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Sample records for depression eastern estonia

  1. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar.

    PubMed

    Nurmoja, I; Petrov, A; Breidenstein, C; Zani, L; Forth, J H; Beer, M; Kristian, M; Viltrop, A; Blome, S

    2017-01-24

    Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, African swine fever (ASF) is regarded as one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. Following the ongoing epidemic in the Transcaucasian countries and the Russian Federation, African swine fever virus was introduced into the Estonian wild boar population in 2014. Epidemiological investigations suggested two different introductions into the southern and the north-eastern part of Estonia. Interestingly, outbreak characteristics varied considerably between the affected regions. While high mortality and mainly virus-positive animals were observed in the southern region, mortality was low in the north-eastern area. In the latter, clinically healthy, antibody-positive animals were found in the hunting bag and detection of virus was rare. Two hypotheses could explain the different behaviour in the north-east: (i) the frequency of antibody detections combined with the low mortality is the tail of an older, so far undetected epidemic wave coming from the east, or (ii) the virus in this region is attenuated and leads to a less severe clinical outcome. To explore the possibility of virus attenuation, a re-isolated ASFV strain from the north-eastern Ida-Viru region was biologically characterized in European wild boar. Oronasal inoculation led to an acute and severe disease course in all animals with typical pathomorphological lesions. However, one animal recovered completely and was subsequently commingled with three sentinels of the same age class to assess disease transmission. By the end of the trial at 96 days post-initial inoculation, all animals were completely healthy and neither virus nor viral genomes were detected in the sentinels or the survivor. The survivor, however, showed high antibody levels. In conclusion, the ASFV strain from north-eastern Estonia was still highly virulent but nevertheless, one animal recovered completely. Under the experimental conditions, no transmission occurred from the survivor

  2. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  3. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  4. Eliminating rabies in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.

  5. HIV and depression in Eastern Nigeria: the role of HIV-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Onyebuchi-Iwudibia, Oscar; Brown, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients in Eastern Nigeria and to explore its association with HIV-related stigma. One hundred and five patients with a diagnosis of HIV attending HIV clinics in Eastern Nigeria completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic and health background, the Patients Health Questionnaire (to measure depression) and the Berger HIV stigma scale. As many as 33.3% of participants were considered depressed. Depression was positively correlated with overall stigma score with further analysis finding a positive correlation with all four subscales of the questionnaire (personalised stigma, disclosure, negative self-image and public attitudes). Individuals experiencing more side effects of HIV treatment were also rated as more depressed. A regression analysis found that negative self-image and number of treatment side effects were significant predictors of depression. Depression is positively associated with HIV-related stigma in this sample in Eastern Nigeria. As both stigma and depression have been shown to have a negative impact on quality of life for those with HIV, health professionals working to support them should be aware of the impact of stigma on risk of depression. Screening for both HIV-related stigma and depression would be an important intervention to promote both physical and psychological well-being amongst HIV-positive patients in Eastern Nigeria.

  6. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  7. Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, J.

    1997-11-01

    Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Outpatients in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Mahalli, AA

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus is frequently accompanied by serious complications. Less known is the increased risk for depression. Undiagnosed depression prevents initiation of treatment, thereby contributing to poor clinical outcomes. Objectives Study aimed to determine prevalence and predictors of depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methodology Study was cross-sectional. It was conducted in the outpatient clinics of diabetes mellitus in a governmental hospital in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia in 2013. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (260 participants) were selected using systematic random sampling technique. One interview questionnaire was designed to collect demographic and health factors. Two self- administered instruments were used to assess perceived social support and depression. Assessment of the relationship between depression and its predictors was done using Univariate analysis. Multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the combined effect of several factors associated with depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after adjusting for confounding variables. Results Almost fifty percent of diabetics were depressed (49.6%). Patients with poor diabetes mellitus control (OR 3.221, P.000) and unmarried (OR 3.206, P .025) were more risky for developing depression and difference was significant. Conclusion Prevalence of depression among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was almost fifty percent. So, diabetics should be regularly examined for signs and symptoms of depression. PMID:26309430

  9. Biobanking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Keis, Aime

    2016-03-01

    Estonia is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a health care system that is built on the principle of compulsory, solidarity-based insurance and the all-round availability of services of private service providers. Estonia has specific biobank legislation as well as oversight via data protection laws. Its population-based biobank, the Estonian Genome Center (EGCUT), established in 2001, is one of the largest biobanks in Europe, and its database may be used only for scientific research, public health research, and statistics. The EGCUT can issue data to a third party, but only in coded form. This comprehensive database of genotypic, phenotypic, health, and genealogical information represents about 5% of Estonia's adult population, and is the largest cohort ever gathered in Estonia. Government approval is required for international data sharing, and sharing can be further limited by the requirement of ethics approval and permission from Estonian government.

  10. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Topor, Roman; Sebakova, Helena; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Psychosocial factors at work have been found to predict a range of health outcomes but their effect on mental health outcomes has not been extensively studied. This paper explores the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The data come from a cross-sectional study of working men (n = 645) and women (n = 523) aged 45-64 years, randomly selected from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and Karvina-Havirov (Czech Republic). The questionnaire included questions on the effort and reward at work, job control, the full CES-D scale of depression, and a range of other characteristics. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between depression score and work characteristics: the logarithm of the effort-reward ratio, and continuous job control score. The means of the depression score were 10.5 for men and 14.2 for women. After controlling for age, sex and country, effort-reward ratio (logarithmically transformed) was strongly related to depression score; a 1 SD increase in the log transformed effort-reward ratio was associated with an increase in the depression of 2.0 points (95% CI 1.5; 2.4), and further adjustment did not materially change the effect. Job control was inversely associated with depression score in Poland and the Czech Republic (not in Russia) but the association was largely eliminated by controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. This study suggests that the effort-reward imbalance at work is related to prevalence of depression in these central and eastern European populations.

  11. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  12. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  13. Toenail onychomycosis in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Järv, H; Naaber, P; Kaur, S; Eisen, M; Silm, H

    2004-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical features, predisposing factors and pathogens of toenail onychomycosis in Estonia. During study period we interviewed and examined 436 dermatological patients with clinical signs of toenail onychomycosis in all counties of Estonia. In 69% of cases, the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by the mycological analysis. The most common clinical symptoms of onychomycosis both in mycologically proven and non-proven cases were discolorization of nail plate, hyperkeratosis and brittle nails. The number of infected toenails positively correlated with patients' age. On average, patient had 5.4 infected nails. In 78% of culture-positive cases, a dermatophyte was isolated as the causative agent, in 10% yeasts and in 7% moulds. In 6% of culture-positive cases we reported mixed infections. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen. The high occurrence of mixed infections, clinical symptoms characteristic to long lasting or chronic infection and high number of infected toenails indicate that Estonian patients have more advanced stage of toenail onychomycosis compared with other western and central European countries.

  14. The live-birth prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, Külliki; Joost, Kairit; Zordania, Riina; Talvik, Inga; Rein, Reet; Huijmans, Jan G M; Verheijen, Frans V; Õunap, Katrin

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in different populations have shown considerable variations. There are, however, few data with regard to the prevalence of MPSs in Fenno-Ugric populations or in north-eastern Europe, except for a report about Scandinavian countries. A retrospective epidemiological study of MPSs in Estonia was undertaken, and live-birth prevalence of MPS patients born between 1985 and 2006 was estimated. The live-birth prevalence for all MPS subtypes was found to be 4.05 per 100,000 live births, which is consistent with most other European studies. MPS II had the highest calculated incidence, with 2.16 per 100,000 live births (4.2 per 100,000 male live births), forming 53% of all diagnosed MPS cases, and was twice as high as in other studied European populations. The second most common subtype was MPS IIIA, with a live-birth prevalence of 1.62 in 100,000 live births. With 0.27 out of 100,000 live births, MPS VI had the third-highest live-birth prevalence. No cases of MPS I were diagnosed in Estonia, making the prevalence of MPS I in Estonia much lower than in other European populations. MPSs are the third most frequent inborn error of metabolism in Estonia after phenylketonuria and galactosemia.

  15. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click for more information Depression is more than ... that contribute to depression. Is It Grief or Depression? Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish grief ...

  16. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  17. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  18. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system.

  19. Research into Multilingualism in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on several issues relevant to research into multilingualism in Estonia. It is argued that a macrosociolinguistic approach is insufficient when not counterbalanced with microsociolinguistic studies (case studies of actual linguistic behaviour, linguistic creativity, mechanisms and practices of multilingual…

  20. A Connecticut Yankee in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the real incomes of U.S. and Estonian workers using a procedure from Mark Twain's "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Argues that the application of Twain's logic to the recent economic development of Estonia provides a colorful approach to teaching economic issues. (DSK)

  1. Burden of stroke in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina

    2013-07-01

    Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized.

  2. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  3. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2017-03-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  4. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  5. Analysis of the development of a hydrological balance for future decades in the Senianska depression in the Eastern Slovak lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegelhoffová, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the article was to analyze the hydrological balance for future decades in a pilot area in the Eastern Slovak lowland. The aim was to set up the physically-based Mike SHE hydrological model for the modeling hydrological balance in the selected wetland ecosystem in the Eastern Slovak Lowland. The pilot area - the Senianska depression is located near the village of Senne, between the Laborec and Uh Rivers. Specifically, it is a traditional landscape of meadows, marshes, cultivated soil, small water control structures and forests. To get a complete model set up for simulating elements of the hydrologic balance in the pilot area, it was necessary to devise a model for a larger area, which includes the pilot area - the Senianska depression. Therefore, both the Mike SHE model was set up for the Laborec River basin (a model domain of 500 × 500 m) and the Čierna voda River basin (a model domain of 100 × 100 m), for the simulation period of 1981-2007, is order to get the boundary conditions (overland flow depth, water levels, discharges and groundwater table) for the model of the pilot area. The Mike SHE model constructed for the pilot area - the Senianska depression (a model domain of 1 × 1 m) -was used to simulate the elements of the hydrological balance for the existing conditions during the simulation period of 1983-2007 and for climate scenarios for the simulation period of 1983-2100. The results of the simulated elements of the hydrological balance for the existing conditions were used for a comparison of the evolution of the hydrologic conditions in the past, for identifying wet and flooded areas and for identifying the spatial distribution of the actual evapotranspiration in the pilot area. The built-up model with setting values was used for modeling the hydrological balance in changed conditions - climate change.

  6. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... of depressants, including alcohol and the illegal drugs GHB and Rohypnol , come in liquid or powder form ... by prescription only. Some depressants, including Rohypnol and GHB, are illegal in the United States. Illegal possession ...

  7. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at ... are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is ... alone. Others with moderate to severe depression might benefit from antidepressants. It may take a few weeks ...

  9. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, ...

  10. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis, get help quickly. Reprints Share Depression Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... a serious but treatable mood disorder. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or low sometimes, but these ...

  11. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Study of structural geology in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay has achieved great breakthroughs in recent years. However the studies of structure and dynamics still remain much controversy. Based on the 3D and partial 2D seismic data, combined with regional geology and well data, the characteristics of structures in the north Jizhong Deprssion are analyzed, the dynamics is discussed. Our analyses show that the Cenozoic structures in the north Jizhong Depression can be subdivided into extensional system and strike-slip system. Extensional system concludes series of normal faults and transfer faults. Normal faults are mainly trend NNE and NE. They control the Paleogene sediments in sub-depressions of hanging-wall, and bottom out into a sub-horizontal detachment zone in deep level shaped like listric. Transfer faults mainly adjust displacement of normal faults, yet some like Tongbozhen and Niutuozhen are transfer faults in Paleocene and Eocene but change to normal faults in Oligocene. Strike-slip system is predominantly consisted by sub-vertical right-lateral strike-slip faults such as Xin`anzhen and Maxi. From seismic profiles, Xin`anzhen and Maxi cut into basement but only influence the sediments of Ed of Paleogene and Lower Neogene. Based on the relation of sedimentary sequence and faults, the extensional system mainly develops from Paleocene to Late Oligocene, but strike-slip system predominantly develops from Late Oligocene to Miocene. From the superposed section of crustal structure and basin structure in Jizhong Depression, the Cenozoic sub-basin is just located on the thinner zones of crustal, corresponding with the location of mantle uplift. It indicates that the Paleogene development of Jizhong Depression is related to the horizontal tension caused by uplift of magma in mantle. The results illustrate that extensional deformation in Jizhong depression is caused by the uplift of magma. The right-lateral strike-slip deformation, same with Tancheng

  12. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  13. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013).

  14. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other drugs to add to the other drugs ’ high or to deal with their side effects. Abusers take higher doses than people taking the drugs under a doctor ’ s supervision for therapeutic purposes. Depressants ...

  15. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, T.; Bird, G.; Wallace, D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  16. Estonia at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade of the AIDS Era in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000–2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU–non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners. PMID:21142588

  17. Estonia at the threshold of the fourth decade of the AIDS era in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Avi, Radko; DeHovitz, Jack; Uusküla, Anneli

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the trends of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Estonia during the past decade (2000-2009), with special focus on the potential for epidemic transition. Key transmission determinants and major risk groups are examined and problems and barriers to fighting HIV/AIDS with possible applications in prevention and control are described. Estonian routine data sources and published literature were reviewed, supplemented with information from personal communication with physicians and public health specialists. For comparative European data, international HIV/AIDS and drug addiction surveillance documents, administrative data, and published literature were reviewed. In Eastern Europe (including Estonia) the predominant HIV transmission mode is injection drug use (IDU), closely followed by heterosexual transmission, an increasing risk factor for new cases. Although the contribution of cases acquired by sexual contact with high-risk partners such as IDUs is not known, characteristics of the sexual networks of IDUs may be important in determining the evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the region. In Estonia, despite major gaps in available data, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still presumably confined to IDUs (and probably, to their sexual partners). In Eastern Europe, young women in IDU-non-IDU partnerships engaging in unprotected sex potentially serve as a bridge to the general population, yet knowledge of and research into the population characteristics and potential magnitude of bridging are limited. In Estonia, as in other Eastern European countries, HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives should be tailored not only to the predominantly male HIV-positive IDU population, but also to their noninfected non-IDU female sexual partners.

  18. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  19. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... crime punishable by hefty fines and jail time. How Can Someone Quit? Quitting depressants can be very difficult. A person who tries to stop taking the drugs can have tremors, breathing problems, and seizures, go into a coma, or even die. Because the body's systems get used to the ...

  20. Depression.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  1. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  2. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations.

  3. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Estonia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  4. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  5. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  6. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  7. Risk for Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among Non-Injecting Female Partners of Injection Drug Users in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Kals, M; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Rüütel, K; Des Jarlais, D C

    2013-03-01

    The HIV epidemic in Estonia, as with other eastern European countries, is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners could serve as a potential bridge in an expanding epidemic. We applied HIV transmission modelling to data collected from non-IDU/IDU heterosexual couples in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia to estimate HIV risk from IDUs to their sex partners based on self-reported sexual behaviors shared by the couple. IDUs and their current main non-injecting sex partners were recruited for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. Bernoulli modelling techniques were applied to estimate the risk of HIV transmission (incidence) among HIV negative non-injecting female partners of male IDUs. The estimated HIV incidence in this population of non-injecting women with only main sexual partners in the last 6 months ranged from 3.24 to 4.94 HIV seroconversions per 100 person years depending on the value used in the models for the per act transmission rate during acute stage infection. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners are at high risk for HIV and could serve as a potential bridge to a more generalized epidemic. Whether this might lead to an expansion of the HIV epidemic beyond core groups in Estonia or other Eastern European countries warrants closer study.

  8. Distribution of enterobiasis among nursery school children in SE Estonia and of other helminthiases in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remm, Mare

    2006-11-01

    The occurrence of helminthiases in Estonia was under extensive observation from 1956 until 1989. Enterobiasis had remained the most prevalent helminthiasis in Estonia in the 1990s. After 1990, the number of helminthological studies decreased. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and possible risk factors of enterobiasis among nursery school children in Southeast Estonia. A total of 954 nursery school children were examined from 22 nursery schools in Tartu and Põlva counties in Estonia. Enterobius vermicularis infection was detected using the anal swab technique. The parents of tested children were asked to complete questionnaires so as to ascertain the potential risk factors in children's homes and in their families. The overall rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg was 24.4%. The occurrence of enterobiasis among the examined nursery schools ranged from 11.8 to 46.2% and from 0 to 61.1% in nursery school groups. All nursery schools were infected. Children 5-8 years of age showed a significantly higher rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg than the younger children. The overall infection rate was higher among boys and among children from larger families. The infection rate was related to washing of hands after closet use. The socioeconomic status of the family was not associated with the frequency of enterobiasis.

  9. Personality disorders and its association with anxiety and depression among patients of severe acne: A cross-sectional study from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sharmila; Patra, Paramita; Mridha, Kakali; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Thakurta, Rajarshi Guha

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many patients, emotional stress may exacerbate acne. Psychological problems such as social phobias, low self-esteem, or depression may also occur as a result of acne. The presence of acne may have some negative effect on the quality of life, self-esteem, and mood of the affected patients. While some studies have been undertaken about anxiety, depression, and personality patterns in patients with acne, only a few studies have been done to identify specific personality disorders in patients with acne. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data regarding the effect of personality disorder on the psychological states of the patients which prompted us to undertake the present study. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, undertaken in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India. Consecutive patients suffering from severe (Grade 3 and 4) acne, attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department, aged above 18 years were included to the study. Results: A total of 65 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 26 years. Personality disorder was present in 29.2% of patients. The diagnosed personality disorders were obsessive compulsive personality disorder (n = 9, 13.8%), anxious (avoidant) personality disorder (n = 6, 9.2%), and borderline personality disorder (n = 2, 3%), mixed personality disorder (n = 2, 3%). All patients with personality disorder had some psychiatric comorbidity. Patients having personality disorder had higher number of anxiety and depressive disorders which were also statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study highlights that personality disorders and other psychiatric comorbidities are common in the setting of severe acne. PMID:28196993

  10. Restoration of the depression structure at the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan by means of dislocation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takemoto, Shuzo

    1999-02-01

    We have attempted to restore a subsurface structure in the eastern part of central Kyushu, Japan, by combining fault motions which were modeled as dislocation planes embedded in an elastic isotropic half space. The simulated crustal deformation pattern was compared with the subsurface structures estimated from gravity anomalies and/or seismic prospecting. The modeling procedure successfully restored all tectonic basins in the area without any need for motive forces for uplift or subsidence. The results also suggest that two major tectonic events have occurred in this region. Those are (1) the formation of half-graben caused by north-south extension, and (2) the formation of the pull-apart basin caused by east-west compression.

  11. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2014-09-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  12. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  13. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    PubMed

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected.

  14. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  15. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... related. Depression can cause pain — and pain can cause depression. Sometimes pain and depression create a vicious cycle ... depression worsens feelings of pain. In many people, depression causes unexplained physical symptoms such as back pain or ...

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of spinal muscular atrophy type I in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vaidla, Eve; Talvik, Inga; Kulla, Andres; Kahre, Tiina; Hamarik, Malle; Napa, Aita; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Piirsoo, Andres; Talvik, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the second most frequent autosomal-recessive disorder in Europeans. There are no published epidemiological data on SMA in Estonia and other Baltic countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of SMA I in Estonia. All patients with SMA I diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2003 were included in the study. The diagnosis was established on the basis of neurological evaluation, ENMG findings, molecular studies and muscle biopsy. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was used to detect the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. A total of 9 cases of SMA I were identified during this 10-year period. The incidence of SMA I in Estonia is 1 in 14,400 live births, which is similar to the result from Hungary but lower than average incidence in the world. Only one of the patients was female. Typical SMN1 gene deletion was found in all cases.

  17. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  18. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  19. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  20. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  1. [Hospital care in Estonia: thoughts on patient privacy].

    PubMed

    Schoenacker, Aline

    2017-03-01

    A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations.

  2. The Russian Diaspora in Latvia and Estonia: Predicting Language Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Artemi

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the language situation in the Russian diaspora in Latvia and Estonia and analyzes these factors that are critical in determining language outcomes for a language community within one country that speaks a majority language of another. Examines the possibility of three outcomes: language maintenance, bilingualism, and language shift in a…

  3. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  4. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  5. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  6. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations.

  7. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  8. Helminth fauna of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Valdmann, H; Moks, E; Talvik, H

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-seven carcasses of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) collected and examined in Estonia during 1999-2001 had helminths. Parasites identified and their prevalence included Diphyllobothrium latum (5%), Taenia pisiformis (100%), Taenia laticollis (41%), Taenia hydatigena (3%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3%), Toxocara cati (68%), and Trichinella spp. (22%). The only significant relationships (P < or = 0.05) between occurrence of helminths and host age and sex were a greater number of T. pisiformis and T. laticollis in older than in youger male lynx, and older males had a greater number of species of helminth than did younger lynx. Sixty-one fecal samples collected during snow tracking of nine lynx were examined; eggs of T. cati were identified in 38 samples, and Capillaria spp were found in eight samples. This is the first systematic investigation of parasites of lynx in Estonia.

  9. Reproduction of the stone loach, Barbatula barbatula (L.) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saat, Toomas; Lauringson, Gustav; Lees, Janek

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction of the stone loach was investigated in two rivers of northwestern Estonia (Vääna and Maidla, 59 degrees N). Loaches in the Vääna River were slow growing and males prevailed among older fish; in the Maidla River loaches were fast growing and females dominated among older fish. Reproduction indices (age at maturation, duration of the spawning season, number of egg batches, fecundity, oocyte diameter, annual dynamics of gonadosomatic index and oocyte diameter) of comparably sized loach of Vääna and Maidla were similar and intermediate between more southern and more northern populations. Female investment in offspring (measured as the volume of spawned eggs) in Estonia was close to that in England; however, energy was invested in a smaller number of larger eggs (larvae). Our results confirm earlier data on the remarkable variation of life history patterns of the stone loach and indicate clinal variation of several reproduction indices along a north-south axis.

  10. The verification of GIA in Estonia using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Oja, Tõnis

    2014-05-01

    Estonia is situated at the South-East corner of the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound (PGR) area, thus the impact of ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment could be noticed on accurate geodetic measurements; e.g. in Estonia the uplift rates up to 4 mm/yr have been observed so far. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates derived from (1) the time series of several Estonian GNSS permanent reference stations (CORS), and (2) nation-wide GPS campaigns held in 1997 and 2008. Different methods and software were used to process and analyse GNSS data and time series. Slight discrepancies between the results helped to evaluate the effects of different approaches in data processing. To model the surface displacements and other geodetic quantities in response to the melting of ice sheets the open source software SELEN (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) with several ice models was used. The observed displacements of geodetic points as well as velocity estimates of CORS were compared with the predictions of latest PGR empirical models (e.g. NKG2005LU) and with the results from GIA modelling. In most cases good fit between the observations and models was found within study area. The higher discrepancies appeared in the East and South-East Estonia. Besides noise in aforementioned measurements the reason could be that almost no observed data from study area have been used in compilation of widespread (common, well-known) ice and GIA models. Keywords: GNSS measurements, postglacial rebound, glacial isostatic adjustment, Estonia. References Spada, G., Stocchi, P. (2007). SELEN: A Fortran 90 program for solving the "sea-level equation". Computers & Geosciences, 33:538-562, 2007.

  11. Dirofilaria repens Microfilaremia in Three Dogs in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Mõtsküla, Paul F; Heikkinen, Petra; Ülevaino, Epp; Oksanen, Antti; Lassen, Brian

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, the zoonotic parasite Dirofilaria repens continues to spread northward. We describe three likely autochthonous canine microfilaremic D. repens infections from Estonia, an European Union country located in the Baltic region of northern Europe. The parasite species was confirmed with sequencing. These are new northernmost D. repens findings in Europe and show that the zoonotic parasite has spread farther north. Infection with D. repens should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for human and animal hosts also in northern Europe.

  12. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  13. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  14. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  15. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Estonia 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mere, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Estonia restored its independence in 1991. The creation of legislation and reorganisation of the educational system was one of the first tasks of the restored Republic of Estonia. The development of the national curriculum for basic and upper secondary schools that provided a framework substituting the previous study modules, and the creation of…

  16. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  17. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2016-09-26

    Objective: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. Method: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. Conclusion: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  19. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  20. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  1. Financing Estonia's unemployment insurance system: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Paas, T; Scannell, N J

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, favorable media coverage of the glowing employment situation in the United States has been the norm. History, for one, won't permit us, however, to become complacent with what appears on the books to be a rosy economic picture for the nation. Moreover, the mounting recognition that the U.S. economy is inextricably tied to those of other nations--large and small--serves to keep us vigilant. This paper allows us a comparative exploration of the employment conditions in Estonia and the problems and prospects of financing its unemployment insurance program.

  2. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  4. Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical

  5. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I.

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  6. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. Methods The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008–2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Results Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5–54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23–4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21–3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13–2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05–2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01–2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of “non-lump” symptoms of breast cancer and

  7. Recharge to Shale Bedrock at Averill Park, an Upland Hamlet in Eastern New York - An Estimate Based on Pumpage within a Defined Cone of Depression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Finch, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Water levels beneath parts of Averill Park, a residential hamlet in an upland area of till-mantled shale bedrock in east-central New York, have declined in response to increased withdrawals from new wells. Similar experiences in many upland localities in the northeastern United States have resulted in awareness that the rate of recharge to bedrock can be an important constraint on the density of new development in uplands. Recharge at Averill Park was calculated on the basis of careful estimation of pumpage within a defined cone of depression. The data-collection and recharge-estimation procedures documented herein could be applied in a variety of upland localities in support of community-planning studies. Static water levels measured in 145 wells at Averill Park during the late summer of 2002 defined a 0.54-square-mile cone of depression within which ground-water discharge took place entirely as withdrawals from wells. Rates of withdrawal were estimated largely from surveys in similar neighborhoods a few miles away served by public water supply. Comparison of the water-level measurements in 2002 with measurements on other dates revealed localized declines that could be attributed to new housing developments or commercial demands, but also demonstrated that water levels in 2002 within the cone of depression had stabilized and were not declining persistently over time. Therefore, the current withdrawals were equated to recharge from infiltrating precipitation. Recharge within this area was estimated to average 104 gallons per day per acre, equivalent to 1.4 inches annually, and was sufficient to sustain a residential population of 1.9 persons per acre. This recharge rate is much lower than rates estimated from streamflow records for upland watersheds elsewhere in the northeastern United States. This rate is an average of an unknown larger rate in the 30 percent of the study area where bedrock is discontinuously overlain by less than 30 feet of till and an unknown

  8. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  9. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    was founded in 1 Tallinn, Estonia. "Estonia was chosen as an experimental for creating a general automatized planning and directing ,2 The first...Lielupe, and the Venta . The republic is, hovever, poorly supplied 4ith mineral deposits. The primary mining products are sand and sandstone, gypsum...social system, but had little time to organize o.vlt style institutions %efore the Nazi invasion of June 1941. There was, however, time to plan and

  10. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women.

  11. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crying Reduced concentration Appetite problems Trouble sleeping Postpartum depression symptoms Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby ... drugs, which can make mood swings worse Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also ...

  12. Atypical Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  13. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  14. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Estonia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  15. Acute de novo Leukemia in Estonia and Western Sweden 1982-2006: Positive Trend in the Survival of Acute Leukemia over 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Hulegårdh, Erik; Punab, Mari; Holmberg, Erik; Palk, Katrin; Laane, Edward; Everaus, Hele; Wennström, Lovisa; Stockelberg, Dick

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the incidence, treatment, and survival of de novo acute leukemia in a 25-year perspective in western Sweden and Estonia. At the beginning of our study, Estonia was a part of the Eastern bloc with planned economy, but since 1991 it is a member of the European Union and transforming into a market economy. Survival rates have steadily increased in both countries. However, a gap between their survival curves remains. Based on our data, it is difficult to explain the big difference in the 5-year relative survival in favor of western Sweden (55 vs. 22%). In Germany, there was a big difference in overall cancer survival between East and West Germany after the fall of the iron curtain, but today no difference is seen. Differences in survival are probably due to a higher proportion of intense chemotherapy regimens and a higher rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Sweden. Other important factors might be better supportive care and diagnostics as well as better adjuvant therapy. Better staff training and conditions in wards are also factors that might play an essential role.

  16. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    solely by the basin depth and duration of the ice cover period. A normal grading is observed in most of the studied winter layers of individual varves. Relatively large errors in the estimated terminal grain size permits only to conclude that it is in line with previously reconstructed water depth constrained by the maximum possible duration of the lake ice cover. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF Mobilitas grant No MJD309. References Hang, T., Kohv, M. 2013. Glacial varves at Pärnu, south-western Estonia: a local varve chronology and proglacial sedimentary environment. GFF, June, 37-41. doi:10.1080/11035897.2013.775598 Rosentau, A., Vassiljev, J., Hang, T., Saarse, L., Kalm, V. 2009. Development of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic. Quaternary International, 206(1-2), 16-23. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.10.005

  17. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  18. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... unrelated to the reason for your appointment Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life ... accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve personal inadequacy or other negative themes Catatonia — depression that ...

  19. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low.

  20. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  1. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  2. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  3. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  4. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  5. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education.

  6. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices.

  7. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  8. Prevalence of MS in south Estonia. Evidence of a new border of the Fennoscandian focus.

    PubMed

    Gross, K; Kokk, A; Kaasik, A E

    1993-10-01

    A population-based study of MS was carried out in South Estonia in 1988-1989. Cases were identified from the Tartu University Hospital archives where all MS cases in South Estonia are diagnosed, from all neurologists and nursing homes of the region, and from the local Multiple Sclerosis Society. The prevalence in South Estonia is 51 per 100,000, for native Estonians 55, for Russians 29, for other nationalities 42 per 100,000. The prevalence rate in different counties was demonstrated as low as 31 per 100,000 in the County of Tartu, to 72 per 100,000 in Pôlva County; 55% of patients have retired because of their handicap and only 2 patients (1%) were living in nursing homes.

  9. High genotypic diversity found among population of Phytophthora infestans collected in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Runno-Paurson, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Hannukkala, Asko

    2016-03-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. This is the first study characterising Estonian P. infestans population using the SSR marker genotyping method. 70 P. infestans isolates collected during the growing season in 2004 from eight potato fields in three different regions of Estonia were characterised with nine polymorphic SSR markers. A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected from every studied field indicating the high potential for sexual reproduction, which raises the genotypic diversity in P. infestans population. Results revealed highly diverse P. infestans population in Estonia resembling the Northern European populations. Most of the multilocus genotypes were detected only once among the collected isolates. Subpopulations collected from different geographical regions of Estonia showed no differentiation from each other but instead formed one highly diverse group.

  10. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-09-24

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  11. Satellite Movie Shows Three Tropical Cyclones in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-Wast satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Depression Genevieve (left) southwest of Hawaii, Hurricane Iselle (center) in the Eastern...

  12. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  14. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  15. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  16. E-Learning as Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness of the VET Teachers' Community in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Kruusvall, Juri; Umarik, Meril

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the acceptance of e-learning by teachers of vocational secondary and professional higher education institutions (hereafter: VET teachers) in Estonia has been analysed. The analysis is based on questionnaire study, carried out in 2007. The theoretical framework of the article has been inspired by Everett Rogers' innovation…

  17. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  18. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  19. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12–15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013. PMID:27813471

  20. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  1. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  2. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  3. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  4. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  5. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  6. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  7. Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2015-10-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.

  8. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  9. The Professional Foreign Language Teacher in Estonia: Students' and Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia as a typical country in transition is going through major changes in educational thinking. Global and European educational trends, together with local changes, the most important being a new state system, have resulted in changes in the concept of professional foreign language (FL) teaching. Common ground among various…

  10. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries.

  11. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  12. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  13. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  14. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  15. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  16. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  17. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  18. Depression Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  19. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  20. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  1. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  2. Values and sexual behaviour in central and eastern europe.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Realo, Anu; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Kozlova, Alexandra; Luu, Lan Anh Nguyen; Nizharadze, George

    2002-01-01

    Despite the profusion of social cognitive models for the prediction of sexual behaviour, we have only limited knowledge as to the role of individual values in predicting risky sexual activity. This study assessed the relationship between a recently developed value structure and sexual behaviour in the context of rising HIV infection in central and eastern Europe. Five hundred and three respondents (business people, doctors and nurses) from Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Poland and Russia completed Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire and reported their condom use, partnership history and record of sexual disease. Results indicated that values had a moderate but consistent relationship with sexual behaviour, with riskier sexual activity reported by those high on Openness to Change, Hedonism and Self-Enhancement. These findings are discussed in the context of the need for culturally sensitive interventions in order to tackle the growing HIV epidemic in this region.

  3. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  4. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

  5. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  6. Onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis: the first report in Estonia and lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Järv, Helle

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of onychomycosis caused by Onychocola canadensis in Estonia. We believe that the number of nail infections caused by this fungus is underestimated due to the current diagnostic algorithm of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. The need to define categories and criteria for 'proven' and 'probable' non-dermatophyte mold infections to promote more extensive studies in the future is also discussed.

  7. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.

  8. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  9. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  10. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  11. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  12. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage.

  13. The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel

    2013-02-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries.

  14. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  15. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  16. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  17. [Pediatric depression].

    PubMed

    Eggers, C

    1988-12-01

    In 12 children between 6 and 12 years of age who were treated as inpatients for depression (diagnosed according to the Weinberg-criteria, a child-adapted modification of DSM-III-criteria), a close relationship was found between family pathology, psychodynamics and depression. The conflicts in the interactions between the depressed children and their caregivers became evident in the children's drawings, in the Scenotest and in play therapy. In play therapy the repressed feelings of powerlessness, helplessness, disappointment, resignation and anger came to light. The children had a pseudo-stabilizing function in the family that placed too heavy demands on them, with the result that they became dependent and helpless and tended to despair. A situation developed that can be characterized as "learned helplessness" and that is a useful behavioral-physiological and neurobiological model of depression for different age groups.

  18. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  19. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It's important for new mothers — and those who love them — to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression ... Once she's receiving the care she needs, support, love, and friendship are good medicine, too. Here are ...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  1. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  2. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  3. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  4. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms.

  5. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  6. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  7. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms.

  8. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  9. Composition of the essential oil of the Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Gretchushnikova, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Wild Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja shoots were collected from four localities of Estonia. Essential oils, isolated from dried samples by simultaneous distillation and extraction, were analysed using GC-FID and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The yields of oils were in the range 0.14-0.87%. A total of 72 constituents, accounting for over 95% of the total oil yield, were identified. The major components in the all four oils studied were palustrol (15.9-53.5%), ledol (11.8-18.3%), γ-terpineol (0-31.2%), p-cymene (0.1-13.9%), lepalone (0.7-6.5%), lepalol (1.0-6.5%) and cyclocolorenone (1.0-6.4%). Two different chemotypes of R. tomentosum were found in Estonia and one of them was rich in palustrol (41.0-53.5%) and ledol (14.6-18.3%). The second chemotype, for the first time, was rich in γ-terpineol (24.7-31.2%) and contained less of palustrol (15.9-16.7%) and ledol (11.8-12.8%), but more p-cymene (12.5-13.9%). Also, γ-terpineol was identified for the first time in the oils of R. tomentosum.

  10. Stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation changes from Lake Nuudsaku in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Carolyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Dodd, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated, finely laminated lake sediments record Holocene precipitation changes from southern Estonia. Modern water isotope data suggest that Lake Nuudsaku is a mostly open system that is primarily fed by winter precipitation and groundwater, and summer precipitation plays only a secondary role in the overall hydrologic balance. Initial results indicate that changes in insolation likely drove the overall Holocene pattern with relatively wet conditions during the early Holocene, followed by arid conditions during the middle Holocene and a return to wetter conditions during the late Holocene. However, there is pronounced millennial and centennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by insolation forcing alone. Notably, there is a trend toward wetter conditions from ~4.0 to 2.0 ka, followed by a trend toward drier conditions during the last 2 millennia. This late Holocene pattern diverges from the pattern observed in records from north-central Estonia that suggest an overall trend of wetter conditions for the last ~4 ka. These initial results thus indicate that the Lake Nuudsaku sediments have the potential to yield a unique near-annual to decade-scale record of past precipitation changes from the southern Baltic region.

  11. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  12. Beyond Words: Dance and Movement Sessions with Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodgame, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    This article details an experimental project in Estonian schools, using therapeutic dance and movement as a basis to explore beyond the boundaries of language in supporting young people to develop their creative expression. The author visited three residential schools in different areas of Estonia in September 2006 to lead sessions with groups of…

  13. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  14. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  15. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before.

  16. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  17. Between East and West Is North: The Loyalties and Allegiances of Russian Authors and Painters Living in EU Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouillard, Remy

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Russian intelligentsia is closely related to discourses concerning Russia's position vis-a-vis Europe and the Western world, such as those of Slavophiles and Westernisers. This paper is about Russian authors and painters who are now becoming part of Europe, as the country in which they live, Estonia, has recently entered the…

  18. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  19. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  20. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  1. Depression and Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  2. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  3. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  4. Optimisation strategies introduced for CR at health care centres in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Kalle; Vladimirov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, starting from 2001, conventional film-screen radiography has been rapidly replaced by digital (mostly by computed radiography, CR) techniques in Estonia. New strategies for optimisation and quality assurance for digital radiography have been introduced by the DIMOND III and SENTINEL partners recently. It includes consideration to diagnostic requirements of a given clinical situation, but also objectivation and standardisation of image quality, e.g. using CDRAD test phantom, and constancy testing. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of an automatic exposure control (AEC) at different sensitivities when used with the Fujifilm CR system. Image quality, using threshold contrast-detail detectability (TCDD) and signal-to-noise ratio squared related to dose (SNR2/D), was also investigated for different sensitivities and tube potential values for this combination. Based on the image evaluation data, optimum speed modes for the organ programme settings have been proposed.

  5. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  6. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Conclusion Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted. PMID:24902957

  8. Composition of essential oil of aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Sepp, Janne; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.) growing wild in Estonia, were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. Forty-four components were identified, representing over 90% of the total oil. Nine compounds have not been mentioned in the literature before. The principal biologically active compounds in C. suaveolens oils were (Z)-en-yne-dicycloether (17.0-40.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (19.5-32.2%), geranyl isovaleriate (8.4-18.4%), palmitic acid (0.3-9.4%) and myrcene (1.1-7.9%). The investigation seems to approve the benefit of using aerial parts of pineapple weed as the substitute for flowers.

  9. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  10. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  11. Assessment of potential hazards during the process of house building in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, Sergei; Lang, Iina; Rjazanov, Vladislav; Muzyka, Vladimir; Tuulik, Viiu; Vitak, Anu

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia. Three construction sites were investigated: a dwelling house at the stage of renovation, a warehouse at the stage of excavation and preparation work, and a hotel, where we examined the working conditions of the finishers. Microclimate: air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were determined at every workplace. Full-shift personal exposure measurements of dust and gas exposure were performed among 97 construction workers in breathing zone air. The concentration of lead in the air was analysed by AAS. Vapours of benzene, styrene and toluene concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The noise level was measured with the help of the sound-level meter at every workplace. All microclimatic indices were sometimes below or above exposure standards for indoor work. High levels of airborne dust and increased concentrations of lead were observed during repair work. Low concentrations of organic solvents in the air were determined when using paints and some synthetic substances. The noise level exceeded the permitted limit when an excavator and powerful electric appliances were used. A questionnaire determined the prevalence of subjectively experienced musculoskeletal strain in 30% of workers. The working conditions in the construction industry in Estonia are approaching European level. However, it is necessary to improve working conditions permanently by the use of new harmless materials, personal protective equipment, and through influencing worker health by permanent education and medical watch. We consider that questionnaires are very important in the control of the work environment, in subjective health assessments, and as a source of useful proposals to improve working conditions.

  12. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  13. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-04-05

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  14. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Estonia: an estimate based on rheumatology patients' database.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Tammaru, M; Vorobjov, S; Esko, M; Pärsik, E; Lang, K

    2013-04-01

    Sound epidemiological data are a basic requirement for decision making on the allocation of health care resources. Unfortunately, this is not the case in Estonia, where the paucity of epidemiological data has impeded health care planning for rheumatic conditions. The current paper presents the first effort to explore the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Estonia. Electronic databases of all rheumatology units of Harju County, three national and one private, were searched for the records of RA (ICD-10 diagnoses M05 and M06.0) patients who had visited a rheumatologist during 2006 or 2007. Prevalence of RA was calculated for the age 20 years and older and for subsets according to age and gender, using the numbers from the patients' database in the numerator and the corresponding population numbers in the denominator. The total number of prevalent RA cases was 1,897, of which 85 % (n = 1,605) were women. The overall crude period prevalence 2006-2007 of RA in Harju County for the age group 20 years and older was 0.46 %. RA prevalence for both sexes increased with age until the age of 70-79 years and decreased subsequently. Prevalence of RA was significantly higher for women compared with men in all age groups. The prevalence of RA among women and men 20 years and older was 0.70 % (6.68-7.37) and 0.16 % (1.42, 1.79), respectively. Age-standardized (European population) prevalence rate was 0.44 %. The results are concordant with epidemiological data on RA prevalence derived recently in other European countries.

  15. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  16. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  17. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  18. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  19. Major depression, dysthymia and depressive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    1994-12-01

    The separation of persistent depression into meaningful and useful subcategories, including major depression, dysthymia, recurrent brief depression, and depressive personality disorder, is the subject of much debate. Depressions can be grouped on the basis of their type and severity of symptoms, aetiology, clinical course, or their association with other psychiatric illnesses. Several investigators have conducted epidemiologic and family studies to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders, their diagnostic stability over time, and the amount of overlap among the disorders. Although progress has been made toward a better understanding of the different disorders, insufficient evidence exists to support the hypothesis that these disorders are separate and distinct from one another. However, preliminary data suggest that depressive personality disorder is separate from the other disorders. Additionally, several questions have been raised, particularly the extent to which differentiation between the depressive disorders, specifically major depression and dysthymia, has an impact on treatment decisions.

  20. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  1. An Economic Analysis of Out-Migration from a Depressed Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Larry Clinton

    In an effort to estimate some of the components of the net social costs and benefits of rural-to-urban migration, 161 Lexington, Kentucky migrants (randomly selected via census data) who had migrated from the rural, economically depressed area of Eastern Kentucky were surveyed in 1971 to gather information re: their last year in Eastern Kentucky…

  2. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  3. Rabies in Estonia: situation before and after the first campaigns of oral vaccination of wildlife with SAG2 vaccine bait.

    PubMed

    Niin, Enel; Laine, M; Guiot, A L; Demerson, J M; Cliquet, F

    2008-07-04

    Despite the extermination of stray animals and the compulsory vaccination of companion animals, rabies has been widely distributed over Estonia for more than 30 years. The red fox and the raccoon dog are the rabies virus reservoirs. Through a PHARE project, successive oral vaccination campaigns, using Rabidog SAG2 baits, were implemented in the autumn of 2005 in North Estonia, and in the spring and autumn 2006 throughout the whole territory. After the autumn 2005 campaign, 73.5% of the raccoon dogs and foxes were positive for the tetracycline biomarker. After the campaigns of 2006, the seroconversion rate for rabies virus was 64% in both species. After the vaccination campaigns of 2005 and 2006, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased. Of the 97 cases diagnosed in the whole of Estonia until the end of May 2006, 16 cases (16.5%) occurred within the vaccinated area. Only 17 cases were diagnosed between 1 June and 31 December 2006. In 2007, by the end of May, only two rabies cases have been registered.

  4. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  5. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  6. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  7. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  8. Depression and College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  9. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  10. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  11. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  12. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  13. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  14. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Families with Depression, School, Marital, Family and Situational Problems: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents descriptive data on the treatment of families in family therapy at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (EPPI) reporting improvement rates for families with depression, school, family, marital, and situational problems. Those with family and situational problems improved most with many session, those with depression improved in…

  16. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  17. Westward propagating predecessors of monsoon depressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, K.; Sanders, F.; Shukla, J.

    1981-01-01

    Sea-level pressure data for the period 1969-1978 are used to investigate the relation between Bay of Bengal lows and depressions and disturbances propagating from the east. Of the 52 lows and depressions studied, 45 were associated with such predecessor disturbances. In 12 cases, the predecessor was associated with a typhoon or named tropical storm in the South China Sea, while the remaining 33 were weaker systems originating over a broad region of land and sea. From examination of time sections over the same period from eastern Thailand to the Burmese coast, 50 westward-moving disturbances with considerable vertical extent were identified, 64% of which developed into lows or depressions on reaching the Bay. In 60% of the 50 instances, the disturbance could be traced to the South China Sea (32% typhoons and 28% weaker circulations). The remaining 40% of the 50 disturbances appeared to originate over land.

  18. Posttraumatic Stress among Not-Exposed Traumatically Bereaved Relatives after the MS Estonia Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Lilian; Öhlén, Joakim; Sandberg, Jonas; Brandänge, Kristina; Gustavsson, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions in bereaved individuals following loss in disaster who were not directly exposed to disaster. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of PTS up to three years after losing relatives in the MS Estonia ferry disaster, one of the worst maritime disasters in modern times. Methods Seven postal surveys were sent out over three years post-disaster. The respondents were invited and added consecutively during the three years and 938 relatives participated in one or more of the surveys, representing 89% of the MS Estonia’s Swedish victims. The survey included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure PTS. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze PTS over time. Results The majority of bereaved individuals had high levels of PTS. At three years post-loss, 62% of the respondents scored above the recommended cut-off value on the IES. Over time, PTS symptoms declined, but initially high symptoms of PTS were associated with a slower recovery rate. Conclusion The present finding suggests that being an indirectly-exposed disaster-bereaved close-relative can lead to very high levels of PTS which are sustained for several years. PMID:27893756

  19. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  20. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  1. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  2. Measurement of community empowerment in three community programs in Rapla (Estonia).

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-03-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality's decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community's priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  3. Content of phenolic compounds in aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Püssa, Tõnu; Sepp, Janne; Malmiste, Birgit; Arak, Elmar

    2011-08-01

    The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and coumarins in the aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.), growing wild in Estonia, was determined chromato-spectrophotometrically, and individual polyphenols were quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The total content of polyphenols was rather similar in flowers (9.1-11.5%) and in whole aerial parts (8.4-10.9%) of pineapple weed. The upper one-third (1/3) and upper two-thirds (2/3) of the aerial parts contained more flavonoids (0.15 - 0.20%) than the flowers (0.12%). The content of coumarins showed no significant difference between the flowers and the upper 1/3 and 2/3 of the aerial parts. The main polyphenols in the flowers were dicaffeoylquinic acids (202-380 mkg/mL), chlorogenic acids (75-185 mkg/mL), and ferulic acid glycoside (61-124 mkg/mL). Also found were quercetin galactoside, apigenin acetylglucoside, malonylapigenin glucoside, as well as luteolin, quercetin and apigenin glycosides.

  4. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden--a field study.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Jaakmees, V; Bodin, L

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, ri = 0.81 (Pearson's intra-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESM and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial inter-method difference. We therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, our findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situations will be needed.

  5. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  6. Palaeomagnetism of Middle Ordovician Carbonate Sequence, Vaivara Sinimäed Area, Northeast Estonia, Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri; Preeden, Ulla; JÕeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu

    2016-10-01

    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimäed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east- to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75°) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the postsedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano)magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A ( D ref = 154.6°± 15.3°, I ref = 60.9°± 9.7°) was identified. The component is carried by (titano)magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician ( Plat = 17.9°, Plon = 47.3°, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3°), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.

  7. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia.

  8. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  9. Biomonitoring of aquatic sediments from Estonia with a fish liver cell line (PLHC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Huuskonen, S.; Ritola, O.; Koponen, K.; Lindstroem-Seppae, P.; Tuvikene, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments were collected from lake Vorstjaerv and River Narva, Estonia, and extracted with dichloromethane. PLHC-1 cells were exposed to the extracts of the dry sediments. Cytotoxicity (total protein content) and CYP1A inducibility (EROD activity) was detected in the exposed cells. The contents of selected PAHs in the R. Narva sediments were also analyzed. The sediments collected from R. Narva were more toxic and caused higher EROD induction in the cells than the sediments from L. Vortsjaerv. The sediments collected from the northern part of the L. Vortsjaerv showed cytotoxicity. The sediments collected from the southern part of L. Vortsjaerv showed slight induction in EROD activity. In R. Narva, the most toxic sediments were collected downstream from the city of Narva and the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. At sublethal level of the sediment concentrations, also the highest EROD activities were seen at these downstream sites. At the sites heavily polluted with PAHs, also the EROD activities were high. The correlation between the PAH contents and EROD activities was not so evident when the sediments contained less PAHs. The PLHC-1 cells could serve as a sensitive method for screening cytotoxic and enzyme-inducing effects of the sediment extracts. This helps in evaluating the potential hazard of the compounds bound in the sediments for aquatic life. Further, the PLHC-1 cells can be used in comparing the properties of the sediments collected from different lakes and rivers.

  10. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  11. Comparison of dust sampling methods in Estonia and Sweden -- A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, P.; Jaakmees, V.; Bodin, L.

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, r{sub i} = 0.91 (Pearson's intro-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESm and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial intermethod difference. The authors therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, the findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situation will be needed.

  12. Breast cancer and depression.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Wendy; Stout, Steven C; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique

    2004-07-01

    Major depression and depressive symptoms, although commonly encountered in patients with medical illnesses, are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in women with breast cancer. Depression and its associated symptoms diminish quality of life, adversely affect compliance with medical therapies, and reduce survival. Treatment of depression in women with breast cancer improves their dysphoria and other depressive symptoms, enhances quality of life, and may increase longevity. In this review, studies that investigate pathophysiologic alterations in patients with cancer and comorbid depression are discussed, and the few studies on treatment of depression and related symptoms in women with breast cancer are examined.

  13. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  14. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  15. Ground-water concerns for the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia is a peninsula that is surrounded on three sides by salty water and has no major fresh surface-water sources; groundwater provides the sole freshwater supply. Beginning in about 1965, increases in groundwater withdrawals for agricultural, commercial, urban, and industrial uses have caused water-level declines and have created cone-like depressions in the water-level surface around major pumping centers near the Towns of Accomac, Cape Charles, Cheriton, Chincoteague, Exmore, and Hallwood, Virginia. Increased water withdrawals could adversely affect the supply of fresh groundwater on the Eastern Shore. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the counties of Accomack and Northampton, completed a comprehensive study of the groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore. This report highlights the major results of that study. (USGS)

  16. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  17. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  18. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  19. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals.

  1. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  2. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  3. Depression and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2003-01-01

    Depressive disorders are common among 20% to 32% of people with HIV disease but are frequently unrecognized. Major depression is a recurring and disabling illness that typically responds to medications, cognitive psychotherapy, education, and social support. A large percentage of the emotional distress and major depression associated with HIV disease results from immunosuppression, treatment, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the disease. People with a history of intravenous drug use also have increased rates of depressive disorders. Untreated depression along with other comorbid conditions may increase costly clinic visits, hospitalizations, substance abuse, and risky behaviors and may reduce adherence to treatment and quality of life. HIV clinicians need not have psychiatric expertise to play a major role in depression. Screening tools improve case finding and encourage early treatment. Effective treatments can reduce major depression in 80% to 90% of patients. Clinicians who mistake depressive signs and symptoms for those of HIV disease make a common error that increases morbidity and mortality.

  4. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... apartments, condominiums; civilians living in housing on military bases, etc.) and persons in non-institutional group quarters ( ...

  5. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... health condition, such as bipolar disorder, which can cause or worsen depression and may require different treatment; dysthymia, a mild ... better Consider physical health conditions that can sometimes cause or worsen depression, such as thyroid disorders, chronic pain or heart ...

  6. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors. [5] Suicide Depression is a significant predictor of suicide in ...

  7. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... those suffering from severe depression will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a ...

  8. Depression and Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  9. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  10. Learning about depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  11. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  12. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  13. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  14. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  15. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  16. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  17. Countrywide Forest Biomass Estimates from PALSAR L-Band Backscatter to Improve Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesk, A.; Voormansik, K.; Luud, Aarne; Renne, M.; Zalite, K.; Noorma, M.; Reinart, A.

    2013-08-01

    Accurately estimated forest biomass and its distribution is a key parameter for forest inventories, vegetation modeling and understanding the global carbon cycle. It is also required by the United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a comprehensive analysis on estimates of terrestrial carbon fluxes for climate change reports. To improve the understanding of the carbon balance in Estonia, where forests cover over half of the land, a methodology has been worked out to map the changes in the forest biomass in yearly basis using satellite and forest inventory data. To assess the above-ground biomass in temperate deciduous, coniferous and mixed forest of Estonia, measurements and imagery from dual polarimetric L-band SAR (Synthetic Aperature Radar) and optical remote sensing satellites were used. A country-specific model allows easily regenerating the forest biomass estimations with the newest satellite data and producing up-to-date biomass maps that can be used to assist the national inventory reporting under the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.

  18. Lessons from European population genetic databases: comparing the law in Estonia, Iceland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susan M C; Helgason, Hördur Helgi; Kaye, Jane; Nõmper, Ants; Wendel, Lotta

    2005-06-01

    The advent of large-scale, population genetic databases (PGDs) in several countries around the world marks a significant development in human DNA banking and genetic research. The European countries that have led the way in the development of PGDs are Iceland, Sweden, Estonia and the U.K. In legal terms, the emergence of PGDs has been far from straightforward as such projects pose a range of difficult and complex issues for the law to address. This article canvasses the current law in Iceland, Estonia, Sweden and the U.K. on four fundamental issues of principle pertaining to PGDs, in order to illustrate the difficulties that have emerged around PGDs, highlight key areas of legal concern, and shed light on possible ways forward. It compares and contrasts the differing legal positions and lawmakers' responses to date in these four European countries that have established PGDs or are seeking to do so. The four fundamental issues examined are: (1) consent, especially for secondary research purposes; (2) ownership of biological samples, data and databases; (3) the rights of certain third parties to gain access to, and to use, PGD biological samples and data; and (4) benefit sharing, including the provision of feedback and genetic counselling to participants. This analysis may offer some guidance for policymakers in other jurisdictions where PGDs have been proposed or are being established.

  19. Re-vegetation processes in cutaway peat production fields in Estonia in relation to peat quality and water regime.

    PubMed

    Orru, Mall; Ots, Katri; Orru, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%. However, due to changes in environmental (mainly hydrological) conditions and peat characteristics (mainly peat type), these areas can also be new niches for several species. A number of moss species new to or rare in Estonia, e.g. Pohlia elongata, Ephemerum serratum, Campylopus introflexus and Bryum oblongum, were recorded.

  20. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  1. Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  2. Depression (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depression KidsHealth > For Teens > Depression Print A A A ... Help Yourself en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...

  3. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  4. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  5. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  6. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  7. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  8. A cross-sectional exploration of excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, and musculoskeletal pain among migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Talton, Jennifer W; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors estimated the prevalence of elevated daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain among Latino migrant farmworkers, and examined the relationship among these symptoms. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of migrant farmworkers (N = 300) conducted in eastern North Carolina in 2009. Eleven percent of Latino farmworkers reported elevated levels of daytime sleepiness, 28% reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, and 5% reported moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain on a daily or weekly basis. Depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness were positively associated. Depression and daytime sleepiness may increase risk of injury; further research regarding sleep issues is warranted.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Yashika; Kuhad, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Depression is the most debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with significant impact on socio-occupational and well being of individual. The exact pathophysiology of depression is still enigmatic though various theories have been put forwarded. There are evidences showing that mitochondrial dysfunction in various brain regions is associated with depression. Recent findings have sparked renewed appreciation for the role of mitochondria in many intracellular processes coupled to synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. New insights in depression pathophysiology are revolving around the impairment of neuroplasticity. Mitochondria have potential role in ATP production, intracellular Ca2+ signalling to establish membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and to execute the complex processes of neurotransmission and plasticity. So understanding the various concepts of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of depression indubitably helps to generate novel and more targeted therapeutic approaches for depression treatment. Objective The review was aimed to give a comprehensive insight on role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. Result Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the mitochondrial functions might act as potential target for the treatment of depression. Conclusion Literature cited in this review highly supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. As impairment in the mitochondrial functions lead to the generation of various insults that exaggerate the pathogenesis of depression. So, it is useful to study mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to mood disorders, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and enhancing the functions of mitochondria might show promiscuous effects in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26923778

  10. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  11. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  12. Improving Australians' depression literacy.

    PubMed

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2002-10-07

    Community awareness and understanding of depression ("depression literacy") underpins successful implementation of prevention, early intervention and treatment programs. Improving depression literacy is a major goal of beyondblue: the national depression initiative. Although other countries have previously attempted to address this issue, there is little evidence to indicate that those attempts have achieved their aims. Work in other areas of health promotion, such as the widely used PRECEDE model, offers a useful framework from which to develop effective depression literacy initiatives in Australia. This model proposes that effective health promotion strategies should focus not on health actions per se, but on the knowledge and attitudes that encourage or impede individuals from taking such actions. We identify the goals of an effective depression literacy campaign and a range of educational strategies for achieving change in each of these areas. Applying these strategies may give a stronger basis for improving depression literacy than previous initiatives.

  13. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  14. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  15. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  16. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  17. Eastern Europe scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Hafele, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

  18. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  19. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  20. Vitamin D and depression.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient proven to be important for bone health. It has other physiological functions, and there are plausible reasons for investigating vitamin D in depressive disorders. Some cross-sectional clinical and epidemiologic studies, but not all studies, have found that low levels of vitamin D are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms or with a depression diagnosis. However, cross-sectional studies cannot establish causality, and the methodology of these studies has been criticized. Due to the poor quality of the treatment studies, the effectiveness of vitamin D for depression cannot be adequately assessed. Current evidence does not definitively demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency is a cause of or risk for developing depression or that vitamin D is an effective therapy for depression.

  1. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  2. Tryptophan metabolism in depression

    PubMed Central

    Curzon, G.; Bridges, P. K.

    1970-01-01

    Psychiatric patients suffering from endogenous depression and a control group without endogenous depression were given oral loads of L-tryptophan and urinary excretion determined of the tryptophan metabolites on the pyrrolase pathway: kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Female endogenously depressed subjects excreted significantly more kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine but not the subsequent metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid than did female control subjects. Variability of excretion of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine at different times by the same subject was much greater in the endogenously depressed than in the control group. There was no consistent temporal relationship between excretion of metabolites and severity of the depressive illness. The possible significance of the findings in relation to defective tryptophan metabolism in the brain in endogenous depression is commented upon. PMID:5478953

  3. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems.

  4. High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary The HIV epidemic in Estonia is rapidly expanding, and injection drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group contributing to the expansion. A convenience sample of 159 IDUs visiting syringe-exchange programmes (SEPs) was selected to quantify the association of HIV-risk behaviours and blood-borne infections. A high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody (HBVcore), hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibodies (56, 85.1, 21.3, and 96.2%, respectively) was associated with high-risk injections, unsafe sexual behaviour and alcohol abuse. These findings emphasize the importance of evidence-based secondary prevention among the HIV-infected, especially given the uncertain sustainability of antiretroviral and substance abuse treatments. PMID:17326862

  5. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  6. Comparison of thunderstorm hours registered by the lightning detection network and human observers in Estonia, 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enno, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between the lightning detection network data and human-reported thunderstorms were studied in Estonia during the period of 2006-2011. Estonia is located in northeastern Europe between 57.5° to 59.5° N and 21° to 28.5° E. Numbers of thunderstorm days (TD) and thunderstorm hours (TH) reported by 61 volunteer observers and six meteorological stations were compared to the data of the lightning detection network. Results indicated that the flash data within 9.0 km from the sites of volunteer observers should be used in order to derive TD numbers equal to human observations. Larger radius of 14.7 km was found on the basis of six meteorological stations with probably better quality of thunderstorm observations. Due to data quality issues, the daily and monthly numbers of THs reported by individual observers explained only 12-39 % of variations in the flash counts within 40 km of their observing sites. In contrast, the average TH data of all observers successfully explained 75-86 % of variations in daily and monthly flash counts within 40 km of the observation sites. The main advantage of using the average data of many human observers seems to be that in case of a dense network, the neighboring observers tend to compensate for each other's errors. In general, intense storms close to observing sites were found to be most successfully reported by human observers. The most important conclusion of the study is that although human observations of thunderstorms and automatic lightning observations are very different methods, they generally give similar results.

  7. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Quit Community Helping Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in ...

  8. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  9. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  10. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  11. Premenstrual depression predicts future major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Graze, K K; Nee, J; Endicott, J

    1990-02-01

    To assess the power of premenstrual changes as a risk factor for future major depressive disorder (MDD), we conducted a follow-up study of 36 women who had volunteered for menstrual cycle studies. Scores on the depressive subscale of the Premenstrual Assessment Form (PAF) at initial evaluation were found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.35) with the occurrence of MDD during the follow-up period. Moreover, multiple regression analysis indicated that the PAF scores had predictive value above and beyond 2 known risk factors for MDD, family history of depression and prior personal history of depression. The Premenstrual Change Index, a score derived from prospective daily self-ratings of severity of dysphoric symptoms, was also correlated with interval MDD, but did not enhance the predictive power of the PAF score. We conclude that the assessment of premenstrual depression has validity in identifying women at risk for future MDD, even when a retrospective instrument, PAF, is utilized for such assessment.

  12. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  13. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  14. Creativity, Depression and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salby, Andrew Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Considers relationship between suicide and creativity. Presents evidence indicating that depression, suicide, and creativity are related. Posits several hypotheses for relationship. Suggests that some changes in serotonergic system associated with depression and with impulsive suicides and homicides may be responsible for element of risk taking…

  15. Alzheimer's Disease and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teri, Linda; Wagner, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discusses evidence suggesting that depression affects many AD patients and can have profound effects on patient long-term functioning and caregiver well-being. Notes that field is dominated by studies of prevalence, as opposed to studies of etiology, association with other aspects of…

  16. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  17. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  18. [Hashimoto encephalitis and depression].

    PubMed

    Veltman, E M; Rhebergen, D; van Exel, E; Stek, M L

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto encephalitis (he) is an auto-immune disease, with 40-50% of patients developing psychopathology. This could require targeted treatment. HE and prednison could both cloud the identification of a concurrent depressive disorder. We saw a 78-year-old woman with he and a severe depression, and treated her succesfully with ect.

  19. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  20. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  1. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  2. Eastern US report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-10

    Northeastern oil producers employ a relatively high level of technology as documented in this report. While this has increased capital requirements, the extra investments are paying off. Wells are so small that producing companies may need 100 or more just to justify the expense of an office. More labor intensive operations result. Operators' main complaints include gas curtailments, EPA saltwater disposal regulations, high and growing unemployment insurance, inept state regulation, depressed prices, high taxes, workman's compensation payments, and fear of newly elected lawmakers. The gas cutailments run 5 mo. full production or 10 mo. at half normal flow. Produced brine, previously given to local governments for road dust and ice control, must now be pumped into special injection wells. Unemployment and workman's comp payments have escalated by 20%/yr or more, and can run as high as 30% of payroll. This work discusses drilling and producing practices and problems in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and West Virginia.

  3. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  4. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed.

  5. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  6. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  7. OELs derivation in Poland and in the former Eastern Bloc with reference to approaches and practices applied in the EU.

    PubMed

    Soćko, Renata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Based on the literature, current legislation and the European Union (EU) directives, the rules to protect the health of workers in Poland and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc were analyzed. Since 2002, the activities in the field of hygiene standards in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc have been correlated with the EU policy. The functioning of the system of maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) having been implemented in Poland for many years before the accession to the EU, has provided for a relatively quick adjustment of Polish regulations on chemicals to the relevant European law. The Polish list includes 543 substances. In the former Eastern Bloc countries, intensification of work after joining the EU has caused the lists in those countries to contain from 285 substances in Slovakia to 780 in Lithuania. Currently, all substances included in the EU lists (up to and including the 3rd list of occupational exposure limit values of the Directive 2009/161/EC) have been governed by the Polish, Lithuanian, Czech, Latvian and Hungarian law. In Estonia and Slovakia the provisions of the Directive 2006/15/EC establishing the second list of occupational exposure limits have been implemented. Individual national lists contain much more chemicals than the EU list containing currently 122 substances. The legislative process in the EU is slow, and that is why the national law is important and necessary due to the local needs in selected areas. It is necessary to correlate the activities in the field of determining regional occupational exposure limit (OEL) values in the countries of the Eastern Bloc and the EU.

  8. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  9. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD.

  10. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  11. Lesbians' constructions of depression.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-05-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians' subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a 9-month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and discussed the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engaging in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model, (2) dysfunctional family, and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families, and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbian clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level.

  12. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better

  13. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  14. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-cung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  15. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-atcung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  16. Insomnia and depression.

    PubMed

    Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    It is clear that insomnia and depression are intimately related, which may suggest an overlapping neurobiology. Although much progress has been made toward understanding how these disorders relate to each other, the exact neurobiological mechanisms that link them remain elusive. Sleep changes in depression may be associated with abnormal neurotransmission, genetic polymorphisms, HPA overactivity, impaired plasticity, or most likely a combination of factors. It is therefore crucial that sleep assessments go beyond traditional polysomnography to include a more expanded set of objective measures in the hope that these will uncover the common neurobiology that is thought to underlie insomnia and depression.

  17. Postpsychotic depression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H; Carpenter, W T

    1976-02-01

    Several authors have described a severe depression in patients emerging from psychotic states. The clinical picture usually resembles that of a retarded depression with strong neurasthenic and schizoid components. It frequently emerges after a patient has been discharged from the hospital and may often go unnoticed. When manifest, the syndrome is usually stable phenomenologically, is often lengthy, and may be resistant to all modalities of treatment. Postpsychotic depression is a relatively neglected clinical area despite the risk of suicide and prolonged suffering. Therapeutic perseverence purportedly can improve the patient's long-term prognosis, and the phenomenon itself may be favorable prognostic sign. We present here a review and reformulation of this syndrome.

  18. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  19. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  20. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  1. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  2. Syntactical Speech Patterns of Black Children from a Depressed Urban Area: Educators Look at Linguistic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Walter N.; Wilson, Robert M.

    The syntactical speech characteristics of black children living in depressed areas of an Eastern city were compared with the eight identified by Baratz, i.e., absence of "s" in the third person singular, zero copula, double negation and "ain't," zero past marker, zero possessive marker, zero plural marker, the substitution of "did" or "can" for…

  3. The psychoneuroimmunology of depression.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Brian E; Myint, Ayemu

    2009-04-01

    Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression, contribute to the behavioural changes associated with depression. A defect in serotonergic function is associated with these hormonal and immune changes. Neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae are the frequent outcome of the changes in the HPA axis and the immune system. Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life.

  4. Depression and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... in daily life and can even lead to suicide. A common myth about depression is that it is “normal” for certain people to feel depressed—older people, teenagers, new mothers, menopausal women, or those with a ...

  5. Depression and codependency in women.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A

    1998-12-01

    Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P < .001). Of the codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.

  6. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  7. [Depression in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.

  8. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  9. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  10. Kärdla (Hiiumaa Island, Estonia)—the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuroja, Kalle; Suuroja, Sten; All, Tarmo; Floden, Tom

    The Kärdla marine impact structure (Estonia, 58°58'N, 22°46'E) was formed at 455 Ma (Upper Ordovician), in a shallow epicontinental sea some tens of kilometres from the land and erosion area. The iron-rich projectile about 200 m in diameter approached from the west at an angle of 30-45°. The impactor penetrated about 50-m-thick water layer and the sedimentary cover and exploded in the uppermost part of the crystalline basement. A complex crater, 4 km wide and about 500 m deep, with a central uplift rising 130 m from the crater floor, was formed. The highest point of the rimwall is 110 m above the target level. The rimwall is cut by at least two resurge-excavated gullies. The variable height of the rimwall obviously results from the obliqueness of the impact. Outside the crater an elliptical area was revealed, 12-15 km in diameter, with deformed sedimentary rocks below the target level. The elliptical shape of this area may also be due to the oblique impact. Because the crater and its surroundings were buried directly after the impact, the whole complex of impact-related sediments is preserved there. They are recovered by 160 wells, six of which penetrate the entire complex of impact breccias inside the crater.

  11. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Noe, Steffen M; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ulle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ulo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2011-07-15

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies.

  12. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Steffen M.; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ülle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ülo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  13. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  14. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  15. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  16. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  17. Combined prevention for persons who inject drugs in the HIV epidemic in a transitional country: the case of Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Raag, Mait; Pinkerton, Steven D; Feelemyer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the potential effectiveness of combined HIV prevention on the very high seroprevalence epidemic among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tallinn, Estonia, a transitional country. Data from community-based cross-sectional (respondent-driven sampling) surveys of PWID in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 were used together with mathematical modeling of injection-associated HIV acquisition to estimate changes in injection-related HIV incidence during these periods. Utilization of one, two, or three of the interventions available in the community (needle and syringes exchange program, antiretroviral treatment [ART], HIV testing, opioid substitution treatment) was reported by 42.5%, 30.5%, and 11.5% of HIV+ and 34.7%, 36.4%, and 5.7% of HIV- PWIDs, respectively, in 2011. The modeling results suggest that the combination of needle/syringe programs and provision of ART to PWID in Tallinn substantially reduced the incidence of HIV infection in this population, from an estimated 20.7/100 person-years in 2005 to 7.5/100 person-years in 2011. In conclusion, combined prevention targeting HIV acquisition and transmission-related risks among PWID in Tallinn has paralleled the downturn of the HIV epidemic in this population.

  18. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr-1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  19. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-02-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Mallis, Rachael E; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-12-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function. It is highly susceptible to the exotic invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is causing widespread hemlock mortality. We surveyed the spider communities of eastern hemlock and deciduous canopies over 2 yr, collecting over 4,000 spiders from 21 families. We found that eastern hemlock canopies harbored a more abundant, rich, and diverse spider community than did deciduous canopies. Five spider families were present in our hemlock collections that were absent from the deciduous collections, including Mysmenidae, Theridiosomatidae, Mimetidae, Lycosidae, and Agelenidae. In hemlock canopies there were 4× the number of web builders, consisting primarily of the Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, than active hunters, consisting primarily of the Anyphaenidae and the Salticidae. Ours is the first in depth study of the spider community in eastern hemlock. Spider abundance in hemlock canopies suggest that they may play a role regulating herbivore populations, and could possibly affect the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, either through direct consumption of the adelgids themselves or through interactions with classical biological control agents.

  1. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  2. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  3. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Liu, He; Han, Ming-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder effecting approximately 121 million people worldwide and recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that it will be the leading contributor to the global burden of diseases. At present the most commonly used treatment strategies are still based on the monoamine hypothesis that has been the predominant theory in the last 60 years. Clinical observations that only a subset of depressed patients exhibits full remission when treated with classical monoamine-based antidepressants together with the fact that patients exhibit multiple symptoms suggest that the pathophysiology leading to mood disorders may differ between patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression is a neural circuit disorder and that onset of depression may be located at different regions of the brain involving different transmitter systems and molecular mechanisms. This review synthesizes findings from rodent studies from which emerges a role for different, yet interconnected, molecular systems and associated neural circuits to the etiology of depression. PMID:26542802

  5. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the

  6. Disability and Depression.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovich, A; Wilkerson, A

    2016-12-01

    Here, Ann Cvetkovich, interviewed by Abby Wilkerson, brings Cvetkovich's influential cultural studies analysis of depression explicitly into conversation with disability studies. Cvetkovich understands "feeling bad" (a term she prefers to "depression") as a defining affective state under neoliberalism. Drawing on a distinctive historical/cultural archive, she challenges the atomism of the neoliberal medical model that frames depression and affective distress more generally as the result of faulty brain chemistry-individual organisms gone awry. Instead, she traces these common experiences to sociopolitical phenomena ranging from current neoliberal demands for productivity as exemplified in university life, to histories of colonization, slavery, and displacement. The conversation considers the value of disability frameworks for understanding mental health diagnoses and the intersections of social institutions, bodily practices, and everyday affective life.

  7. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  8. Nedley Depression Hit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nedley, Neil; Ramirez, Francisco E.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or “blows” to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test. Ten cause categories were examined as predictors of depression are (1) Genetic, (2)Developmental, (3)Lifestyle, (4)Circadian Rhythm, (5)Addiction, (6)Nutrition, (7)Toxic, (8)Social/Complicated Grief, (9)Medical Condition, and (10)Frontal Lobe. Results. The relationship between the DSM-5 score and a person having four hits categories in the first program week showed a sensitivity of 89.98 % (95% CI: 89.20 % - 90.73%), specificity 48.84% (CI 45.94-51.75) and Matthew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) .41 . For the eight-week test, the results showed a sensitivity 83.6% (CI 81.9-85.5), specificity 53.7% (CI 51.7-55.6) and MCC .38. Overall, the hits that improved the most from baseline after the eighth week were: Nutrition (47%), Frontal lobe (36%), Addiction (24%), Circadian rhythm (24%), Lifestyle (20%), Social (12%) and Medical (10%). Conclusions. The Nedley four-hit hypothesis seems to predict a depressive episode and correlates well with the DSM-5 criteria with good sensitivity and MCC but less specificity. Identifying these factors and applying lifestyle therapies could play an important role in the treatment of depressed individuals. PMID:27885322

  9. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; p<0.001). 93.4% of respondents declared their involvement in colorectal cancer screening. In the majority of countries, responding doctors most often reported that they order fecal occult blood tests. The exceptions were Estonia and Hungary, where the majority of family physicians referred patients to a specialist (p<0.001). Conclusions Physicians from Central and Eastern European countries understood the need for the use of guidelines for the care of patients with gastrointestinal problems, but there is broad variation between countries in their management. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice. PMID:27669515

  10. Comorbid anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Mark H

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders often occur as comorbid illnesses and share many common symptoms. Risk factors for these disorders most likely include interactions of environmental and genetic factors. The presence of comorbid anxiety and depression adversely affects clinical and treatment outcomes. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually considered first-line treatment for patients with these disorders, although alternative antidepressants or additional therapies are often necessary. Studies suggest that benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics may be effective as augmentation therapy to optimize outcome, with buspirone and beta-blockers useful in some patients as well. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is also an effective therapeutic alternative for affected patients.

  11. Hopelessness, Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Clinical Diagnosis of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relevance of clinical diagnosis of depression for explaining discrepant relationships of hopelessness and depression with suicidal ideation. Administered Beck Depression Inventory, Hopelessness Scale, and Scale for Suicide Ideation to 1,306 patients with mood disorder and 488 patients without mood disorder. Found that hopelessness was 1.3…

  12. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  13. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  14. The Paranoid-Depressive Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty J.

    1977-01-01

    Few investigators have attempted to lay a conceptual base for comparative studies of paranoia and depression within a single general framework. The paranoid-depressive continuum is an attempt to develop such a framework. (Author)

  15. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  16. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  17. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  18. Eastern New Mexico University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes efforts by Eastern New Mexico University (ENMU) to recast its mission more narrowly while at the same time reducing the sense of remoteness and disconnection, as well as geographic isolation, between the main campus and its branch campuses. In the early 1980s, ENMU suffered from mission drift, in part as a result of its…

  19. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  20. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.

  1. Depression and the Suicidal Patient.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dick C; Tran, Mina; Shah, Asim A; Matorin, Anu

    2015-11-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in the general community, with 3% to 4% of depressives dying by suicide today. Studies have shown that depression has considerable morbidity and mortality. This article focuses on depressed patients and their management within the emergency department. Understanding the intricacies of the interview process and identifying which patients need immediate attention are important skills for the emergency physician.

  2. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  3. Inbreeding Depression and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews sex studies of children of cousin marriages and three studies of children of incestuous matings. It is argued that these studies, taken as a whole, provide no substantial evidence for an inbreeding depression effect within the polygenic system commonly asserted to determine IQ. (Author/DB)

  4. Depressive Stories for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    While stories with a depressing message are now common for teenagers, resistance to them remains where smaller children are concerned. But is this more a case of the publishers and providers concerned protecting their own particular image of childhood? This article looks at the case for books that also convey a sense of sadness to infants,…

  5. Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Try to stay patient and understanding. A positive relationship with a parent helps strengthen a child's resilience against depression. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, ...

  6. Sex, Anger and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  7. Helping Students through Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Data from the federal Center for Mental Health Services indicate that one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents may be suffering from depression. Up to 70% of children with diagnosable mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders are not receiving mental health services, according to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health.…

  8. Exercise Against Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  9. Recognizing teen depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... can often help identify signs of depression in teenagers. Be alert to any signs of suicide plans . Notice if your teen is: Giving possessions ... a suicide threat or attempt. Call 1-800-SUICIDE or 1-800-999-9999. You can call 24/7 anywhere in the United ... Most teenagers feel down sometimes. Having support and good coping ...

  10. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  11. Sadness, Depression, and Avoidance Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Allan M.

    2008-01-01

    Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…

  12. Depressive Illness: Pervasive Yet Mystifying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Doctors annually treat between approximately four and eight million Americans for depression. Behavioral changes in depressed individuals are characterized by sadness, loneliness, and apathy. Other symptoms include fatigue, early morning insomnia, loss of appetite, and suicide attempts. Underlying depression may mask itself in physical symptoms,…

  13. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  14. Empirical Evidence for Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    Although several theoretical positions deal with the concept of childhood depression, accurate measurement of depression can only occur if valid and reliable measures are available. Current efforts emphasize direct questioning of the child and quantification of parents' observations. One scale used to study childhood depression, the Personality…

  15. Depressive Realism: Wiser or Quieter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; Vadillo, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressive realism consists of the lower personal control over uncontrollable events perceived by depressed as compared to nondepressed individuals. In this article, we propose that the realism of depressed individuals is caused not by an increased accuracy in perception, but by their more comprehensive exposure to the actual environmental…

  16. Responding to a Student's Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…

  17. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  18. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  19. Genetic features of petroleum systems in rift basins of eastern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qiang, J.; McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Most oil-bearing basins in eastern China are Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rifts which have played a habitat for oil and gas in China. Investigation of the petroleum systems may give a better understanding of the oil and gas habitats in these basins. Of the essential elements of the petroleum system, the source rock is the most important in rift basins. However, rift tectonic evolution controls all the essential elements and processes nevessary for a petroleum system. A four stage evolution model is suggested for the controls in the rift basin. A rift basin may consist of sub-basins, depressions, sub-depressions, and major, moderate, and minor uplifts. A depression or sub-depression has its own depocentre (mainly occupied by source rock) and all kinds of lacustrine sediments, and thus has all the essential elements of a petroleum system. However, only those depressions or sub-depressions which are rich in organic matter and deeply buried to generate oil and gas form petroleum systems. Immature oil, another characteristic, complicates the petroleum system in the rift basins. Three types of oil and gas habitats are described as a result of this analysis of the petroleum systems of the 26 largest oil and gas fields discovered in eastern China rift basins: uplifts between oil source centres are the most prospective areas for oil and gas accumulations, slopes connecting oil source centres and uplifts are the second, and the third type is subtle traps in the soil source centre.Most oil-bearing basins in eastern China are Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rifts which have played a habitat for oil and gas in China. Investigation of the petroleum systems may give a better understanding of the oil and gas habitats in these basins. Of the essential elements of the petroleum system, the source rock is the most important in rift basins. However, rift tectonic evolution controls all the essential elements and processes necessary for a petroleum system. A four stage evolution model

  20. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  1. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  2. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  3. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  4. Climate parameters of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region derived from the high-resolution reanalysis database BaltAn65+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männik, Aarne; Zirk, Marko; Rõõm, Rein; Luhamaa, Andres

    2015-10-01

    The high-resolution reanalysis data-base BaltAn65+ covers the period of 1965-2005. Here, this dataset is used to derive essential climate parameters for the Baltic Sea region and Estonia. In particular, monthly mean temperature and total precipitation are calculated and a trend analysis is performed to analyze the temporal evolution of these climatological parameters during the reanalysis period. Monthly, seasonal, and annual maps of the climate characteristics, including trend maps, are created for the Baltic Sea region. Time series of monthly and annually averaged temperature and precipitation sum are presented over the Baltic Sea and Estonian domains together with fitted linear trends and trend significance analysis. Then, comparison with an observational database is performed to assess the quality of the reanalysis database. Additionally, the time series are compared with official climate normals for the period of 1971-2000, as calculated by the Estonian Environment Agency (EtEA). Findings of other publications in the scientific literature dealing with the climate of similar time period for Estonia and the Baltic Sea region are discussed. The quality of the BaltAn65+ reanalysis is found to be generally good for temperature but weak for precipitation.

  5. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    PubMed

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  6. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Safaie, Nasser; Jodati, Ahmad Reza; Raoofi, Mohammad; Khalili, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001). In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001). Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences. PMID:24250990

  7. Depressive syndromes in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Piber, Dominique; Hinkelmann, Kim; Gold, Stefan M; Heesen, Christoph; Spitzer, Carsten; Endres, Matthias; Otte, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Depressive syndromes represent a common and often characteristic feature in a number of neurological disorders. One prominent example is the development of post-stroke depression, which can be observed in more than one-third of stroke survivors in the aftermath of an ischemic stroke. Thus, post-stroke depression represents one of the most prevalent, disabling, and potentially devastating psychiatric post-stroke complications. On the other hand, depressive syndromes may also be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological disorders, as recently revealed by a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, which demonstrated an increased risk for ischemic events in depressed patients. Moreover, depressive syndromes represent common comorbidities in a number of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or epilepsy, in which depression has a strong impact on both quality of life and outcome of the primary neurological disorder.

  8. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…

  9. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  10. Recurrence of depressive disorders after interferon-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W-C; Su, Y-P; Su, K-P; Chen, P-C

    2017-02-07

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α)-treated patients commonly develop depression during the therapy period. Although most IFN-α-induced depressive disorders achieve remission after IFN-α therapy, no studies have examined the long-term mood effects of IFN-α treatment. We conducted a 12-year population-based cohort study of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who were older than 20 years and had received IFN-α therapy. The sample was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort included patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression, matched randomly by age, sex and depression history, at a ratio of 1:10. The follow-up started after the last administration of IFN-α and was designed to determine the incidence of recurrent depressive disorder after IFN-α therapy. A total of 156 subjects were identified as having IFN-α-induced depression and achieving full remission after IFN-α therapy. The overall incidence of recurrent depressive disorders among patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression was 56.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4-76.1) and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9-5.8) cases, respectively, per 100 000 person-years, P<0.001. The adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent depressive disorder were 13.5 (95% CI, 9.9-18.3) in the IFN-α-treated cohort and 22.2 (95% CI, 11.2-44.2) in the matched cohort for IFN-α-induced depression patients after adjusting for age, sex, income, urbanization and comorbid diseases. IFN-α-induced depression was associated with a high risk of recurrent depression. It was not a transient disease and might be considered an episode of depressive disorder. Continuation therapy might be considered, and further research is needed.

  11. Building A Middle Eastern Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-12

    implementation of NATO model to METO by reviewing NATO and suggesting some applications . Thesis This paper proposes building a Middle Eastern alliance to...ranging from terror activity and insurgency to a full- scale conventional war. The US contribution to the alliance may also include extending its...and alliance history is no different. NATO was founded to oppose a Soviet threat. The threat is long gone but NATO is still extremely relevant and

  12. Military Spending in Eastern Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    on defense (the sums are less than the corresponding expenditures by the republics) or whether they involve military spending above and beyond that...certain military expenditures on personnel are included in budgetary categories other than defense spending . Transportation of soldiers to their first... expenditures and forces and military spending decisions in Eastern Europe. iii L SUMMARY Although the Soviet Union is the most threatening potential

  13. Bibliotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Usher, Tegan

    2013-04-01

    Bibliotherapy can be used to treat mild to moderate depression or subthreshold depressive symptoms, as a sole or supplementary therapy. Bibliotherapy is a form of guided self-help. The patient works through a structured book, independently from the doctor. The role of the doctor is to support and motivate the patient as they continue through the book and to help clarify any questions or concerns the patient may have. Relevant books can be purchased or often borrowed from a library, with limited cost and good accessibility from a patient perspective. Patients need to have a reading age above 12 years and have a positive attitude toward self-help. Bibliotherapy has NHMRC Level 1 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. This article forms part of a series on non-drug treatments, which summarise the indications, considerations and the evidence, and where clinicians and patients can find further information.

  14. [Anhedonia in depression].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, R; Gourion, D; Llorca, P M

    2013-09-01

    Anhedonia, or markedly diminished interest or pleasure, is a hallmark symptom of major depression, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The term "anhedonia" was introduced by the French psychologist Ribot in 1896 to describe the counterpart to analgesia in his patients, for which "it was impossible to find the least pleasure". Over the last decades, the clinical definition of anhedonia has remained relatively unchanged, but recently, behavioral neurosciences have significantly changed our knowledge of reward-related processes. Now, the construct of anhedonia reflects deficits in hedonic capacity, and is closely linked to the processes of reward valuation, decision-making, anticipation, and motivation. The neural circuits underlying these reward-related mechanisms include essentially the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortical regions. Here, we review the clinical concepts, neural bases and psychopharmacological data related to the deficits of hedonia in depression. Understanding anhedonia will facilitate diagnosis and treatment management.

  15. Idiopathic pain and depression.

    PubMed

    von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes research on the hypothesis that idiopathic chronic pain syndromes and depressive disorders share certain common pathogenetic mechanisms. There is increasing evidence that this may be partly true. Not only do chronic pain syndromes respond to treatment with antidepressants, but there are also striking clinical similarities between these syndromes and depressive syndromes. However, important differences do exist (e.g., the courses of these disorders are usually dissimilar). Family studies show that affective disorders are common in first-degree relatives of patients with idiopathic pain syndromes, but it is impossible to conclude from this that clear-cut genetic factors are of importance. Factors common to both syndromes include common personality traits, shortened rapid eye movements in sleep EEG, hypercortisolaemia and pathological dexamethasone suppression tests, low levels of melatonin in serum and urine and high levels of endorphins and Fraction I in cerebro-spinal fluid. One important common pathogenetic mechanism seems to be disturbances in the serotoninergic system.

  16. Neuroreceptor imaging in depression.

    PubMed

    Savitz, Jonathan B; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-04-01

    The in vivo study of receptor binding potential in the human brain is made possible by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Here we review PET studies of neuroreceptor function in mood disorders - specifically, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). We concentrate on the most widely studied receptors of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Specifically, the serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)), serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)), serotonin 1B (5-HT(1B)), dopamine 1 (D1), and dopamine 2/3 (D2/3) receptors. We also review PET studies of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), the dopamine transporter (DAT), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), and the muscarinic 2 receptor (M2). On the basis of the PET literature as well as supporting genetic studies, postmortem data, and preclinical models of depression, and several models of how monoaminergic function is altered in mood disorders are discussed with respect to inflammation, endocrine dysfunction, depression subtypes, and altered neurocircuitry.

  17. Understanding pain in depression.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen; Briley, Mike

    2004-10-01

    A dysfunction of the serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways is commonly accepted as playing a major role in the aetiology of depression. Serotonergic cell bodies, located in the raphe nucleus, send projections to various parts of the brain where they are involved in the control of mood, movement, emotions such as anxiety and regulate behaviours such as eating, sexual activity and the feeling of pleasure. Similarly, the noradrenergic neurons, located in the locus coeruleus, project to the same regions where they regulate, in addition, attention and cognition. A further projection to the cerebellum regulates motor control. A dysfunction at the level of the monoamine neurons thus results in the classical symptoms of depression. In addition to these ascending pathways, however, the neurons in the raphe nucleus and the locus ceruleus also project to the spinal cord. These descending pathways serve to inhibit input from the intestines, the skeletal muscles and other sensory inputs. Under normal conditions, these inhibitory effects are modest, but in times of stress, in the interests of the survival of the individual, they can completely inhibit the input from painful stimuli. A dysfunction at the level of the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons can thus affect both the ascending and descending pathways resulting in the psychological and somatic symptoms of depression but also in physical painful symptoms.

  18. Testing atypical depression definitions.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2005-01-01

    The evidence supporting the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression (AD) is weak. This study aimed to test different definitions of AD. Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (N = 254) and bipolar-II (BP-II) outpatients (N = 348) were interviewed consecutively, during major depressive episodes, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. DSM-IV criteria for AD were followed. AD validators were female gender, young onset, BP-II, axis I comorbidity, bipolar family history. Frequency of DSM-IV AD was 43.0%. AD, versus non-AD, was significantly associated with all AD validators, apart from comorbidity when controlling for age and sex. Factor analysis of atypical symptoms found factor 1 including oversleeping, overeating and weight gain (leaden paralysis at trend correlation), and factor 2 including interpersonal sensitivity, mood reactivity, and leaden paralysis. Multiple logistic regression of factor 1 versus AD validators found significant associations with several validators (including bipolar family history), whereas factor 2 had no significant associations. Findings may support a new definition of AD based on the state-dependent features oversleeping and overeating (plus perhaps leaden paralysis) versus the current AD definition based on a combination of state and trait features. Pharmacological studies are required to support any new definition of AD, as the current concept of AD is based on different response to TCA antidepressants versus non-AD.

  19. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention

  20. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  1. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume

  2. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents.

  3. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  4. Depression and immunity: inflammation and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R

    2006-08-01

    There is strong evidence that depression involves alterations in multiple aspects of immunity that may contribute to the development or exacerbation of a number of medical disorders and also may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. Accordingly, aggressive management of depressive disorders in medically ill populations or individuals at risk for disease may improve disease outcome or prevent disease development. On the other hand, in light of data suggesting that immune processes may interact with the pathophysiologic pathways known to contribute to depression, novel approaches to the treatment of depression may target relevant aspects of the immune response. Taken together, the data provide compelling evidence that a psychoimmunologic frame of reference may have profound implications regarding the consequences and treatment of depression. In addition, this approach may be used to investigate the possibility that peripheral and central production of cytokines may account for neuropsychiatric symptoms in inflammatory diseases. This article summarizes evidence for a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of depression and fatigue in MS. The effects of central inflammatory processes may account for some of the behavioral symptoms seen in patients who have MS that cannot be explained by psychosocial factors or CNS damage. This immune-mediated hypothesis is supported by indirect evidence from experimental and clinical studies of the effect of cytokines on behavior, which have found that both peripheral and central cytokines may cause depressive symptoms. Emerging clinical data from patients who have MS support an association of central inflammation (as measured by MRI) and inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and fatigue. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, subtypes of MS fatigue and depression may exist that are caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, including inflammation and CNS damage as well as psychosocial factors or

  5. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P < 0.05) relative to controls. Parents given 4.4 ppm selenium produced no malformed nestlings, but femur lengths of young were shorter (P = 0.015) than those of controls. Liver biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  6. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  7. Depression and immunity: inflammation and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R

    2009-05-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients who have major depressive disorder show alterations in immunologic markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Inflammation of the central nervous system is a pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that some aspects of depression and fatigue in MS may be linked to inflammatory markers. This article reviews the current knowledge in the field and illustrates how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurologic diseases.

  8. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  9. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  10. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression.

  11. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    PubMed

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  12. Western North Pacific monsoon depressions: Transitions to pre-tropical cyclone seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Jodi C.; Elsberry, Russell L.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to describe how a monsoon depression in the western North Pacific, which typically has a diameter of 1000 km, may be transitioned into a tropical cyclone with an inner core of strong winds and deep convection on the order of 100 km. Our previous case study of the pre-Typhoon Man-Yi monsoon depression formation is extended to show that the same cross-equatorial airstream continued and led to enhanced equatorial westerlies on the equatorward side of the pre-Man-Yi circulation, and a surge in the trade easterlies was also present on the poleward side. As these surges in the near-equatorial flow are inertially unstable, inward-directed wave-activity fluxes then led to flux convergence over the eastern vorticity maximum of the monsoon depression, which resulted in a scale contraction to that of a pretropical cyclone seedling. Eight case studies of the transitions of monsoon depressions during 2009 are presented that document persistent inward-directed wave-activity fluxes over a vorticity maximum within the monsoon depression is a key feature of each transition. In some transitions, the same cross-equatorial airstream as led to the monsoon depression formation continues as the primary airstream, and in other transitions another airstream to the west or enhanced tropical easterlies become the primary airstream. Analysis of 10 non-transitioning monsoon depressions during 2009 indicated the airstream wave-activity flux did not persist after the formation of the monsoon depression. In another 11 non-transitioning monsoon depressions, the inward-directed wave-activity flux was small and no region of wave-activity flux convergence was associated with the vorticity maximum in the monsoon depression.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  14. [Paternal postpartum depression: a review].

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Tabat-Bouher, Myriam; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum depression affects 1 in 10 fathers worldwide. Paternal PPD tends to develop gradually during the first year. Maternal depression is one of the most important risk factors for depression in fathers. Changes in hormones during the postpartum period in fathers are biological risk factors for PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family. Paternal PPD has negative effects on the infant's development, independently of maternal PPD. It is essential to identify paternal PPD at early stage.

  15. [Association of obesity and depression].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György; Faludi, Gábor; Halmy, László

    2008-10-01

    It has been long known that the frequency of overweight and obese people is higher among depressed and bipolar patients than in the general population. The marked alteration of body weight (and appetite) is one of the most frequent of the 9 symptoms of major depressive episode, and these symptoms occur during recurrent episodes of depression with a remarkably high consequence. According to studies with representative adult population samples, in case of obesity (BMI over 30) unipolar or bipolar depression is significantly more frequently (20-45%) observable. Since in case of depressed patients appetite and body weight reduction is observable during the acute phase, the more frequent obesity in case of depressed patients is related (primarily) not only to depressive episodes, but rather to lifestyle factors, to diabetes mellitus also more frequently occurring in depressed patients, to comorbid bulimia, and probably to genetic-biological factors (as well as to pharmacotherapy in case of medicated patients). At the same time, according to certain studies, circadian symptoms of depression give rise to such metabolic processes in the body which eventually lead to obesity and insulin resistance. According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy. Certain lifestyle factors relevant to healthy metabolism (calorie reduction in food intake, regular exercise) may be protective factors related to depression as well. The depression- and possibly suicide-provoking effect of sibutramine and rimonabant used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity is one of the greatest recent challenges for professionals and patients

  16. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  17. Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries

    PubMed Central

    Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

  18. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  19. Childhood Depression: Theories, Antecedents and Supportive Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Early detection and measurement of the intensity of childhood depression are important concerns for those treating depressed children. To examine issues of childhood depression, a review of the research was conducted which focused on: (1) childhood depression scales and their effectiveness; (2) correlates and antecedents of childhood depression;…

  20. What Does the Term "Clinical Depression" Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more severe form of depression, also known as major depression or major depressive disorder. It isn't the same as depression caused ... you must meet the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...

  1. Regulatory Biology: Depressed Metabolic States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, E. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Exobiological aspects of depressed metabolism and thermoregulation are discussed for subsequent development of biological space flight experiments. Included is a brief description of differential hypothermia in cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  3. [Depression in the very elderly].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Kurtz, G; Baltes, M M; Geiselmann, B; Lang, F R; Reischies, F M; Helmchen, H

    1998-01-01

    In the Berlin Aging Study (BASE) an age and gender stratified sample of 516 persons aged 70 to over 100 was assessed by means of the semi-structured GMS-A interview, the CES-D-self-rating scale and the Hamiltion-Depression-observer-rating scale. Prevalence rates were 4.8% for Major Depression, 9.1% for all DSM III-R specified depressive disorders and 26.9% of subthreshold depression was included. There was no increase in prevalence rates with age but an increase in scores on the self rating CES-D. The prevalence rates for DSM III-R specified depression in females was 10.3% and almost double that of men (5.6%). Depressed persons do not show significant cognitive impairment as measured with the MMSE in comparison to controls. As compared to the total sample higher prevalence rates of overall depression were seen in persons with multimorbidity (36.8%) and lower rates in married persons. 13.2% of the elderly talked about feeling tired with life, 7.9% had thoughts about death and 1.2% reported suicidal ideation, which was closely linked to depressive disorders. In 44% of depressed cases undertreatment was observed. Only 6% got Antidepressants but 40% benzodiazepines.

  4. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  5. The molecular neurobiology of depression

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling the pathophysiology of depression is a unique challenge. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but symptoms such as guilt and suicidality are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, other symptoms have been accurately modelled, and these, together with clinical data, are providing insight into the neurobiology of depression. Recent studies combining behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological techniques reveal that certain aspects of depression result from maladaptive stress-induced neuroplastic changes in specific neural circuits. They also show that understanding the mechanisms of resilience to stress offers a crucial new dimension for the development of fundamentally novel antidepressant treatments. PMID:18923511

  6. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Gozdzik-Zelazny, A; Borecki, L; Pokorski, M

    2011-12-02

    Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59) were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  7. The continuum approach in analysing the glacial landscapes of the South-Eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally geomorphologists are identifying individual landforms and describing their properties. However any discrimination of individual forms on the Earth's surface is arbitrary and often subjective. We are developing an automated procedure for slope and aspect distribution analysis of the digital elevation models. Instead of considering individual forms and describing them we intend to consider the Earth's surface as continuous plane and calculate the parameters describing it along a regular set of node points. The aim of the research is to identify and characterise fast ice flow zones in the south-eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation. We assume that different glacial landscapes - drumlin fields, glaciolimnic planes, outwash planes, complexes of marginal landforms etc. - do have their own fingerprint of slope and aspect distribution. We expect that this distribution can be used to identify and characterise the particular process that has shaped it, e.g. the fast ice flow usually is associated with streamlined glacial bed and faster flow produces stronger, more distinct lineation. Slope aspect distribution across a drumlin field will have a bidirectional, symetrical character with dominant dip directions transverse to the ice flow direction. In contrast the distribution of slope dip direction at the terrain dominated by ribbed moraines will be asymmetric and clustering in the ice flow direction. The slope and aspect distribution for the terrain at the Saadjärve drumlin field in eastern Estonia is used as the testing ground for the methodology. SRTM elevation data set is the basic data source and results are validated against the excellent laser altimetry (LiDAR) data obtained from Estonian Land Board. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309.

  8. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing.

  9. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. [Depression and burnout].

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2014-09-03

    Burnout is not a psychiatric diagnosis but a concept of the occupational psychology concerning the impact of working conditions on the psyche of affected persons. Burnout can be a mediator for clinical depression. Severe burnout fulfills mostly the criteria for an adjustment disorder. The treating physician is supposed to clarify the causes of a burnout. In addition to the causes related to working conditions, the role of certain personality traits should be elucidated. Psychological/psychotherapeutic approaches preferably focus on stress reduction. Empirical evidence for these approaches is rather weak.

  11. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei )

    1996-01-01

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km[sup 2] and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  12. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei

    1996-12-31

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km{sup 2} and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  13. Major depression: emerging therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sen, Srijan; Sanacora, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The first effective antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, were identified 50 years ago, largely through serendipity. These medications were found to improve mood in a little more than half of depressed patients after a few weeks of chronic use. Almost all antidepressants prescribed today were developed through minor modifications of these original antidepressants and, like monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, act primarily through monoaminergic mechanisms. Although there have been improvements in side-effect profiles and overdose toxicity, these newer medications have not provided substantial advances in the efficacy and speed of the antidepressant effect for patients. Over the last 2 decades, our understanding of the neurobiology underlying depression has expanded exponentially. Given this expansion, we may be nearing an inflection point in antidepressant drug development, at which useful medicines will be designed through a rational understanding of the biological systems. In this review, we discuss the biological basis and preclinical and clinical evidence for a series of promising classes of antidepressants developed primarily out of a pathophysiologically informed approach.

  14. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  15. Uninvited Guests: Traditional Insect Repellents in Estonia used Against the Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella, Human Flea Pulex irritons and Bedbug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective. PMID:21070174

  16. Modes of active deformation in Eastern Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico Island are the emerged part of a doubly vergent thrust wedge formed by oblique arc-continent collision with subduction and underthrusting of the North America Plate in the Puerto Rico trench and underthrusting of the Caribbean crust in The Muertos trough (Dolan et al. 1998, Mann et al., 2002, ten Brink et al. 2010). In the relatively small area of Eastern Hispaniola several types of active crustal deformation have been recognized: 1) At the prowedge of the orogene, the rear of the accretionary prism is cut by the strike-slip Septentrional Fault, bounding a sliver plate (Mann et al, 2002). Recent detailed mapping and aeromagnetic surveys in the onshore part of the prism (Samaná Peninsula and Septentrional Cordillera, Sysmin Team) revealed that the internal structure of the sliver is made of parallel bands of sigmoidal, left-lateral, NW-SE thrust splays, bounded by steep strike-slip faults. We interpreted these structures as transpressional strike-slip duplex. It is worth to note the similarity between the strike and dip of the thrust splays and the 303, 62, 74 focal mechanism calculated by Russo and Villaseñor (1995) for the thrust event of the August 4, 1946 Hispaniola earthquake. 2) The uplifted core of the orogen extends between the accretionary prism and the beginning of the Muertos retrowedge. Half of this area is occupied by the Oriental Cordillera, a recent uplift of cretaceous island-arc rocks arching the Late Neogene reef. The rest of the territory is the Caribbean Coastal Plain modelled on the Late Neogene reef. The Oriental Cordillera is made of two en echelon left-stepping uplifts: the domal-shaped Haitises and the rhombohedral-shaped Seibo (García-Senz et al, 2007); the latter share structural similarities and scaling relations with the 90° neutral stepover model of McClay and Bonora (2001). Therefore we interpret it as a restraining stepover developed over a blind splay of the Septentrional Fault, and the main

  17. Depression--Medicines To Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Depression--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... medicines for depression. Important Warnings about Medicines for Depression Children and teens who take antidepressants may be ...

  18. Alzheimer's or Depression: Could It Be Both?

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer's or depression: Could it be both? Alzheimer's and depression have some similar symptoms. Proper treatment improves quality of life. By Mayo Clinic Staff Early Alzheimer's disease and depression share many symptoms, so it can be hard — ...

  19. How Do Fundamental Christians Deal with Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinney, Douglas Harvey

    1991-01-01

    Provides explanation of developmental dynamics in experience of fundamental Christians that provoke reactive depression. Describes depressant retardant defenses against depression that have been observed in Christian fundamental subculture. Suggests four counseling strategies for helping fundamentalists. (Author/ABL)

  20. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  1. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  2. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  3. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  4. Transmitted drug resistance is still low in newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF06_cpx-infected patients in Estonia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Huik, Kristi; Pauskar, Merit; Ustina, Valentina; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Krispin, Tõnu; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-03-01

    The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in treatment-naive HIV-1-positive subjects is of concern, especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union in which the number of subjects exposed to antiretrovirals (ARV) has exponentially increased during the past decade. We assessed the rate of TDR among newly diagnosed subjects in Estonia in 2010 and compared it to that in 2008. The study included 325 subjects (87% of all subjects tested HIV positive from January 1 to December 31, 2010). Of the 244 sequenced viral genomic RNA in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region 214 were CRF06_cpx, nine were subtype A1, three (one each) were subtype B and subtype C, CRF02_AG, and CRF03_AB; 15 viruses remained unclassified as putative recombinant forms between CRF06_cpx and subtype A1. HIV-1 TDR mutations in 2010 and 2008 (n=145) occurred at similar frequency in 4.5% (95% CI 2.45; 7.98) and 5.5% (95% CI 1.8; 9.24) of the patients, respectively. In 2010, 2.5% (6/244) of the sequences harbored nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (K103N and K101E), 1.6% (4/244) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) (M41L, M184I, and K219E), and 0.4% (1/244) protease inhibitor (PI) (V82A) mutations. Our findings indicate that in spite of the increased consumption of ARVs the rate of TDR in Estonia has remained unchanged over the past 3 years. Similar stabilizing or even decreasing trends have been described in Western Europe and North America albeit at higher levels and in different socioeconomic backgrounds.

  5. Depression: Should You Consider Antipsychotics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies have compared them to see which ones work better. Our advice: If your depression is not getting better, try other treatments before you try antipsychotics. • Ask your doctor to make sure you do not have other medical and mental health conditions that can cause depression or make it worse— ...

  6. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  7. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  8. Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that menopause leads to mood disturbances such as depression has a long history. How did these beliefs come about, and are they supported by the scientific literature? This article reviews the theories of menopause and depression, the scientific literature, and the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.…

  9. Etiology of Depression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Shirley J.; Markham, Ramona A.

    2005-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is experienced by a significant proportion of youth today, occurring at an earlier age than found in previous generations. Major Depressive Disorder can produce long-lasting detrimental effects on a child's life, which raises the question of etiology. Three areas were examined for evidence identifying specific…

  10. Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April

    2005-01-01

    Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…

  11. Clinical Inertia in Depression Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Rachel M.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Ayanian, John Z.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for clinical inertia in the management of persistent depression symptoms. Research Design We characterized patterns of treatment adjustment in primary care and their relation to the patient’s clinical condition by modeling transition to a given treatment “state” conditional upon the current state of treatment. We assessed associations of patient, clinician, and practice barriers with adjustment decisions. Subjects Survey data on patients in active care for major depression was collected at six-month intervals over a two-year period for the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) studies. Measures Patient and clinician characteristics were collected at baseline. Depression severity and treatment were measured at each interval. Results Approximately one-third of the observation periods ending with less than a full response resulted in an adjustment recommendation. Clinicians often respond correctly to the combination of severe depression symptoms and less than maximal treatment by changing the treatment. Appropriate adjustment is less common, however, in management of less severely depressed patients who do not improve after starting treatment, particularly if their care already meets minimal treatment intensity guidelines. Conclusions Our findings suggest that quality improvement efforts should focus on promoting appropriate adjustments for patients with persistent depression symptoms, particularly those with less severe depression. PMID:19704353

  12. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  13. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  14. Metabolic depression in hibernation and major depression: an explanatory theory and an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, John A

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic depression, an adaptive biological process for energy preservation, is responsible for torpor, hibernation and estivation. We propose that a form of metabolic depression, and not mitochondrial dysfunction, is the process underlying the observed hypometabolism, state-dependent neurobiological changes and vegetative symptoms of major depression in humans. The process of metabolic depression is reactivated via differential gene expression in response to perceived adverse stimuli in predisposed persons. Behavior inhibition by temperament, anxiety disorders, genetic vulnerabilities, and early traumatic experiences predispose persons to depression. The proposed theory is supported by similarities in the presentation and neurobiology of hibernation in bears and major depression and explains the yet unexplained neurobiological changes of depression. Although, gene expression is suppressed in other hibernators by deep hypothermia, bears were chosen because they hibernate with mild hypothermia. Pre-hibernation in bears and major depression with atypical features are both characterized by fat storage through overeating, oversleeping, and decreased mobility. Hibernation in bears and major depression with melancholic features are characterized by withdrawal from the environment, lack of energy, loss of weight from not eating and burning stored fat, changes in sleep pattern, and the following similar neurobiological findings: reversible subclinical hypothyroidism; increased concentration of serum cortisol; acute phase protein response; low respiratory quotient; oxidative stress response; decreased neurotransmitter levels; and changes in cyclic-adenosine monophosphate-binding activity. Signaling systems associated with protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, and gene expression are responsible for the metabolic depression process during pre-hibernation and hibernation. Antidepressants and mood stabilizers interfere with the hibernation process and produce their

  15. Depression During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Becker, Madeleine; Weinberger, Tal; Chandy, Ann; Schmukler, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Depression is a common complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. There are multiple risk factors for peripartum mood disorders, most important of which is a prior history of depression. Both depression and antidepressant medications confer risk upon the infant. Maternal depression has been associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction, and postnatal cognitive and emotional complications. Antidepressant exposure has been associated with preterm birth, reductions in birth weight, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS) as well as a possible connection with autism spectrum disorder. Paroxetine has been associated with cardiac malformations. Most antidepressant medications are excreted in low levels in breast milk and are generally compatible with breastfeeding. The use of antidepressants during pregnancy and postpartum must be weighed against the risk of untreated depression in the mother.

  16. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage.

  17. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  18. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  19. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  20. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  1. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  2. Treating Depression: Should You Consider an Antidepressant?

    MedlinePlus

    Treating Depression: Should You Consider An Antidepressant? What are antidepressants? Antidepressants are drugs used to treat the symptoms of depression. Do I need an antidepressant? You probably do ...

  3. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  4. Generalized potentiometric surface of the Sparta-Memphis aquifer, eastern Arkansas, spring 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A map shows generalized contours of the altitude of water levels for wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Most water-level measurements used in constructing the map were from the spring of 1980, but supplemental measurements from other years indicated no long-term change in water levels. Hydrographs for selected wells are included to show trends and lack of trends in water-level changes. The aquifer in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand of Eocene age which consists of fine to medium sand interbedded with salt, clay, and lignite. The aquifer supplies much of the water used for industry and public supply for eastern Arkansas. Some irrigation users also obtain supplies from the aquifer. Cones of depression caused by pumpage for industrial and public supplies occur near Camden, El Dorado, Magnolia, Pine Buff, and West Memphis. (USGS)

  5. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  6. Rumination and Loneliness Independently Predict Six-Month Later Depression Symptoms among Chinese Elderly in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Pei; Xie, Yan; Duan, Wenjie; Deng, Qing; Yu, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies conducted in Western countries independently demonstrated that loneliness and rumination are remarkable risk factors of depression among the elderly in both community and nursing homes. However, knowledge on the relationship between these three constructs among the elderly in Eastern countries is scarce. The current study aims to determine the relationship between loneliness, rumination, and depression among Chinese elderly in nursing homes. Methods A total of 71 elderly participants with an average age of 82.49 years completed this six-month longitudinal study. Physical reports indicated that none of the participants were clinically depressed before the study. At Time 1, their loneliness and rumination were measured using UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale and Ruminative Responses Scale. Six months later, the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms (Time 2). Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that both loneliness and rumination at Time 1 were the predictors of depression symptoms at Time 2 among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, in the mediation analysis using PROCESS, the indirect effect between loneliness at Time 1 and depression symptoms at Time 2 was insignificant. Conclusions Results suggest that previous loneliness and rumination thinking are predictors of future depression symptoms among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, the insignificant mediation further suggests that the differences between loneliness and rumination should be explored in future studies. Findings have important implications for mental health professionals in nursing homes in China. PMID:26334298

  7. Debt and depression.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Sarah; Disney, Richard

    2010-05-01

    We examine the effect of household financial indebtedness on psychological well-being using a large household survey of families with children in Britain. Existing studies that find a link between debt and depression tend to utilise small and highly selective samples of people and only self-reported measures of financial stress, responses to which are likely to correlate with subjective measures of health. From additional household data, we can construct a variety of 'objective' quantitative measures of financial stress in order to validate self-reported measures. We show that, although there is a positive association between subjective measures of financial well-being and psychological well-being, individuals differ in their psychological response to objective household financial situations. We also examine how the potential simultaneity of financial and psychological health might be handled.

  8. Dynorphin, stress, and depression

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Allison T.; Carlezon, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is most often associated with aversive states. It rapidly induces the release of hormones and neuropeptides including dynorphin, which activates kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In animal models, many aversive effects of stress are mimicked or exacerbated by stimulation of KORs in limbic brain regions. Although KOR signaling during acute stress may increase physical ability (by producing analgesia) and motivation to escape a threat (by producing aversion), prolonged KOR signaling in response to chronic or uncontrollable stress can lead to persistent expression of behavioral signs that are characteristic of human depressive disorders (i.e., “prodepressive-like” signs). Accumulating evidence suggests that KORs contribute to the progressive amplification (sensitization) of stress-induced behaviors that occurs with repeated exposure to stress. Many of the aversive effects of stress are blocked by KOR antagonists, suggesting that these agents may have potential as therapeutics for stress-related conditions such as depression and anxiety disorders. This review summarizes current data on how KOR systems contribute to the acute (rapid), delayed, and cumulative molecular and behavioral effects of stress. We focus on behavioral paradigms that provide insight on interactions between stress and KOR function within each of these temporal categories. Using a simplified model, we consider the time course and mechanism of KOR-mediated effects in stress and suggest future directions that may be useful in determining whether KOR antagonists exert their therapeutic effects by preventing the development of stress-induced behaviors, the expression of stress-induced behaviors, or both. PMID:19782055

  9. Predicting the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royden, L.

    2011-12-01

    From ~30 Ma onwards, the evolution of the Mediterranean region has been dominated by the rapid migration of thin-skinned thrust-belts. Thrust belt migration has been accommodated by the opening of "back arc type" basins within the upper plate of the thrust belts. Migration of these thrust belts is associated with the migration of subduction systems where subduction and thrusting are driven largely by negative slab buoyancy. Where the subducting slab has large negative buoyancy, thrust belt migration is commonly rapid. Where buoyant continental lithosphere enters the subduction system, subduction ceases quickly. Hence the large-scale tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean basin is largely pre-conditioned by its paleogeography. This can be quantitatively illustrated for the Hellenic subduction system where the post Eocene evolution of the Hellenic thrust belt can be ascribed to the buoyancy of the lithosphere subducted. Entry of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into a slow-moving trench at 10-15 Ma explains the increase in subduction rate along the central part of the trench, to ~35 mm/yr at present, while subduction rates along strike to the northeast, where continental/transitional crust is subducted, remain less than ~10 mm/yr. Using quantitative modeling of the Hellenic subduction system in post Eocene time, it is possible to approximate how this thrust belt, and the active subduction belt of the eastern Mediterranean, will evolve over the next 10 m.y. This exercise suggests that the large-scale evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin will be strikingly similar to that of the western Mediterranean basin from 20-0 Ma. This highlights the common dynamic mechanism that shapes the large scale deformation and morphology of the Mediterranean basin.

  10. Economic hardship and depression across the life course: the impact of welfare state regimes.

    PubMed

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-06-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006--2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the socio-political context. While the hardship--depression link is not significantly different across the life course in Nordic and Bismarckian regimes, the hardship--depression link increases with age in Southern and Eastern European countries and decreases with age in strength in Anglo-Saxon welfare states. Our findings suggest that welfare state regimes play a significant role in attenuating, boosting, or even reversing the health effects of social experiences such as economic hardship on aging. Health knowledge gained through research that ignores the socio-political context may be limited in terms of generalization.

  11. Social network determinants of depression

    PubMed Central

    Rosenquist, JN; Fowler, JH; Christakis, NA

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of depression has long been thought to include social environmental factors. To quantitatively explore the novel possibility of person-to-person spread and network-level determination of depressive symptoms, analyses were performed on a densely interconnected social network of 12 067 people assessed repeatedly over 32 years as part of the Framingham Heart Study. Longitudinal statistical models were used to examine whether depressive symptoms in one person were associated with similar scores in friends, co-workers, siblings, spouses and neighbors. Depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D scores that were available for subjects in three waves measured between 1983 and 2001. Results showed both low and high CES-D scores (and classification as being depressed) in a given period were strongly correlated with such scores in one's friends and neighbors. This association extended up to three degrees of separation (to one's friends’ friends’ friends). Female friends appear to be especially influential in the spread of depression from one person to another. The results are robust to multiple network simulation and estimation methods, suggesting that network phenomena appear relevant to the epidemiology of depression and would benefit from further study. PMID:20231839

  12. Atypical depression: a valid subtype?

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon B

    2007-01-01

    The concept of atypical depression has evolved over the past several decades, yet remains inadequately defined. As currently defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), the main criterion of atypical depression is the presence of mood reactivity in combination with at least 2 of 4 secondary criteria (hypersomnia, hyperphagia and weight gain, leaden paralysis, and oversensitivity to criticism and rejection). The focus on mood reactivity as the primary distinguishing criterion remains questionable among researchers who have been unable to verify the primacy of this symptom in relation to the other diagnostic criteria for atypical depression. A model challenging the DSM-IV-TR definition of atypical depression has been developed, redefining the disorder as a dimensional nonmelancholic syndrome in which individuals with a personality subtype of "interpersonal rejection sensitivity" have a tendency toward the onset of anxiety disorders and depression, thereby exhibiting a variety of dysregulated emotional and self-consolatory responses. This reformulated definition of atypical depression (in arguing for the primacy of a personality style or rejection sensitivity as against mood reactivity) may lead to a better understanding and recognition of the disorder and its symptoms as well as other "spectrum" disorders within the scope of major depression.

  13. Depression as a communicable disorder.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ekta K

    2004-01-01

    'Communicable disorder' can be defined as a disorder capable of being transmitted in the form of negative emotion(s) from living or non-living being(s) to susceptible host. Thus, communicable disorder is transmitted from the source or reservoir of disorder to the susceptible host. The source of disorder can be defined as the living or non-living being from which the disorder in the form of negative emotion(s) gets transmitted to the susceptible host. The reservoir of disorder can be defined as the living or non-living being in which the negative emotion(s) lives, on which it depends primarily for survival, and where it preserves and reproduces itself in such a manner that it can be transmitted to the susceptible host. Depression is a disorder and can be transmitted in the form of negative emotion(s) and therefore can be considered to fall under the category of communicable disorder. The detection and depression of the source and reservoir of depression can not only help in its diagnosis and treatment but can also prevent its spread. The paper proposes a study to help calculate the percentage susceptibility of an individual to depression and a means to treat depression by depressing the source and reservoir of depression. The paper also proposes a new word, Emotional immunization and defines it as that as that positive activity of emotion(s), which leads to its stabilization when, subjected to negative emotion(s).

  14. Can we vaccinate against depression?

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Raison, Charles L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Major depression is common in the context of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and is frequently associated with persistently raised levels of proinflammatory cytokines and other markers of inflammation, even in the absence of another diagnosable immune pathology to account for these findings. Therefore immunoregulation-inducing vaccines or manipulations of the gut microbiota might prevent or treat depression. These strategies are already undergoing clinical trials for chronic inflammatory disorders, such as allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease. In this article, we summarize data suggesting that this approach might be effective in depression and encourage the initiation of clinical vaccination trials in this disorder.

  15. Detecting Depression in Elderly Medical Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephen R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used Research Diagnostic Criteria to assess base rate of detection of depression in 150 elderly medical inpatients by nonpsychiatric physicians, and evaluated psychometric properties of screening instruments to assess depression. Found detection of depression by house staff extremely low (8.7 percent). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), BDI…

  16. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  17. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  18. Managing Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2010-01-01

    The menopausal transition is associated with both first onset of depression and recurrent depression. Risk factors include vasomotor symptoms, a history of premenstrual dysphoria, postpartum depression, major depression, and sleep disturbances. Hormone replacement therapy, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and counseling…

  19. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  1. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... overwhelmed Crying a lot Having no energy or motivation Eating too little or too much Sleeping too ... are more likely to have depression. Changes in brain chemistry or structure are believed to play a ...

  2. Depression and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Benton, Tami D

    2008-06-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a significant public health problem. Millions of people worldwide are infected with this virus daily, and thousands die yearly of AIDS-related illnesses. Despite rapid advances in our knowledge about HIV and its mode of transmission, we have been unable to find a cure or prevent new infections. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with HIV/AIDS: as a risk factor for HIV infection, a comorbidity of HIV infection, sequelae of HIV/AIDS, and a potential mediator for progression to AIDS. In this article, we focus on depression, which is prevalent in HIV/AIDS. We review the evidence associating depression with HIV, the challenges in recognizing depression in HIV-positive individuals, and the psychopharmacologic strategies known to be effective in the treatment of HIV-positive individuals with depression.

  3. Detailed course of depressive symptoms and risk for developing depression in late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jinnin, Ran; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE) in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50), who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups) divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling. Results First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms) were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained stable during 1 year. Second, in comparison with late adolescents with less depressive symptoms, those with subthreshold depression had an elevated risk of later depression. Conclusion Some late adolescents with subthreshold depression had increased depressive symptoms and developed an MDE during 1 year. Therefore, it is necessary for us to rigorously assess the changes in subthreshold depressive symptoms over time in late adolescents. PMID:28053534

  4. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David; Novacheck, Joshua; King, Jack; Barrows, Clayton; Ibanez, Eduardo; O'Connell, Matthew; Jordan, Gary; Roberts, Billy; Draxl, Caroline; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  5. Dust Shrouds the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On October 18, 2002, a large dust plume extended across countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Information on the horizontal and vertical extent of the dust are provided by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The left-hand panel portrays the scene as viewed by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Here only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, which is a view from MISR's most steeply forward-looking camera. In addition, this perspective makes shadows cast by clouds onto the dust layer more apparent, providing a visual clue that the dust is at a lower altitude than these clouds.

    The right-hand panel is an elevation field derived from automated MISR stereoscopic processing, in which the heights of clouds and certain parts of the dust plume are retrieved. Because the stereoscopic approach makes use of features within the images that exhibit spatial contrast, heights for much of the dust plume (as well as the ocean surface) could not be retrieved, and these areas are shown in dark gray. Clouds within the image area are situated between about 2 and 5.5 kilometers above sea level, and the dust is located below most of the cloud, at heights of about 1.5 kilometers or less. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is at a near-surface altitude, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. The highest clouds in this scene appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous regions are displayed in light blue and green.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15072. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 827 kilometers, and utilize data from

  6. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  7. Depressive Symptoms in Chiropractic Students

    PubMed Central

    Kinsinger, Stuart; Puhl, Aaron Anthony; Reinhart, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The intensive training associated with health care education has been suggested to have unintended negative consequences on students’ mental or emotional health that may interfere with the development of qualities deemed essential for proficient health care professionals. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among students at a chiropractic educational institution. Methods: Chiropractic students at all levels of training were surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College during the academic years of 2000/2001, 2001/2002, and 2002/2003. The measurement tool employed was the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II). Previously established BDI-II cutoff scores were used to assess the severity of reported depression symptoms, and these were compared by sex and year of training. Results: The survey was completed by 1303 students (70%) over the 3 years of the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was nearly 25%, with 13.7% of respondents indicating a rating of mild depression, 7.1% indicating moderate depressive symptoms, and 2.8% indicating severe symptoms. Significant differences were found between years of training, with 2nd-year students having the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms, and sex, with females having a higher rate of symptoms. Conclusions: Chiropractic students surveyed at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College had high rates of depression similar to those measured in other health care profession students. Chiropractic educational institutions should be aware of this situation and are encouraged to emphasize students’ awareness of their own personal health and well-being and their access to appropriate care, in addition to the same concerns for their future patients. PMID:22069339

  8. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    PubMed

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  9. Depression-Related Behavioral Tests.

    PubMed

    Powell, Timothy R; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2012-06-01

    Overlapping characteristics between human depressive phenotypes and mouse behaviors has led to the creation of mouse models that aim to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of unipolar depression. Behavioral tests in mice are used to assess and quantify the extent to which a mouse model displays a depression-like phenotype. The forced swim test and tail suspension test, sucrose preference test, and novelty suppressed feeding tests all aim to measure different components of depression. However, each one of these tests has different strengths and weaknesses in terms of predictive, face and construct validities. Furthermore, the responses to these tests vary greatly depending on strain of mouse. Depression-related behavioral tests are an extremely useful investigative tool in unearthing causes and predicting treatment outcomes in human depression, but as this review demonstrates, the comprehension of the finer details are extremely important in the design, analysis, and evaluation of such mouse studies. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2:119-127 © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Anxiety and Depression in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Janet; Rebbapragada, Venkata; Borson, Soo; Goldstein, Roger; Kunik, Mark E.; Yohannes, Abebaw M.; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 60 million people in the United States live with one of four chronic conditions: heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and major depression. Anxiety and depression are very common comorbidities in COPD and have significant impact on patients, their families, society, and the course of the disease. Methods We report the proceedings of a multidisciplinary workshop on anxiety and depression in COPD that aimed to shed light on the current understanding of these comorbidities, and outline unanswered questions and areas of future research needs. Results Estimates of prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD vary widely but are generally higher than those reported in some other advanced chronic diseases. Untreated and undetected anxiety and depressive symptoms may increase physical disability, morbidity, and health-care utilization. Several patient, physician, and system barriers contribute to the underdiagnosis of these disorders in patients with COPD. While few published studies demonstrate that these disorders associated with COPD respond well to appropriate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy, only a small proportion of COPD patients with these disorders receive effective treatment. Conclusion Future research is needed to address the impact, early detection, and management of anxiety and depression in COPD. PMID:18842932

  11. Depression in the classroom: considerations and strategies.

    PubMed

    Calear, Alison L

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that can severely affect a young person’s social, emotional, and academic functioning. Identifying depression early is essential to reducing the impact of this disorder. Depression is treatable. However, there are a number of classroom and school supports that can be put in place to assist a young person experiencing or recovering from depression. Preventing the development of depression through effective classroom programs should be encouraged and supported within the school environment.

  12. Morbidity pattern among refugees in Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bisrat, F; Berhane, Y; Mamo, A; Asefa, E

    1995-11-01

    The population of refugees in eastern Africa and the health problems affecting them are enormous. This study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study utilized a descriptive cross sectional design. Data were collected using a uniform format from all refugee camps in the eastern Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infection and diarrhoeal diseases were identified to be the major causes of morbidity, accounting for 31.8% and 27.3% respectively in children under five years, and for 34.9% and 8.5% respectively in the other age groups. The findings were consistent with other studies done in refugee populations elsewhere. Universality of the problems was noted and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach is recommended to alleviate the health problems of refugees.

  13. LIMITATIONS TO EASTERN REDCEDAR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive woody plant species are degrading the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems throughout the world. A species of particular concern in Great Plains grasslands is eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), which has rapidly spread due to fire suppression and intenti...

  14. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  15. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-03

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  16. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas... Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, or by calling (713)...

  17. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056... Application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern...

  18. 77 FR 20015 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas.... Connolly, General Manager, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642,...

  19. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission... Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas, 77251-1642, or by calling (713) 627-4102; by...

  20. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... directed to Lisa A. Connolly, General Manager, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...