analyses were conducted using a variance components approach. RESULTS Suggestive evidence of linkage to three genomic regions independent of alcohol and cannabis dependence diagnostic status was observed: the ASP scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 13 at 11 cM, the MAC-R scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 15 at 47 cM, and all 3 scales showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 17 at 57–58 cM. CONCLUSIONS Each of these regions has shown prior evidence of linkage and association to substance dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, ADHD, and schizophrenia thus suggesting potentially broad relations between these regions and psychopathology. PMID:22517380

  1. Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Martin; Bryant, Joanne; Newman, Christy E.; Paquette, Dana M.; Mao, Limin; Kidd, Michael R.; Saltman, Deborah C.; Kippax, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social,…

  2. Commentary on Caetano, Vaeth, Mills, and Canino (2016): Employment Status, Depression, Drinking, and Alcohol-Use Disorders in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-05-01

    In this commentary, we discuss a study by Caetano and colleagues (in press) that examines the relation between depression, employment status, and drinking behaviors among adults (aged 18 to 64) living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. We discuss the contribution of Caetano and colleagues' (in press) study to the understanding of socioeconomic risk and protective factors associated with depression and drinking behaviors among Hispanics, specifically Puerto Ricans. We focus on 3 topics: (i) gender differences in the relation between depression and employment status, (ii) the relation between participation in the workforce and drinking behaviors, and (iii) the potential role of family and contextual factors mitigating the effects of unemployment on drinking behaviors. Findings suggest that in Puerto Rico, employment status, although associated with depression and drinking behaviors, was not associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Caetano and colleagues' (in press) article represents an important contribution to understanding differential effects in risk and protective factors associated with drinking behaviors and alcohol-related consequences among Hispanics. Future research should focus on examining the role of family and social support to mitigate the effects of unemployment, depression, and drinking behaviors among Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. A Review of the Literature of Mirtazapine in Co-Occurring Depression and an Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, JR; Chung, TA; Douaihy, AB; Kirisci, L; Glance, J; Kmiec, J; Wesesky, MA; FitzGerald, D; Salloum, I

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior medication studies involving individuals with major depression in combination with an alcohol use disorder (MDD/AUD) have mainly focused on SSRI and tricyclic antidepressants, with generally ineffective results. Consequently, effective treatments for that common comorbid condition remain elusive. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant medicine with a unique pharmacological profile, whose effectiveness for treating non-comorbid depression reportedly may exceed that of SSRIs. Objective/Methods We now review the published literature regarding the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of the depression and the pathological alcohol ingestion of individuals with co-occurring MDD/AUD, including a review of four of our own small studies and two studies conducted outside the United States. Results/Conclusions The findings of these studies suggest that mirtazapine is well tolerated among persons with comorbid MDD/AUD. Results also provide some evidence of efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing the level of depression of persons with co-occurring MDD/AUD, and suggest that decreases in depression may occur relatively quickly after starting treatment, but provide no evidence of effectiveness for decreasing the level of alcohol ingestion. Large-scale double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to further clarify the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine among individuals with MDD/AUD.

  4. Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Methods/Design We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. Discussion The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693 PMID:24245491

  5. Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morley, Kirsten C; Baillie, Andrew; Sannibale, Claudia; Teesson, Maree; Haber, Paul S

    2013-11-19

    A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693.

  6. Impact of Employee Assistance Services on Depression, Anxiety, and Risky Alcohol Use: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melissa K; Pampel, Fred C; Wood, Randi C; Nunes, Ana P

    2016-07-01

    To test the impact of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) on reducing employee depression, anxiety, and risky alcohol use, and whether improvements in clinical symptoms lead to improved work outcomes. The study used a prospective, quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching. Participants (n = 344) came from 20 areas of state government. EAP (n = 156) and non-EAP (n = 188) employees were matched on baseline demographic, psychosocial, and work-related characteristics that differentiate EAP from non-EAP users. Follow-up surveys were collected 2 to 12 months later (M = 6.0). EAP significantly reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety, but not at-risk alcohol use. EAP reductions in depression and anxiety mediated EAP-based reductions in absenteeism and presenteeism. EAPs provide easy-to-access work-based services that are effective at improving employee mental health.

  7. Depressive symptoms, ruminative thinking, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes: A multiple mediation model among college students in three countries.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pilatti, Angelina; Pearson, Matthew R; Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós

    2018-01-01

    Recent research suggests that ruminative thinking (specifically problem-focused thoughts) may explain why individuals engage in drinking to cope (DTC) when dealing with depressive symptoms; which in turn leads to increased negative alcohol-related consequences. Cross-cultural studies addressing these phenomena are scarce. The present study cross-culturally tested whether four rumination facets (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) uniquely mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and drinking motives/alcohol outcomes in a multicultural sample of college student drinkers (n=1429) from Spain, Argentina, and the U.S. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the models, controlling for sex. Further, we conducted invariance testing to determine whether our models were culturally-specific or culturally-universal. Within both proposed models, no rumination facet uniquely mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and drinking motives. However, an exploratory model with a second-order latent factor of ruminative thinking did significantly mediate these associations (exception was conformity motives). Further, there were two significant double-mediated associations that suggested that increased depressive symptoms is associated with increased ruminative thinking, which is associated with higher DTC motives, which in turn is associated with higher alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. All models were found to be invariant across countries and sex, suggesting that these associations may be relatively universal. Rumination is relevant to understand the increased vulnerability of college drinkers to exhibit greater alcohol consumption and negative consequences via DTC motives when dealing with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex-Specific Regulation of Depression, Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Alcohol Drinking in Mice Lacking ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Christina L; Walker, Denise L; An, Joyce; Kim, Jason; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2011-12-25

    OBJECTIVES: Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Adenosine levels are controlled in part by transport across the cell membrane by equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Recent evidence showed that a polymorphism in the gene encoding ENT1 is associated with comorbid depression and alcoholism in women. We have previously shown that deletion of ENT1 reduces ethanol intoxication and elevates alcohol intake in mice. Interestingly, ENT1 null mice display decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to wild-type littermates. However, our behavioral studies were performed only in male mice. Here, we extend our research to include female mice, and test the effect of ENT1 knockout on other behavioral correlates of alcohol drinking, including depressive and compulsive behavior, in mice. METHODS: To assess depression-like behavior, we used a forced swim test modified for mice. We examined anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in open field chambers, and perseverant behavior using the marble-burying test. Finally, we investigated alcohol consumption and preference in female mice using a two-bottle choice paradigm. RESULTS: ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed reduced immobility time in the forced swim test and increased time in the center of the open field compared to wild-type littermates. ENT1 null mice of both sexes showed similar locomotor activity levels and habituation to the open field chambers. Female ENT1 null mice displayed increased marble-burying compared to female wild-types, but no genotype difference was evident in males. Female ENT1 null mice showed increased ethanol consumption and preference compared to female wild-types. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ENT1 contributes to several important behaviors involved in psychiatric disorders. Inhibition of ENT1 may be beneficial in treating depression and anxiety, while enhancement of ENT1 function

  9. Comorbidity Between Major Depression and Alcohol Use Disorder From Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited information exists regarding the long-term development of comorbidity between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD; abuse/dependence). Using a representative prospective study, we examine multiple aspects pertaining to MDD+AUD comorbidity, with a focus on the relation between disorders across periods (adolescence, early adulthood, adulthood) and cumulative impairments by age 30. Method 816 participants were diagnostically interviewed at ages 16, 17, 24, and 30. Results Rates of comorbid MDD+AUD were low in adolescence (2%), but increased in early adulthood (10%) and adulthood (7%). Rates of cumulative comorbidity were elevated (21%). Most individuals with a history of MDD or AUD had the other disorder, except for women with MDD. Prospectively, adolescent AUD predicted early adult MDD, while early adult MDD predicted adult AUD. Compared to pure disorders, MDD+AUD was associated with higher risk of alcohol dependence, suicide attempt, lower global functioning, and life dissatisfaction. Conclusions Lifetime rates of comorbid MDD+AUD were considerably higher than in cross-sectional studies. Comorbidity was partly explained by bidirectional and developmentally-specific associations and predicted selected rather than generalized impairments. Clinically, our findings emphasize the need to always carefully assess comorbidity in patients with MDD or AUD, taking into account concurrency and developmental timing. PMID:24246605

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  12. Effects of Long-Term AA Attendance and Spirituality on the Course of Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n=253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains, [Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire (RBB)] and completion of 12-step work [(Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI)]. Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−3.40, p= 0.01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope=−0.10, p=0.02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In sum, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. PMID:26076099

  13. Effects of long-term AA attendance and spirituality on the course of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pearson, Matthew R; Tonigan, J Scott

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with depression. Although attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings predicts reductions in drinking, results have been mixed about the salutary effects of AA on reducing depressive symptoms. In this single-group study, early AA affiliates (n = 253) were recruited, consented, and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lagged growth models were used to investigate the predictive effect of AA attendance on depression, controlling for concurrent drinking and treatment attendance. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Additional predictors of depression tested included spiritual gains (Religious Background and Behavior questionnaire [RBB]) and completion of 12-step work (Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory [AAI]). Eighty-five percent of the original sample provided follow-up data at 24 months. Overall, depression decreased over the 24 month follow-up period. AA attendance predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -3.40, p = .01) even after controlling for concurrent drinking and formal treatment attendance. Finally, increased spiritual gains (RBB) also predicted later reductions in depression (slope = -0.10, p = .02) after controlling for concurrent drinking, treatment, and AA attendance. In summary, reductions in alcohol consumption partially explained decreases in depression in this sample of early AA affiliates, and other factors such as AA attendance and increased spiritual practices also accounted for reductions in depression beyond that explained by drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Adjunctive aripiprazole therapy with escitalopram in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: Clinical and neuroimaging evidence

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Choi, Jung Eun; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    The effective treatment of depression has been reported to reduce the severity of alcohol use, potentially reflecting improvements in common brain reward circuits. We hypothesized that augmentation therapy of escitalopram with aripiprazole would improve depressive symptoms as well as reduce craving for alcohol and cue-induced brain activity in patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder, compared with treatment with escitalopram alone. Thirty-five subjects with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence were recruited and randomly assigned into 17 aripiprazole + escitalopram and 18 escitalopram only groups. At baseline and following six weeks of treatment, symptoms of depression, craving for alcohol and brain activity were evaluated. During the six week treatment period, Beck Depression Inventory and clinical global index-severity (CGI-S) scores decreased in both the aripiprazole + escitalopram and escitalopram only groups. In addition, following the treatment period, the Korean alcohol urge questionnaire scores in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group were reduced from 23.3±8.4 to 14.3±4.9, compared with those of the escitalopram group of from 21.6±8.4 to 19.3±7.1 (F=13.1, p<0.01). The activity within the anterior cingulate was increased in response to the presentation of alcohol drinking scenes following treatment in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group. The change of brain activity within the left anterior cingulate gyrus in all patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder was negatively correlated with the change in craving for alcohol. These findings suggest that the effects of aripiprazole on anterior cingulate cortex might mediate the successful treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with major depressive disorder. PMID:23325372

  15. Adjunctive aripiprazole therapy with escitalopram in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: clinical and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Choi, Jung Eun; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-03-01

    The effective treatment of depression has been reported to reduce the severity of alcohol use, potentially reflecting improvements in common brain reward circuits. We hypothesized that augmentation therapy of escitalopram with aripiprazole would improve depressive symptoms as well as reduce craving for alcohol and cue-induced brain activity in patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder, compared with treatment with escitalopram alone. Thirty-five subjects with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence were recruited and randomly assigned into 17 aripiprazole + escitalopram and 18 escitalopram only groups. At baseline and following six weeks of treatment, symptoms of depression, craving for alcohol and brain activity were evaluated. During the six week treatment period, Beck Depression Inventory and clinical global index-severity (CGI-S) scores decreased in both the aripiprazole + escitalopram and escitalopram only groups. In addition, following the treatment period, the Korean alcohol urge questionnaire scores in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group were reduced from 23.3±8.4 to 14.3±4.9, compared with those of the escitalopram group of from 21.6±8.4 to 19.3±7.1 (F=13.1, p<0.01). The activity within the anterior cingulate was increased in response to the presentation of alcohol drinking scenes following treatment in the aripiprazole + escitalopram group. The change of brain activity within the left anterior cingulate gyrus in all patients with co-morbid alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder was negatively correlated with the change in craving for alcohol. These findings suggest that the effects of aripiprazole on anterior cingulate cortex might mediate the successful treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with major depressive disorder.

  16. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Alcohol, Cannabis, Co-occurring Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders with Major Depressive Disorder: Results From a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Crum, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders (AUD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in the United States (US), and are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use/use disorders (AUD+CUD), though understudied, have been found to be associated with greater adverse outcomes than alcohol or cannabis use/use disorders alone. There is a paucity of research on the co-occurring relationships of the two disorders with depression. Methods Data came from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a population-based longitudinal survey of the adult non-institutionalized, civilian population in the US. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between: 1) baseline AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD with incident MDD at follow-up and 2) baseline MDD with incident AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD at follow-up, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results For Aim 1, most of the AUD and CUD were positively associated with MDD. The strongest associations with incident MDD were observed for cannabis dependence (OR=6.61, CI=1.67–26.21) and co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=2.34, CI=1.23–4.48). For Aim 2, baseline MDD was significantly associated with comparatively fewer cases of incident AUD and CUD but the strongest association was observed for new onset co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=4.51, CI=1.31–15.60). Limitations The present study is limited by the potential for social desirability and recall biases. Discussion Positive associations between AUD, CUD and MDD were observed bidirectionally. Findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs and initiatives. PMID:23260381

  17. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  18. Mindfulness is associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems in urban firefighters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce W; Ortiz, J Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E; Tooley, Erin M; Wiggins, Kathryn T; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Montoya, John D; Bernard, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience resources including mindfulness, optimism, personal mastery, and social support. The Mindful Awareness and Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003) was used to assess mindfulness. Participants also completed measures of firefighter stress, number of calls, and years as a firefighter as control variables. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted with the health measures as the dependent variables with 3 levels of independent variables: (a) demographic characteristics, (b) firefighter variables, and (c) resilience resources. The results showed that mindfulness was associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems when controlling for the other study variables. Personal mastery and social support were also related to fewer depressive symptoms, firefighter stress was related to more PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, and years as a firefighter were related to fewer alcohol problems. Mindfulness may be important to consider and include in models of stress, coping, and resilience in firefighters. Future studies should examine the prospective relationship between mindfulness and health in firefighters and others in high-stress occupations.

  19. Treatment of comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression with cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riper, Heleen; Andersson, Gerhard; Hunter, Sarah B; de Wit, Jessica; Berking, Matthias; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims To review published studies on the effectiveness of combining cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) to treat comorbid clinical and subclinical alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depression (MDD) and estimate the effect of this compared with usual care. Methods We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase up to June 2013 and identified additional studies through cross-references in included studies and systematic reviews. Twelve studies comprising 1721 patients met our inclusion criteria. The studies had sufficient statistical power to detect small effect sizes. Results CBT/MI proved effective for treating subclinical and clinical AUD and MDD compared with controls, with small overall effect sizes at post-treatment [g = 0.17, confidence interval (CI) = 0.07–0.28, P < 0.001 for decrease of alcohol consumption and g = 0.27, CI: 0.13–0.41, P < 0.001 for decrease of symptoms of depression, respectively]. Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences for both AUD and MDD. However, digital interventions showed a higher effect size for depression than face-to-face interventions (g = 0.73 and g = 0.23, respectively, P = 0.030). Conclusions Combined cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational interviewing for clinical or subclinical depressive and alcohol use disorders has a small but clinically significant effect in treatment outcomes compared with treatment as usual. PMID:24304463

  20. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups.

  1. Serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor for escitalopram treatment of major depressive disorder comorbid with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, Leea H; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Haukka, Jari; Saarikoski, Sirkku T

    2011-03-30

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) is associated with the treatment outcomes of escitalopram for patients with comorbid major depression and alcohol dependence. Eighty treatment-seeking patients were randomly assigned to either receive 20mg of escitalopram or a control of 20mg of the non-serotonergically acting memantine. Depression was measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and alcoholism by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Twenty-nine participants in each treatment group completed the study, and from those DNA was given by 27 in the escitalopram group and 21 in the memantine group. In the escitalopram group linear regression showed that LL genotype predicted greater decrease in MADRS scores compared with the SS/SL genotypes (p=0.04) after a 3month treatment period. Moreover, each L allele associated with MADRS score decrease by 15% (p=0.04) in the escitalopram group. In the memantine group, however, no association between LL genotype and MADRS decrease was detected. AUDIT decrease was not associated with the 5-HTTLPR genotype for either medication. This is the first study in the treatment of depression in dual diagnosis patients to report a significant association between outcomes with escitalopram and the 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism.

  2. [Alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, anxiety and depression among second-year medical students. Identify in order to act].

    PubMed

    Vaysse, Benoît; Gignon, Maxime; Zerkly, Salah; Ganry, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and illicit drug use among students have negative repercussions on their health, education and society in general. Medical students are no exception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as levels of anxiety and depression of students admitted to the second year of medical studies based on anonymous self-administered questionnaires containing the following tests: AUDIT, Fagerstrom, CAST and HAD. 198 of the 207 students involved agreed to participate. Excessive alcohol consumption was higher among women than among men (35% versus 22%), but fewer women were alcohol-dependent (2% versus 8%) (p < 0.05). 16% of students were tobacco smokers, with no signs of dependence in 80% of cases. 15% of students smoked cannabis and 52% of them presented problem use. 21% of women had a suspected anxiety disorder and 23% had a proven anxiety disorder, versus 17% and 6% of men, respectively (p = 0.002). 3% had a suspected depressive disorder and 0.5% had a proven depressive disorder. High-risk alcohol consumption was significantly correlated with high-risk cannabis use. No correlation was demonstrated between anxiety or depression and these consumptions. Doctors appear to be particularly affected by psychological disorders or addictions and medical students are paradoxically less likely than the general population to receive appropriate care. Universities must provide monitoring and support for students in order to improve their health, but also to enable them to provide care and appropriate educational messages to their patients.

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  4. The influence of the comorbidity between depression and alcohol use disorder on suicidal behaviors in the São Paulo Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Bruno Mendonça; Andrade, Laura Helena; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2010-12-01

    To investigate in a community sample the association of suicide-related cognitions and behaviors ("thoughts of death", "desire for death", "suicidal thoughts", and "suicidal attempts") with the comorbidity of depressive disorders (major depressive episode or dysthymia) and alcohol or substance use disorders. The sample was 1464 subjects interviewed in their homes using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to generate DSM-III-R diagnosis. Descriptive statistics depicted the prevalence of suicide-related cognitions and behaviors by socio-demographic variables and diagnoses considered (major depressive episode, dysthymia, alcohol or substance use disorders). We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of comorbid major depressive episode/dysthymia and alcohol or substance use disorders on each of the suicide-related cognitions and behaviors. The presence of major depressive episode and dysthymia was significantly associated with suicide-related cognitions and behaviors. In the regression models, suicide-related cognitions and behaviors were predicted by major depressive episode (OR=range 2.3-9.2) and dysthymia (OR=range 5.1-32.6), even in the presence of alcohol use disorders (OR=range 2.3-4.0) or alcohol or substance use disorders (OR=range 2.7-2.8). The interaction effect was observed between major depressive episode and alcohol use disorders, as well as between dysthymia and gender. Substance use disorders were excluded from most of the models. Presence of major depressive episode and dysthymia influences suicide-related cognitions and behaviors, independently of the presence of alcohol or substance use disorders. However, alcohol use disorders and gender interact with depressive disorders, displaying a differential effect on suicide-related cognitions and behaviors.

  5. Depressive symptoms and the self-reported use of alcohol, caffeine, and carbohydrates in normal volunteers and four groups of psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Leibenluft, E; Fiero, P L; Bartko, J J; Moul, D E; Rosenthal, N E

    1993-02-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and the self-reported use of alcohol, carbohydrates, and caffeine in normal volunteers and four groups of psychiatric outpatients. Outpatients and normal volunteers were given a questionnaire asking about their use of each of the three substances in response to each of the 14 depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. They also rated how much each substance improved each symptom. Twenty-six normal volunteers, 35 patients with major depression, 117 patients with seasonal affective disorder, 16 patients with alcohol dependence, and 24 patients with comorbid primary depression and secondary alcohol dependence completed the questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was established. Analysis of variance and stepwise multivariate discriminant function analyses were used to determine if diagnostic groups differed in the reported use and effect of each of the three substances. The responses concerning use and effect of alcohol of patients with alcohol dependence with or without depression were indistinguishable from each other. The responses of the patient groups regarding caffeine and carbohydrate use did not differ from each other, but all differed significantly from the responses of normal volunteers. Discriminant function analysis distinguished alcoholics from nonalcoholics in the relationship between drinking and the symptoms of anger and anhedonia. The relationship between symptoms and substance use varied depending on the substance. Alcoholics without depression were as likely to report drinking in response to depressive symptoms as were those who had had depression. Patients of all diagnostic groups were more likely than normal volunteers to report using caffeine and carbohydrates in response to depressive symptoms.

  6. Neuroendocrinology of a Male-Specific Pattern for Depression Linked to Alcohol Use Disorder and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andreas; Rice, Timothy; Kufert, Yael; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression. Low circulating levels of sex steroids seem to increase the vulnerability for male depression, while concomitant high levels of glucocorticoids further intensify this vulnerability. Interactions of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-related hormones seem to be highly relevant for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. Moreover, genetic variants and the epigenetic profiles of the androgen receptor gene, well-known depression related genes, and HPA axis-related genes were shown to further interact with men’s steroid secretion and thus may further contribute to the proposed male-specific pattern for depression. This mini-review points out the multilevel interactions between the HPG and HPA axis for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. An integration of multilevel interactions within the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience concludes the review. PMID:28096796

  7. Alcohol Impairs Long-Term Depression at the Cerebellar Parallel Fiber–Purkinje Cell Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Belmeguenai, Amor; Botta, Paolo; Weber, John T.; Carta, Mario; De Ruiter, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Hansel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol consumption causes deficits in motor coordination and gait, suggesting an involvement of cerebellar circuits, which play a role in the fine adjustment of movements and in motor learning. It has previously been shown that ethanol modulates inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum and affects synaptic transmission and plasticity at excitatory climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell synapses. However, it has not been examined thus far how acute ethanol application affects long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, which are assumed to mediate forms of cerebellar motor learning. To examine ethanol effects on PF synaptic transmission and plasticity, we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in rat cerebellar slices. We found that ethanol (50 mM) selectively blocked PF–LTD induction, whereas it did not change the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents at PF synapses. In contrast, ethanol application reduced voltage-gated calcium currents and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)–dependent responses in Purkinje cells, both of which are involved in PF–LTD induction. The selectivity of these effects is emphasized by the observation that ethanol did not impair PF–LTP and that PF–LTP could readily be induced in the presence of the group I mGluR antagonist AIDA or the mGluR1a antagonist LY367385. Taken together, these findings identify calcium currents and mGluR1-dependent signaling pathways as potential ethanol targets and suggest that an ethanol-induced blockade of PF–LTD could contribute to the motor coordination deficits resulting from alcohol consumption. PMID:18922952

  8. Relationship between depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected, clinic-attending patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-02-15

    Despite the prevalence of depression and alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, few studies have examined their association together in relation to nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and other psychosocial factors (stigma, demographic characteristics) in relation to nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among clinic-attending, HIV-infected individuals in South Africa (n = 101). Nonadherence was assessed using event-level measurement (missed doses over the past weekend). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that only alcohol use, over and above depressive symptoms and education level, was associated with antiretroviral therapy nonadherence(AOR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.02-1.29; p < .05). Findings point to the independent association of alcohol use and nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy above and beyond depressive symptoms.

  9. American Indian youths' perceptions of their environment and their reports of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Nails, A Mercedes; Mullis, Ronald L; Mullis, Ann K

    2009-01-01

    The role of neighborhood and school environments in adolescent development has been explored over the years, yet few have examined these relationships with an American Indian sample. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of American Indian adolescents' sense of safety in their neighborhood and school environments and how this relates to their experience of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. The data were drawn from a southwestern state's dataset containing survey results of adolescent well-being. Responses from a total of 148 American Indian 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students were analyzed. The findings indicated that neighborhood safety, especially the presence of crime and drug sales, was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. Implications for future research and work with this population are discussed.

  10. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  11. Exposure to dysfunctional parenting and trauma events and posttraumatic stress profiles among a treatment sample with coexisting depression and alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kylie; Webster, Rosemary; Baker, Amanda L; Kavanagh, David J

    2012-06-01

    Trauma exposure (including experiencing dysfunctional parenting when a child) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently coexist with major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD), with the impact of this comorbidity usually studied as a dual disorder (i.e. PTSD-MDD or PTSD-AUD). This study explores trauma exposure (including to dysfunctional parenting), PTSD symptom severity and PTSD in people seeking treatment for coexisting depressive symptoms and alcohol use problems. Participants (n = 221) with current depression and alcohol use problems were recruited. Trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and PTSD were assessed using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style assessed dysfunctional parenting (neglect/over-control/abuse) experienced as a child. Most participants experienced trauma (71.6%, n = 159), with more than one-third reaching DSM-IV criteria for current PTSD (38.0%, n = 84). Unique to this study was that there were no gender differences in rates of trauma exposure, number of traumatic events and PTSD. More severe PTSD symptoms and PTSD were associated with: childhood neglect; earlier depression onset; more severe depression and alcohol problems; and lower general functioning. More severe problems with alcohol were related to Intrusion and Avoidance symptoms, while severe alcohol dependence symptoms were related to hyperarousal. PTSD symptoms and PTSD are highly prevalent in those with coexisting depression and alcohol use problems and are associated with a history of childhood neglect and higher levels of comorbidity. Trauma, PTSD symptoms and PTSD should be assessed and addressed among people seeking treatment for coexisting depression and alcohol problems. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Effects of T'ai Chi on Serotonin, Nicotine Dependency, Depression, and Anger in Hospitalized Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Uk; Kim, Nam-Cho

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of t'ai chi on blood serotonin levels, nicotine dependence, depression, and anger in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients. This study followed an experimental and nonequivalent control group in a non-synchronized design. It was performed in a hospital located in Young Ju city, Korea, from April to August 2013. Thirty-eight patients who were hospitalized with alcohol dependence were included. They were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group, with 19 patients in each group. Patients in the experimental group practiced the 24-posture yang style t'ai chi for 50 min three times per week for 8 weeks as part of the routine hospital rehabilitation program, and those in the control group followed only the routine hospital rehabilitation program. The effect of treatment was measured using blood serotonin levels and a questionnaire on nicotine dependence, depression, and anger. Both measurements were performed before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test, chi-square test, and paired t-tests. The experimental group showed a significantly increased blood serotonin level (p = 0.001) and significantly reduced nicotine dependence, depression, and anger (p = 0.001) than the control group did after 8 weeks of treatment. T'ai chi was shown to be an effective nursing intervention in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients.

  13. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  14. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  15. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Early Childhood Maltreatment on Co-Occurring Substance Misuse and Mental Health Problems in Adulthood: The Role of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Depression.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Martie L; Hong, Seunghye; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Brown, Eric C; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Jung, Hyunzee

    2016-05-01

    This study tested a developmental model in which subtypes of childhood maltreatment were hypothesized to have direct and indirect effects on co-occurring depression, anxiety, and substance misuse in adulthood. Indirect effects involved adolescent alcohol use and depression, which were included as mediators in the tested models. This prospective longitudinal study (N = 332; 52.4% male) followed the participants from childhood (18 months to 6 years of age) to adulthood (31-41 years old, M = 36.21). Maltreatment subtypes included parent-reported physical and emotional abuse and child-reported sexual abuse. Adult outcomes included measures of substance misuse and mental health (i.e., depression and anxiety). Latent class analysis and structural equation models were used to identify classes of substance misuse and mental health co-occurrence and to test mediating effects of adolescent alcohol use and depression. Three classes were identified: (a) low risk of substance misuse and low mental health symptoms, (b) moderate substance misuse risk and mild depression and anxiety, and (c) moderate substance misuse risk and moderate to high depression and anxiety. Structural models showed that effects of childhood sexual abuse were fully mediated by adolescent alcohol use and depression. Physical abuse increased adolescent depression but did not have direct or indirect effects on adult outcome classes. Emotional abuse had a direct effect on the adult classes. Children exposed to severe emotional abuse are at higher risk for comorbid substance misuse, depression, and anxiety into their mid-30s, after taking into account evidence of alcohol use and depression during adolescence. Sexual and physical abuse have more proximal effects on adolescent alcohol use and depression, which then influence the risk of adult problems.

  17. Alcohol use and positive screening results for depression and anxiety are highly prevalent among Chinese children with strabismus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shibin; Congdon, Nathan; Yam, Jason C S; Huang, Yuqiang; Qiu, Kunliang; Ma, Di; Chen, Bin; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-04-01

    To study associations between strabismus and alcohol use, anxiety, and depression among 10- to 17-year-old children in Guangdong, southern China. Cross-sectional, population-based study. Among 7537 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary and middle schools, ocular alignment was assessed with the Hirschberg light reflex, cover-uncover testing, and alternate cover testing at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm). Additionally, 4000 children (53.1%) aged 10+ years received self-administered questionnaires containing screening questions on alcohol use, anxiety, and depression. Examinations were completed on 7464 of 7537 subjects (99.0%), including 3928 boys (52.6%), with a mean age of 11.1 ± 1.8 years. The prevalence of any strabismus, including exotropia (2.7%), esotropia (0.2%), and intermittent exotropia (3.9%), was 6.8%. Strabismus was more prevalent in urban students (7.3%) and female subjects (7.4%) compared to rural students (6.0%) and male subjects (6.2%) (all P < .05). In multivariate regression models, any strabismus was associated with older age and rural vs urban residence. Among 3903 children (97.6%) answering questionnaires, history of alcohol use (62.3% vs 36.3%) and positive screening responses for depression (26.0% vs 11.6%) and anxiety (10.3% vs 4.9%) were significantly (P < .01 for all) more common among children with strabismus. These Chinese children with strabismus had a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol use and possible markers of emotional problems than children without strabismus. Further research should focus on the appropriateness of classifying surgical treatment for strabismus as "cosmetic" (ineligible for reimbursement) under China's rural health insurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in women’s alcoholic, antisocial, and depressive symptomatology over 12 years: A multilevel network of individual, familial, and neighborhood influences

    PubMed Central

    Buu, Anne; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 273 adult women and their families, we examined the effects of women’s psychopathology history, their social support, their husbands’ and children’s symptomatology, family stress, and neighborhood environment on their alcohol problems, antisocial behavior, and depression over a 12-year period during their ‘30s and early ‘40s. Women’s alcohol problems and antisocial behavior decreased but their depression symptoms increased over time. Women’s disorder history and their partners’ parallel symptomatology were associated with their symptoms. For women’s antisocial behavior, their own history of alcoholism and their partners’ alcohol problems were also significant risk factors. Higher levels of social support were associated with lower levels of depression in women. Children’s externalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ alcohol problems and antisocial behavior, whereas children’s internalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ depression. Neighborhood residential instability was associated with higher levels of alcoholic and depressive symptomatology in women. Intervention efforts might target women with young children by improving social support, educational or professional training opportunity, access to family counseling, and neighborhood environment. PMID:21262058

  19. Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen C; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Stock, Heather; Budde, John; Allen, Rebecca; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kwon, Jennifer M; Wu, William; Dick, Danielle M; Rice, John; Jones, Kevin; Nurnberger, John I; Tischfield, Jay; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor; Crowe, Ray; Schuckit, Mark; Begleiter, Henri; Reich, Theodore; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Several correlated phenotypes, alcohol dependence, major depressive syndrome, and an endophenotype of electrophysiological measurements, event-related oscillations (EROs), have demonstrated linkage on the long arm of chromosome 7. Recently, we reported both linkage and association between polymorphisms in the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) and EROs. In this study, we evaluated whether genetic variation in the CHRM2 gene is also a risk factor for the correlated clinical characteristics of alcoholism and depression. The CHRM2 gene contains a single coding exon and a large 5' untranslated region encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Families were recruited through an alcohol dependent proband, and multiplex pedigrees were selected for genetic analyses. We examined 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the CHRM2 gene in these families. Using the UNPHASED pedigree disequilibrium test (PDTPHASE), three SNPs (one in intron 4 and two in intron 5) showed highly significant association with alcoholism (P=0.004-0.007). Two SNPs (both in intron 4) were significantly associated with major depressive syndrome (P=0.004 and 0.017). Haplotype analyses revealed that the most common haplotype (>40% frequency), T-T-T (rs1824024-rs2061174-rs324650), was under-transmitted to affected individuals with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Different complementary haplotypes were over-transmitted in alcohol dependent and depressed individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that variants within or close to the CHRM2 locus influence risk for two common psychiatric disorders.

  20. Is Specialized Integrated Treatment for Comorbid Anxiety, Depression and Alcohol Dependence Better than Treatment as Usual in a Public Hospital Setting?

    PubMed

    Morley, K C; Baillie, A; Leung, S; Sannibale, C; Teesson, M; Haber, P S

    2016-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12 week specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Out of 86 patients meeting the inclusion criteria for alcohol dependence with suspicion of comorbid anxiety and/or depressive disorder, 57 completed a 3-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption). Of these patients, 37 (65%) met a formal diagnostic assessment of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder and were randomized to either (a) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioural therapy) for alcohol, anxiety and/or depression, or (b) usual counselling care for alcohol problems. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed a beneficial treatment effect of integrated treatment relative to usual counselling care for the number of days to relapse (χ(2) = 6.42, P < 0.05) and lapse (χ(2) = 10.73, P < 0.01). In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of treatment and time for percentage days of abstinence (P < 0.05). For heavy drinking days, the treatment effect was mediated by changes in DASS anxiety (P < 0.05). There were no significant treatment interaction effects for DASS depression or anxiety symptoms. These results provide support for integrated care in improving drinking outcomes for patients with alcohol dependence and comorbid depression/anxiety disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Non-Linear Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Depression in an Elderly Population in Gangneung: The Gangneung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-A; Kim, Eunyoung; Morris, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and depression among the elderly in South Korea. Materials and Methods Cross-section data were drawn from a community-based sample of individuals 60 years of age and older (n=1819). Respondents completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Intensification Test (AUDIT) and the Korean Beck Depression Inventory. Using a regression approach, the effect of alcohol consumption as a non-linear effect was assessed in relation to gender, marital status, exercise, smoking, age, education, and physical and mental health. Results AUDIT total score were found to exert linear and quadratic effects that were significantly associated with higher depression scores among sample respondents. The results lend support to a J-shaped relationship between alcohol use and depression, wherein abstainers and problem drinkers were at a higher risk of depression. Conclusion This study confirms a J-shaped (i.e., curvilinear) relationship between alcohol consumption and depression among elderly South Koreans, similar to that frequently found in studies of Western-based samples. The findings of this study, therefore, imply the applicability of the J-shaped relationship hypothesis for non-Western society samples and within different cultural contexts. PMID:25683990

  2. Mediational links among parenting styles, perceptions of parental confidence, self-esteem, and depression on alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems.

  3. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in alcohol-use disorders and its relationship to comorbid major depression: a cross-sectional study of inpatients in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Hilberg, Thor; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may be associated with major health problems, including alcohol-use disorders (AUD) and major depression (MD). This study aimed to identify the vitamin D status of Nepalese inpatients with an AUD. We explored socio-demographic and alcohol-use related correlates and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and comorbid MD. A cross-sectional study was conducted on AUD inpatients (N=174) at eight alcohol/drug treatment centres around Kathmandu. Structured questionnaires were administered to assess the socio-demographic and alcohol-use parameters and to establish DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MD. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of <50 nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 64%. Higher age, having a stable job or business, shorter time since last alcohol intake and winter serum samples were related to having lower 25(OH)D levels. Several features of AUD severity were associated with low vitamin D levels: guilt about drinking, using alcohol as eye-opener, and history of relapse after alcohol treatment (p ≤ 0.03). Patients with a comorbid major depression, in particular secondarily depressed cases, were less likely to have vitamin D deficiency (X(2)=6.8; p=0.01). This study confirms high rates of vitamin D deficiency in alcohol treatment sample and shows a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and severity of alcohol-use disorders. Competing risk and other confounders may help explain the vitamin D status among patients with alcohol-use disorders and comorbid major depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  6. The relationship among internal resilience, smoking, alcohol use, and depression symptoms in emerging adults transitioning out of child welfare.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Abby L; Faulkner, Breanne; Wekerle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment reflects a context of risk for multiple negative outcomes. Identifying factors that protect against negative outcomes is important for the development of strengths-based approaches that emphasize resilience, particularly for youth transitioning out of the child welfare system. The current study examined the relationship between an internal resilience measure, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003), and several external measures of resilience and behavioral outcomes (tobacco use and dependence, alcohol use and problems, and depression symptoms). In addition, two models of resilience were examined in the context of child maltreatment: a compensatory model and a risk-protection model. Ninety-three emerging adults (ages 18-25) who were making the transition out of child welfare completed self-report measures of child maltreatment, internal resilience (CD-RISC), external resilience (academic achievement, religious and community involvement, monitoring by caregivers, and presence of an adult mentor), alcohol and tobacco use, and depression symptoms. Internal resilience was significantly associated with involvement in religion and community, and monitoring by caregivers. In addition, internal resilience was negatively associated with past year smoking and nicotine dependence, and with symptoms of depression. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the direct and interaction effects of resilience on depression symptoms in the context of child maltreatment. When internal resilience was added to the model, it made a significant contribution to depression scores over and above child maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; emotional neglect). In addition, there was a significant Sexual Abuse×Resilience interaction, wherein high resilience was associated with a reduction in depression scores at higher levels of sexual abuse. These findings support internal resilience

  7. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is ... alone. Others with moderate to severe depression might benefit from antidepressants. It may take a few weeks ...

  8. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  9. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth of a baby. Some people get seasonal affective disorder in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or ...

  10. A step beyond--the relevance of depressed mood and mastery in the interplay between the number of social roles and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    The present study examines whether depressed mood and external control mediate or moderate the relationship between the number of social roles and alcohol use. The analysis was based on a national representative sample of 25- to 45-year-old male and female drinkers in Switzerland. The influence of depressed mood and external control on the relationship between the number of social roles (parenthood, partnership, employment) and alcohol use was examined in linear structural equation models (mediation) and in multiple regressions (moderation) stratified by gender. All analyses were adjusted for age and education level. Holding more roles was associated with lower alcohol use, lower external control and lower depressed mood. The study did not find evidence of depressed mood or external control mediating the social roles-alcohol relationship. A moderation effect was identified among women only, whereby a protective effect of having more roles could not be found among those who scored high on external control. In general, a stronger link was observed between roles and alcohol use, while depressed mood and external control acted independently on drinking. With the exception of women with high external control, the study found no link between a higher number of social roles and greater alcohol use. Our results indicate that drinking behaviours are more strongly linked to external control and depressed mood than they are to the number of social roles. The study also demonstrates that in any effective alcohol prevention policy, societal actions that enable individuals to combine more social roles play a central role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender and depression moderate response to brief motivational intervention for alcohol misuse among college students.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B

    2014-12-01

    Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) effectively reduce problematic drinking in college students. However, not all students benefit, and little is known about the subgroups of students for whom BMIs are most effective. In the present study, we examined 2 factors that may influence BMI efficacy: gender and depression. We reanalyzed data from a clinical trial in which heavy drinking students (N = 330; 65% female) were randomized to a BMI (n = 165) or an assessment only control (n = 165). Depression was assessed at baseline; past-month typical drinks per week, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences were assessed at baseline and 1 month. Three- and 2-way interactions among intervention condition (BMI vs. control), gender (male vs. female), and depression (low vs. high) were tested. We observed 3-way interaction effects on 2 outcomes: (a) typical drinks per week and (b) frequency of heavy drinking at 1 month. Relative to controls and adjusting for baseline drinking, low-depression women reduced their drinking more after a BMI whereas high-depression women did not show differential improvement. In contrast, high-depression men showed significant reductions in weekly drinks following the BMI whereas low-depression men did not show differential improvement. In addition, higher levels of depression were associated with higher levels of consequences at follow-up across conditions. BMIs are indicated for heavy drinking, depressed men, consistent with recommendations for implementing screening and brief intervention in mental health settings. However, BMIs may need to be refined to enhance their efficacy for depressed women.

  12. A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial that Combines Sertraline and Naltrexone for Treating Co-Occurring Depression and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Dundon, William D.; Xie, Hu; Gallis, Thea L.; Dackis, Charles A.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Empirical evidence has only weakly supported antidepressant treatment for patients with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence. While some studies have demonstrated that antidepressants reduce these patients’ depressive symptoms, most studies have not found antidepressants helpful in reducing excessive drinking in these patients. We provide results from a double blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of combining approved medications for depression (sertraline) and alcohol dependence (naltrexone) for treating patients with both disorders. METHODS 170 depressed, alcohol-dependent patients were randomized for 14 weeks to sertraline (200mg/day), naltrexone (100mg/day), the combination, or placebo, while receiving weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. RESULTS The sertraline + naltrexone combination produced a higher alcohol abstinence rate (53.7%; p = .001; odds ratio = 3.7), and a longer delay before relapse to heavy drinking (98 median days; p = .003; d = .54), than the other treatments: naltrexone (21.3% abstinent, 29 days), sertraline (27.5% abstinent, 23 days), or placebo (23.1% abstinent, 26 days). There also was a trend for more patients in the medication combination group not to be depressed by the end of treatment (83.3%; p = .014; odds ratio = 3.6), compared to the other treatments. The serious adverse event rate was 25.9%, with fewer reported by the medication combination group (11.9%; p < .02) than the other treatments. CONCLUSION More depressed, alcohol-dependent patients taking the sertraline + naltrexone combination achieved abstinence from alcohol, delayed relapse to heavy drinking, reported fewer serious adverse events, and tended not to be depressed by the end of treatment. PMID:20231324

  13. Depression, alcohol use, and stigma in younger versus older HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.

  14. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  15. Alcohol Use Severity and Depressive Symptoms among Late Adolescent Hispanics: Testing Associations of Acculturation and Enculturation in a Bicultural Transaction Model

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A.; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men = 39, women = 90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18 to 21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  16. Do Alcohol Misuse, Smoking, and Depression Vary Concordantly or Sequentially? A Longitudinal Study of HIV-Infected and Matched Uninfected Veterans in Care

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal patterns of alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression among veterans in care to determine whether these conditions vary concordantly or sequentially. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, harmful alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥ 4), current smoking, and depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 8), were measured. In regression analyses, predictors included each outcome condition at baseline, the other two conditions in the same survey, the other two conditions in the immediately preceding survey, number of years since enrollment, and HIV status. We found that current smoking and depression were more common among HIV infected individuals. Harmful alcohol use was more common among uninfected individuals. Temporal analyses suggested a concurrent pattern: each condition was associated with the other two conditions (p < 0.03, OR 1.12–1.66) as well as with the prior presence of the same condition (p < 0.0001; OR 6.38–22.02). Smoking was associated with prior depression after controlling for current depression (OR 1.16; p = 0.003). In conclusion, alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression were temporally concordant and persistent, raising the question of whether they constitute a common syndrome in HIV infected patients and others with chronic diseases. PMID:26187007

  17. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polygenic Scores for Major Depressive Disorder and Risk of Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Allan M; Pietrzak, Robert H; Kranzler, Henry R; Ma, Li; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Xiaoming; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Edenberg, Howard J; Nurnberger, John I; Rice, John P; Tischfield, Jay A; Goate, Alison; Foroud, Tatiana M; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M; Hesselbrock, Victor; Boerwinkle, Eric; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; Potash, James B; Gelernter, Joel; Han, Shizhong

    2017-08-16

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Results from a meta-analysis of MDD (9240 patients with MDD and 9519 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were applied to calculate PRS at thresholds from P < .05 to P ≤ .99 in each AD GWAS data set. Association between MDD PRS and AD. Participants analyzed included 788 cases (548 [69.5%] men; mean [SD] age, 38.2 [10.8] years) and 522 controls (151 [28.9.%] men; age [SD], 43.9 [11.6] years) from COGA; 631 cases (333 [52.8%] men; age [SD], 35.0 [7.7] years) and 756 controls (260 [34.4%] male; age [SD] 36.1 [7.7] years) from SAGE; 2135 cases (1375 [64.4%] men; age [SD], 39.4 [11.5] years) and 350 controls (126 [36.0%] men; age [SD], 43.5 [13.9] years) from Yale-Penn; and 317 cases (295 [93.1%] men; age [SD], 59.1 [13.1] years) and 1719 controls (1545 [89.9%] men; age [SD], 64.5 [13.3] years) from NHRVS. Higher MDD PRS was associated with a significantly increased risk of AD in all samples (COGA: best P = 1.7 × 10-6, R2 = 0.026; SAGE: best P = .001, R2 = 0.01; Yale-Penn: best P = .035, R2 = 0.0018; and NHRVS: best P = .004, R2 = 0.0074), with stronger evidence

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  20. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  1. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in patients with bipolar disorder, mixed or depressed phase, and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. Sherwood; Domingo Davila, S.; Nakamura, Alyson; Carmody, Thomas J.; Rush, A. John; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci; Adinoff, Bryon; Caetano, Raul; Swann, Alan C; Sunderajan, Prabha; Bret, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is common in bipolar disorder (BPD) and associated with treatment non-adherence, violence, and hospitalization. Quetiapine is a standard treatment for BPD. We previously reported improvement in depressive symptoms, but not alcohol use, with quetiapine in BPD and alcohol dependence. However, mean alcohol use was low and a larger effect size on alcohol-related measures was observed in those with higher levels of alcohol consumption. In this study, efficacy of quetiapine in patients with BPD and alcohol dependence was examined in patients with higher mean baseline alcohol use than in the prior study. Methods Ninety outpatients with bipolar I or II disorders, depressed or mixed mood state, and current alcohol dependence were randomized to 12 weeks of sustained release quetiapine (to 600 mg/day) add-on therapy or placebo. Drinking was quantified using the Timeline Follow Back method. Additional assessment tools included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (IDS-SR30), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), liver enzymes, and side effects. Alcohol use and mood were analyzed using a declining-effects random-regression model. Results Baseline and demographic characteristics in the two groups were similar. No significant between-group differences were observed on the primary outcome measure of drinks/day or other alcohol-related or mood measures (p>.05). Overall side effect burden, glucose and cholesterol were similar in the two groups. However, a significant weight increase was observed with quetiapine at week 6 (+2.9 lbs [SE 1.4] quetiapine vs. −2.0 lbs [SE 1.4], p=.03), but not at week 12. Scores on the Barnes Akathisia Scale increased significantly more (p=.04) with quetiapine (+0.40 (SE 0.3)) than placebo (−0.52 (SE 0.3)) at week 6 but not week 12. Retention (survival) in the study was similar in the groups. Conclusions Findings suggest that

  3. Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics: Effects of a current major depressive disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Camchong, Jazmin; Cardenas, Valerie A; Stenger, Andy

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, Alcohol Intake and Nicotine Consumption in Rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Torsten; Behere, Prakash; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization. Methods The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ), and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15–21) was detected in 1862 (39.6%) individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women), and major depression (CESD sum score >21) in 613 (13.0%) individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women). Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2%) participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1%) individuals. There were 887 (18.9%) smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8%) subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0%) participants; 283 (6.0%) subjects had an AUDIT score ≥8 (hazardous drinking), and 108 (4.63%) subjects a score ≥13 (women) or ≥15 (men) (alcohol dependence). Conclusions In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India. PMID:25409441

  5. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  6. Gender and Depression Moderate Response to Brief Motivational Intervention for Alcohol Misuse among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Reid, Allecia E.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) effectively reduce problematic drinking in college students. However, not all students benefit and little is known about the subgroups of students for whom BMIs are most effective. In the present study, we examined two factors that may influence BMI efficacy - gender and depression. Method We reanalyzed data from a clinical trial in which heavy drinking students (N=330; 65% female) were randomized to a BMI (n=165) or an assessment only control (n=165). Depression was assessed at baseline; past-month typical drinks per week, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences were assessed at baseline and 1 month. Three- and two- way interactions among intervention condition (BMI vs. control), gender (male vs. female), and depression (low vs. high) were tested. Results We observed 3-way interaction effects on two outcomes: (a) typical drinks per week and (b) frequency of heavy drinking at 1 month. Relative to controls and adjusting for baseline drinking, "low depression" women reduced their drinking more after a BMI whereas "high depression" women did not show differential improvement. In contrast, "high depression" men showed significant reductions in weekly drinks following the BMI whereas "low depression" men low did not show differential improvement. In addition, higher levels of depression were associated with higher levels of consequences at follow-up across conditions. Conclusions BMIs are indicated for heavy drinking, depressed men, consistent with recommendations for implementing screening and brief intervention in mental health settings. However, BMIs may need to be refined to enhance their efficacy for depressed women. PMID:24865872

  7. Childhood cumulative contextual risk and depression diagnosis among young adults: The mediating roles of adolescent alcohol use and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Irina; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study examined associations between cumulative contextual risk in childhood and depression diagnosis in early adulthood, testing two adolescent mediating mechanisms, alcohol use and perceived social support from family and friends, while accounting for the stability of internalizing problems over time and examining possible gender moderation. Multiple group mediation analyses were conducted using parent- and adolescent-report as well as hospital records data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (N = 6963). Our analyses demonstrated that the association between cumulative contextual risk in childhood and depression diagnosis in adulthood is mediated by adolescent alcohol use and perceived social support both for boys and girls. The findings highlight potentially malleable mediating mechanisms associated with depression in vulnerable youth that could be targets in selective depression preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depression, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence among outpatients in rural Uganda: vulnerabilities for HIV, STIs and high risk sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Susan M; Lule, Haruna; Sileo, Katelyn M; Silmi, Kazi Priyanka; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors on HIV-risk indicators. In a structured interview we collected data on high-risk sexual behavior, depression symptoms, emotional and physical IPV, and alcohol use, as well as a blood sample for HIV and syphilis tests and a urine sample for chlamydia and gonorrhea tests from 325 male and female outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) at a public hospital outpatient clinic in rural Uganda. We used logistic regression and generalized linear modeling to test independent associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators, as well as the effect of co-occurrence on HIV-risk indicators. Twelve percent of men and 15% of women had two or more of the following conditions: depression, IPV, and alcohol use; another 29% of men and 33% of women had 1 condition. Each condition was independently associated with HIV risk behavior for men and women, and for women, depression was associated with testing positive for HIV or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men with one condition (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.95-2.77) and two or more conditions (AOR 12.77, 95% CI 7.97-20.47) reported more high risk sex acts compared to those with no potential co-occurring conditions. For men, experiencing two or more conditions increased risky sex more than one alone (χ (2) 24.68, p < 0.001). Women experiencing one condition (AOR 3.33, 95% CI 137-8.08) and two co-occurring conditions (AOR 5.87, 95% CI 1.99-17.35) were more likely to test positive for HIV or an STI and women with two co-occurring conditions were also at increased risk for risky sex (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1

  9. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother–child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. Setting The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 70 mother–child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. Design The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and

  10. Alcohol use and depression: link with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Bernard; Broers, Barbara; Masetsibi, Motlomelo; Faturiyele, Olatunbosun; Toti-Mokoteli, Likabelo; Motlatsi, Mokete; Bader, Joelle; Klimkait, Thomas; Labhardt, Niklaus D

    2016-09-08

    Depression and alcohol use disorder have been shown to be associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies examining their association with viral suppression in rural Africa are, however, scarce. This study reports prevalence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use disorder, and their potential association with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on ART in ten clinics in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa. Among 1,388 adult patients (69 % women), 80.7 % were alcohol abstinent, 6.3 % were hazardous drinkers (men: 10.7 %, women: 4.4 %, p < 0.001). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 28.8 % (men 20.2 %, women 32.7 %, p < 0.001). Both alcohol consumption (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.09, 95 % CI: 1.58-2.77) and alcohol use disorder (2.73, 95 % CI: 1.68-4.42) were significantly associated with poor adherence. There was, however, no significant association with viral suppression. Whereas the results of this study confirm previously reported association of alcohol use disorder with adherence to ART, there was no association with viral suppression. April 28th 2014; NCT02126696 .

  11. Effects of baseline problematic alcohol and drug use on internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Patients' problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT), depressive symptoms (MADRS-S), panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR) and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR). Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥ 8 for men, ≥ 6 for women; DUDIT ≥ 1) occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25-34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35-64 year olds. Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use.

  12. Effects of Baseline Problematic Alcohol and Drug Use on Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Outcomes for Depression, Panic Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H.; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patients’ problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. Methods At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT), depressive symptoms (MADRS-S), panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR) and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR). Results Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥8 for men, ≥6 for women; DUDIT ≥1) occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25–34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35–64 year olds. Conclusion Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use. PMID:25122509

  13. Exercise interventions for smokers with a history of alcoholism: exercise adherence rates and effect of depression on adherence.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A; Vickers, Kristin S; Martin, John E; Williams, Carl D

    2003-06-01

    This study examined the adherence rates and the effect of depression on adherence in two studies conducted among smokers with a past history of alcoholism. In both studies, subjects participated in a 12-session group-based exercise intervention for smoking cessation. The target quit date (TQD) was Session 8. Participants in Study 1 were 73 smokers (43% female). Exercise instructions began at Session 8 and continued through Session 12. Mean frequency and number of minutes of exercise decreased during the 4 weeks of exercise treatment (P<.001). Study 2, conducted with 18 smokers (50% female), examined the feasibility of commencing exercise at Session 1, well before the TQD. The mean number of minutes exercised increased from Sessions 1 to 12 (P=.013). In both studies, average session attendance was high (82%). Combining subjects from both studies, depressed smokers at baseline reported greater mean frequency of exercise per week than nondepressed smokers (P=.05). The results suggest that depressed smokers can be engaged in an exercise program. Further research is needed to determine if commencing exercise early during treatment, prior to the TQD, improves adherence.

  14. Causal beliefs of the public and social acceptance of persons with mental illness: a comparative analysis of schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, G; Matschinger, H; Angermeyer, M C

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether biological illness explanations improve tolerance towards persons with mental illness or not. Several theoretical models have been proposed to predict the relationship between causal beliefs and social acceptance. This study uses path models to compare different theoretical predictions regarding attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we elicited agreement with belief in biogenetic causes, current stress and childhood adversities as causes of either disorder as described in an unlabelled case vignette. We further elicited potentially mediating attitudes related to different theories about the consequences of biogenetic causal beliefs (attribution theory: onset responsibility, offset responsibility; genetic essentialism: differentness, dangerousness; genetic optimism: treatability) and social acceptance. For each vignette condition, we calculated a multiple mediator path model containing all variables. Biogenetic beliefs were associated with lower social acceptance in schizophrenia and depression, and with higher acceptance in alcohol dependence. In schizophrenia and depression, perceived differentness and dangerousness mediated the largest indirect effects, the consequences of biogenetic causal explanations thus being in accordance with the predictions of genetic essentialism. Psychosocial causal beliefs had differential effects: belief in current stress as a cause was associated with higher acceptance in schizophrenia, while belief in childhood adversities resulted in lower acceptance of a person with depression. Biological causal explanations seem beneficial in alcohol dependence, but harmful in schizophrenia and depression. The negative correlates of believing in childhood adversities as a cause of depression merit further exploration.

  15. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  16. Multisubstance Use Among Treatment-Seeking Smokers: Synergistic Effects of Coping Motives for Cannabis and Alcohol Use and Social Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Buckner, Julia D; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-28

    This study examined the impact of coping motives for cannabis and alcohol use on the relation between social anxiety/depressive symptoms and severity of substance use for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis among treatment-seeking smokers who also use cannabis and alcohol. The sample included 197 daily cigarette smokers (MAge 34.81 years, SD = 13.43) who reported using cannabis and alcohol. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted wherein separate models were constructed for each dependent variable. Among individuals with higher social anxiety, alcohol coping motives were associated with heavier drinking, and this was more pronounced among those low in depressive symptoms. Similarly, those at greater risk for nicotine dependence were anxious individuals with lower depressive symptoms who endorse coping-oriented motives for using cannabis. Further, among those with higher social anxiety, cannabis coping motives were associated with marginally greater drinking, particularly for those high in depressive symptoms. The present findings support the perspective that among multisubstance users, the interplay between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping-oriented motives for using one substance (e.g., cannabis or alcohol) may pose difficulties in refraining from other substances (e.g., tobacco). This observation highlights the importance of tailoring multisubstance treatments to specific needs of multiusers for whom single-substance interventions may be less effective. Findings also support previous work exploring the benefits of concurrently treating co-occurring substance use and lend credence to the perspective that motivation to use substances for coping reasons is of central theoretical and clinical relevance.

  17. Multi-Substance Use among Treatment-seeking Smokers: Synergistic Effects of Coping Motives for Cannabis and Alcohol Use and Social Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of coping motives for cannabis and alcohol use on the relation between social anxiety/depressive symptoms and severity of substance use for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis among treatment-seeking smokers who also use cannabis and alcohol. Methods The sample included 197 daily cigarette smokers (MAge 34.81 yrs, SD = 13.43) who reported using cannabis and alcohol. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted wherein separate models were constructed for each dependent variable. Among individuals with higher social anxiety, alcohol coping motives were associated with heavier drinking, and this was more pronounced among those low in depressive symptoms. Similarly, those at greater risk for nicotine dependence were anxious individuals with lower depressive symptoms who endorse coping-oriented motives for using cannabis. Further, among those with higher social anxiety, cannabis coping motives were associated with marginally greater drinking, particularly for those high in depressive symptoms. Conclusions The present findings support the perspective that among multi-substance users, the interplay between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping-oriented motives for using one substance (e.g., cannabis or alcohol) may pose difficulties in refraining from other substances (e.g., tobacco). This observation highlights the importance of tailoring multi-substance treatments to specific needs of multi-users for whom single-substance interventions may be less effective. Findings also support previous work exploring the benefits of concurrently treating co-occurring substance use and lend credence to the perspective that motivation to use substances for coping reasons is of central theoretical and clinical relevance. PMID:26846421

  18. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  19. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  20. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  1. Brief web-based intervention for college students with comorbid risky alcohol use and depressed mood: does it work and for whom?

    PubMed

    Geisner, Irene M; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Mittmann, Angela J; Mallett, Kimberly; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-03-01

    College is a time of increased risk for problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. The comorbidity of these conditions is well documented, but is less well understood, with few interventions designed to prevent or reduce the related consequences. The current study evaluated a web-based personalized intervention for students (N=311) who reported an AUDIT score of 8 or more, a BDI-II score of 14 or more, and reported drinking four (women) or five (men) or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past month. Invited participants were randomly selected from all enrolled undergraduates at a large, public, Pacific Northwestern University. Participants completed a screening and baseline assessment, and those who met study eligibility criteria were randomized to one of four conditions (alcohol only, depressed mood only, integrated, and referral-only control). Follow-up occurred one-month post-intervention. While no main effects for the interventions were found, there were moderation effects, such that students in the alcohol only and integrated conditions who had lower levels of depressed mood or alcohol-related problems at baseline showed greater reductions in alcohol-related problems at follow-up compared to students in the control condition. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    PubMed

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Deady, Mark; Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-03-23

    Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=-0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both depression symptoms and alcohol use outcomes in young

  4. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Methods Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). Results The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=–0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Conclusions Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both

  5. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

    PubMed

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  6. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. Methods 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females) from Germany (n = 654), Poland (n = 561), Bulgaria (n = 688), the UK (n = 311) and Slovakia (n = 315) completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen’s perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Results Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week), but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith) was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. Conclusion The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress. PMID:22640549

  7. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries.

    PubMed

    Sebena, Rene; El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2012-05-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females) from Germany (n = 654), Poland (n = 561), Bulgaria (n = 688), the UK (n = 311) and Slovakia (n = 315) completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen's perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week), but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith) was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress.

  8. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  9. Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for dissociative identity disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brianna E; Macfie, Jenny; Elledge, L Christian

    2017-01-01

    We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment. Significant symptom improvements were realized posttreatment across all measured domains of functioning, including dissociative symptoms, alcohol abuse, depression, anxiety, and emotion regulation skills. Moreover, the client no longer met criteria for DID, major depressive disorder, or alcohol abuse. Results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of trauma-focused, phase-based treatment for DID for cases of complex trauma with comorbid disorders.

  10. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  11. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  12. Drinking to cope with depression mediates the relationship between social avoidance and alcohol problems: A 3-wave, 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jamie-Lee; Thompson, Kara; Sherry, Simon B; Glowacka, Maria; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-08-18

    Undergraduates with high social anxiety have increased alcohol problems, despite lower or equivalent alcohol use levels. Drinking motives mediate the cross-sectional relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems, with coping and conformity motives being the most commonly observed mediators. Our study extended prior research by using a longitudinal design, examining coping with anxiety motives (CAM) and coping with depression motives (CDM) separately using path analysis, simultaneously considering a variety of drinking motives in the model, and focusing on a particularly severe form of social anxiety - namely, social avoidance. We collected data from 219 undergraduates (72.6% women, mean age of 20.59years) over three waves spaced six months apart. Results indicated CDM mediated the prospective relationship between social avoidance and alcohol problems. Findings suggest socially avoidant students' escalations in CDM explain their increased alcohol problems over time. Future research should examine involvement of depression and social isolation in contributing to this pathway to alcohol problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicidality and its relationship with depression, alcohol disorders and childhood experiences of violence: results from the ESEMeD study.

    PubMed

    Hardt, J; Bernert, S; Matschinger, H; Angermeier, M C; Vilagut, G; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Haro, J M; Kovess, V; Alonso, J

    2015-04-01

    Suicidality constitutes a major health concern in many countries. The aim of the present paper was to analyse 10 of its risk factors and their interdependence. Data on suicidality, mental disorders and experience of childhood violence was collected from 8796 respondents in the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD). The CIDI was used to assess mental disorders. Individuals were randomly divided into two subgroups. In one, a Graphical Markov model to predict suicidality was constructed, in the second, predictors were cross-validated. Lifetime suicidality was predicted mainly by lifetime depression and early experiences of violence, with a pseudo R-square of 12.8%. In addition, alcohol disorders predicted suicidality, but played a minor role compared with the other risk factors in this sample. In addition to depression, early experience of violence constitutes an important risk factor of suicidality. This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study assessing risk factors for suicidality, not for suicide itself. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Six-months outcomes of a randomised trial of supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported that supportive text messages delivered twice daily for three months have the potential to provide personalised support for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In this study we report the six months outcomes. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive daily twice supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures at six months were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD). NCT0137868. Unlike at three months, there was no statistically significant difference in six months BDI-II scores between the intervention (n=24) and control (n=24) groups; 13.28 (SD=8.7) vs. 15.08 (SD=11.37) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 45)=0.192, p=0.66. There was also no significant difference in CAD between the text message group and the control group: 84.14 days (9.20) vs. 74.73 days (28.97), t=1.422, df=41, p=0.16. However, patients in the intervention group had significantly higher days to first drink compared to those in the control group: 119.9 (47.7) vs. 62.4 (44.9), t=2.99, df=22, p=0.01. Limitations of the study include the small sample size and the potential for loss of rater blinding. The effects of supportive text message intervention were not sustained beyond the period that the patients were receiving the intervention. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone on lipopolysaccharide - induced depression like behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Zakeri, Samaneh; Khoshdast, Sadieh; Yousefian, Fatemeh T.; Rastegar, Monireh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Kahdouee, Shamsi; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Kazemi, S. Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and analgesic effects, Nigella sativa and its main ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ), have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of Nigella sativa hydro-alcoholic extract and thymoquinone was investigated on lipopolysaccharide- induced depression like behavior in rats. Materials and Methods: 50 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of NS extract, thymoquinone or lipopolysaccharide. The animals in group 2 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) were treated by saline instead of NS extract and were injected LPS (100μg/kg, ip) 2 hours before conducting each forced swimming test. Groups 3 (LPS + NS 200) and 4 (LPS + NS 400) were treated by 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS (ip), respectively, from the day before starting the experiments and before each forced swimming test. These animals were also injected LPS 2hours before conducting each swimming test. The animals in group 5 received TQ instead of NS extract. Forced swimming test was performed 3 times for all groups (in alternative days), and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in an open- field apparatus, and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the LPS group was higher than that in the control group in all 3 times (P<0.001). The animals in LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ had lower immobility times in comparison with LPS groups (P<0.01, and P<0.01). In the open- field test, the crossing number of peripheral in the LPS group was higher than that of the control one (P<0.01) while the animals of LPS + NS 200, LPS + NS 400 and LPS + TQ groups had lower crossing number of peripheral compared with the LPS group (P <0.05, and P<0.001). Furthermore, in the LPS group, the

  16. Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mezey, E; Potter, J J; Diehl, A M

    1986-01-15

    Hepatocytes harvested from castrated rats retained a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) activity than hepatocytes harvested from normal rats during 7 days of culture. Dihydrotestosterone (1 microM) decreased the enzyme activity, after 2 and 5 days of culture, in hepatocytes from castrated and control animals respectively. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the enzyme activity to similar values in both groups of hepatocytes by the end of 7 days of culture. Testosterone (1 microM) had no effect on the enzyme activity in normal hepatocytes and only a transitory effect in decreasing the enzyme activity in hepatocytes from castrated animals. The increases in alcohol dehydrogenase activity after castration and their suppression by dihydrotestosterone were associated with parallel changes in the rate of ethanol elimination. Additions of substrates of the malate-aspartate shuttle or dinitrophenol did not modify ethanol elimination. These observations indicate that dihydrotestosterone has a direct suppressant effect on hepatocyte alcohol dehydrogenase and that the enzyme activity is a major determinant of the rate of ethanol elimination.

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-(cinnamyl) chitosan analogs as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I

    2013-06-01

    The current study focuses on the preparation of new N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives as antimicrobial agents against nine types of crop-threatening pathogens. Chitosan was reacted with a set of aromatic cinnamaldehyde analogs by reductive amination involving formation of the corresponding imines, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride to produce N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives. The structural characterization was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the degrees of substitution ranged from 0.08 to 0.28. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora. A higher inhibition activity was obtained by N-(α-methylcinnamyl) chitosan with MIC 1275 and 1025 mg/L against A. tumefaciens and E. carotovora, respectively followed by N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan (MIC=1925 and 1550 mg/L, respectively). The antifungal assessment was evaluated in vitro by mycelial radial growth technique against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pythium debaryanum and Phytophthora infestans. N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan showed the highest antifungal activity among the tested compounds against the airborne fungi A. alternata, B. cinerea, Bd. theobromae and Ph. infestans with EC₅₀ of 672, 796, 980 and 636 mg/L, respectively. However, N-(p-N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan was the most active against the soil born fungi F. oxysporum, F. solani and P. debaryanum (EC50=411, 566 and 404 mg/L, respectively). On the other hand, the chitosan derivatives caused significant reduction in spore germination of A. alternata, B. cinerea, F. oxysporum and F. solani compared to chitosan and the reduction in spore germination was higher than that of the mycelia inhibition. The synthesis and characterization of new chitosan derivatives are ongoing in our laboratory aiming to obtain derivatives with higher antimicrobial

  18. Distress of Routine Activities and Perceived Safety Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Alcohol Use: 2002 Washington, DC, Sniper Attacks.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Carol S; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Benevides, K Nikki; Morganstein, Joshua C; Ursano, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    For over 3 weeks in October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC, area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. This study examined the relationship of distress associated with routine activities and perceived safety to psychological and behavioral responses. Participants were 1238 residents of the Washington, DC, metropolitan area (aged 18 to 90 years, mean=41.7 years) who completed an Internet survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to distress related to routine activities, perceived safety, and alcohol use. Data were collected at one time point approximately 3 weeks after the first sniper shooting and before apprehension of the suspects. Relationships of distress and perceived safety to post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and increased alcohol use were examined by using linear and logistic regression analyses. Approximately 8% of the participants met the symptom criteria for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, 22% reported mild to severe depression, and 4% reported increased alcohol use during the attacks. Distress related to routine activities and perceived safety were associated with increased post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Distress and perceived safety are associated with specific routine activities and both contribute to psychological and behavioral responses during a terrorist attack. These findings have implications for targeted information dissemination and risk communication by community leaders.

  19. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch for changes in school work, sleep, and behavior. If you wonder whether your child might be depressed, talk with your health care ... families. This may be due to your genes, behaviors you learn at home, or your ... life events, such as job loss, divorce, or death of a spouse or other family ...

  20. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment, the depression will lift Where can I go for help? If you are unsure where to go for help, ask your health provider or check ... one’s health professional. Call 911 for emergency services. Go to the nearest hospital emergency room. Call the ...

  1. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... GHB and Rohypnol ® are also misused to facilitate sexual assault. Affect on mind Depressants used therapeutically do what they are prescribed for to put you to sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. They also: cause amnesia, leaving no memory of events that occur ...

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students: A Moderated-Mediated Model of Mindfulness and Drinking to Cope.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevens, Leah E; Henson, James M

    2016-07-01

    In college student samples, the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems has been found to be mediated by drinking-to-cope motives. Mindfulness-based interventions suggest that mindfulness may attenuate the conditioned response of using substances in response to negative emotional states, and trait mindfulness has been shown to be a protective factor associated with experiencing fewer alcohol-related problems. In the present study, we examined trait mindfulness as a moderator of the indirect associations of depressive symptoms on alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives. Participants were undergraduate students at a large, southeastern university in the United States who drank at least once in the previous month (n = 448). Participants completed an online survey regarding their personal mental health, coping strategies, trait mindfulness, and alcohol use behaviors. The majority of participants were female (n = 302; 67.4%), identified as being either White non-Hispanic (n = 213; 47.5%) or African American (n = 119; 26.6%), and reported a mean age of 22.74 (SD = 6.81) years. Further, 110 (25%) participants reported having a previous and/or current experience with mindfulness mediation. As hypothesized, the indirect effects from depressive symptoms to alcohol-related problems via drinking-to-cope motives were weaker among individuals reporting higher levels of mindfulness than among individuals reporting lower and average levels of mindfulness. The present study suggests a possible mechanism through which mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious among college students: decoupling the associations between depressive symptoms and drinking-to-cope motives.

  3. Religious moral beliefs as mental health protective factor of war veterans suffering from PTSD, depressiveness, anxiety, tobacco and alcohol abuse in comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Hasanović, Mevludin; Pajević, Izet

    2010-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate is there association between level of religious moral beliefs and severity of PTSD symptoms, depressiion symptoms, anxiety and severity of alcohol abuse we tested 152 war veterans on presence of PTSD, depression symptoms, anxiety, alcohol misuse and level of religious moral beliefs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire (HTQ), Hopkins Check Scale SBCL 25, check list for alcohol misuse MAST. Subjects were assessed with regard to the level of belief in some basic ethical principles that arise from religious moral values. The score of religious moral belief index was used to correlate with severity of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, anxiety and severity of alcohol misuse. Mean age of tested subjects was 40.8 (SD=6.6) years. The score of the moral belief index was negatively correlated to PTSD symptom severity and depressiveness (Pearson's r=-0.325, p<0.001; r=-0.247, p=0.005, respectively). Besides that the score of moral belief index negatively correlated with presented anxiety (Pearson's r=-0.199,p=0.026). Related to severity of tobacco and alcohol misuse we found negative association of these with the moral belief index (Pearson's r=-0.227, p=0.011; r=-0.371, p<0.001, respectively). A higher index of religious moral beliefs in war veterans enables better control distress, providing better mental health stability. It enables post traumatic conflicts typical for combatants' survivors to be more easily overcome. It also causes healthier reactions to external stimuli. A higher index of religious moral beliefs of war veterans provides a healthier and more efficient mechanism of tobacco and alcohol misuse control. In this way, it helps overcoming postwar psychosocial problems and socialization of the personality, leading to the improvement in mental health.

  4. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in relation to comorbid depression and cytokine levels in Nepalese men with alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Aukrust, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegenerative and inflammatory processes are involved separately in major depression (MD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). Little is known about the nature of this relationship in the context of comorbid AUD and depression disorders. In this study, we determined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels in patients with AUD and tested whether BDNF levels were related to history of major depression, recent depressive symptoms, AUD severity, and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Nepalese male AUD inpatients (N=152) abstinent from alcohol for an average of 34 days were administered structured interviews to assess depression symptoms and pattern and extent of alcohol use, and to generate research diagnoses for AUD and MD. AUD severity was assessed by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Serum BDNF and cytokines were measured using ELISA and multiplex technology, respectively. Although serum BDNF levels were unrelated to MD history, patients with recent depressive symptoms (n=42) had lower (mean±SD) BDNF serum levels compared to those without (n=110) (21.6±8.1 ng/mL vs. 26.0±9.6 ng/mL; p=0.010), and patients with higher AUD severity and binge-drinking patterns had higher mean serum BDNF levels compared to lower AUD severity and non-binging (25.9±9.7 ng/mL vs. 22.1±8.7 ng/mL; p=0.022 and 25.7±9.3 vs. 21.8±9.7 ng/mL; p=0.029, respectively). Positive correlations were present between BDNF and TNF-α (r=0.39, p<0.001) and IL-6 (r=0.2, p=0.027). In particular, TNF-α levels were predictive of BDNF levels after controlling for confounders (B=0.3 [95% CI=0.2-0.5], p<0.001). These findings show that in alcohol-using populations, peripheral BDNF levels are related to severity of AUD as well as presence of depressive symptoms. The significant associations between inflammatory and neurotrophic factors may have implications for neuroadaptive changes during recovery from AUD.

  5. The importance of depression and alcohol use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients: risk factors for delirium and poorer quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Joanne M; Denson, Linley A; Baker, Robert A; Tully, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether depression, anxiety and stress increase the risk for delirium and poor quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Methods A total of 180 CABG patients (mean age of 63.5 ± 10.1 years, 82.2% males) completed baseline and postoperative self-report questionnaires to assess distress and QOL. Incident delirium was diagnosed postoperatively with a structured clinical interview and patients were monitored every day post-operatively for confusion and disturbance in consciousness. Results Delirium developed in 63 persons (35% of sample). After adjustment for covariates, delirium was significantly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.13, P = 0.003], anxiety (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13, P = 0.01) and stress (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.09, P = 0.03). Preoperative depression scores were associated with poorer QOL including bodily pain (β = −0.39, P = 0.013), vitality (β = −0.32, P = 0.020), social functioning (β = −0.51, P ≤ 0.001), emotional role function (β = −0.44, P = 0.003) and general health (β = −0.33, P = 0.038). Among the covariates, harmful levels of alcohol use was consistently associated with poorer QOL. Conclusions Depression and harmful levels of alcohol use were consistently associated with poorer QOL whereas depression, anxiety and stress were associated with delirium risk. These findings point to further research examining depression and harmful levels of alcohol use in coronary heart disease populations undergoing coronary revascularization. PMID:26918013

  6. Depression.

    PubMed

    Choe, Christine J; Emslie, Graham J; Mayes, Taryn L

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the assessment and treatment for depression in children and adolescents, emphasizing the implementation of evidence-based treatments into clinical care. Past trials of antidepressant medications are reviewed, as well as the clinical use of antidepressants and pharmacologic strategies for refractory illness or in the context of comorbid conditions. Clinicians who treat youth now have a body of empiric research to help guide treatment decisions; however, personalized treatment based on associated symptoms, comorbid conditions, contextual factors, and psychiatric history is essential. Further research is needed in the pharmacologic treatment of depressed youth, including expanding the study of non-SSRI antidepressants, augmentation and adjunctive strategies, and treatment in patients with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  8. Response inhibition in alcohol-dependent patients and patients with depression/anxiety: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Z; van den Brink, W; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H; Veltman, D J

    2014-06-01

    The inability to inhibit certain behaviors is a key feature of impulsivity, which is often present in people with a substance use disorder. However, the findings on impulsivity in people with alcohol dependence (AD) are inconsistent, possibly because of the frequent co-occurrence of depression/anxiety (D/A) and its influence on impulsivity. In the current study, we aimed to distinguish response inhibition impairments in AD from possible response inhibition effects associated with D/A. AD patients (n = 31) with high D/A co-morbidity were compared to patients with D/A only (n = 18) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 16) using the Stop Signal Task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Correlation analyses were performed between activated brain areas, behavioral data and addiction and D/A characteristics. The three groups did not differ on response inhibition performance. However, AD severity, but not D/A severity, was positively associated with decreased response inhibition. During the SST, AD patients showed hyperactivity in the putamen and thalamus compared with D/A patients and HCs. Thalamus activation was negatively associated with AD duration. In addition, AD patients showed hypoactivity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) compared with HCs. SMA activity within HCs was negatively correlated with depressive symptom severity. Discussion In general, AD patients were not more impulsive than D/A patients or HCs but they did reveal inhibition impairments with increasing AD severity. A shift from cortical to subcortical engagement in AD patients during response inhibition may represent an alternative strategy, which decreased with longer drinking history, suggesting the presence of an AD-specific endophenotype.

  9. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  10. Clinical utility of a single-item test for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among outpatients with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Biagi, Enrico; Di Carlo, Francesco; Parma, Francesca; Madeddu, Fabio; Capuzzi, Enrico; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    There is a lack of studies testing accuracy of fast screening methods for alcohol use disorder in mental health settings. We aimed at estimating clinical utility of a standard single-item test for case finding and screening of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among individuals suffering from anxiety and mood disorders. We recruited adults consecutively referred, in a 12-month period, to an outpatient clinic for anxiety and depressive disorders. We assessed the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) single-item test, using the Mini- International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), plus an additional item of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for craving, as reference standard to diagnose a current DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. We estimated sensitivity and specificity of the single-item test, as well as positive and negative Clinical Utility Indexes (CUIs). 242 subjects with anxiety and mood disorders were included. The NIAAA single-item test showed high sensitivity (91.9%) and specificity (91.2%) for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. The positive CUI was 0.601, whereas the negative one was 0.898, with excellent values also accounting for main individual characteristics (age, gender, diagnosis, psychological distress levels, smoking status). Testing for relevant indexes, we found an excellent clinical utility of the NIAAA single-item test for screening true negative cases. Our findings support a routine use of reliable methods for rapid screening in similar mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supramolecular structures based on regioisomers of cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins – new media for capillary separation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkovics, Gabor; Hodek, Ondrej; Havlikova, Martina; Bosakova, Zuzana; Coufal, Pavel; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Eva; Darcsi, Andras; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the preparation and application of supramolecular structures based on mono-cinnamyl-α-cyclodextrins (Cin-α-CD). Pure regioisomers of Cin-α-CD having the cinnamyl moiety at the 2-O- or at the 3-O-position, respectively, were prepared, characterized and applied in capillary electrophoresis as additives to the background electrolyte. These new monomer units with a potential to self-organize into supramolecular structures were synthesized via a straightforward one-step synthetic procedure and purified using preparative reversed-phase chromatography allowing a large scale separation of the regioisomers. The ability of the monomers to self-assemble was proved by various methods including NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The light scattering experiments showed that the monomer units have distinguishable ability to form supramolecular structures in different solvents and the size distribution of the aggregates in water can be easily modulated using different external stimuli, such as temperature or competitive guest molecules. The obtained results indicated that the two regioisomers of Cin-α-CD formed different supramolecular assemblies highlighting the fact that the position of the cinnamyl group plays an important role in the intermolecular complex formation. PMID:26877812

  12. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  13. Decrease in circulating tryptophan availability to the brain after acute ethanol consumption by normal volunteers: implications for alcohol-induced aggressive behaviour and depression.

    PubMed

    Badawy, A A; Morgan, C J; Lovett, J W; Bradley, D M; Thomas, R

    1995-10-01

    Acute ethanol consumption by fasting male volunteers decreases circulating trytophan (Trp) concentration and availability to the brain as determined by the ratio of (Trp) to the sum of its five competitors ([Trp]/[CAA]ratio). These effects of alcohol are specific to Trp, because levels of the 5 competitors are not increased. The decrease in circulating (Trp) is not associated with altered binding to albumin and may therefore be due to enhancement of hepatic Trp pyrrolase activity. It is suggested that, under these conditions brain serotonin synthesis is likely to be impaired and that, as a consequence, a possible strong depletion of brain serotonin in susceptible individuals may induce aggressive behaviour after alcohol consumption. The possible implications of these findings in the relationship between alcohol and depression are also briefly discussed.

  14. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  15. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  16. Modeling PTSD symptom clusters, alcohol misuse, anger, and depression as they relate to aggression and suicidality in returning U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Suicidal ideation and aggression are common correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. The existing literature has established a strong link between these factors, but a more nuanced understanding of how PTSD influences them is needed. The current study examined the direct and indirect relationships between PTSD symptom clusters and suicidal ideation in general aggression (without a specified target) regarding depression, alcohol misuse, and trait anger. Participants were 359 (92% male) U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. Path analysis results suggested that the PTSD numbing cluster was directly (β = .28, p < .01) and indirectly (β = .17, p = .001) related through depression. The PTSD hyperarousal cluster was indirectly related to suicidal ideation through depression (β = .13, p < .001). The PTSD reexperiencing cluster was directly related to aggression (β = .17, p < .05), whereas the PTSD numbing and hyperarousal clusters were indirectly related to aggression through trait anger (β = .05, p < .05; β = .20, p < .001). These findings indicate that adjunct treatments aimed at stabilizing anger, depression, and alcohol misuse may help clinicians ameliorate the maladaptive patterns often observed in veterans. These results also point to specific manifestations of PTSD and co-occurring conditions that may inform clinicians in their attempts to identify at risk veterans and facilitate preventative interventions.

  17. Do importance of religious faith and healthy lifestyle modify the relationships between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption? A survey of students across seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities.

  18. Chronic intermittent alcohol disrupts the GluN2B-associated proteome and specifically regulates group I mGlu receptor-dependent long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Wills, Tiffany A; Baucum, Anthony J; Holleran, Katherine M; Chen, Yaoyi; Pasek, Johanna G; Delpire, Eric; Tabb, David L; Colbran, Roger J; Winder, Danny G

    2017-03-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are major targets of both acute and chronic alcohol, as well as regulators of plasticity in a number of brain regions. Aberrant plasticity may contribute to the treatment resistance and high relapse rates observed in alcoholics. Recent work suggests that chronic alcohol treatment preferentially modulates both the expression and subcellular localization of NMDARs containing the GluN2B subunit. Signaling through synaptic and extrasynaptic GluN2B-NMDARs has already been implicated in the pathophysiology of various other neurological disorders. NMDARs interact with a large number of proteins at the glutamate synapse, and a better understanding of how alcohol modulates this proteome is needed. We employed a discovery-based proteomic approach in subcellular fractions of hippocampal tissue from chronic intermittent alcohol (CIE)-exposed C57Bl/6J mice to gain insight into alcohol-induced changes in GluN2B signaling complexes. Protein enrichment analyses revealed changes in the association of post-synaptic proteins, including scaffolding, glutamate receptor and PDZ-domain binding proteins with GluN2B. In particular, GluN2B interaction with metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)1/5 receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD)-associated proteins such as Arc and Homer 1 was increased, while GluA2 was decreased. Accordingly, we found a lack of mGlu1/5 -induced LTD while α1 -adrenergic receptor-induced LTD remained intact in hippocampal CA1 following CIE. These data suggest that CIE specifically disrupts mGlu1/5 -LTD, representing a possible connection between NMDAR and mGlu receptor signaling. These studies not only demonstrate a new way in which alcohol can modulate plasticity in the hippocampus but also emphasize the utility of this discovery-based proteomic approach to generate new hypotheses regarding alcohol-related mechanisms.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use: effect of telephone-administered vs. face-to-face treatment – A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Ho, Joyce; Cai, Xuan; Vinogradov, Sophia; Batki, Steven L.; Mohr, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a larger study compared adherence to telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) vs. face-to-face CBT and depression outcomes in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. To our knowledge, T-CBT has never been directly compared to face-to-face CBT in such a sample of primary care patients. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to face-to-face CBT or T-CBT for depression. Participants receiving T-CBT (n = 50) and face-to-face CBT (n = 53) were compared at baseline, end of treatment (week 18), and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. Face-to-face CBT and T-CBT groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, severity of depression, antidepressant use and total score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Face-to-face CBT and T-CBT groups were similar on all treatment adherence outcomes and depression outcomes at all timepoints. In conclusion, T-CBT and face-to-face CBT had similar treatment adherence and efficacy for the treatment of depression in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. When targeting patients who might have difficulties in accessing care, primary care clinicians may consider both types of CBT delivery when treating depression in patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. PMID:25052784

  20. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder) Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  1. Supportive text messages for patients with alcohol use disorder and a comorbid depression: a protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled aftercare trial.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Dan; Murphy, Edel; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Agyapong, Vincent; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor

    2017-05-29

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and mood disorders commonly co-occur, and are associated with a range of negative outcomes for patients. Mobile phone technology has the potential to provide personalised support for such patients and potentially improve outcomes in this difficult-to-treat cohort. The aim of this study is to examine whether receiving supporting SMS text messages, following discharge from an inpatient dual diagnosis treatment programme, has a positive impact on mood and alcohol abstinence in patients with an AUD and a comorbid mood disorder. The present study is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Patients aged 18-70 years who meet the criteria for both alcohol dependency syndrome/alcohol abuse and either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Axis I will be randomised to receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 6 months plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone, and will be followed-up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postdischarge. Primary outcome measures will include changes from baseline in cumulative abstinence duration, which will be expressed as the proportion of days abstinent from alcohol in the preceding 90 days, and changes from baseline in Beck Depression Inventory scores. The trial has received full ethical approval from the St. Patrick's Hospital Research Ethics Committee (protocol 13/14). Results of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and at academic conferences. NCT02404662; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Sheema, S; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L; Laughlin, Mary H; Spence, Nathan E; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N; Allan, Andrea M

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exons III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD.

  3. Psychological interventions for the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Luke; Watkins, Ed; Farrand, Paul

    2017-06-15

    Evidence highlights a high prevalence of common mental health disorders in armed forces veterans and their families, with depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse and anger being more common than PTSD. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify existing randomised controlled trial (RCT) research testing the effectiveness of psychological interventions for these difficulties in armed forces veterans and their family members. Electronic databases (CENTRAL, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials, EMBASE and ASSIA) will be searched to identify suitable studies for inclusion in the review supplemented by forward and backward reference checking, grey literature searches and contact with subject authors. Research including armed forces veterans and their family members will be included in the review with research including serving personnel or individuals under the age of 18 being excluded. Few RCTs examining the treatment of depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger exist in armed forces veterans to date. The primary outcome will be symptomatic change following intervention for these difficulties. The secondary outcomes will include methodological aspects of interest such as discharge type and recruitment setting if data permits. In the event that the number of studies identified is too low to undertake a meta-analysis, a narrative review will be conducted. Quality assessment will be undertaken using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool and Cochran's Q statistic calculated to test for heterogeneity as suggested by the Cochrane handbook. The review will examine the findings of existing intervention research for depression, anxiety, alcohol misuse or anger in armed forces veterans and their families, along with any effect sizes that may exist. PROSPERO CRD42016036676.

  4. Correlates of depression in self-neglecting older adults: A cross-sectional study examining the role of alcohol abuse and pain in increasing vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marissa C; Flores, David V; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated, severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n = 96) 65 years of age and older with Adult Protective Services-substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional, and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults.

  5. Correlates of Depression in Self-Neglecting Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Role of Alcohol Abuse and Pain in Increasing Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C.; Flores, David V.; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. Methods The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n=96), 65-years of age and older with Adult Protective Services substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. Results A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Implications Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults. PMID:26716386

  6. Fear of dying in panic attacks predicts suicide attempt in comorbid depressive illness: prospective evidence from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Zimri S; Chartrand, Hayley; Mojtabai, Ramin; Bolton, James; Galynker, Igor I

    2013-10-01

    As a group, comorbid anxiety disorders among depressed persons have consistently been found to increase risk of suicide attempt (SA). Growing evidence supports the link between panic attacks (PAs) and suicidality, but prospective evidence is limited and the nature of the linkage remains unclear. The positive-feedback model of suicide suggests that PAs eliciting catastrophic cognitions may drive SA. To prospectively examine the relationship between PAs, panic symptoms and suicidality in individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for past-year major depressive episodes in a large epidemiological study. In data on 2,864 participants of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 1 and 2 surveys with depressive disorders, the associations of PAs and panic symptoms with subsequent suicidal ideation (SI) and SAs were assessed using logistic regression. Past-year PAs in wave 1 significantly increased odds for subsequent SI and attempt in the 3-year follow-up interval; however, in multivariate analyses, PAs were not a significant predictor, but PAs featuring fear of dying were. Further, among subjects with PAs, fear of dying during a PA increased the odds of subsequent SA sevenfold, even after controlling for comorbid disorders, demographic factors, and other PA symptoms. PAs characterized by prominent morbid catastrophic cognitions may mediate the transition to SIs and SAs in subjects with depressive episodes. Presence of these symptoms in clinical settings may serve as a warning sign for future suicidality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Implementation Plan for Two Clinical Practice Guides (CPGs) Contained in the Integral Care Guides (ICGs) of the General System of Social Health Care in Colombia: A) "Early Detection of Depressive Episode and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with Diagnosis of Depressive Episode or Recurrent Depressive Disorder (CPG-Depression)". B) "Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase In 18-Years-Old Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence (CPG-Alcohol)"].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia Sánchez; Osorio, Andrés Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Clinical practice guides (CPGs) are systematically recommended, with the best clinical evidence available, to help physicians and patients in decision-making concerning the most adequate sanitary care as well as the selection of the best diagnostic and therapeutic options when facing a health problem or a clinical condition. After obtaining these recommendations, it is crucial to adopt them in daily clinical practice; the process through which this change is sought is known as implementation. This document contains recommendations for implementing CPGs in two psychiatric pathologies: 1) depressive episode and recurrent depressive disorder in adults, and 2) acute intoxication phase in cases of alcohol abuse or dependence. The recommended implementation process is described; besides, barriers and facilitators found in the two guides, together with the list of management indicators and clinical outcomes, are identified for their monitoring within the General Health Social Security System of Colombia. CPGs contain recommendations with the best clinical evidence available. The challenge is achieving the adoption of such tool by users, being therefore necessary to follow the diffusion, dissemination and implementation plan, overcoming barriers and resorting to intrinsic and extrinsic facilitators for CPGs as well as performing monitoring with indicators described for measuring the implementation process (management indicators) and the effect of CPGs in clinical practice (indicators of clinical outcome.). Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary depression: observations in alcoholism, Briquet's syndrome, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and antisocial personality. A form of comorbidity?

    PubMed

    Guze, S B

    1990-12-01

    This article deals with the diagnostic issue of secondary depression and relates it to the broader question of comorbidity. The primary focus of the article is to summarize certain data supporting the validity of the concept of secondary depression; these data are used to point up an appropriate strategy for studying comorbidity involving psychiatric disorders.

  9. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  10. Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.

    PubMed

    Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-12-15

    Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for incidence and persistence of disability in chronic major depression and alcohol use disorders: longitudinal analyses of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, María; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Chatterji, Somnath; Cieza, Alarcos; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2014-12-17

    Major depression and alcohol use disorders are risk factors for incidence of disability. However, it is still unclear whether a chronic course of these health conditions is also prospectively associated with incidence of disability. The aim of the present study was, first, to confirm whether chronic major depression (MD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) are, respectively, risk factors for persistence and incidence of disability in the general population; and then to analyze the role of help-seeking behavior in the course of disability among respondents with chronic MD and chronic AUD. Data from two assessments in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed. Disability was measured by eight domains of the Short Form 12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12). Generalized estimating equations and logistic regression models were run to estimate risk factors for persistence and incidence of disability, respectively. Analyses conducted on data from the US general population showed that chronic MD was the strongest risk factor for incidence and persistence of disability in the social functioning, emotional role and mental health domains. Chronic AUD were risk factors for incidence and persistence of disability in the vitality, social functioning, and emotional role domains. Within the group of chronic MD, physical comorbidity and help-seeking were associated with persistent disability in most of the SF-12 domains. Help-seeking behavior was also associated with incidence of problems in the mental health domain for the depression group. Regarding the AUD group, comorbidity with physical health problems was a strong risk factor for persistence of disability in all SF-12 domains. Help-seeking behavior was not related to either persistence or incidence of disability in the chronic alcohol group. Chronic MD and chronic AUD are independent risk factors for persistence and incidence of disability in the US general population. People with chronic MD

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  13. Different biogenetic causal explanations and attitudes towards persons with major depression, schizophrenia and alcohol dependence: is the concept of a chemical imbalance beneficial?

    PubMed

    Speerforck, Sven; Schomerus, Georg; Pruess, Susanne; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2014-10-01

    It is unclear whether different biogenetic causal beliefs affect stigmatization of mentally-ill patients differently. It has been argued that in particular believing in a 'chemical imbalance' as a cause of mental disorder might be associated with more tolerant attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using unlabelled case vignettes of persons with depression, schizophrenia, or alcohol dependence, we elicited agreement with three different biogenetic explanations of the illness: 'Chemical imbalance of the brain', 'brain disease' and 'heredity'. We further investigated emotional reactions as well as the desire for social distance. For each vignette condition we calculated linear regressions with each biogenetic explanation as independent and emotional reactions as well as social distance as dependent variable controlling for socio-demographic variables. Our cross-sectional study does not allow statements regarding causality and the explanatory power of our statistical models was low. 'Chemical imbalance of the brain' and 'brain disease' were both associated with a stronger desire for social distance in schizophrenia and depression, and with more social acceptance in alcohol dependence, whereas 'heredity' was not significantly associated with social distance in any of the investigated illnesses. All three biogenetic causal beliefs were associated with more fear in all three illnesses. Our study corroborates findings that biogenetic explanations have different effects in different disorders, and seem to be harmful in depression and schizophrenia. A particular de-stigmatizing potential of the causal belief 'chemical imbalance' could not be found. Implications for useful anti-stigma messages are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovery of a new class of cinnamyl-triazole as potent and selective inhibitors of aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1).

    PubMed

    McNulty, James; Keskar, Kunal; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C

    2014-09-15

    Synthesis of a novel class of natural product inspired cinnamyl-containing 1,4,5-triazole and the potent inhibition of human aromatase (CYP 450 19A1) by select members is described. Structure-activity data generated provides insights into the requirements for potency particularly the inclusion of an aryl bromide or chloride residue as a keto-bioisostere.

  15. Risk and protective factors associated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, and alcohol misuse in OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Van Kampen, Emily; Miller, Ryan D; Engdahl, Brian E

    2013-02-01

    Military personnel returning from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan commonly experience mental health problems and efforts are underway to determine risk and protective factors associated with postdeployment mental health concerns. This study examined the contribution of trait neuroticism, predeployment life events, combat experience, perceptions of threat, and postdeployment social support on mental health symptoms at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months postdeployment. Two hundred seventy-one veterans completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that neuroticism predicted post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms at all 3 time points; perceived threat predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms at time 1 and time 2 and depressive symptoms at time 2. Social support was a strong negative predictor of post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Alcohol misuse was not significantly predicted by any of the variables. The present study highlights the role of perceived threat and trait neuroticism on postdeployment mental health symptoms and indicates social support is a robust protective factor. Efforts aimed at increasing sustained postdeployment social support may help defend against significant mental health problems among veterans.

  16. Parental alcoholism in opioid addicts.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1985-08-01

    Using the family history method, the authors examined the relationships of parental alcoholism to alcoholism, depression, and antisocial personality disorder among 638 opioid addicts. It was concluded that, compared to addicts without parental alcoholism; addicts with parental alcoholism were more frequently concurrent alcoholics; addicts with parental alcoholism not only had alcoholism more often, but also depression and antisocial personality disorder; among alcoholic addicts, those with parental alcoholism had more severe problems with alcohol abuse; and addicts with parental alcoholism reported more disruptive childhood events. The independent additive effects of disruptive childhood events and parental alcoholism on the severity of addict disorders including alcoholism were also examined. Although alcoholic addicts had experienced more disruptive childhood events than nonalcoholic addicts, these events did not substantially contribute to increasing the severity of alcohol-related problems. Similar results were obtained for depression and antisocial behaviors in these addicts. The conclusions concerning addicts supported some of those described for "familial alcoholism" among nonaddict alcoholics, but other characteristics of alcoholics with familial alcoholism were not found among addicts.

  17. Treatment Contact Coverage for Probable Depressive and Probable Alcohol Use Disorders in Four Low- and Middle-Income Country Districts: The PRIME Cross-Sectional Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Breuer, Erica; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhin, Girmay; Kigozi, Fred; Shidhaye, Rahul; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Context A robust evidence base is now emerging that indicates that treatment for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUD) delivered in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be effective. However, the coverage of services for these conditions in most LMIC settings remains unknown. Objective To describe the methods of a repeat cross-sectional survey to determine changes in treatment contact coverage for probable depression and for probable AUD in four LMIC districts, and to present the baseline findings regarding treatment contact coverage. Methods Population-based cross-sectional surveys with structured questionnaires, which included validated screening tools to identify probable cases. We defined contact coverage as being the proportion of cases who sought professional help in the past 12 months. Setting Sodo District, Ethiopia; Sehore District, India; Chitwan District, Nepal; and Kamuli District, Uganda Participants 8036 adults residing in these districts between May 2013 and May 2014 Main Outcome Measures Treatment contact coverage was defined as having sought care from a specialist, generalist, or other health care provider for symptoms related to depression or AUD. Results The proportion of adults who screened positive for depression over the past 12 months ranged from 11.2% in Nepal to 29.7% in India and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged between 8.1% in Nepal to 23.5% in India. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable depression was 23.7%. The proportion of adults who screened positive for AUD over the past 12 months ranged from 1.7% in Uganda to 13.9% in Ethiopia and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged from 2.8% in India to 5.1% in Nepal. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable AUD was 13.1%. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with and contribute to the limited evidence base which indicates low treatment contact coverage for depression and for AUD in LMIC. The planned follow up

  18. A placebo controlled study of quetiapine-XR in bipolar depression accompanied by generalized anxiety with and without a recent history of alcohol and cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Gao, Keming; Ganocy, Stephen J; Conroy, Carla; Brownrigg, Brittany; Serrano, Mary Beth; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to compare treatment response in bipolar I or II depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with and without recent alcohol and/or cannabis use disorder (ALC/CAN) to quetiapine-XR (extended release) or placebo. A randomized, double-blind, 8-week study of quetiapine-XR versus placebo in patients with bipolar I or II depression and GAD with or without a recent ALC/CAN was used to compare changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR-16), Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S), and Timeline Follow Back within and between groups. In the quetiapine-XR group, patients with a recent ALC/CAN (n = 22) had significant decreases in QIDS-SR-16 (-9.6 ± 1.6 vs. -3.7 ± 1.7) and CGI-BP-S (-1.6 ± 0.4 vs. -0.8 ± 0.03) than those without a recent ALC/CAN (n = 24). In the placebo group, both patients with a recent ALC/CAN (n = 23) and those without (n = 21) had similar reductions in these measures. The reduction of QIDS-SR-16 scores in patients with a recent ALC/CAN was also significantly different from that of their counterparts in the placebo group. Patients who received quetiapine-XR had larger decreases in the number of drinking days/week (p = 0.17) and number of cannabis joints/week (p = 0.09) compared to those who received placebo. Quetiapine-XR was superior to placebo in reducing QIDS-SR-16 total score in patients with a recent ALC/CAN. Patients taking quetiapine-XR used less alcohol and cannabis than patients on placebo, suggesting that quetiapine-XR may be of use in patients with bipolar disorder accompanied by GAD and other comorbidities.

  19. [Effects of cinnamyl aldehyde on cell cycle and relafeol proteins expression in NIH3T3 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-xia; Li, Ping; Sheng, Xun; Liu, Xin; Liang, Dai-ying

    2007-08-01

    To observe the effects of Cinnamyl aldehyde (CA) on NIH3T3 cell cycle and explore the possible mechanism further. Flowcytometry was used for observing cell cycle distribution. Expressions of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1 protein in NIH3T3 cells were assessed by immunocytochemistry. After culture with CA for 24 hours, the percentage of populations of S phase was enhanced by 3% (P < 0.05) and cell proliferation index (PrI, S + G2/M) was increased by 3.5% (P < 0.01) , but G2/M phase had no obvious changes. The expressions of Cyclin D1 and PCNA proteins were improved markly by CA compared with controlgroup (P < 0.01). CA could promote more cells in G0/G1 phase into S phase, which may be related to the regulation of the expressions of PCNA and Cyclin D1.

  20. [Comparative socio-economic follow-up study of patients with psychogenic depressions and alcohol- and drug dependencies with and without suicide attempts (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Matter, R; Battegay, R; Rauchfleisch, U; Löffler, B

    1980-01-01

    A catamnestic examination in the sense of a pilot study concerning 104 patients having been treated between 1972 and 1976 in the Basle Psychiatric University outpatient clinic was centered on preponderately the following items "former psychiatric treatment", "suicidal attempts", "socioeconomic conditions", childhood" and "conditions of habitations". The collective of patients was presented by 52 psychogenic depressives and 52 alcohol- respectively drug-dependants. Of each group half of the patients had one or more suicidal attempts behind them. The comparison of the 2 diagnostic groups and of the patients with suicidal attempts with those who had never attempted suicide showed, among other significant findings, that the patients with suicidal attempts lived in the childhood and in the actual situations in worse conditions of habitation than those having never attempted suicide. This correlation was interpreted as a consequence of direct confinement by a narrow space and indirect confinement by pathological interactions and disturbances in the self development.

  1. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  2. Adolescents at Risk: Depression, Low Academic Performance, Violence, and Alcohol Increase Bolivian Teenagers' Risk of Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Kirk A.; De La Cruz, Natalie G.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Clark, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence of depression and suicidal tendencies as well as risk factors for attempted suicide among students in Bolivia. Adolescents 13-18 years old (182 females, 394 males) from randomly selected schools in La Paz completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Frequencies and logistic regression were used to identify…

  3. Syndemics of depression, alcohol use, and victimisation, and their association with HIV-related sexual risk among men who have sex with men and transgender women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Logie, Carmen H; Samuel, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    We examined the presence and co-occurrence of psychosocial health conditions (depression, frequent alcohol use, and victimisation) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) women in India, and their cumulative association with sexual risk. A survey questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of 600 participants (MSM = 300; TG women = 300) recruited through six non-governmental organisations in four states. Prevalences of the number of psychosocial health conditions among MSM were: none = 31.3%, one = 43%, two = 20%, and three = 5.7%; and among TG women: none = 9%; one = 35.33%, two = 38.33%, and three = 17.33%. In bivariate and multivariate models, these conditions were positively and additively related to sexual risk, providing evidence for a syndemic of psychosocial health conditions among MSM and TG women and their synergistic effect on sexual risk. In addition to the number of syndemic conditions, resilient coping and social support were significant predictors of sexual risk among MSM and TG women, respectively. HIV preventive interventions in India should screen for and address co-occurring psychosocial health conditions - experiences of violence, mental health issues, and alcohol use - among MSM and TG women.

  4. The influence of combat and interpersonal trauma on PTSD, depression, and alcohol misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hassija, Christina M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Maguen, Shira; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of combat and interpersonal trauma exposure in a sample of 115 U.S. women veterans from Gulf War I and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars on 3 postdeployment trauma-related mental health outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PSS), depressive symptom severity (DSS), and alcohol misuse. Patients presenting for healthcare services at a Veterans Affairs postdeployment health specialty clinic completed screening questionnaires that assessed combat exposure, lifetime interpersonal trauma history of childhood neglect, physical, or sexual abuse, and adult sexual and physical assault. In a regression model, combat exposure was the only significant independent variable associated with PSS, DSS, and alcohol misuse (β = .42, .27 and B = 1.58, respectively) even after adding lifetime interpersonal assault exposure to the model. Results highlight the negative effects of combat exposure on treatment-seeking women veterans' postdeployment mental health. Incorporating combat exposure into routine screening procedures for Gulf War and Iraq and Afghanistan war women veterans can aid in mental health treatment planning.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    A benign and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of allylic alcohols is presented. The generality of this novel process is demonstrated by the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated amides including aliphatic, cinnamyl, and terpene derivatives. The choice of ligand is crucial for optimal carbonylation processes: Whereas in most cases the combination of PdCl2 with Xantphos (L6) gave best results, sterically hindered substrates performed better in the presence of simple triphenylphosphine (L10), and primary anilines gave the best results using cataCXium® PCy (L8). The reactivity of the respective catalyst system is significantly enhanced by addition of small amounts of water. Mechanistic studies and control experiments revealed a tandem allylic alcohol amination/C-N bond carbonylation reaction sequence.

  6. Overview of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol misuse among active duty service members returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, self-report and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mustillo, Sarah A; Kysar-Moon, Ashleigh; Douglas, Susan R; Hargraves, Ryan; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Fraine, Melissa; Frazer, Nicole L

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have found deployment to combat areas to be associated with an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse, but many previous studies were limited by samples that were not representative of the deployed military as a whole. This study presents an overview of these three mental health problems associated with deployment among Air Force, Army, Marine Corp, and Navy service members returning from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2007 and March 2008. With postdeployment health data on over 50,000 service men and women, including diagnostic information, we were able to estimate prevalence of those who screened positive for risk of each disorder in self-report data at two time points, as well as prevalence of diagnoses received during health care encounters within the military health care system. The prevalence ranges of the three disorders were consistent with previous studies using similar measures, but service members in the Navy had higher rates of screening positive for all three disorders and higher prevalence of depression and PTSD diagnoses compared to the other branches. Further, PTSD risk was higher for service members returning from Afghanistan compared to Iraq, in contrast to previous findings. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Offending: Validation and Prediction to Young Adult Alcohol Use, Drug Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended previous work of Wiesner and Capaldi (2003) by examining the validity of differing offending pathways and the prediction from the pathways to substance use and depressive symptoms for 204 young men. Findings from this study indicated good external validity of the offending trajectories. Further, substance use and depressive symptoms in young adulthood (i.e., ages 23-24 through 25-26 years) varied depending on different trajectories of offending from early adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., ages 12-13 through 23-24 years), even after controlling for antisocial propensity, parental criminality, demographic factors, and prior levels of each outcome. Specifically, chronic high-level offenders had higher levels of depressive symptoms and engaged more often in drug use compared with very rare, decreasing low-level, and decreasing high-level offenders. Chronic low-level offenders, in contrast, displayed fewer systematic differences compared with the two decreasing offender groups and the chronic high-level offenders. The findings supported the contention that varying courses of offending may have plausible causal effects on young adult outcomes beyond the effects of an underlying propensity for crime. PMID:15971769

  8. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode with and without atypical features: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Vesga-López, Oriana; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) with and without atypical features. Methods Data were derived from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population, which assessed psychiatric disorders using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Comparison groups were defined based on the presence or absence of hypersomnia or hyperphagia in individuals who meet criteria for lifetime DSM-IV MDE. Results The presence of atypical features during a MDE was associated with greater rates of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol abuse, drug dependence, dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia and any personality disorder (PD), except antisocial PD, than MDE without atypical features. Compared with the later group, MDE with atypical features was associated with female gender, younger age of onset, more MDEs, greater episode severity and disability, higher rates of family history of depression, bipolar I disorder, suicide attempts, and larger mental health treatment-seeking rates. Conclusions Our data provide further evidence for the clinical significance and validity of this depressive specifier. Based on the presence of any of the two reversed vegetative symptoms during an MDE most of the commonly cited validators of atypical depression were confirmed in our study. MDE with atypical features may be more common, severe, and impairing than previously documented. PMID:21939615

  9. How Individuals Feel About the Past, Present, and Future Bears Little Relation to Alcohol-Related Problems, Anxiety, and Depression: A Person-Centered Analysis in a University Sample.

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R; Cole, Jon C

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies using bivariate or correlational analyses have established a relationship between alcohol use, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and scores on a range of temporal psychology measures. Temporal psychology measures variously assess the cognitive or affective (or in some cases, both) engagement with the past, present, and future. Although developed and validated in adolescents, recent research has suggested that the Time Attitudes Scale is internally consistent and reliable in adults also. The present study is the first to apply a person-centered approach to assessing the relationship between scores on the Time Attitudes Scale and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems in adults. Participants were recruited from a University in England. Results support the validity and internal consistency of the Time Attitudes Scale. Meaningful time attitudes profiles emerged, however, taking the sample size into account, the only substantive finding showed that those with a negative time attitudes profile scored higher on depressive symptomatology than those with a positive profile. While elsewhere, Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory scores have been shown to be meaningfully related to anxiety, depression and alcohol use, the present study questions the degree to which the affective dimension of temporal psychology is driving that relationship.

  10. 7-endo selenocyclization reactions on chiral 3-prenyl and 3-cinnamyl-2-hydroxymethylperhydro-1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. A way to enantiopure 1,4-oxazepanes.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Javier; Andrés, Celia; Pérez-Encabo, Alfonso

    2015-09-14

    Enantiopure 1,4-oxazepane derivatives have been prepared by selenocyclofunctionalization of chiral 3-prenyl- and 3-cinnamyl-2-hydroxymethyl-substituted perhydro-1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. The 7-endo-cyclization occurs in high yields and diastereoselection. The regio- and stereochemistry of the cyclization products was dependent on the substitution pattern of the double bond, the nature of the hydroxyl group and the experimental conditions.

  11. Supportive Text Messages to Reduce Mood Symptoms and Problem Drinking in Patients With Primary Depression or Alcohol Use Disorder: Protocol for an Implementation Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. Objective To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. Methods This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. Results The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. Conclusions The

  12. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-05-25

    In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions' cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. ISRCTN10323951. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  13. Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: disentangling person and time-level effects.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Tate, Susan R; Roesch, Scott C; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-12-01

    Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps < .05) and PDDRG (ps < .05). Within-person, time-level effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps < .05) but not PDDRG. Controlled environments moderated person-level social network effects (ps < .05), such that greater time in controlled settings attenuated the association between a heavier drinking/using network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment.

  14. The Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment, Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorders on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated, HIV-Infected, Opioid Dependent Malaysian Men: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Roman; Weikum, Damian; Copenhaver, Michael; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p < 0.001) and depression (B = -0.6147, p < 0.001) were negatively associated with HRQoL. The effect of NCI on HRQoL was significantly (Sobel z = -3.5600, p < 0.001) mediated via depression (B = -0.1230, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the conditional indirect effect of NCI on HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs was significant (B = -0.9099, p = 0.0087), suggesting a moderated mediation effect. The findings disentangle the complex relationship using a moderated mediation model, demonstrating that increasing levels of NCI, which can be reduced with HIV treatment, negatively influenced HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs. This highlights the need for future interventions to target these complex interplay between neuropsychological factors in order to improve HRQoL among PLWH, particularly incarcerated PLWH with AUDs.

  15. Anxiety, bulimia, drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and schizophrenia: what do you think about their aetiology, dangerousness, social distance, and treatment? A latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa

    2015-01-01

    Mental illness stigma is a serious societal problem and a critical impediment to treatment seeking for mentally ill people. To improve the understanding of mental illness stigma, this study focuses on the simultaneous analysis of people's aetiological beliefs, attitudes (i.e. perceived dangerousness and social distance), and recommended treatments related to several mental disorders by devising an over-arching latent structure that could explain the relations among these variables. Three hundred and sixty university students randomly received an unlabelled vignette depicting one of six mental disorders to be evaluated on the four variables on a Likert-type scale. A one-factor Latent Class Analysis (LCA) model was hypothesized, which comprised the four manifest variables as indicators and the mental disorder as external variable. The main findings were the following: (a) a one-factor LCA model was retrieved; (b) alcohol and drug addictions are the most strongly stigmatized; (c) a realistic opinion about the causes and treatment of schizophrenia, anxiety, bulimia, and depression was associated to lower prejudicial attitudes and social rejection. Beyond the general appraisal of mental illness an individual might have, the results generally point to the acknowledgement of the specific features of different diagnostic categories. The implications of the present results are discussed in the framework of a better understanding of mental illness stigma.

  16. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies.

  17. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; de Moor, Marleen H.M.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies. PMID:26454404

  18. Nitrile-assisted oxidation over oxidative-annulation: Pd-catalyzed α,β-dehydrogenation of α-cinnamyl β-keto nitriles.

    PubMed

    Nallagonda, Rajender; Reddy, Reddy Rajasekhar; Ghorai, Prasanta

    2017-09-13

    A palladium-catalyzed oxidation reaction is disclosed where the nitrile functionality on the substrate simply changes the course of the reaction. Our previous finding showed that using the Pd(ii)-catalyst in the presence of benzoquinone as an oxidant, 2-cinnamyl-1,3-dicarbonyls provides functionalized furans via oxidative cyclization. When a nitrile group is replaced with one of the carbonyl functionalities of the same substrate, the oxidative cyclization was completely suppressed; instead, the oxidation at the α,β-position occurred to provide α,β,γ,δ-diene containing β-keto nitriles.

  19. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Abuse At around the age of 10, I ... the company of other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. ...

  20. The association between tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, stress, and depression among uninsured free clinic patients: U.S.-born English speakers, non-U.S.-born English speakers, and Spanish speakers.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ashby, Jeanie; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Chen, Jason; Reel, Justine J

    2017-01-01

    The abuse of substances is a significant public health issue. Perceived stress and depression have been found to be related to the abuse of substances. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of substance use (i.e., alcohol problems, smoking, and drug use) and the association between substance use, perceived stress, and depression among free clinic patients. Patients completed a self-administered survey in 2015 (N = 504). The overall prevalence of substance use among free clinic patients was not high compared to the U.S. general population. U.S.-born English speakers reported a higher prevalence rate of tobacco smoking and drug use than did non-U.S.-born English speakers and Spanish speakers. Alcohol problems and smoking were significantly related to higher levels of perceived stress and depression. Substance use prevention and education should be included in general health education programs. U.S.-born English speakers would need additional attention. Mental health intervention would be essential to prevention and intervention.

  1. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobain, Bev

    This guide provides adolescents with information on depression. An introduction discusses symptoms of depression and lists famous people who were known to be depressed. Part 1, "What's Wrong," explores how it feels to be depressed, the causes and types of depression, and the connections between depression, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. A…

  2. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A Survival Guide for Depressed Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobain, Bev

    This guide provides adolescents with information on depression. An introduction discusses symptoms of depression and lists famous people who were known to be depressed. Part 1, "What's Wrong," explores how it feels to be depressed, the causes and types of depression, and the connections between depression, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. A…

  3. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the $\\alpha$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $\\beta$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  4. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    DOE PAGES

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; ...

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of themore » $$\\alpha$$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $$\\beta$$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.« less

  5. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation.

    PubMed

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the α-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the β-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  6. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the $\\alpha$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $\\beta$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  7. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression: a nationwide, prospective, register-based study.

    PubMed

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Erlangsen, Annette; Andersen, Jon Trærup; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-09-01

    People with severe mental illness have both increased mortality and are more likely to have a substance use disorder. We assessed the association between mortality and lifetime substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression. In this prospective, register-based cohort study, we obtained data for all people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression born in Denmark in 1955 or later from linked nationwide registers. We obtained information about treatment for substance use disorders (categorised into treatment for alcohol, cannabis, or hard drug misuse), date of death, primary cause of death, and education level. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios (SHRs) for cause-specific mortality associated with substance use disorder of alcohol, cannabis, or hard drugs. We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare the mortality in the study populations to that of the background population. Our population included 41 470 people with schizophrenia, 11 739 people with bipolar disorder, and 88 270 people with depression. In schizophrenia, the SMR in those with lifetime substance use disorder was 8·46 (95% CI 8·14-8·79), compared with 3·63 (3·42-3·83) in those without. The respective SMRs in bipolar disorder were 6·47 (5·87-7·06) and 2·93 (2·56-3·29), and in depression were 6·08 (5·82-6·34) and 1·93 (1·82-2·05). In schizophrenia, all substance use disorders were significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, both individually (alcohol, HR 1·52 [95% CI 1·40-1·65], p<0·0001; cannabis, 1·24 [1·04-1·48], p=0·0174; hard drugs, 1·78 [1·56-2·04], p<0·0001) and when combined. In bipolar disorder or depression, only substance use disorders of alcohol (bipolar disorder, HR 1·52 [95% CI 1·27-1·81], p<0·0001; depression, 2·01 [1·86-2·18], p<0·0001) or hard drugs (bipolar disorder, 1·89 [1·34-2·66], p=0

  8. Effects of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on fatty acid and glucose oxidation in the isolated rat diaphragm using 14C-labelled substrates. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VIII.

    PubMed

    Binder, L; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Beneking, M

    1988-12-01

    The influence of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on the utilization of various substrates in isolated rat hemidiaphragms was investigated in comparison with other hypoglycaemic compounds. The effect of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate was concentration-dependent. At a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, glucose utilization increased from 0.276 +/- 0.043 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.894 +/- 0.303 mumol.g-1.l-1 (p less than 0.05). Pyruvate and lactate utilization were stimulated to a lesser extent, while acetate utilization remained nearly constant. At a concentration of 2 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, the oxidation of palmitate decreased from 0.214 +/- 0.017 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.060 +/- 0.005 mumol.g-1.l-1, while the oxidation of octanoate was not decreased. These findings point to a stimulation of the glycolytic flux by inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.

  9. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  10. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  11. The alternating of substituent effect on the ¹³C NMR shifts of all bridge carbons in cinnamyl aniline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanfan; Cao, Chenzhong; Zhu, Yun; Wu, Zhenxing; Wu, Xiangsi

    2012-12-01

    Bridge carbon (13)C NMR shifts of a wide set of substituted cinnamyl anilines p-XC(6)H(4)CHCHCHNC(6)H(4)Y-p (XNO(2), Cl, H, Me, MeO, or NMe(2); YNO(2), CN, CO(2)Et, Cl, F, H, Me, MeO or NMe(2)) had been used as a probe to study the change of substituent effect in the conjugated system. The goal of this work was to study the difference among the substituent effect on SCS of all bridge carbons, and find the alternating of substituent effect in this model compounds. In this study, it was found that the change of the inductive effect and the conjugative effect on different bridge carbons is related to the bond number (m) from the substituent to the corresponding carbon, and the adjusted parameters σ(F(rel))(∗) and σ(R(ver))(∗) can be suitable to scale the difference of the inductive effect and the conjugative effect on bridge carbons. Moreover, because of the difference of substituent effect on bridge carbons, the substituent cross-interaction item Δσ(2)(Δσ(2) = (σ(F(rel))(∗)(X) + σ(R(ver))(∗)(X) - σ(F(rel))(∗)(Y) - σ(R(ver))(∗)(Y))(2)) was not suitable simply to scale the interaction between substituents X and Y for all bridge carbons, so the Δσ(2) was recommended to be divided into two parts: Δσ(F(rel))(2) (Δσ(F(rel))(2) = σ(F(rel))(∗)(X) - σ(F(rel))(∗)(Y))(2)) and Δσ(R(ver))(2) (Δσ(R(ver))(2) = (σ(R(ver))(∗)(X) - σ(R(ver))(∗)(Y))(2)). With σ(F(rel))(∗), σ(R(ver))(∗), Δσ(F(rel))(2), Δσ(R(ver))(2), and δ(C,parent), the obtained correlation equation can be used to correlate with the 159 sorts of SCS of the different bridge carbon in cinnamyl aniline derivatives. The correlation coefficient is 0.9993, and the standard deviation is only 0.53 ppm. The multi-parameter correlation equation can be recommended to predict well the corresponding bridge carbons SCS of disubstituted cinnamyl anilines.

  12. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Protective effects of voluntary physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Brocardo, Patricia S; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can damage the developing nervous system, producing long-lasting impairments in both brain structure and function. In this study we analyzed how exposure to this teratogen during the period of brain development affects the intracellular redox state in the brain as well as the development of anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes. Furthermore, we also tested whether aerobic exercise might have therapeutic potential for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) by increasing neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or by alleviating ethanol-induced behavioral deficits. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol across all three-trimester equivalents (i.e., throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed and control animals were assigned to either sedentary or running groups at postnatal day (PND) 48. Runners had free access to a running wheel for 12 days and at PND 60 anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed. Perinatal ethanol exposure resulted in the occurrence of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adult rats without affecting their locomotor activity. Voluntary wheel running reversed the depressive-like behaviors in ethanol-exposed males, but not in ethanol-exposed females. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of ethanol-exposed rats, and there was a concomitant reduction in the levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. Voluntary exercise was able to reverse the deficits in glutathione both in ethanol-exposed males and females. Thus, while voluntary physical exercise increased glutathione levels in both sexes, its effects at the behavioral level were sex dependent, with only ethanol-exposed male runners showing a decrease in depressive-like behaviors.

  13. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state"…

  14. Influence of 2(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on glucose and palmitate oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VII.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Fink, P C; Oellerich, M

    1987-09-01

    2-(3-Methyl-cinnamyl-hydrozono)-propionate stimulated glucose oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes and the stimulation was similar to that by concanavalin A. Both substances must affect glucose metabolism at two sites, the first site being before the pyruvate dehydrogenase step because of the increase of lactate plus pyruvate concentration. The second site is related to pyruvate oxidation. The hydrazone inhibited the conversion of plamitate to CO2. This effect could have caused an activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, resulting from a decrease acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio. Concanavalin A did not influence fatty acid oxidation. Both substances did not affect the CO2 formation from acetate. Mononuclear leukocytes appear to be a suitable model for the investigation of the influence of hypoglycaemic substances on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in living human cells.

  15. Alcohol and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Bukstein, Oscar; Salloum, Ihsan; Clark, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUDs) are common among alcoholics (Regier, Farmer, Rae, Locke, Keith, Judd, & Goodwin, 1990; Kessler, McGonagle, Zhao, Nelson, Hughes, Eshleman, Wittchen, & Kendler, 1994). These comorbid disorders often predict a shorter time to relapse of alcoholism (Greenfield, Weiss, Muenz, Vagge, Kelly, Bello, & Michael, 1998). However, despite the prevalence and the adverse effects of this comorbidity, few controlled treatment studies have been conducted involving this dual diagnosis population (Litten & Allen, 1999). To date, most of these few studies of alcoholics with comorbid disorders have been restricted to studies of alcoholics with either comorbid major depression or comorbid anxiety disorders (Litten & Allen, 1995). The results of these trials suggest efficacy for SSRI antidepressants and tricyclic antidepressants for treating alcoholics with comorbid major depression and suggest efficacy for buspirone for treating alcoholics with comorbid anxiety disorders (Mason, Kocsis, Ritvo, & Cutler, 1996; Cornelius, Salloum, Ehler, Jarrett, Cornelius, Perel, Thase, & Black, 1997; Kranzler, Burleson, Del Boca, Babor, Korner, Brown, & Bohn, 1994). However, controlled treatment studies involving alcoholics with other comorbid disorders are almost totally lacking. Consequently, to date, no empirically proven treatment exists for most of these comorbid disorders.

  16. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  17. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

  18. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  19. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  20. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  1. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  2. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  3. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was

  4. Inhibition of mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase-mediated uptake of carnitine by 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VI.

    PubMed

    Beneking, M; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Binder, L

    1987-08-01

    The rate of mitochondrial carnitine-carnitine exchange mediated by carnitine acylcarnitine translocase was measured by following the uptake of L-[methyl-14C]carnitine. It was demonstrated that the hypoglycaemic compound 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate causes a concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of the translocase-mediated transport of carnitine in guinea pig liver mitochondria. Apparent initial influx rates were decreased by 20% at 0.3 mmol/1 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, 38% at 0.5 mmol/l, and 75% at 2.0 mmol/l of this compound. This finding may explain the previously observed inhibitory effects of this substance on long-chain fatty acid oxidation, ketone body production and gluconeogenesis.

  5. Changes in some personality traits after recovery from alcohol dependence/abuse, anxiety and depression--results of a 5-year follow-up in a general population sample of women.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Anette; Hensing, Gunnel; Sundh, Valter; Spak, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse stability of and change in personality traits in a general population sample of women over 5 years. Specific questions were how personality traits changed after a first episode of alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA), anxiety or depression disorders and after remission of an episode. The study was based on data from a longitudinal general population-based survey titled, "Women and alcohol in Göteborg (WAG)". A total of 641 women were interviewed in 1990 or 1995 and re-interviewed after 5 years. Personality traits were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses given according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd revised edition (DSM-III-R). Mean T-scores (KSP) for the general population sample were stable between initial assessment and follow-up 5 years later. Correlations between assessments were high for most KSP scores, indicating high individual stability. For women with resolved ADA, KSP scores were normalized to five scales at the follow-up assessment: somatic anxiety, muscular tension, monotony avoidance, social desirability and irritability. Women who recovered from anxiety disorders during the follow-up had decreased scores in somatic anxiety and muscular tension and increased scores in verbal aggression. Women who developed ADA during follow-up had increased scores on the scales impulsiveness and verbal aggression. Women who developed depression during follow-up had increased monotony avoidance. Personality traits were generally stable in this adult female population but some personality traits changed in association with changes in psychiatric disorders. This knowledge could be useful in evaluation of treatment needs and treatment outcome.

  6. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  7. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  8. [Prevalence of depression among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-04-01

    Depression burder is high worldwide. Socioeconomic factors and exposure to extreme situations at work may be associated with the illness. This study focused on the prevalence of depression and associated factors among firefighters in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted among male firefighters in Belo Horizonte (n = 711). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the association between socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stressors, health status, and depression. Prevalence of depression in the sample was 5.5%. The likelihood of developing depression was higher among firefighters who reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (OR = 12.47; 95%CI: 5.64-27.57) and alcohol abuse (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 2.35-11.96). The results are discussed considering the interrelationships between mental disorders, the healthy worker effect, and social recognition of firefighters' work.

  9. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  10. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  12. Geometric specificity of alcohol dehydrogenases and its potential for separation of trans and cis isomers of unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed Central

    Klibanov, A M; Giannousis, P P

    1982-01-01

    The geometric specificity of three different alcohol dehydrogenases (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) (from yeast, from horse liver, and from Leuconostoc mesenteroides) in the reduction of trans- and cis-cinnamaldehydes has been investigated. All three enzymes display a remarkable trans specificity: they react with the trans isomer 7 to 647 times faster than with its cis counterpart. Experiments with the enzymatic reduction of 3-phenylpropionaldehyde, a saturated analog of cinnamaldehyde, have revealed that whereas trans-cinnamaldehyde possesses the "right" configuration for the active centers of the alcohol dehydrogenases, the cis isomer apparently does not fit the active centers well. All three alcohol dehydrogenases studied also exhibit a marked trans specificity in the reaction with alpha-methylcinnamaldehyde. The geometric specificity of alcohol dehydrogenases can be used for the production of otherwise hard to synthesize cis isomers of unsaturated aldehydes from their readily available trans counterparts: trans-cinnamaldehyde was irradiated with ultraviolet light (which converted it to a mixture of trans and cis isomers) then treated with NADH and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (which selectively reduces only trans aldehyde into the alcohol), and finally the mixture of cis-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamyl alcohol was separated easily by preparative column chromatography. PMID:7048306

  13. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition. However, some treatments may help with both: Antidepressant medications may relieve both pain and depression because of shared chemical messengers in the brain. Talk therapy, also called psychological counseling (psychotherapy), can ...

  14. Perspectives on Alcohol and Medication Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Kalman; Smith, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Although health consequences of alcohol consumption with certain drugs are generally appreciated, diversity of interactions is not. In addition to central nervous system depression, combination of alcohol with other drugs may result in hypoglycemic reactions, cardiovascular complications, and other severe or unanticipated reactions. Personnel…

  15. An Examination of Depressive Symptoms and Drinking Patterns in First Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Mallett, Kimberly; Kilmer, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Depression and alcohol use are often found in college students, particularly during their first year. The current study assessed the interrelationship of alcohol use and specific depression symptoms. A large sample (n = 869) of first year students were invited to participate via the Internet Results indicated that specific depression symptoms correlated with alcohol consumption. Self-reported heavy, problem drinkers experienced significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than all other groups. Our findings higlight the importance of screening for both alcohol use and depressed mood in college students. PMID:22545634

  16. Client Attitudes toward Alcohol Use Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Stewart, Scott H.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Because psychiatric illnesses and problematic alcohol use frequently co-occur and heavy alcohol use can exacerbate depression and anxiety, mental health clinicians should perform alcohol-use screenings. The aim of this study was to determine if psychiatric patients would be accepting of their mental health clinician screening them for heavy…

  17. Client Attitudes toward Alcohol Use Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Stewart, Scott H.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Because psychiatric illnesses and problematic alcohol use frequently co-occur and heavy alcohol use can exacerbate depression and anxiety, mental health clinicians should perform alcohol-use screenings. The aim of this study was to determine if psychiatric patients would be accepting of their mental health clinician screening them for heavy…

  18. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (p<0.0001), more likely to be unemployed (p=0.04), had more pregnancy associated depressive symptoms (p<0.0001) and psychosocial stress (p<0.0001), were more likely to be smokers (p<0.0001), were more likely to be taking antidepressants (ADs) during pregnancy (p=0.002), were less likely to drink any alcohol during pregnancy (p=0.02), and were more likely to have prepregnancy medical illnesses, including diabetes (p=0.02) and neurologic conditions (p=0.02). Specific sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for PPD were identified that could help physicians target depression case finding for pregnant women.

  19. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  20. Depression and Stress in Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayerst, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores stress and depression levels in Canadian street youth and ways in which they cope. Results show that street youth (n=27) reported more stress and depression than non-runaways (n=27). Street youth were more likely to engage in acts of self-harm and to use drugs and alcohol, while non-runaways used more productive problem solving and…

  1. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  2. An appraisal of cinnamyl sulfonamide hydroxamate derivatives (HDAC inhibitors) for anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Neetinkumar D; Shoja, M H; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Rao, C Mallikarjuna

    2016-06-25

    Multiple genetic mutations along with unusual epigenetic modifications play a major role in cancer development. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme overexpression observed in the majority of cancers is responsible for tumor suppressor gene silencing and activation of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes. Cinnamic acid derivatives exhibit anti-cancer potential through HDAC enzyme inhibition. We have synthesized a few cinnamyl sulfonamide hydroxamate derivatives (NMJ-1, -2 and -3) by already published in-house procedures and their purity, and chemical characterization were performed by NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The anti-cancer activities were also evaluated against colon cancer. The rationale for synthesis was based on bioisosterism concept. To take the work forward, these compounds were considered for in vitro anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in cancer cells. The effectiveness of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. The compounds showed cancer cell cytotoxicity (IC50 range of 5.7 ± 0.43 to 20.5 ± 1.9 μM). The mechanism of compound-induced cell death involves an intrinsic apoptosis pathway which was supported by the following: increase in apoptotic index, arrest in cell cycle at G2/M phase, increase in annexin V binding and induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in the treated cells. Further, their target modulating effect, measured as the expression of acetyl-H3 histone and acetyl α-tubulin was determined by Western blots. Hyper acetylation of H3 histone and α-tubulin were observed. Furthermore, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, total Bad was estimated by ELISA. The anti-angiogenic effect was examined through cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2)-induced HIF-1α expression, where the compounds reduced the expression of induced HIF-1α. In addition, their anti-metastatic ability was determined through phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced expression of MMP-2 and -9 by Western blotting and gelatin

  3. Depression spectrum disease with and without depression in first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Rush, A J; Feldman-Koffler, F; Weissenburger, J E; Giles, D E; Roffwarg, H P; Orsulak, P J

    1995-12-13

    Family history was assessed in 211 outpatients with unipolar major depression and diagnoses were rendered according to Winokur et al. (Winokur et al. (1978) J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 166, 764-768) family history typology. The subclassification of Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism and Depression (DSDA + D) was applied to those patients reporting at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism and another first-degree relative suffering from depression (n = 103), while Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism (DSDA) was applied to those patients with at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism, but none suffering from depression (n = 108). These two groups were compared on demographic, clinical and biological characteristics. They were also compared with 162 patients who reported the presence of depression and absence of alcoholism in first-degree relatives, designated as Familial Pure Depressive Disease (FPDD) by the Winokur et al. (1978) classification. Results revealed that the DSDA + D group was younger, had an earlier age at onset of depression and experienced more episodes of depression than did the DSDA group. No differences were found between the two groups on biological measures. The FPDD group was more similar to the DSDA + D group than the DSDA group in terms of age at onset and number of depressives episodes. However, the FPDD group had a longer length of illness than either of the DSD groups. These data suggest that the DSD group should be more narrowly defined (excluding those with a positive family history of depression) in future clinical research studies.

  4. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  5. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression. We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58–1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer. Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted. PMID:26705230

  6. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  7. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also called talk therapy or mental health counseling), medication or both. Psychotherapy. It may help to talk through your concerns ...

  9. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  10. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood tests to screen for medical causes of depression. Treatment A new mother who has any symptoms of ... other mothers or join a support group. The treatment for depression after birth often includes medicine, talk therapy, or ...

  11. Childhood or Adolescent Parental Divorce/Separation, Parental History of Alcohol Problems, and Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Lizardi, Dana; Keyes, Katherine M.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined whether the experiences of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems affected the likelihood of offspring DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence, controlling for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Method Data were drawn from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative United States survey of 43,093 civilian non-institutionalized participants aged 18 and older, interviewed in person. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the main and interaction effects of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Results Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems were significantly related to offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Experiencing parental divorce/separation during childhood, even in the absence of parental history of alcohol problems, remained a significant predictor of lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing both childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems had a significantly stronger impact on the risk for DSM-IV alcohol dependence than the risk incurred by either parental risk factor alone. Conclusions Further research is needed to better identify the factors that increase the risk for lifetime alcohol dependence among those who experience childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation. PMID:18757141

  12. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation, parental history of alcohol problems, and offspring lifetime alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ronald G; Lizardi, Dana; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether the experiences of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems affected the likelihood of offspring DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence, controlling for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative United States survey of 43,093 civilian non-institutionalized participants aged 18 and older, interviewed in person. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the main and interaction effects of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems were significantly related to offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Experiencing parental divorce/separation during childhood, even in the absence of parental history of alcohol problems, remained a significant predictor of lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing both childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems had a significantly stronger impact on the risk for DSM-IV alcohol dependence than the risk incurred by either parental risk factor alone. Further research is needed to better identify the factors that increase the risk for lifetime alcohol dependence among those who experience childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation.

  13. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  14. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  15. The disabling nature of comorbid depression among older DUI recipients.

    PubMed

    Oslin, D W; O'Brien, C P; Katz, I R

    1999-01-01

    Alcoholism and depression are two of the most common and disabling mental illnesses in late life. This study is a descriptive report of a sample of 49 adults who had recently been convicted of Driving Under the Influence of alcohol (DUI). A lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence was present in 48 subjects (98%), while a depressive disorder occurred in 24 (49%) of the subjects. Concurrent alcoholism and depression, present in 12 subjects (24.5%), produced greater self-reported disability compared to those subjects with alcoholism alone. One-year longitudinal follow-up was available on 31 subjects (63.3%). Over the course of one year, there were no changes in drinking behavior, depressive symptoms, or self-reported quality of life. These data support previous studies that suggest greater disability in patients with concurrent mental illnesses.

  16. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  17. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  18. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  20. Depressive symptoms, negative urgency and substance use initiation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Farrahi, Layla; Glazier, Shannon; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies show depressive symptoms are associated with substance use in adolescents, but the mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. This study investigated negative urgency – the disposition to rash action during emotional states – as a factor explaining relations between depressive symptoms and use of several substances. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 476 adolescents (mean age 14.5 years) completed self-report surveys. Regression models and products of coefficient analyses examined the overall relation of depressive symptoms to substance use and negative urgency as a statistical mediator of this association Results Depression levels associated with increased likelihood of lifetime use of cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, inhalants, prescription painkillers, and any substance. Relations between depression levels and lifetime use of alcohol, inhalants, and any substance were accounted for (i.e., statistically mediated) by negative urgency. In adolescents endorsing lifetime use, depression levels associated with younger age of first use of other forms of tobacco and alcohol as well as use frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and composite frequency. Negative urgency accounted for the covariance between depression level and age of first use of alcohol, but did not for other forms of tobacco or frequency of use of any substances. Conclusions Depression levels are associated with lifetime use of a variety of substances in early adolescence and targeting this risk factor with preventive efforts may be useful in reducing risk. Negative urgency may be an important target for interventions aimed at alcohol and inhalant use. PMID:25280962

  1. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  2. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  3. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24099 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  6. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  7. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping<