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Sample records for depression eastern estonia

  1. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  2. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  3. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  4. Astronomy in the society and culture of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedjärv, Laurits

    2011-06-01

    History and present state of astronomy in a small North-Eastern European country are considered. There is a rather big number (about 35) of professional astronomers in Estonia, including 21 IAU members. Through some outstanding persons, astronomy in Estonia has significant relations with the society. The same can be said about the culture. Well-developed astronomy has contributed into the cooperation of Estonia with the European Space Agency, and thus, has an indirect effect to the country's economy.

  5. Depression, perceived control, and life satisfaction in university students from Central-Eastern and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Gulis, Gabriel; Sartory, Gudrun; Sêk, Helena; Todorova, Irina; Vögele, Claus; Ziarko, Michal

    2004-01-01

    The poor health and psychological well-being of people in the former socialist states of Centeral-Eastern Europe are of serious concern and may be related to low perceived control. We compared depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-rated health in 3,571 male and female university students from 5 Western European countries and 4,793 students from 5 Central-Eastern European countries. Depression scores (short Beck Depression Inventory; Beck & Beck, 1972) were higher in Central-Eastern than Western European samples. The prevalence of low life satisfaction was also greater in Central-Eastern Europeans, but ratings of self-rated health did not differ. Ratings of perceived control were diminished, but sense of mastery and internal health locus of control were higher in Central-Eastern Europe. Depression and low life satisfaction were associated with low perceived control and mastery and with strong beliefs in the influence of chance over health. However, taking these factors into account did not explain the East-West difference in depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction.

  6. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  7. Psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikhart, Hynek; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Topor, Roman; Sebakova, Helena; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Psychosocial factors at work have been found to predict a range of health outcomes but their effect on mental health outcomes has not been extensively studied. This paper explores the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and depression in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The data come from a cross-sectional study of working men (n = 645) and women (n = 523) aged 45-64 years, randomly selected from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and Karvina-Havirov (Czech Republic). The questionnaire included questions on the effort and reward at work, job control, the full CES-D scale of depression, and a range of other characteristics. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between depression score and work characteristics: the logarithm of the effort-reward ratio, and continuous job control score. The means of the depression score were 10.5 for men and 14.2 for women. After controlling for age, sex and country, effort-reward ratio (logarithmically transformed) was strongly related to depression score; a 1 SD increase in the log transformed effort-reward ratio was associated with an increase in the depression of 2.0 points (95% CI 1.5; 2.4), and further adjustment did not materially change the effect. Job control was inversely associated with depression score in Poland and the Czech Republic (not in Russia) but the association was largely eliminated by controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. This study suggests that the effort-reward imbalance at work is related to prevalence of depression in these central and eastern European populations.

  8. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in the Eastern Province Capital of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alasoom, Lamia I.; Koura, Manal R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive episode that occurs four weeks after delivery. Its risk increases during the first ninety days after delivery and continues for almost two years. The aim of present study is to assess the prevalence of PPD and the associated risk factors in the Eastern Province capital of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the five largest Primary Healthcare Centers of Dammam. Four hundred and fifty mothers – visiting the health centers for immunizing their children at age two to six months – were selected by proportionate allocation to the population served by each health center. The mothers were screened for PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and interviewed for the associated risk factors. Results: It was found that 17.8% of the women had PPD. Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of PPD was a family history of depression, followed by non-supportive husband, lifetime history of depression, unwanted pregnancy, and stressful life events. It was recommended to screen all high-risk mothers for PPD, while visiting the Primary Care Well-Baby Clinics. PMID:25161973

  9. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  10. Geography Olympiads in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liiber, Ulle; Roosaare, Juri

    2007-01-01

    The Olympiad movement has a long history in Estonia, and the national system developed several decades ago. The first Olympiad for gifted and talented students was held in mathematics in 1950. Now there are more than 20 different fields of competition for basic school and gymnasium students. In 2005/2006, Estonian teams participated in 18…

  11. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  12. Sequence-stratigraphy of Visean incised-valleys within Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression in Tatarstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgalieva, Nuriya; Nuriev, Annur

    2010-05-01

    In present paper it was examined the Visean sedimentary oil-containing section within Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression known as incised-valley's section. The subsurface data (mainly core and log data) have been used for sequence-stratigraphic reconstructions. The investigated section is represented by Tournaisian carbonate rocks and Visean terrigenous rocks of common thick~ 50-150 m. Main oil deposits are found in zone up and down nearly erosion boundary of Tournaisian and Visean just in incised-valley's complex. Sequence stratigraphy is very successful for reconstruction such the complexes. In present paper sequence stratigraphic analysis based on well logs are tied to biostratigraphic markers. Using these two bases in combination one can 1) identify, match and tie sequence stratigraphic surfaces and 2) interpret the stacking patterns of the vertical sedimentary sequences. The character of electric and gamma-ray logs of wells that penetrate clastics often reflect changes in grains size and so are easier to use in this process, while the logs of wells that penetrate carbonates often should be calibrated with cores, since carbonates are more susceptible to diagenesis and their change in character may be affected by more than changes in grain size. Core data (optical microscopy, EPR, grain size measerments) reflect and control facial composition of Tournaisian-Visean complex. The sections that follow initally focus on the well log and core data response to shallow water clastics and then move on to their response to shallow water carbonates. In both clastics and carbonates the second and often co-incident step in the interpretation of well logs and cores is the use of parasequence stacking patterns (the vertical occurrence of repeated cycles of coarsening or fining upwards sediment) of to identify the lowstand system tracts (LST), transgressive system tracts (TST) and highstand system tracts (HST) that are enveloped by the mfs, TS and SB. These parasequence

  13. Core and geophysical criteria of carbonate facial successions within Bashkirian formation, Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Mikhael; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2010-05-01

    One of the main Bashkirian carbonate susccessions problems is to understand facies heterogeneities and porosity distribution on exploration and production scales. Present paper consists of a core investigation combined with geophysical data (logs and seismics) on a lot of oil fields of Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression. Cores from wells provide an opportunity to assess the sequence stratigraphic distribution of facies and diagenetic modification in platform carbonate reservoirs represented by rocks from micrite to sorted biosparite. Log and laboratory data from these wells calibrate the rock properties and provide insights into porosity/permeability in platform Bashkirian carbonates. It was regarded the spatial heterogeneity within a carbonate platform, a facies belt or individual facies bodies, while simultaneously exploring the fundamental controlling processes. The main results of the present paper are 1) to illustrate the processes that produce heterogeneities in carbonates, 2) to improve the interpretation of subsurface data sets of carbonate systems and 3) to outline solutions for the construction of carbonate reservoir models.

  14. Pleistocene chronostratigraphy in Estonia, southeastern sector of the Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalm, Volli

    2006-05-01

    Pleistocene chronostratigraphy in Estonia is based on 29 studied sites/sections, the dating of which covers a span from approximately 200 ka BP to the Pleistocene—Holocene chronostratigraphic boundary, and a local varved clay chronology for eastern Estonia, which enables tentative correlation of Lateglacial (LG) events to Finnish and Swedish varve chronologies. Analysis of existing and unpublished data was used to review the current Pleistocene chronostratigraphy and particularly the history of Weichselian Cold Stage in Estonia. OSL ages from fluvial deposits that included the Kõrveküla (Holsteinian) or Rõngu (Eemian) continental interglacial deposits revealed that the pre-Weichselian interglacial deposits were glacially dislocated during the Weichselian. Available OSL/TL and 14C dates and new 14C AMS ages of mammoth bones indicate ice-free conditions between 105 and 68 ka BP and a comparatively mild Middle Weichselian between 43 and 22 ka BP. The LG chronology indicates in general rapid (average 110 m/yr) deglaciation of the territory between ca 14.7 and 12.7 ka BP. The duration of the Late Weichselian glaciation in Estonia ranged between 7.3 and 9.3 ka.

  15. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  16. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  17. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  18. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  19. Climatology of precipitation extremes in Estonia using the method of moving precipitation totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammets, Tiina; Jaagus, Jaak

    2013-02-01

    A method of moving precipitation totals is described and applied for the analysis of precipitation extremes in Estonia. Numbers of extremely wet and extremely dry days and other indices of precipitation extremes were calculated using the daily precipitation data measured at 51 stations over Estonia during 1957-2009. Mean regularities of spatial and seasonal distribution were determined. Long-term changes were detected using Sen's method and Mann-Kendall test. The highest risk of heavy precipitation is in the regions of higher mean precipitation on the uplands and on the belt of higher precipitation in the western part of continental Estonia. Wet spells have their sharp maxima in July and August. The highest risk of droughts is observed in the coastal regions of West Estonia. In the coastal area, droughts appear mostly in the first half of summer, while in the eastern Estonia, they are usually observed during the second half of summer. Extreme precipitation events have become more frequent and intense. Statistically significant increasing trends were, first of all, found in the time series of winter extreme precipitation indices. In summer and autumn, trends existed in some indices, but in spring, there were no trends at all. There were no trends in time series of dryness indices in Estonia in 1957-2009.

  20. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. PMID:24334730

  1. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  2. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  3. Depression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

  4. [Anxiety, depression, somatoform symptoms and posttraumatic stress in the offspring of political detainees in Eastern Germany (1945-1989)].

    PubMed

    Klinitzke, Grit; Böhm, Maya; Brähler, Elmar; Weissflog, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1989, approximately 300 000 persons were imprisoned because of political reasons in Eastern Germany. There is that evidence the detainees' offspring are affected by the trauma of their parents. In a study with cross-sectional design, depressive (PHQ-9), somatoform (PHQ-15) and anxiety symptomatology (GAD-7), and Posttraumatic Stress (IES-R) were assessed with self-rating measures in 43 children of former political prisoners. In comparison to 2 representative gender education and age matched samples from the general population, offspring of former political detainees show higher levels of psychopathological symptoms. The life-time prevalence for PTSD was 9.1%. Regarding the psychopathology, children who were born after their parents' imprisonment did not differ from those who were already born when the imprisonment happened. First evidence for the transgenerational transmission of traumatisation and the methods will be discussed critically.

  5. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Study of structural geology in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay has achieved great breakthroughs in recent years. However the studies of structure and dynamics still remain much controversy. Based on the 3D and partial 2D seismic data, combined with regional geology and well data, the characteristics of structures in the north Jizhong Deprssion are analyzed, the dynamics is discussed. Our analyses show that the Cenozoic structures in the north Jizhong Depression can be subdivided into extensional system and strike-slip system. Extensional system concludes series of normal faults and transfer faults. Normal faults are mainly trend NNE and NE. They control the Paleogene sediments in sub-depressions of hanging-wall, and bottom out into a sub-horizontal detachment zone in deep level shaped like listric. Transfer faults mainly adjust displacement of normal faults, yet some like Tongbozhen and Niutuozhen are transfer faults in Paleocene and Eocene but change to normal faults in Oligocene. Strike-slip system is predominantly consisted by sub-vertical right-lateral strike-slip faults such as Xin`anzhen and Maxi. From seismic profiles, Xin`anzhen and Maxi cut into basement but only influence the sediments of Ed of Paleogene and Lower Neogene. Based on the relation of sedimentary sequence and faults, the extensional system mainly develops from Paleocene to Late Oligocene, but strike-slip system predominantly develops from Late Oligocene to Miocene. From the superposed section of crustal structure and basin structure in Jizhong Depression, the Cenozoic sub-basin is just located on the thinner zones of crustal, corresponding with the location of mantle uplift. It indicates that the Paleogene development of Jizhong Depression is related to the horizontal tension caused by uplift of magma in mantle. The results illustrate that extensional deformation in Jizhong depression is caused by the uplift of magma. The right-lateral strike-slip deformation, same with Tancheng

  6. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  7. Depression.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Myrna

    2009-04-01

    This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had.

  8. Depression.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Myrna

    2009-04-01

    This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had. PMID:19344866

  9. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  10. Depression.

    PubMed

    Tallo, Donato

    2014-04-15

    Reading the CPD article was beneficial to my professional nursing practice and development. I gained a greater understanding of how depression is likely to exacerbate the effects of a physical illness or complicate the treatment of other health conditions. PMID:24712633

  11. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013). PMID:23391132

  12. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users. Our application of intervention mapping strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial which is underway to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013). PMID:23391132

  13. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  14. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  15. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  16. Influence of anxiety and depression on quality of life of people with schizophrenia in the eastern region of poland.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Wołyniak, Małgorzata; Kryś, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is the most severe and most debilitating mental illness, which is one of the first ten causes of disability in youth and elderly people. Regarding many consequences that schizophrenia brings for individual and social functioning of ill people, their assessment of the quality of their lives seems to be interesting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and severity of anxiety and depression as well as analysis of the impact level of anxiety and depression on life quality of people with schizophrenia. A group of patients with schizophrenia from psychiatric centers was involved in a study. A set of methods, included: author's questionnaire, the quality of life scale WHOQOL-BREF, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Anxiety disorders occurred in more than 78% of respondents, while depressive disorders in more than half of respondents. The more severe anxiety and depressive disorders, the lower values were observed in all tested components of quality of life. The study of quality of life of the mentally ill patients should be conducted on a continuous basis in order to explore the current factors influencing the improvement of their psychophysical welfare. It is necessary to promote prohealthy mental lifestyle.

  17. Analyzing the enrichment regularity of hydrocardon reservoirs in sequence stratigraphic framework of Tertiary: a case study on the Qikou sag in Huanghua depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuanyan, Huang; Hua, Wang; Yongpin, Wu; Shi, Chen; Jiahao, Wang; Peigang, Ren

    2010-05-01

    Hydrocarbon enrichment relates to definite geologic condition. The enrichment of reservoirs shows certain regularity in the basin sequence stratigraphic framework, generally associated with the unconformity interface or tectonic transformation surface, and show different enrichment regularity in different basin margins. However, enrichment regularity of different sags presents some differences. From the view of sequence stratigraphy, the paper analyzes the characteristic of hydrocarbon reservoirs enrichment in the sequence stratigraphic framework of Qikou sag in Huanghua depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China according to 1340 wells. The research shows that reservoirs enriched near the second order sequence interface or tectonic transformation surface in Qikou Sag. The closer to the second order sequence interface, the more enriched the hydrocarbon was. In the internal sequence, hydrocarbon reservoirs mainly enriched in lacustrine expanding system tract (EST) and low stand system tract (LST). However, each sequence presented some differences. Upper the second order sequence interface, hydrocarbon reservoirs mainly enriched in lacustrine expanding system tract and low stand system tract which were under the maximum flooding surface. Under the second order sequence interface, hydrocarbon reservoirs mainly enriched in high stand system tract (HST). On the plane, hydrocarbon reservoirs mainly congregated near steep slope zone which was controlled by sag marginal faults. The flexure slope break was the least hydrocarbon enrichment zone, but the exploration potential of lithologic reservoirs was huge. Hereby, the author proposed the thought that second order sequence interface (or tectonic transformation surface) + corresponding system tract in the third sequence + correlatable sag slope break types = favorable exploration zone. It is the three elements coupling controlled the favorable exploration zone. The author put forward some suggestions for next exploration of

  18. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  19. Deciphering the Late Quaternary fluvial dynamics at the foothill of an active orogen - the example of the Transcaucasian depression in eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Faust, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    Generally, the dynamics of fluvial systems can be triggered by climate, tectonics, anthropogenic activity or internal mechanisms. The lowland of the Transcaucasian depression is located between the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. Both mountainous massifs form a part of the Alpidic orogenic belt and are thus characterized by a high tectonic activity. During the Weichselian glaciation, due to their altitude >3000 m the massifs were strongly glaciated. During the last years, we investigated fluvial sediment sequences of several rivers that originate from the mountain belts and cross the eastern semi-arid part of the Transcauscasian depression towards the Caspian Sea (e.g. Algeti, Khrami, Kura, Alazani), in order to decipher changes of their fluvial dynamics during the past. The investigated sediments of Late Pleistocene and Holocene age show thicknesses up to 50 m and are mostly well outcropped. Our morphologic, sedimentologic and chronostratigraphic investigations of different sediment sequences demonstrate distinctive changes of the fluvial dynamics between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, and show that high-frequent Holocene changes of the fluvial pattern of the rivers are probably linked to climatic and/or anthropogenic triggers. Additionally, on a longer time scale the fluvial dynamics of the rivers is obviously controlled by ongoing tectonic processes.

  20. Epidemiology of childhood stroke in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laugesaar, Rael; Kolk, Anneli; Uustalu, Ulle; Ilves, Pilvi; Tomberg, Tiiu; Talvik, Inga; Köbas, Kristel; Sander, Valentin; Talvik, Tiina

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the incidence and 30-day case-fatality of childhood stroke in Estonia, and clinical signs and risk factors of childhood stroke. A retrospective (1995-2003) and prospective study (2004-2006) of childhood stroke (arterial ischemic, hemorrhagic, and sinovenous thrombosis) and transient ischemic attack was conducted. Stroke-incidence calculation was based on the prospective study. Clinical diagnoses of stroke were confirmed by neuroradiology. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia was 2.73/100,000 person-years for children aged 30 days to 18 years: 1.61/100,000 for arterial ischemic stroke, 0.87/100,000 for hemorrhagic stroke, 0.25/100,000 for sinovenous thrombosis, and 0.37/100,000 for transient ischemic attack. No arterial ischemic stroke patients died within 30 days, but case-fatality for intracerebral hemorrhage was 46%. Focal signs occurred in 100% of arterial ischemic strokes and 64% of intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Risk factors were identified in 35/48 (73%) children with cerebrovascular attacks. Six children with arterial ischemic stroke (6/24, 25%) manifested more than one risk factor. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia is similar to that in earlier data.

  1. Application of high-pass filtering techniques on gravity and magnetic data of the eastern Qattara Depression area, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Oweis, Hesham T.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a reconnaissance study is presented to delineate the subsurface tectonics and lithological inferences of the eastern area of Qattara Depression using the Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic data. To achieve this goal, several transformation techniques and filtering processes are accomplished on these maps. At first, the total intensity aeromagnetic map is processed through the application of reduction to the magnetic north pole technique. The fast Fourier transform is carried out on the gravity and RTP magnetic data for establishing and defining the residual (shallow) sources. The frequency high-pass filtering is used to enhance the anomaly wavelengths associated with the shallow sources. The used processing techniques are the polynomial surface fitting enhancement, Laplacian, Strike Filtering, Enhancement Utilization, Suppression Utilization, Butterworth Filtering Utilization, Butterworth high-pass filter, Euler's deconvolution and forward modeling. The equivalent depths of the isolated short wavelength anomalies are 0.759 and 0.340 km below the flight surface, and the depths of the intermediate wavelength anomalies are 1.28 and 2.00 km for the gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Finally, the quantitative interpretations of the Bouguer gravity and RTP magnetic maps of the study area, reflect the occurrence of the various types of structures and their components. The main tectonic deformations of the study area have NNW-SSE, NNE-SSW, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W trends.

  2. Evidence of temperature depression and hydrological variations in the eastern Sierra Nevada during the Younger Dryas stade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Glen M.; Moser, Katrina A.; Bloom, Amy M.; Porinchu, David F.; Potito, Aaron P.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Petel, Amanda; Orme, Antony R.; Orme, Amalie Jo

    2008-09-01

    Sediment records from two lakes in the east-central Sierra Nevada, California, provide evidence of cooling and hydrological shifts during the Younger Dryas stade (YD; ~ 12,900-11,500 cal yr BP). A chironomid transfer function suggests that lake-water temperatures were depressed by 2°C to 4°C relative to maximum temperatures during the preceding Bølling-Allerød interstade (BA; ~ 14,500-12,900 cal yr BP). Diatom and stable isotope records suggest dry conditions during the latter part of the BA interstade and development of relatively moist conditions during the initiation of the YD stade, with a reversion to drier conditions later in the YD. These paleohydrological inferences correlate with similar timed changes detected in the adjacent Great Basin. Vegetation response during the YD stade includes the development of more open and xeric vegetation toward the end of the YD. The new records support linkages between the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and widespread YD cooling in western North America, but they also suggest complex hydrological influences. Shifting hydrological conditions and relatively muted vegetation changes may explain the previous lack of evidence for the YD stade in the Sierra Nevada and the discordance in some paleohydrological and glacial records of the YD stade from the western United States.

  3. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2014-09-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  4. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  5. International Reports on Literacy Research: Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Presents part of a series that highlights this journal's interest in informing readers of international literacy research beyond what appears in featured articles. Discusses reports on literacy research in Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. (SG)

  6. Distribution of sylvatic species of Trichinella in Estonia according to climate zones.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Miller, I; Järvis, T; Kapel, C M; La Rosa, G

    1998-02-01

    A survey on trichinellosis among sylvatic and domestic animals from Estonia revealed the presence of Trichinella nativa (Tn), Trichinella britovi (Tb), and Trichinella spiralis (Ts). Muscle samples were collected from 776 sylvatic and 1,086 domestic animals. Muscle larvae from 52 of the 74 positive samples were identified, using random-amplified polymorphic DNA analysis; 19 samples showed Tn, 27 samples Tb, and 4 samples Ts. A raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) were infected with both Tn and Tb. Of the 19 animals infected with Tn, 16 (84%) were collected from the central-eastern regions of the country, east of the isotherm -5 C in January. Of the 27 animals infected with Tb, 22 (81%) were collected from the western regions of the country, west of the isotherm -4 C in January. Trichinella spiralis seemed to be present only in a focus (a fur-bearing animal farm) on Hiiumaa Island. These results can be used to support the hypothesis of a relationship between the distribution of Tn and Tb and the environmental temperature; they are also indicative of the importance of long-term survival of muscle larvae in host carcasses in the life cycle of these 2 species. In Estonia, the isotherms -4 and -6 C in January could be considered a thermic barrier for the distribution of Tn and Tb, respectively. PMID:9488368

  7. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  8. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  9. Payment systems and incentives in primary care: implications of recent reforms in Estonia and Romania.

    PubMed

    Dan, Sorin; Savi, Riin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, major reform in healthcare has been adopted in former communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 20 years after, reform in healthcare still draws much interest from policy makers and academics alike. One of the dynamic components of reform has been the reform of payment systems in primary care. This article looks at recent developments in payment systems and financial incentives in Estonia and Romania. We conclude that finding the appropriate mix in paying and incentivizing primary care providers in a transitional context is no easy solution for healthcare policy makers who need to carefully weigh in the advantages and inherent problems of various payment arrangements. In a transitional, rapidly changing healthcare system and society, and a context of financial stringency, the theoretical effects of payment mechanisms may be more difficult to predict and manage than it is expected. PMID:24301716

  10. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions. PMID:21957324

  11. Dating the extinction of European mammoths: new evidence from Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõugas, Lembi; Ukkonen, Pirkko; Jungner, Högne

    2002-07-01

    Five mammoth molars, four pieces of tusk and one bone fragment found in different parts of Estonia were radiocarbon dated using the AMS method. Six of the analysed samples gave an infinite date. These remains originate most likely from an ice-free period during the Early Weichselian or early Middle Weichselian. The molar from Mooste, southeast Estonia was dated at 31,000 BP, and seems thus to belong to the same faunal complex as several other previously dated mammoth specimens recovered in Finland and other Nordic countries. Two molars from Puurmani, central Estonia gave an age of ca 10,000 BP, suggesting a late relict mammoth population living in northeast Europe during the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene transition.

  12. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  13. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  14. Transnational Analysis of Vocational Education and Training in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Vocational education and training (VET) in 10 Central and Eastern European countries--Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia--was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: socioeconomic context of VET reforms; VET at the start of reforms; the European Union Phare…

  15. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  16. Regional Identity and Schools in Estonia: Creating a "We" Feeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Activists who are trying to preserve and revitalize the use of Voro, a regional language of southeastern Estonia spoken by only about 50,000 people, feel that the tongue is in jeopardy and that multidimensional efforts are required to secure its future. A leading Estonian folklorist and activist advised Voro-language instructors to cultivate a…

  17. International Business Education in Estonia--from Socialism to Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Issues in reform of international business and economics education at Tartu University (Estonia) are discussed, including need for faculty development, faculty reallocation, and redistribution of resources within the country's new social and economic context. It is argued that reform depends on effective integration of foreign experts with more…

  18. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  19. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for < = 3 years) was estimated by assuming (1) new injectors were HIV seronegative when they began injecting, and (2) HIV infection occurred at the midpoint between first injection and time of interview. Results SEP increased from 230,000 syringes exchanged in 2005 to 440,000 in 2007 and 770,000 in 2009. In all three surveys, IDUs were predominantly male (80%), ethnic Russians (>80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  20. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  1. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  2. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations.

  3. Phenolic compounds in five Epilobium species collected from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remmel, Indrek; Vares, Lauri; Toom, Lauri; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2012-10-01

    Epilobium species have been traditionally used as medicinal plants to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. The present study investigated the content of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in Epilobium parviflorum Schreb., E. hirsutum L., E. adenocaulon Hausskn., E. montanum L., and E. palustre L. growing in Estonia. The total contents of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were studied using UV spectroscopy with subsequent HPLC quantification of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin as marker compounds. All roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of the plants investigated contained comparable amounts of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. There was a clear positive correlation between the contents of tannins and flavonoids in various plant parts. The content of these biologically active compounds suggests the use of E. parviflorum, E. hirsutum, E. adenocaulon, E. montanum, and E. palustre collected from Estonia as herbs both individually or as a blend. PMID:23156999

  4. Atmospheric aerosol variability in Estonia calculated from solar radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1996-10-01

    Direct solar radiation data obtained during 1955 1994 at the Tõravere Actinometric Station (Estonia) have been used to study the long-term variations of the atmospheric aerosol. In a linear approximation, the optical thickness of atmospheric aerosol averaged over months from April to August has increased by 73% at Tõravere during the last 40years. The aerosol loading of the atmosphere depends on wind direction, the southern and southeastern winds being the main carriers of aerosol. During the last decade, the increase in the optical thickness of aerosol in the case of W-, NW- and N-winds has slowed down. This is most likely caused by a reduction in the SO2 emission in Western and Central Europe as well as in Finland. In April, the advection of aerosol is greatest from the NE-direction. We suppose that this effect points to the possibility of aerosol transfer to Estonia through the Arctic regions.

  5. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  6. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  7. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  8. Vahemmistokansat Ja Muunkielinen Sivistys: Montako Kielistrategiaa Virolle (Language Policy and Planning in the Republic of Estonia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oispuu, Jaan

    The composition of the Estonian population has changed considerably since the second World War. The number of immigrants to Estonia has been remarkable in the second half of the century. The population in Estonia is divided into two parts: Estonian (66%) and non-Estonians (34%). The composition of the population and the language situation in…

  9. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  10. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  11. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  12. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recharge to Shale Bedrock at Averill Park, an Upland Hamlet in Eastern New York - An Estimate Based on Pumpage within a Defined Cone of Depression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Finch, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Water levels beneath parts of Averill Park, a residential hamlet in an upland area of till-mantled shale bedrock in east-central New York, have declined in response to increased withdrawals from new wells. Similar experiences in many upland localities in the northeastern United States have resulted in awareness that the rate of recharge to bedrock can be an important constraint on the density of new development in uplands. Recharge at Averill Park was calculated on the basis of careful estimation of pumpage within a defined cone of depression. The data-collection and recharge-estimation procedures documented herein could be applied in a variety of upland localities in support of community-planning studies. Static water levels measured in 145 wells at Averill Park during the late summer of 2002 defined a 0.54-square-mile cone of depression within which ground-water discharge took place entirely as withdrawals from wells. Rates of withdrawal were estimated largely from surveys in similar neighborhoods a few miles away served by public water supply. Comparison of the water-level measurements in 2002 with measurements on other dates revealed localized declines that could be attributed to new housing developments or commercial demands, but also demonstrated that water levels in 2002 within the cone of depression had stabilized and were not declining persistently over time. Therefore, the current withdrawals were equated to recharge from infiltrating precipitation. Recharge within this area was estimated to average 104 gallons per day per acre, equivalent to 1.4 inches annually, and was sufficient to sustain a residential population of 1.9 persons per acre. This recharge rate is much lower than rates estimated from streamflow records for upland watersheds elsewhere in the northeastern United States. This rate is an average of an unknown larger rate in the 30 percent of the study area where bedrock is discontinuously overlain by less than 30 feet of till and an unknown

  14. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  15. Should pharmacists have a role in harm reduction services for IDUs? A qualitative study in Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Jarlais, Don Des

    2009-11-01

    Despite the high number of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Estonia, little is known about involving pharmacies into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention activities and potential barriers. Similarly, in other Eastern European countries, there is a need for additional sources for clean syringes besides syringe exchange programmes (SEPs), but data on current practices relating to pharmacists' role in harm reduction strategies is scant. Involving pharmacies is especially important for several reasons: they have extended hours of operation and convenient locations compared to SEPs, may provide access for IDUs who have avoided SEPs, and are a trusted health resource in the community. We conducted a series of focus groups with pharmacists and IDUs in Tallinn, Estonia, to explore their attitudes toward the role of pharmacists in HIV prevention activities for IDUs. Many, but not all, pharmacists reported a readiness to sell syringes to IDUs to help prevent HIV transmission. However, negative attitudes toward IDUs in general and syringe sales to them specifically were identified as important factors restricting such sales. The idea of free distribution of clean syringes or other injecting equipment and disposal of used syringes in pharmacies elicited strong resistance. IDUs stated that pharmacies were convenient for acquiring syringes due to their extended opening hours and local distribution. IDUs were positive toward pharmacies, although they were aware of stigma from pharmacists and other customers. They also emphasized the need for distilled water and other injection paraphernalia. In conclusion, there are no formal or legislative obstacles for providing HIV prevention services for IDUs at pharmacies. Addressing negative attitudes through educational courses and involving pharmacists willing to be public health educators in high drug use areas would improve access for HIV prevention services for IDUs.

  16. [Masked depression].

    PubMed

    Preradović, M; Griva, D; Eror, S

    1991-01-01

    The study comprised 25 patients with masked depression and 30 patients with endogenous depression. According to the general characteristics both groups were homogenous and accordingly, comparable. Together with clinical evaluation of depressive syndrome, psychological management was applied. Rorschach test, Thematic Apperception Test and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used in the study. In the clinical picture of masked depressions somatovegetative disorders dominated and depressive behavior in endogenous depression. The frequence of suicid does not differ between patients with masked and endogenous depression.

  17. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  18. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  19. Retrogressive slope failure in glaciolacustrine clays: Sauga landslide, western Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohv, Marko; Talviste, Peeter; Hang, Tiit; Kalm, Volli

    2010-12-01

    The largest recent landslide in Estonia (ca 60 000 m 3), which occurred on 19 December 2005, has been investigated, modelled and monitored. Eight boreholes, geotechnical sampling and nine vane shear tests provided data on the geological setting, soil strength parameters and location of the rupture zones. Topographic surveys were carried out twice a year from April 2006 to April 2009 to monitor the evolution of the slope. Limit equilibrium modelling displayed a complex of six separate retrogressive failures, beginning near to the Sauga River and ending 75 m from the former river channel. Modelling results are in agreement with the actual morphology of the multiple landslides. Monitoring records the enlargement of the landslide as the Sauga River downcuts through the slide and erodes its toe. Strength loss in the varved clays underlying the slope is a key factor in failure development.

  20. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  1. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  2. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    solely by the basin depth and duration of the ice cover period. A normal grading is observed in most of the studied winter layers of individual varves. Relatively large errors in the estimated terminal grain size permits only to conclude that it is in line with previously reconstructed water depth constrained by the maximum possible duration of the lake ice cover. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF Mobilitas grant No MJD309. References Hang, T., Kohv, M. 2013. Glacial varves at Pärnu, south-western Estonia: a local varve chronology and proglacial sedimentary environment. GFF, June, 37-41. doi:10.1080/11035897.2013.775598 Rosentau, A., Vassiljev, J., Hang, T., Saarse, L., Kalm, V. 2009. Development of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic. Quaternary International, 206(1-2), 16-23. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.10.005

  3. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  4. Satellite Movie Shows Three Tropical Cyclones in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-Wast satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Depression Genevieve (left) southwest of Hawaii, Hurricane Iselle (center) in the Eastern...

  5. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  6. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  7. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  8. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  9. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  10. The trends and risk factors for hepatitis B occurrence in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Paat, Gerli; Uusküla, Anneli; Tefanova, Valentina; Tallo, Tatjana; Priimägi, Ljudmilla; Ahi, Kalle

    2009-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent worldwide and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This article describes the trend in HBV occurrence in Estonia from 1990 to 2005 in Estonia, with the aim of highlighting key determinants in transmission dynamics, risk groups, and possible implications for prevention and control. A marked increase in reported numbers of new HBV cases occurred in mid 1990s (reaching 39 per 100,000 population) and decline thereafter. We present data on HBV prevalence from different population groups (persons with verified sexually transmitted infection, prisoners, medical personnel, blood donors and injection drug users). Special vaccination programmes introduced in Estonia have been successful in the prevention of HBV, however, we suggest that the main risk groups such as injection drug users (IDUs), men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV infected persons should be actively encompassed into HBV vaccination programme. PMID:19662830

  11. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  12. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  13. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  14. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  15. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  16. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  17. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  18. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  19. When Failing Is the Only Option: Explaining Failure to Finish PhDs in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassil, Kristjan; Solvak, Mihkel

    2012-01-01

    That PhD candidates fail to graduate on time in large numbers across a number of countries is a well-known fact. An extreme example is Estonia, where according to some estimates less than a third of PhD students complete their studies on time. A number of studies have addressed the likely reasons for such behavior, both comparatively and…

  20. Language Testing in the Context of Citizenship and Asylum: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the current article is language testing in the context of citizenship and asylum in Estonia, a country that regained independence in 1991. Estonian as the single official language of the country (according to the new language legislation laws) and a new political system have caused changes in use of and attitudes toward Estonian among…

  1. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional…

  2. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine the…

  3. Exploring the Role of Migrants in Transnational Occupational Learning Processes in Estonia-Finland Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenius, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of migrants in cross-border learning in occupational contexts. The research data included 78 semi-structured and 20 life-course interviews with people who had migrated from Estonia to Finland or who were transmigrating between these countries. The interview data were analysed qualitatively through a…

  4. Influences on Students' Views on Religions and Education in England and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Sean; Schihalejev, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Structural modelling offers an overall pattern of relationships; this paper looks at differences in students' attitude structures between England and Estonia. Where different coherent sets of beliefs exist in a national sample, factor analysis, which focuses on sets of responses which differ between groups, should be able to separate them out.…

  5. Pioneers in Academia: Higher Education for Nurses in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalnins, Irene

    1995-01-01

    In Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, postgraduate nursing curricula were reformed, but discrepancies appeared between stated goals and actual content, due largely to inexperience with nursing education. Other difficulties included lack of literature in native languages and insufficient reading ability in English. (SK)

  6. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  7. Teaching and Learning in Estonia and the United States: Tartu University and Maryville College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Terry L.; Simpson, Deborah L.; Trasberg, Karmen

    2005-01-01

    It was the author's privilege to be awarded a Fulbright Grant as a lecturer to Estonia and Tartu University for the 2000 fall semester. His wife went with him, and she taught two English classes to advanced students at the university. The author taught Instructional Strategies for Secondary Teachers and Education and Social Issues in Education in…

  8. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  9. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  10. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  11. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  12. Cost and cost-effectiveness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Katherine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kliiman, Kai; Centis, Rosella; Khurieva, Nina; Jakobowiak, Wieslaw; Danilovits, Manfred; Peremitin, Genadi; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-07-01

    Evidence on the cost and cost-effectiveness of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is limited, and no published data are available from former Soviet Union countries, where rates of MDR-TB are highest globally. We evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of MDR-TB treatment in Estonia and Russia (Tomsk Oblast), comparing cohorts enrolled on treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in 2001 and 2002 with cohorts treated in previous years. Costs were assessed from a health system perspective in 2003 US$; effects were measured as cures, deaths averted and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. Cure rates when WHO guidelines were followed were 61% (90 out of 149) in Estonia and 76% (76 out of 100) in Tomsk Oblast, with a cost per patient treated of US$8,974 and US$10,088, respectively. Before WHO guidelines were followed, cure rates were 52% in Estonia and 15% in Tomsk Oblast; the cost per patient treated was US$4,729 and US$2,282, respectively. Drugs and hospitalisation accounted for 69-90% of total costs. The cost per DALY averted by treatment following WHO guidelines was US$579 (range US$297-US$902) in Estonia and US$429 (range US$302-US$546) in Tomsk Oblast. Treatment of patients with MDR-TB can be cost-effective, but requires substantial additional investment in tuberculosis control in priority countries. PMID:22362862

  13. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  14. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child" debate in…

  15. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  16. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  17. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  18. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  19. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  20. [Atypical depression].

    PubMed

    Escande, M; Boucard, J

    1999-04-01

    The principal atypical aspects of depressive disease are: minor and attenued aspects, monosymptomatic and atypical aspects (food disorders and sleep disorders), masqued aspects (somatoform, anxious, characterial and addict disorders), atypical aspects of child (anxious nevrotical disorder), pseudo-demented and characterial aspects of aged subjects. Facing to these aspects, the diagnosis of depression is evoqued on: the recent and fast advent of these disorders, their morning predominance, their recurrent character, the state of attenued depressive symptoms (anhedonia), the positive responsiveness to treatment.

  1. Detection and Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Baltic Countries and Eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Katargina, Olga; Russakova, Stanislava; Geller, Julia; Kondrusik, Macije; Zajkowska, Joanna; Zygutiene, Milda; Bormane, Antra; Trofimova, Julia; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Ticks were collected from the vegetation in the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and eastern Poland and analyzed for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by amplification of the partial E and NS3 genes. In Estonia we found statistically significant differences in the TBEV prevalence between I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks (4.23% and 0.42%, respectively). In Latvia, the difference in TBEV prevalence between the two species was not statistically significant (1.02% for I. persulcatus and 1.51% for I. ricinus, respectively). In Lithuania and Poland TBEV was detected in 0.24% and 0.11% of I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Genetic characterization of the partial E and NS3 sequences demonstrated that the TBEV strains belonged to the European subtype in all countries, as well as to the Siberian subtype in Estonia. We also found that in areas where ranges of two tick species overlap, the TBEV subtypes may be detected not only in their natural vector, but also in sympatric tick species. PMID:23650497

  2. [Infant mortality trends in countries of Central and Eastern Europe].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1995-01-01

    "After... World War II, infant mortality in countries of Central and Eastern Europe...started to diminish. This favourable trend lasted up to the beginning of the sixties. Later on the unfavourable evolution of infant mortality was connected with the failure in reduction of endogenous mortality, i.e. the mortality soon after the delivery. Nowadays [in some countries, such as the Czech Republic,]...the decrease continues and in [other] countries (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) the infant mortality rate has temporarily increased due to adoption of the international definition of live and still births, while in [the] majority of countries of the previous Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia...infant mortality...has increased." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12319688

  3. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  4. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  5. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction. PMID:12806530

  6. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  7. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America. PMID:24901511

  8. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... If depression is very severe, you may have hallucinations and delusions (false beliefs). This condition is called ... relieve your symptoms. If you have delusions or hallucinations, your provider may prescribe additional medicines. Tell your ...

  9. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  10. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  11. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  12. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage. PMID:26327255

  13. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  14. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... daylight are shorter; for example, during winter months. Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is ... to a Therapist Anxiety Disorders Cutting Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Why Am I So Sad? Sadness and Depression ...

  15. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  16. Genetic characterization of hepatitis C virus strains in Estonia: fluctuations in the predominating subtype with time.

    PubMed

    Tallo, Tatjana; Norder, Helene; Tefanova, Valentina; Krispin, Tõnu; Schmidt, Jelena; Ilmoja, Madis; Orgulas, Karen; Pruunsild, Kaije; Priimägi, Ludmilla; Magnius, Lars O

    2007-04-01

    During the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in intravenous drug use in young adults in Estonia with an increased incidence of both hepatitis B and C as a consequence. Since genetic data are limited regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains in Estonia, the aim of the study was to characterize HCV strains in different risk groups to determine their relatedness to strains from other geographical regions. Three hundred fifty-three anti-HCV positive sera collected during 1994-2004 from hospitalized patients, blood donors and health care workers were used as source of HCV RNA. Two hundred nine (59%) of the sera were positive for HCV RNA by PCR directed to the 5'-UTR region. For 174 strains the HCV subtype was determined by analyses of the NS5B and/or the 5'UTR-core regions. 1b (71%) was the most common subtype followed by 3a (24%), 2c (2%), 1a (1%), and 2a (1%). The 1b and 3a strains were similar to strains from other regions of the former USSR. Within genotype 1b there were several HCV lineages. However, for 3a there seemed to be two separate introductions into Estonia. There was a relative shift from subtype 1b to 3a in 1999-2000 with a further replacement of 3a with 1b in intravenous drug users in 2001 and onwards (P < 0.05). However, both subtypes were found to co-circulate in the community independent of risk factors. One patient was infected with the 2k/1b recombinant presumed to originate from St. Petersburg being the first isolate of this recombinant recovered outside Russia. PMID:17311333

  17. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  18. The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island (Estonia): the perspectives for a geopark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raukas, Anto; Stankowski, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    The Island of Saaremaa in Estonia offers highly spectacular geological features that belong to the most interesting in the Baltic Sea area. A unique geological monument on the island is the Kaali meteorite-crater field, formed by nine meteorite impacts. There are also attractive coastal cliffs, huge erratics, alvars (limestone areas covered by a very thin soil) and well-developed glacial and marine landforms. Limestone cliffs and shingle beaches abound with Silurian fossils and offer great opportunities to fossil collectors. The island is a prospective geopark. During the past few years, the geology of the island has become an intensely studied object of Estonian and Polish geologists.

  19. Subduction Initiation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction is often reported to be difficult to initiate, yet in the West Pacific and Eastern Indonesia there are many young subduction zones. Few theoretical or modelling studies consider such settings in which subduction commonly began close to boundaries between ocean crust and thickened crust of arc or continental origin. In Eastern Indonesia there are subduction zones at different stages of development. Some young examples such as the Banda Arc developed by propagation of an existing trench into a new area by tearing, probably along an ocean-continent boundary. This 'solves' the problem since the older subducted slab provides the driving force to drag down unsubducted ocean lithosphere. However, similar explanations cannot account for other subduction zones, such as North Sulawesi, nearby examples in which the subducted slab is not yet at 100 km depth, or troughs where subduction appears to be beginning. These examples show that subduction initiated at a point, such as a corner in an ocean basin, where there were very great differences in elevation between land and adjacent ocean floor. Depression of ocean crust by flow of arc/continent crust is associated with granitic magmatism and detachments within the upper crust. Once the oceanic corner reaches depths of c.100 km, eclogite formation may lead to slab pull that causes the new subduction zone to grow in both directions along strike; arc magmatism may or may not begin. The close relationship between subduction and extension in Eastern Indonesia links dramatic elevation of land, exhumation of deep crust, and spectacular subsidence of basins imaged by oil exploration seismic and multibeam data. Exhumed granites and high-grade metamorphic rocks at elevations up to 3 km, separated by Neogene alluvial sediments from carbonate reefs now at depths of 2 kilometres, imply vertical movements of several kilometres in a few million years. These observations raise the question of whether subduction is driving extension

  20. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  1. Economic reduction of acidifying deposition in Finland by decreasing emissions in Finland, Estonia and Russia.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, M; Lehtilä, A; Pipatti, R; Wistbacka, M; Savolainen, I

    1997-09-26

    Here we consider cost-effective solutions of emission control measures in Finland and the nearby areas of Estonia, St. Petersburg region, Karelia and Kola, in order to limit the acidifying deposition in Finland. In the study, the emission control costs of SO2, NOx and NH3 are assessed for the areas studied and an optimisation model developed for calculation of cost-optimal deposition control policies. The input data of the model consist of the cost functions describing the emission control costs to achieve lower emission levels for the gases and areas considered and of dispersion coefficients which describe the deposition due to an emission source in the deposition receptor grid squares. In addition, the model includes a description to calculate the acidifying load. The optimisation is based on linear programming. When the acidifying load of Southern Finland is reduced by minimising the total control costs, approx, three quarters of the total control costs are due to measures in the nearby areas, Estonia, St. Peterburg region, Karelia and Kola, and approx. one quarter due to measures in Finland. The distribution of costs in the cost-optimised cases depends relatively little on the level to which the acidifying load due the source areas considered are required to be reduced. If the load reduction target is moderate, the emission control measures should mainly be allocated to sulphur emissions and to some extent to ammonia emissions and, if the load reduction target is stricter, also to the emissions of nitrogen oxides.

  2. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. PMID:25130924

  3. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  4. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica).

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms. PMID:26218582

  5. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica)

    PubMed Central

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms. PMID:26218582

  6. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  7. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  8. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction for Their Children in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija Pini; Ferrin, Scott Ellis; Hite, Steven J.; Hilton, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to identify sociocultural variables that influence whether Russian-speaking parents living in Estonia choose Russian, Estonian, or bilingual (Russian and Estonian) instruction for their children. To examine which sociocultural variables are related to parents' choice of language of instruction, 346…

  9. Between East and West Is North: The Loyalties and Allegiances of Russian Authors and Painters Living in EU Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouillard, Remy

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Russian intelligentsia is closely related to discourses concerning Russia's position vis-a-vis Europe and the Western world, such as those of Slavophiles and Westernisers. This paper is about Russian authors and painters who are now becoming part of Europe, as the country in which they live, Estonia, has recently entered the…

  10. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  11. Differential Effects of Linguistic Imperialism on Second Language Learning: Americanisation in Puerto Rico Versus Russification in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clachar, Arlene

    1998-01-01

    Explores how Americanization and Russification differed in terms of their imperialist language policies and how these policies led two colonialized societies, Puerto Rico and Estonia, to respond in dramatically different ways to the pressures to learn English and Russian respectively. (Author/VWL)

  12. Preschool Achievement in Finland and Estonia: Cross-Cultural Comparison between the Cities of Helsinki and Tallinn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Mikko; Talts, Leida

    2007-01-01

    Each child In Finland and in Estonia receives preschool training for a year before going to school, based on a new national framework curriculum of preschool education. The aim of the present study was to compare children's learning achievements in nine target areas, based on the teacher's evaluations at the end of the preschool year, in both…

  13. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before.

  14. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. PMID:26519691

  15. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  16. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  17. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  18. "One Should Not Forget One's Mother Tongue": Russian-Speaking Parents' Choice of Language of Instruction in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Raija; Ferrin, Scott E.; Ward, Carol J.; Hite, Julie M.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study identifies factors affecting parental choice of language of instruction, based on semistructured interviews with 16 Russian-speaking parents in three urban areas of Estonia. We investigated three different types of language programs: Russian schools, which provided education in the children's first language; Estonian…

  19. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  20. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  1. [Fatigue and depression].

    PubMed

    Hell, Daniel

    2015-04-22

    Fatigue is characterised in an overview of the literature as a specific phenomenon of depression. Its differential diagnosis is discussed. Distinctions and correspondences to burnout are elaborated. Fatigue is not an obligatory symptom of depressive episodes, although it can contribute to depressive developments. The importance of fatigue in depressive episodes and its therapy is shown with the help of a circular model of depression.

  2. Partnership for the heart. German-Estonian health project for the treatment of congenital heart defects in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Friedrich; Schierbaum, Clausjürgen; Konertz, Wolfgang; Schneider, Martin; Kern, Hartmut; Int, Eve; Tael, Kristi; Siigur, Urmas; Kleinfeld, Klaus; Bühlmeyer, Konrad; Fotuhi, Parwis; Winter, Stefan Frank

    2005-08-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in 8 per 1000 live births. If they remain untreated, 70-80% of these patients die in early childhood. With modern diagnostic and treatment procedures, 90% of these patients reach adulthood. Within 8 years following reunification of Germany, it was possible to improve treatment for CHD in former East Germany to West German standards. Based on the experience gained in this process, a plan for improvement of care of Estonian patients with CHD was developed and implemented in the German-Estonian project, "Partnership for the Heart". The main elements of the project were (1) the training of Estonian physicians in Germany, (2) training courses conducted by German and Estonian specialists in Estonia and (3) use of telemedicine for consultation on a continuous basis. During the project 15 Estonian patients underwent cardiac surgery and/or catheter interventions performed by a joint team of German and Estonian specialists. The infant mortality due to CHD in Estonia fell by 28% during the project period. Key techniques of cardiac surgery are now being employed in Estonia without outside support, indicating the success of the training program and the long-term improvements to cardiac health care in Estonia. The total project costs were 314,252 Euro (euro), which is 50% lower than the estimated cost of treating the 15 patients abroad in Western Europe. The structure of "Partnership for the Heart" and the modified self-sufficiency model of medical care have not only produced results for Estonia but can be taken as a template for future bilateral health projects with other transition countries and for other fields of medical specialisation, and thus might aid a European health policy.

  3. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  4. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  5. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  6. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  7. An Economic Analysis of Out-Migration from a Depressed Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Larry Clinton

    In an effort to estimate some of the components of the net social costs and benefits of rural-to-urban migration, 161 Lexington, Kentucky migrants (randomly selected via census data) who had migrated from the rural, economically depressed area of Eastern Kentucky were surveyed in 1971 to gather information re: their last year in Eastern Kentucky…

  8. Methods to recruit hard-to-reach groups: comparing two chain referral sampling methods of recruiting injecting drug users across nine studies in Russia and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lucy; Wall, Martin; Rhodes, Tim; Judd, Ali; Hickman, Matthew; Johnston, Lisa G; Renton, Adrian; Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests rapid diffusion of injecting drug use and associated outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. There remains a need for research among non-treatment and community-recruited samples of IDUs to better estimate the dynamics of HIV transmission and to improve treatment and health services access. We compare two sampling methodologies "respondent-driven sampling" (RDS) and chain referral sampling using "indigenous field workers" (IFS) to investigate the relative effectiveness of RDS to reach more marginal and hard-to-reach groups and perhaps to include those with the riskiest behaviour around HIV transmission. We evaluate the relative efficiency of RDS to recruit a lower cost sample in comparison to IFS. We also provide a theoretical comparison of the two approaches. We draw upon nine community-recruited surveys of IDUs undertaken in the Russian Federation and Estonia between 2001 and 2005 that used either IFS or RDS. Sampling effects on the demographic composition and injecting risk behaviours of the samples generated are compared using multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that RDS does not appear to recruit more marginalised sections of the IDU community nor those engaging in riskier injecting behaviours in comparison with IFS. RDS appears to have practical advantages over IFS in the implementation of fieldwork in terms of greater recruitment efficiency and safety of field workers, but at a greater cost. Further research is needed to assess how the practicalities of implementing RDS in the field compromises the requirements mandated by the theoretical guidelines of RDS for adjusting the sample estimates to obtain estimates of the wider IDU population.

  9. Postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret; Salisbury, Amy; Zlotnick, Caron

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 15% of mothers. Recent research has identified several psychosocial and biologic risk factors for PPD. The negative short-term and long-term effects on child development are well-established. PPD is under recognized and under treated. The obstetrician and pediatrician can serve important roles in screening for and treating PPD. Treatment options include psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Obstacles to compliance with treatment recommendations include access to psychotherapists and concerns of breastfeeding mothers about exposure of the infant to antidepressant medication. Further research is needed to examine systematically the short-term and long-term effect of medication exposure through breastmilk on infant and child development. PMID:19318144

  10. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland. PMID:19370871

  12. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  13. HIV and STI Testing and Related Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo

    2016-10-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM.

  14. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  15. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found. PMID:24861103

  16. Knowledge about suicide and local suicide prevalence: comparison of Estonia and Austria.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Knowledge about suicide might be positively correlated with local suicide prevalence. This hypothesis was tested with a sample of 107 medical and social science undergraduates from Estonia, a country with a high suicide rate, using Hubbard and McIntosh's 1992 Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz. Compared (independent-groups t tests) with a sample of undergraduates from Austria, which has a markedly lower suicide rate, Estonians presented significantly higher overall knowledge about suicide (d = 0.39), particularly concerning demographic and epidemiological facts about suicide (d = 0.77) but not pertaining to clinical and interpersonal knowledge contents (d = -0.06). Study limitations and suggestions for extension of this preliminary inquiry are discussed. PMID:17918542

  17. Geochemistry of Telichian (Silurian) K-bentonites in Estonia and Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiipli, T.; Soesoo, A.; Kallaste, T.; Kiipli, E.

    2008-03-01

    In the Telychian section of Estonia and Latvia K-bentonites from 45 volcanic eruptions were discovered. The thickness of K-bentonite interbeds varies from a few millimetres to 20 cm. The sodium component concentration in sanidine phenocrysts measured by XRD ranges from 20 to 48 mol% and was used for establishing correlations. The Ti, Zr, Nb, Th and Sr concentrations and ratios show temporal trends indicating fractional crystallization in magma chambers. The analysis of biotite phenocrysts revealed magnesium and iron rich biotites in bentonites. Synthesis of these geochemical data enabled a classification of bentonites into seven geochemical types, which probably originate from seven different volcanic sources. Isopach schemes indicate ash transport from the west and north-west directions.

  18. HIV and STI Testing and Related Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo

    2016-10-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM. PMID:26852032

  19. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  20. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  1. The occurrence and hydrochemistry of fluoride and boron in carbonate aquifer system, central and western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, Enn; Uppin, Marge

    2013-05-01

    Silurian-Ordovician (S-O) aquifer system is an important drinking water source of central and western Estonia. The fluoride and boron contents of groundwater in aquifer system vary considerably. The fluoride concentration in 60 collected groundwater samples ranged from 0.1 to 6.1 mg/l with a mean of 1.95 mg/l in the study area. Boron content in groundwater varied from 0.05 mg/l to 2.1 mg/l with a mean value of 0.66 mg/l. Considering the requirements of EU Directive 98/83/EC and the Estonian requirements for drinking water quality, the limit value for fluoride (1.5 mg/l) and for boron (1.0 mg/l) is exceeded in 47 and 28 % of wells, respectively. Groundwater with high fluoride and boron concentrations is found mainly in western Estonia and deeper portion of aquifer system, where groundwater chemical type is HCO3-Cl-Na-Mg-Ca, water is alkaline, and its Ca(2+) content is low. Groundwater of the study area is undersaturated with respect to fluorite and near to equilibrium phase with respect to calcite. The comparison of TDS versus Na/(Na + Ca) and Cl/(Cl + HCO3) points to the dominance of rock weathering as the main process, which promotes the availability of fluoride and boron in the groundwater. The geological sources of B in S-O aquifer system have not been studied so far, but the dissolution of fluorides from carbonate rocks (F = 100-400 mg/kg) and K-bentonites (F = 2,800-4,500 mg/kg) contributes to the formation of F-rich groundwater. PMID:22903335

  2. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  3. The occurrence and hydrochemistry of fluoride and boron in carbonate aquifer system, central and western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, Enn; Uppin, Marge

    2013-05-01

    Silurian-Ordovician (S-O) aquifer system is an important drinking water source of central and western Estonia. The fluoride and boron contents of groundwater in aquifer system vary considerably. The fluoride concentration in 60 collected groundwater samples ranged from 0.1 to 6.1 mg/l with a mean of 1.95 mg/l in the study area. Boron content in groundwater varied from 0.05 mg/l to 2.1 mg/l with a mean value of 0.66 mg/l. Considering the requirements of EU Directive 98/83/EC and the Estonian requirements for drinking water quality, the limit value for fluoride (1.5 mg/l) and for boron (1.0 mg/l) is exceeded in 47 and 28 % of wells, respectively. Groundwater with high fluoride and boron concentrations is found mainly in western Estonia and deeper portion of aquifer system, where groundwater chemical type is HCO3-Cl-Na-Mg-Ca, water is alkaline, and its Ca(2+) content is low. Groundwater of the study area is undersaturated with respect to fluorite and near to equilibrium phase with respect to calcite. The comparison of TDS versus Na/(Na + Ca) and Cl/(Cl + HCO3) points to the dominance of rock weathering as the main process, which promotes the availability of fluoride and boron in the groundwater. The geological sources of B in S-O aquifer system have not been studied so far, but the dissolution of fluorides from carbonate rocks (F = 100-400 mg/kg) and K-bentonites (F = 2,800-4,500 mg/kg) contributes to the formation of F-rich groundwater.

  4. Depression in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

  5. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  6. Dopamine, depression and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Eric; Chenu, Franck; Renard, Caroline E; Bourin, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Abstract The relationship between depression and dopamine deficiency in the mesolimbic pathway has been hypothesized for many years. The experimental studies with animal models of depression and the human studies implicate the role of the dopamine system in depression. Not only do dopaminergic receptor agonists, but also antagonists such as olanzapine exhibit antidepressant effects associated with standard antidepressants in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This paradoxical result suggests that further investigations are necessary to understand the role played by dopamine in depression.

  7. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  8. Postgraduate education in neurology in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bartos, A; Kalvach, P; Trost, M; Ertsey, C; Rejdak, K; Popov, L; Iuhtimovschi, L

    2001-11-01

    The policy of the European co-operation in the new atmosphere of an international solidarity became one of the priorities of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS). It could be hardly pursued more efficiently in any other field of neurological performance as in education. To review several aspects of neurological practice and education the 'First European Co-operation Neurology Workshop' was held in the castle of Trest', Czech Republic, 13-20 April 2000. Participants from 15 countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia), covering a region of 316 million inhabitants and 25 000 neurologists, presented their national postgraduate education systems (besides other topics). We refer data on density of medical doctors and that of neurologists, pre-board certification phase, board examination, continuing medical education (CME), and qualification rewards. Illustrative data were put in the comparative tables. This first meeting has founded the basis for a dynamic future collaboration in order to continue the integration process and an exchange of current information regarding CME amongst central and eastern countries as well as western Europe. PMID:11784338

  9. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  10. Learning about depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... once in a while. Clinical depression is a mood disorder. It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, ... Accessed October 31, 2014. Fava M, Cassano P. Mood disorders: Major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. In: Stern ...

  11. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  12. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... on treatment for heart disease iv . The annual economic cost of depression in 1995 was $600 per ... Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how ...

  13. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your depression or making it worse. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used for severe depression that is ... does not respond to medication or therapy. Although ECT once had a bad reputation, it has greatly ...

  14. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  15. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  16. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health. PMID:27279259

  17. Occurence of Extreme Sea Level Events In The Coastal Waters of West Estonia, The Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suursaar, Ü.; Kullas, T.; Otsmann, M.; Kõuts, T.

    Extreme low and high sea level events are analysed on the basis of available historical data and mechanisms of surges studied appplying the 1 km grid step 2D hydrodynamic model in the two nearly tideless semienclosed sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri. Based on the input and verification data from 1999, the water level is modelled with realistic and idealistic forcing schemes. The low level events are associated with the local wind pattern of easterly winds, determined by the corresponding regional air pressure fields above the Central Baltic. The high levels (up to 253 cm above the long-term average as measured in Pärnu) are associated with SW and W storms. They first appear due to the water volume change in the Baltic Sea, then due to an additional volume increase in the Gulf of Riga, and finally due to the local level slope in the narrow and shallow bays. An amplification due to resonance with seiche or Helmholtz oscillation periods is also possible. Simulations showed that the extreme high and low sea levels in some small bays of West Estonia without tide- gauges could exceed the corresponding values in the Pärnu Bay.

  18. Shifts in meteorological regime of the late winter and early spring in Estonia during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevallik, Sirje

    2011-08-01

    Wind, temperature and precipitation measurements at Vilsandi (the westernmost island of Estonia) and Tiirikoja (on the western coast of Lake Peipsi) collected during 1966-2005 were used to detect trends and regime shifts in monthly mean averages. A similar analysis was carried out for wind components in the free atmosphere calculated from aerological soundings. An abrupt increase in the upper-air zonal wind component around 1987 was detected in January and February over North-East Europe that may form a significant part of the intensification of the western flow. This increase is accompanied by a shift in the meteorological regime near the surface over a wider area. In March, the regime shift in the upper air flow that has taken place in the middle of the 1990s is not reflected in the meteorological parameters at the surface. Besides the regime shift at the end of the 1980s, also shifts in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 2000s are suggested.

  19. Slope stability and landslides in proglacial varved clays of western Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohv, Marko; Talviste, Peeter; Hang, Tiit; Kalm, Volli; Rosentau, Alar

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade the frequency of landslides at river valley slopes eroding into the glaciolacustrine plain in western Estonia has grown considerably. We studied in detail nine recent landslides out of 25 known and recorded sliding events in the area. All landslides occurred at the river banks in otherwise almost entirely flat areas of proglacial deposits capped with marine sands. Glaciolacustrine varved clay is the weakest soil type in the area and holds the largest landslides. Slope stability modelling shows that critical slope gradient for the clay is ≥ 10° and for the marine sand ≥ 20°. Fluvial erosion is the main process in decreasing slope stability at the outer bends of the river meanders. An extra shear stress generated by groundwater flow following the high stand of the groundwater level or rapid water level drawdown in the river channels are responsible for triggering the landslides. Consecutive occurrence of small-scale slides has a direct effect in triggering the large, retrogressive complexes of slides in the glaciolacustrine clay. A landslide hazard zonation map was composed based on digital elevation model and the data on spatial distribution of glaciolacustrine clays and marine sands, and on existing and critical slope angles of these deposits.

  20. Extreme sea level events in the coastal waters of western Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suursaar, Ülo; Kullas, Tiit; Otsmann, Mikk; Kõuts, Tarmo

    2003-06-01

    Extraordinarily low and high sea level events are analysed on the basis of historical data and their mechanisms of occurrence are studied with the 1 km grid size 2D hydrodynamic model in the two almost tideless semi-enclosed sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri. The sea level is modelled with realistic meteorological forcing and comparison data from 1999 and 2001. Resonance properties of the sub-basins are studied and their possible role in the formation of extraordinary sea level events is discussed. While the extremely low levels (-1.23 m below the mean sea level) in the Estonian coastal waters do not generally originate locally, the high levels (up to 2.53 m above the mean as measured in the Pärnu Bay) are short-term and local. They occur in combination with several forcing and morphometrical factors and are localised in the shallow and narrow bays exposed to the direction of the strongest possible storm winds, SW and W. Model simulations show that extremely high and low sea levels in some small bays of western Estonia can exceed the corresponding values in the Pärnu Bay.

  1. Trends of solar radiation, cloudiness and atmospheric transparency during recent decades in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russak, V.

    1990-04-01

    Data obtained during 1955 1986 at the Tôravere Actinometric Station (Estonia, USSR) are used to study the long-term variations of the direct (S') and global solar radiation (Q) at the earth's surface. During these years, a certain decreasing trend was observed both in S' and in Q (ΔS'= 13%, ΔQ= 6.8%). The results from Tôravere are compared with the data on global radiation acquired in 1964 1986 at 9 different actinometric stations in northern Europe (8) and western Siberia (1). Decreasing trends have been observed in Helsinki and Stockholm (ΔQ=-11%), and also in Kaunas (ΔQ=-12%) in the same period. The variations of the cloudiness regime and atmospheric transparency as the main reasons for the decrease of radiation are discussed. According to the measurement data from Tôravere, the mean annual amount of low clouds increased by 11%, whereas the value of the Bouguer atmospheric transparency coefficient decreased by 3.7%.

  2. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  3. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  4. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions. PMID:26490883

  5. Age and geochemical constraints for partial melting of granulites in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soesoo, A.; Košler, J.; Kuldkepp, R.

    2006-03-01

    The rocks of the crystalline basement of the East European Craton in southern Estonia show effects of partial melting under granulite facies conditions. Zircons extracted from partial melting products (tonalite from the Tapa Zone 1824 ± 26, tonalite from the South Estonian Zone 1788 ± 16 Ma and charnockite from the Tapa Zone 1761 ± 11 Ma) yield U Pb crystallisation ages that span over approximately 80 Ma, suggesting a prolonged high-grade metamorphism or several separate events. U Pb zircon age of one sample of charnockite is concordant with the Nd model age of partial melting of its host mafic granulite facies gneiss (intercept at 1.76 Ga). Linear geochemical trends and similar initial Nd isotopic compositions of mafic granulites and charnockites suggest their possible genetic relationship. From our new and previously published data it follows that the peak granulite metamorphic conditions and formation of tonalites and charnockites (850 °C and 6 kbar) in the Estonian basement occurred at 1788 1778 Ma. Then, the rocks cooled down, passing through the garnet closure temperature of approximately 650 700 °C at 1728 ± 24 Ma. The age of metamorphism of the Estonian granulites is lower than the metamorphic ages known from southern Finland, but it is similar to the age of metamorphism reported from the Belarus-Baltic Granulite Belt in Latvia.

  6. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia.

  7. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  8. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  9. Fatal poisoning in Estonia 2000-2009. Trends in illegal drug-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Tuusov, J; Vals, K; Tõnisson, M; Riikoja, A; Denissov, G; Väli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of deaths caused by poisoning (especially illicit drugs) in Estonia from 2000 to 2009. The data on poisoning deaths (N = 4132) were collected from the autopsy reports of the Estonian Forensic Science Institute. Ethanol poisoning was the most frequent cause of death (N = 1449, 35.1%), followed by carbon monoxide (N = 1151, 27.9%) and poisoning from illicit drugs (N = 888, 21.5%). The study included 3267 male (79.1%) and 865 female fatalities, with the prevalent age group being 35-64 years. Since 2002, deaths from fentanyles have increased sharply and remained at a high level - from 63 cases in 2002 to 138 cases in 2009. This high number indicates that in spite of the state's drug policies, illegal drugs remain easily available and that this area requires more attention. Alcohol abuse prevention policies - restrictions on alcohol advertisements in the media, limitations on sale times and anti-alcohol campaigns concerning traffic - have not brought about a significant decrease in ethanol poisoning. PMID:23217376

  10. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  11. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  12. DEPRESSION IN WILSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, R. S.; Swamy, H. S.; Sreenivas, K. N.; John, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY This study comprise of 23 patients of Wilson's Disease, who were assessed individually by a psychiatrist and neurologist separately. Clinically discernable psychiatric symptoms were detected in 11 patients. Depressed affect was the commonest finding in the series. While four out of five young patients showed depressive symptomatology, none of the six patients showed any depression. All four patients who had severely depressed affect were also patients who had most severe extrapyramidal features. PMID:22058523

  13. Cold event at 8200 yr B.P. recorded in annually laminated lake sediments in eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Ojala, Antti E. K.

    2004-08-01

    A quantitative annual mean temperature reconstruction from an annually laminated lake-sediment sequence in Estonia, eastern Europe, shows a distinct cold period at 8400 8080 yr B.P. (= before A.D. 2000); the timing is consistent with that seen in the Greenland ice-core data and various high-resolution records from western Europe. During maximal cooling at 8250 8150 yr B.P., the annual mean temperature in Estonia was ˜2.0 °C colder than prior to and ˜3.0 °C colder than after the cooling. The pollen-stratigraphic and sedimentological data suggest especially cold and snowy winter conditions. The duration and amplitude of the cold event agree with the modeled impact of a sudden freshening of the North Atlantic surface water and subsequent perturbation of the thermohaline circulation. Provided that the cold event was caused by a pulse of freshwater—from the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet—to the North Atlantic, the results indicate a strong teleconnection between the North Atlantic oceanic forcing and the east European climate at least up to long 26°E, mediated probably by the changing intensity of the zonal atmospheric circulation.

  14. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  15. Prevention of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor, Jennifer; Wadsworth, Martha

    Substantial numbers of children and adolescents experience symptoms of sadness, dysphoria, and other characteristics associated with depression. The nature of depression in children and adolescents has presented challenges in identification and definition. This chapter reviews research on depression in children and adolescents. Three current…

  16. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  17. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  18. [Depressive syndromes in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Branik, E

    1990-04-01

    First the difficulties with the concept of depression, its definition and with the classification and heterogeneity of the depressive syndromes are pointed out. The particular clinical importance of depressive states, especially of adolescents, is shown by means of epidemiological data. A case report illustrates the classification problems and a part of the typical conflicts and psychic demands in adolescence. Then follows a short survey on the conception of depressive states in psychoanalysis, with special reference to this age group. The evaluation of the given studies calls for interdisciplinary research, in order to tackle the still unsolved questions concerning depressive conditions and to improve the coordination of separate findings. PMID:2352911

  19. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  20. [Depression and psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Misery, L

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is very frequently associated with psoriasis and depression is observed in numerous patients with psoriasis. Early detection and treatment are very important. The links between psoriasis and depression are not only psychopathological. Biological factors could also explain this association. There is a vicious circle psoriasis-alteration of quality of life-depression, but psoriasis improvement is not always followed by an improvement of depression. A contrario, it is obvious that a depressive patient has a bad observance of treatment.

  1. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  2. Basic concepts of depression.

    PubMed

    Paykel, Eugene S

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century, as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1980s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed.

  3. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff. PMID:16919838

  4. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  5. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  6. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  7. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  8. Column water vapour: An intertechnique comparison of estimation methods in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keernik, Hannes; Ohvril, Hanno; Rannat, Kalev; Jakobson, Erko; Luhamaa, Andres

    2013-04-01

    Despite of different estimation techniques for integrated column water vapour (precipitable water, PW, W), no method is identified as the most accurate or reference method. In this work we report intercomparisons, by assessing the reliability, linear fits, correlations and biases, between four W estimation methods - radiosonde, AERONET, GPS and HIRLAM. Two intensive observational periods at Tõravere, Estonia, were used: (1) 9-12 August 2010, and (2) 22 June - 7 November 2008. For the first, short campaign, data obtained with all four methods were available. During the campaign, 17 GRAW DFM-06 (Germany) sondes were launched. Average differences between W , from radiosonde, as a traditional instrument, and other three methods were smaller than 5%. HIRLAM produced the lowest W estimates of the four methods. Considering the second, longer campaign, only observations by GPS, AERONET and HIRLAM were conducted (GPS-registered W ranged from 4.3 to 42.8 mm). By analyzing more than 1000 concurrent observations, a good agreement among all three methods was established: W (GPS) was 1% higher than W (HIRLAM) and 3% higher than W (AERONET), W (HIRLAM) was 2% higher than W (AERONET). The comparison indicates that correlations between different techniques were high, with coefficient of determination (R2) above 0.86 in all cases. However, compared to HIRLAM and GPS, AERONET overestimated W by 5-9% at W < 12 mm and underestimated by 6-10% at W > 25 mm. Relatively low temporal and spatial resolution of the HIRLAM grid caused higher scatter from other methods. The study suggests that besides radiosonde, as a traditional meteorological tool, the most reliable W estimation is by GPS.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals. PMID:25616049

  10. Depression and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Matthias R; Fuchs, Gerd; Gemende, Irene; Herting, Birgit; Oehlwein, Christian; Reichmann, Heinz; Rieke, Jürgen; Volkmann, Jens

    2004-09-01

    Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), reduces quality of life independent of motor symptoms and seems to be underrated and undertreated. Characteristics of symptoms differ from major depression. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, diagnosis is based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feeling of emptiness. Available rating scales for major depression may not be adequate to correctly measure severity of depression in PD. Anxiety and depression may manifest as first symptoms of PD many years before motor symptoms. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the etiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer, selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, SNRI) appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to have a favorable side effect profile. Recent controlled studies show antidepressant effects of pramipexole in bipolar II depression. New dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropinirole appear to ameliorate depressive symptoms in PD in addition to effects on motor symptoms. There is a lack of appropriate rating scales and controlled studies regarding depression in PD.

  11. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  12. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  13. Assessment of depression in Kuwait by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    el-Islam, M F; Moussa, M A; Malasi, T H; Suleiman, M A; Mirza, I A

    1988-01-01

    One hundred depressed inpatients were examined by the WHO schedule for Standardized Assessment of Depressive Disorders (SADD). A common core of symptoms is shared with patients in other studies from Western, Middle-Eastern and international studies. However, pathoplastic cultural influences are manifest in a number of symptoms, notable among which are metaphorical descriptions of symptom intensity by the overwhelmed patient, infrequency of feelings of hopelessness and suicidal attempts, masking of guilt feelings by a front of somatization and a linkage of body weight and sexual functions to health in general. Evidence is provided for a continuum-type unimodal distribution of the principal components studied.

  14. Pulsed depressed collector

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  15. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  16. Depression in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Wasylenki, D.

    1980-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is very common and may be difficult to diagnose. Because of its varied presentation and its frequent association with physical illness it will be encountered increasingly by all physicians as the elderly population expands. Depression, though treatable, is often not treated, and suicide rates are high among depressed elderly persons. Diagnostic difficulties lie in distinguishing depression from organic brain syndromes, from so-called masked depressions and from normal grief reactions. Pharmacologic treatment is effective, but care must be taken to recognize side effects and to use adequate doses. Psychologic approaches should focus on reducing feelings of helplessness and failing self-esteem. The importance of the losses borne by elderly persons in the pathogenesis of depression continues to be of theoretical and practical interest. PMID:6989463

  17. Ethiopathogenesis of Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, M; Berardelli, I; Biondi, M

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of depressive disorders is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology such as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine alterations, genetics, life events and their appraisal. Some of these components are strictly linked. Subjects with a family member affected by mood disorders are more prone to suffer from depressive disorders. It is also true that receiving feedbacks of indifference or neglect during childhood from one parent who suffer from depression may represent a factor of vulnerability. Indeed, reaction to a specific negative event may determine an increased allostasis which lead to a depressive episode. Thus, a psychological cause does not exclude a neurobiological cascade. Whereas in other cases recurrent depressive episodes appear in absence of any negative life event. This review provides a set of data regarding the current etiopathogenesis models of depression, with a particular attention to the neurobiological correlates and vulnerability factors. PMID:25614753

  18. Depression and marital interaction.

    PubMed

    Feldman, L B

    1976-12-01

    A family-systems model of depression is presented and discussed. In this model, the intrapsychic concept of cognitive schema and the interpersonal concepts of social stimulation and social reingorcement are integrated within a systems-theory perspective. The effects of positive and negative feedback are delineated, and a concept of depression-triggering and depression-maintaining feedback loops is described. A clinical illustration is utilized to exemplify the theoretical model.

  19. Does quality of sleep mediate the effect of depression on hopelessness?

    PubMed

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality, depression, and hopelessness in advanced cancer patients and whether sleep quality mediated the effect of depression on hopelessness. The final sample consisted of 102 advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. Patients completed the Greek Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a sleep quality instrument, the Greek Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depression, and finally the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Patients' performance status was assessed by their overall physical functioning, as defined by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Depression was highly associated with hopelessness (r = .52, p<.001). Statistically significant associations were found between sleep quality with hopelessness (r = .37, p<.001), as well as with depression (r = .36, p<.001). Mediation analyses indicated that depression influenced hopelessness directly as well as indirectly by its effect on sleep quality. About 14.58% of the variation in hopelessness was explained by depression; 4% of the variance in hopelessness explained by depression was accounted for by the mediation pathway indicating that sleep quality mediated the relationship between depression and hopelessness. Similarly, in the reverse mediation analysis, depression mediated the relationship between sleep quality and hopelessness; 43% of the variation in hopelessness was explained by sleep quality. In conclusion, some of the effect of depression on hopelessness was mediated by sleep quality, but depression had a direct effect on hopelessness as well. Additionally, some of the effect of sleep quality on hopelessness was mediated by depression. The current findings are important because improving sleep quality by treating depression may contribute to decreased hopelessness scores and vice versa: Treating depression by improving sleep quality may also contribute to lower hopelessness scores.

  20. Factors influencing purchase of and counselling about prescription and OTC medicines at community pharmacies in Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Villako, Peeter; Volmer, Daisy; Raal, Ain

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current survey were to evaluate factors influencing purchase of prescription and OTC medicines of pharmacy customers in Tallinn, Estonia and to identify the role of community pharmacists in counselling of prescription and OTC medicines. Structured questionnaire was used to interview pharmacy customers (n = 1820) in six community pharmacies of Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. The survey instrument consisted of 15 multiple-choice items. According to the survey results, prescription and OTC medicines were bought from community pharmacies almost equally. The most popular OTC medicines were analgesics (38%), cold and cough medicines (21%). The older survey participants and these with lower income and with elementary school education bought more prescription medicines (p < 0.01). Survey participants with higher income were purchasing more OTC medicines and food supplements (p < 0.01). Before purchase of medicines recommendations were received mainly from physicians about prescription and from pharmacists about OTC medicines. However, the counselling provided by community pharmacists in selecting of both types of medicines was highly appreciated. Pharmacists as source for drug information were less trusted among the survey participants < 25 and 26-40 years (p < 0.01). Fast service and confidential counselling about medicines was less important for the respondents with elementary school education (p < 0.01).

  1. Cross-Sectional Study of Anti-Trichinella Antibody Prevalence in Domestic Pigs and Hunted Wild Boars in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kärssin, Age; Velström, Kaisa; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Saar, Tiiu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Trichinella spp. are relevant zoonotic pathogens in Estonia. The aim of this nationwide cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa). Serum samples from 374 pigs, originating from 14 farms, and meat juice samples from 470 wild boars were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against Trichinella excretory/secretory antigens using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against Trichinella were not detected in the domestic pigs, indicating effective parasite control strategies in the farms. By contrast, 42.1% of the wild boars tested positive, indicating substantial infection pressure in the sylvatic cycle. Further analysis of a subset of the wild boar samples, using another ELISA and Western blot, yielded a confirmed seroprevalence estimate of 17.4%. A substantial proportion of wild boars in Estonia had evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. and may have carried infective larvae. Undercooked Estonian wild boar meat is a potential source of Trichinella spp. infections to humans and other hosts. PMID:27315523

  2. Factors influencing purchase of and counselling about prescription and OTC medicines at community pharmacies in Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Villako, Peeter; Volmer, Daisy; Raal, Ain

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current survey were to evaluate factors influencing purchase of prescription and OTC medicines of pharmacy customers in Tallinn, Estonia and to identify the role of community pharmacists in counselling of prescription and OTC medicines. Structured questionnaire was used to interview pharmacy customers (n = 1820) in six community pharmacies of Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. The survey instrument consisted of 15 multiple-choice items. According to the survey results, prescription and OTC medicines were bought from community pharmacies almost equally. The most popular OTC medicines were analgesics (38%), cold and cough medicines (21%). The older survey participants and these with lower income and with elementary school education bought more prescription medicines (p < 0.01). Survey participants with higher income were purchasing more OTC medicines and food supplements (p < 0.01). Before purchase of medicines recommendations were received mainly from physicians about prescription and from pharmacists about OTC medicines. However, the counselling provided by community pharmacists in selecting of both types of medicines was highly appreciated. Pharmacists as source for drug information were less trusted among the survey participants < 25 and 26-40 years (p < 0.01). Fast service and confidential counselling about medicines was less important for the respondents with elementary school education (p < 0.01). PMID:22568049

  3. Depression after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.

  4. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  5. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  6. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  7. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  8. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  9. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  11. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  12. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  13. Eastern Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with scenario design and development issues, Eastern Airlines committed itself to the full four-hour LOFT training format without the additional time for specific maneuvers. Abnormals and emergency conditions, pacing, and quiet periods are included in the scenarios which are written for the instructor to follow verbatim. Simulator capabilities, performance assessment; training vs. checking; crew composition and scheduling; satisfactory completion; the use of video performance printouts; the number of instructors; instructor training and standardization; and initial, transition, and upgrade training are discussed.

  14. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  15. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  16. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent and has a great impact on both mother and infant. There are empirically validated treatments for both postpartum depression and depression during pregnancy. Primary among these is interpersonal psychotherapy, which has been shown to be effective for postpartum women across the spectrum from mild to severe depression. At present, interpersonal psychotherapy is the best validated treatment for postpartum depression and should be considered first-line treatment, especially for depressed breastfeeding women. PMID:22473762

  18. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  19. [Depression in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shin; Nagayama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Depression affects Parkinson's disease (PD) patient's QOL. Although it changes with the diagnostic criteria used, the frequency of depression in PD is approximately 10-30%. Anhedonia is characteristic in PD. According to research on anhedonia in PD using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), the positive ratio of anhedonia is high in PD. The SHAPS score significantly correlates with the severity of PD and duration of the disease. An examination of the literature on depression before the development of motor symptoms of PD revealed that the risk of PD is high in patients with a history of depression. Pathologically, the substantia nigra is affected in the later stages and raphe nuclei are affected in the early stages. This suggests that depression is a prodromal symptom of PD.

  20. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  1. Community interventions against depression.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, C R

    2007-11-01

    Depression appears to be the common psychiatric dosorder in any given community. Depression in different forms may affect 10% of the population at any given time. The paucity of mental health power has made people to ignore the presence of depression and its impact on individual's capacity of functioning. If we have to plan community based interventions some strategies are to be adopted. In primary healthcare systems short training of all categories of personnel in PHC and regular supply of free medicines are essential. With the experiences of general practitioners and their involvement, patients with depression can be approached for help. So also school and college teachers, trained counselors, religious and spiritual leaders can be involved in the processes. Family members can take care of patients. Stress management techniques, helpline, crisis intervention can be other methods to help the patients suffering from depression.

  2. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  3. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  4. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series JOINT COMMISSION LAUNCHES EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN ON ADULT DEPRESSION Educational Brochure Provides Guidance on Recognizing and Treating Depression [PDF] DBSA 2013–2017 STRATEGIC PLAN Learn how ...

  5. Depression in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fiest, Kirsten M.; Dykeman, Jonathan; Patten, Scott B.; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Bulloch, Andrew G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression in persons with epilepsy (PWE) and the strength of association between these 2 conditions. Methods: The MEDLINE (1948–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), and PsycINFO (1806–2012) databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and conference abstracts were searched. Content experts were also consulted. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and extracted data. For inclusion, studies were population-based, original research, and reported on epilepsy and depression. Estimates of depression prevalence among PWE and of the association between epilepsy and depression (estimated with reported odds ratios [ORs]) are provided. Results: Of 7,106 abstracts screened, 23 articles reported on 14 unique data sources. Nine studies reported on 29,891 PWE who had an overall prevalence of active (current or past-year) depression of 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.6%–28.31%). Five of the 14 studies reported on 1,217,024 participants with an overall OR of active depression of 2.77 (95% CI 2.09–3.67) in PWE. For lifetime depression, 4 studies reported on 5,454 PWE, with an overall prevalence of 13.0% (95% CI 5.1–33.1), and 3 studies reported on 4,195 participants with an overall OR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.07–4.51) for PWE. Conclusions: Epilepsy was significantly associated with depression and depression was observed to be highly prevalent in PWE. These findings highlight the importance of proper identification and management of depression in PWE. PMID:23175727

  6. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  7. Depression: discrete or continuous?

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the true structure of depression is necessary if we are to advance our understanding and treatment options. Central to the issue of structure is whether depression represents discrete types or occurs on a continuum. Nature almost universally operates on the basis of continuums, whereas human perception favors discrete categories. This reality might be formalized into a 'continuum principle': natural phenomena tend to occur on a continuum, and any instance of hypothesized discreteness requires unassailable proof. Research evidence for discrete types falls far short of this standard, with most evidence supporting a continuum. However, quantitative variation can yield qualitative differences as an emergent property, fostering the appearance of discreteness. Depression as a continuum is best characterized by duration and severity dimensions, with the latter understood in terms of depressive inhibition. In the absence of some degree of cognitive, emotional, social, and physical inhibition, depression should not be diagnosed. Combining the dimensions of duration and severity provides an optimal way to characterize the quantitative and related qualitative aspects of depression and to describe the overall degree of dysfunction. The presence of other symptom types occurs when anxiety, hypomanic/manic, psychotic, and personality continuums interface with the depression continuum. PMID:25531962

  8. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  9. Lesbians’ Constructions of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians’ subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a nine month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engagement in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model (2) dysfunctional family and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbians clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level. PMID:19350435

  10. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  11. Epilepsy coexisting with depression.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Barbara; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-10-01

    Depression episodes in epilepsy is the most common commorbidity, affecting between 11% and 62% of patients with epilepsy. Although researchers have documented a strong association between epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. The manifestation of depression in epilepsy is a complex issue having many interacting neurobiological and psychosocial determinants, including clinical features of epilepsy (seizure frequency, type, foci, or lateralization of foci) and neurochemical or iatrogenic mechanisms. Other risk factors are a family history of psychiatric illness, particularly depression, a lack of control over the seizures and iatrogenic causes (pharmacologic and surgical). In addition, treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as well as social coping and adaptation skills have also been recognised as risk factors of depression associated with epilepsy. Epilepsy may foster the development of depression through being exposed to chronic stress. The uncertainty and unpredictability of seizures may instigate sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach in patients with epilepsy and lead to social isolation, stigmatization, or disability. Often, depression is viewed as a reaction to epilepsy's stigma and the associated poor quality of life. Moreover, patients with epilepsy display a 4-5 higher rate of depression and suicide compared with healthy population. PMID:27634589

  12. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD.

  13. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better

  14. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  15. [Depression and sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, F

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, we talk more and more often about sexual disorders, and depression in one of the possible etiologies of them. Depression could lead to sexual disorders or induce them indirectly. Paradoxically, depression treatments, such as tricyclic antidepressant or SSRI could induce this kind of disorder. Tianeptine, the only molecule representative of this pharmacological class, has proved its good acceptability on the libido, as shown by the results of a meta-analysis. The respect of the sexual function is essential to obtain a good observance of the antidepressant treatment.

  16. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  17. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems. PMID:27207615

  18. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems.

  19. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  1. The marine Eemian of the Baltic: new pollen and diatom data from Peski, Russia, and Põhja-Uhtju, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Rinne, Katja; Haila, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Hannu; Eronen, Matti; Delusina, Irina; Kadastik, Ene; Kalm, Volli; Gibbard, Philip

    2002-05-01

    Several relatively well-preserved last interglacial (Eemian, marine oxygen isotope substage 5e; ca. 130-116 ka) deposits containing marine diatom flora have been found in Finland. In addition to these Finnish sites, more numerous Eemian (Mikulino) marine deposits are known from the northwestern part of Russia and from Estonia.Two new clayey and silty deposits covered by till, one at Peski, Russia, and the other Põhja-Uhtju, Estonia, were studied for pollen and diatom content. At Peski, the deposit representing the Eemian interglacial is 3.8 m thick. The polyhalobous diatom flora in the Corylus and Carpinus zones indicates the maximum of the marine transgression during the climatic optimum. Later, the increasing proportion of brackish water diatom flora indicates a lowering in the relative sea-level, and finally, during a very late phase of the Eemian, the sharply increasing proportion of freshwater species indicates the isolation of the sedimentary basin from the Eemian Sea.At Põhja-Uhtju, according to the pollen, the Eemian deposit is 3.5 m thick. Diatoms occur only in a layer 1.6 m thick, which represents the period of Corylus and Carpinus zones, and thus the period of the climatic optimum. The brackish-marine diatom flora consists mainly of littoral, shallow-water species.Although Peski is situated at a higher altitude than Põhja-Uhtju at present, the diatom stratigraphy at Peski indicates deeper and more saline conditions than at Põhja-Uhtju during the Eemian. This probably is the result of variations in glacio-isostatic rebound between these sites, which can be accounted for by differences of the ice load during the final phase of the Saalian glaciation.

  2. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  3. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  4. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  5. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  6. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  7. Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research is giving people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:22895696

  8. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  9. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby. In this case, controlling depression with medications prescribed by a health care provider may help prevent more serious problems from substance abuse. I’m considering trying an alternative treatment for ...

  10. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It can help you better handle stress and depression. Some studies show it may even help you live longer. Follow healthy habits. Get enough sleep and eat a healthy diet. Avoid alcohol, marijuana, and other recreational drugs.

  11. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of antidepressants to older people, and increase the dose more slowly than in ...

  12. [Melancholia and neurotic depression].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S

    1999-11-01

    The author considers the psychopathological distinction between endogenous and neurotic depression as one of differing psychodynamics. In so doing he embeds both illnesses within psychoanalytic theory while at the same time allowing a sharp differentiation. Even the premorbid personalities of patients with endogenous and neurotic depression are different. The personalities of those with endogenous depression bear a similarity to those with obsessional character and betray a pathological super-ego monopolized by defence mechanisms. The personalities of patients with neurotic depression show an oral-dependent structure characterised by a structural deficit of the ego functions and of an autonomous super-ego. These factors are responsible for the greatly differing pathodynamics found in these illnesses and point to different etiological factors in socialization. PMID:10593139

  13. Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura L; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research tells us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research gives people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area.

  14. Caregiving and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dosage or interactions with other medications. Complementary and Alternative Therapies St. John’s wort . One of the most studied alternative treatments for depressive symptoms is St. John’s wort ( ...

  15. Eastern US report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-10

    Northeastern oil producers employ a relatively high level of technology as documented in this report. While this has increased capital requirements, the extra investments are paying off. Wells are so small that producing companies may need 100 or more just to justify the expense of an office. More labor intensive operations result. Operators' main complaints include gas curtailments, EPA saltwater disposal regulations, high and growing unemployment insurance, inept state regulation, depressed prices, high taxes, workman's compensation payments, and fear of newly elected lawmakers. The gas cutailments run 5 mo. full production or 10 mo. at half normal flow. Produced brine, previously given to local governments for road dust and ice control, must now be pumped into special injection wells. Unemployment and workman's comp payments have escalated by 20%/yr or more, and can run as high as 30% of payroll. This work discusses drilling and producing practices and problems in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and West Virginia.

  16. Characterizing depression in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Soloff, P H; George, A; Nathan, R S; Schulz, P M

    1987-04-01

    The comorbidity of depression and borderline disorder was studied in 39 symptomatic borderline inpatients defined by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines using three independent methods for assessing depression and three definitions of depression. Evaluations were conducted by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interviews for Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) depressive disorders, by clinical ratings for atypical depressive disorder, and by self-rated questionnaires for hysteroid dysphoria. Diagnoses of an RDC depression were made in 25 (64.1%), atypical depressive disorder in 16 (41%), and hysteroid dysphoria in 25 (64.1%) of the borderline patients. Two depressive diagnoses were present in 64.1% of patients, while 17.9% of patients met criteria for all three depressive disorders. No one method accurately characterized depression in borderline patients.

  17. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela

    2002-06-01

    Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.

  18. THYROID FUNCTION IN DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Boral, G. C.; Ghosh, A. B.; Pal, S. K; Ghosh, K. K.; Nandi, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies on thyroid functions were performed on patients suffering from depression and compared with normal control group. 31 different cases of depression were studied for their thyroid function andshowed a diminished level of T3 and T4 with a concomitant rise in TSH level. When the female population of these 31 cases was compared with their male counterparts the females showed a significantly lower thyroidal functional status than the males. PMID:22058497

  19. [Depression in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician. PMID:16710154

  20. Overweight and depression.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E

    1994-03-01

    Is being overweight distressing? If it is, is the distress due to negative appraisals by others, to the stresses of trying to fit norms of thinness by dieting, or to the health consequences of being overweight? If being overweight is stigmatizing, negative evaluations by others may be internalized as high levels of depression. This perspective predicts that being overweight has a direct effect on depression, and that the effect is greater in social groups where being overweight is less common, especially among women, Whites, younger people, the well-educated, and the well-to-do. Alternatively, overweight may not be distressing per se. Instead, attempting to fit norms of appearance that equate thinness with attractiveness by dieting is distressing. According to this perspective, the association between being overweight and depression is explained by dieting. Finally, this association may be due to the health consequences of being overweight. A random sample of 2,020 U.S. adults aged 18-90 were interviewed by telephone in 1990. Results showed that being overweight has no direct effect on depression in any social group except among the well-educated. Overweight persons are more likely to diet and to experience worse physical health, both of which are associated with depression. Combined, these explain the negative effects of being overweight on depression. PMID:8014430

  1. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  3. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  4. Management of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D; Lifton, Clay K; Epperson, C Neill

    2013-01-01

    The mainstays of treatment for peripartum depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications. More research is needed to understand which treatments are safe, preferable, and effective. Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment option for women with mild to moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate to severe depression. Although pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding controlling for maternal depression. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation, and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for nonpharmacologic interventions including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about their infants being exposed to medication. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis, referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric advanced practice registered nurse is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent, or plan to harm oneself or anyone else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and

  5. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-atcung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  6. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-cung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  7. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  8. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  9. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  10. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  11. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  12. OELs derivation in Poland and in the former Eastern Bloc with reference to approaches and practices applied in the EU.

    PubMed

    Soćko, Renata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Based on the literature, current legislation and the European Union (EU) directives, the rules to protect the health of workers in Poland and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc were analyzed. Since 2002, the activities in the field of hygiene standards in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc have been correlated with the EU policy. The functioning of the system of maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) having been implemented in Poland for many years before the accession to the EU, has provided for a relatively quick adjustment of Polish regulations on chemicals to the relevant European law. The Polish list includes 543 substances. In the former Eastern Bloc countries, intensification of work after joining the EU has caused the lists in those countries to contain from 285 substances in Slovakia to 780 in Lithuania. Currently, all substances included in the EU lists (up to and including the 3rd list of occupational exposure limit values of the Directive 2009/161/EC) have been governed by the Polish, Lithuanian, Czech, Latvian and Hungarian law. In Estonia and Slovakia the provisions of the Directive 2006/15/EC establishing the second list of occupational exposure limits have been implemented. Individual national lists contain much more chemicals than the EU list containing currently 122 substances. The legislative process in the EU is slow, and that is why the national law is important and necessary due to the local needs in selected areas. It is necessary to correlate the activities in the field of determining regional occupational exposure limit (OEL) values in the countries of the Eastern Bloc and the EU.

  13. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed.

  14. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening. PMID:25953131

  15. Depression, masochism, and biology.

    PubMed

    Asch, S S

    1985-01-01

    In examining the conditions of depression and masochism, my intention has been to expand our area of study beyond psychodynamics alone. My first aim was to present what I believe are the intimately intertwined dynamics of each condition, a metaphorical double helix of depression and masochism in a matrix of narcissism. It may make clearer how either depression or masochism may present clinically in combination, at times in tandem, or manifestly as either state alone. My second, but major, aim is ecumenical: to interweave contributions from outside psychoanalysis. The neurophysiological bases and genetic determinants for most depressions are by now well-recognized. Masochism, much like depression, with which it is closely allied, may not necessarily arise out of conflict alone. I have presented brief excerpts of material, much of it still speculative, from areas of genetics, biochemistry, and ethology, to support the concept of a biological anlage for masochism. This would help explain the enormous difficulties therapists find in the path of its successful treatment. I believe Lorenz's theories on animal "bonding" suggest precursors to our concepts of masochism. I further believe our field of study has reached the point at which these and probably additional scientific disciplines can be helpful or even necessary for the further understanding of character, and for the solution of the persistent riddle of masochism, whose full understanding has continued to elude us. PMID:2991102

  16. Neuronal correlates of depression.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Liu, He; Han, Ming-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder effecting approximately 121 million people worldwide and recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that it will be the leading contributor to the global burden of diseases. At present, the most commonly used treatment strategies are still based on the monoamine hypothesis that has been the predominant theory in the last 60 years. Clinical observations show that only a subset of depressed patients exhibits full remission when treated with classical monoamine-based antidepressants together with the fact that patients exhibit multiple symptoms suggest that the pathophysiology leading to mood disorders may differ between patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression is a neural circuit disorder and that onset of depression may be located at different regions of the brain involving different transmitter systems and molecular mechanisms. This review synthesises findings from rodent studies from which emerges a role for different, yet interconnected, molecular systems and associated neural circuits to the aetiology of depression. PMID:26542802

  17. [Spontaneous course of depression].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J M

    1995-03-01

    The study of the spontaneous course of depressions nowadays comes up against a number of obstacles. The most important of these is the necessity of using untreated cases, which virtually forces the contemporary researcher to refer to studies performed in the pretherapeutic era, if conclusions are not be drawn only from classical descriptions. Unfortunately, these studies are marked by the absence of strict diagnostic criteria, the heterogeneity of patients included in them, the lack of preciseness of evaluations and the primitive statistical methods used. They are concerned essentially with the duration of depressive phases and the factors which influence it. Among these latter are regularly found age, sex, the number of episodes, the duration of the preceding symptom-free interval, the severity and semiology of the attack, heredity, mode of onset, level of intelligence, the presence or absence of associated pathology and the presence or absence of hospitalisation. Chronicization of depression and the factors concerned with it have also been the object of several studies. A small number of investigations compare the course of the illness in untreated populations. The study of the spontaneous course of depression evidences the necessity of having consensus definitions, and may serve as a basis for a better comprehension of the process of cure and of the real impact of therapies designed to treat depression.

  18. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: their traditional Oriental medicine equivalents.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Peggy; de Rover, Peter; Staudte, Heike; Lim, Sabina; van den Noort, Maurits

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an acupuncturist for (add-on) treatment, and knowledge of both types of treatments is necessary to integrate them successfully. In this study, the different Traditional Oriental Medicine (TOM) diagnostic patterns in patients with a Western diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, or sleep disorders are described from a literature and a clinical perspective. The data on 30 depression and 30 schizophrenia patients from a German study are presented. Our results show that if a psychiatric group, sorted in accordance to Western diagnostic principles, is diagnosed on the basis of TOM diagnostic patterns, it can be categorized into different groups of patients with psychiatric disorders; this finding has far-reaching consequences in scientific research on acupuncture. Moreover, we found a high prevalence of sleep disorders in patients with both schizophrenia and depression, which could be explained from the perspective of a TOM diagnostic pattern. Finally, we discuss sleep quality as a treatment objective that may play a crucial role in mediating acupuncture-induced treatment effects in patients with schizophrenia and depression.

  19. Psychological treatments for perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Scott; Koleva, Hristina

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent and greatly affects the mother and infant. Fortunately, empirically validated psychological treatments are available for postpartum depression and depression during pregnancy. Primary among these are interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy, which have been shown to be effective for perinatal women across the spectrum from mild to severe depression. At present, interpersonal psychotherapy is better validated than antidepressant medication for perinatal depression, and should be considered as a first-line treatment option, especially for pregnant and breast-feeding women who are depressed. More studies are needed to evaluate further the relative efficacy of psychotherapy and medication, and more thoroughly test other psychological treatments. PMID:24269903

  20. Depression in new fathers.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing awareness about the burden of ill-health experienced by men. Research has shown that fatherhood has a protective effect on men's health. However, the transition can be complex and demanding, and may cause distress, anxiety and increased risk of depression. This article discusses paternal postnatal depression, which is a significant public health issue that is not acknowledged widely or well researched. As a result, men are under-screened, under-diagnosed and under-treated for the condition and other postnatal mental health problems, causing detrimental effects on their health and negative effects on the health and wellbeing of mother and child. Read Paternal postnatal depression: an overview for primary healthcare professionals in Primary Health Care. PMID:27387639

  1. Bipolar and unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jonathan; Agius, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Since Kraepelin grouped affective disorders under the title of 'manic-depressive insanity', there has been controversy over whether the bipolar and unipolar entities within this are distinct affective disorders or whether they are merely two ends of an affective continuum. In order to bring some clarity and goal-posts to this argument, we define the criteria that must be fulfilled by diseases in order to be considered as part of a spectrum. We analyse bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with respect to these criteria and find the model fits in many respects but fails to account for either the poor correlation in severity of manic and depressive symptoms or for the apparent discontinuity in the distribution of familial mania. A one-dimensional spectrum is thus too simple and a two-dimensional approach is required; this also fits much better with our current understanding of the genetic picture.

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  3. Potentiometric surfaces of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas, spring 1972 and 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Maps that show contours of the altitude of water levels for wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas were prepared using water-level measurements made in the spring of 1972-1980. Hydrographs for selected wells are included to show trends and lack of trends in water-level changes. The aquifer consists of gravel and sand in flood-plain and terrace deposits of Quaternary age. The aquifer supplies much of the water used for irrigation and aquaculture in eastern Arkansas. A large depression in the potentiometric surface caused by pumping for irrigation and aquaculture occurs in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties. A smaller depression in the potentiometric surface occurs north of Brinkley. Significant water-level declines occurred during the period 1972-80 in several counties west of Crowleys Ridge. (USGS)

  4. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and ... if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from symptoms of depression ...

  5. The Paranoid-Depressive Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty J.

    1977-01-01

    Few investigators have attempted to lay a conceptual base for comparative studies of paranoia and depression within a single general framework. The paranoid-depressive continuum is an attempt to develop such a framework. (Author)

  6. Tinnitus severity, loudness, and depression.

    PubMed

    Folmer, R L; Griest, S E; Meikle, M B; Martin, W H

    1999-07-01

    Answers to questionnaires filled out by 436 patients who visited our tinnitus clinic were analyzed. Patients were asked to report the presence or absence of depression and to rate the loudness and severity of their tinnitus. Responses to questions about tinnitus loudness and severity from 121 patients who reported current depression were compared with responses from 285 patients who reported no history of depression. There was no significant difference in reported loudness of tinnitus between patients with and without depression. However, patients with current depression scored significantly higher than patients without depression on all 12 questions relating to tinnitus severity. We conclude that depression and tinnitus severity are linked in some patients. Treatment of depression with medications and psychotherapy is likely to reduce tinnitus severity for many of these patients. PMID:10388877

  7. Assessing Interpersonal Subtypes in Depression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sarah; Cain, Nicole M; Wallner Samstag, Lisa; Meehan, Kevin B; Muran, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The context-free diagnoses outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders might not provide enough information to represent the heterogeneity observed in depressed patients. Interpersonal factors have been linked to depression in a mutually influencing pathoplastic relationship where certain problems, like submissiveness, are related to symptom chronicity. This study evaluated interpersonal pathoplasticity in a range of depressive presentations. We examined archival data collected from 407 participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder (DD), or subthreshold depression (sD). Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 5 interpersonal subtypes (vindictive, intrusive, socially avoidant, exploitable, and cold). Apart from gender, the subtypes did not differ significantly on demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, or self-report depression severity. Socially avoidant participants were more likely to meet criteria for a clinical depression diagnosis (MDD or DD), whereas vindictive participants were more likely to have sD. Our results indicate that interpersonal problems could account for heterogeneity observed in depression.

  8. Depression Plagues Many with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159436.html Depression Plagues Many With COPD Studies found 1 in ... pulmonary disorder (COPD) may raise the risk of depression among patients with the incurable respiratory illness, two ...

  9. Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about ... time Thoughts about death or suicide What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is the most common type ...

  10. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  11. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  12. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone is depressed. Depression is treatable . Medications and psychotherapy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of ... few side effects. What about counseling? Counseling or psychotherapy is often misunderstood. There are many different kinds ...

  13. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  14. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.

  15. Neediness and depression in women.

    PubMed

    Campos, Rui C; Mesquita, Isabel; Besser, Avi; Blatt, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:24552427

  16. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S. )

    1990-12-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe.

  17. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Mallis, Rachael E; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-12-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function. It is highly susceptible to the exotic invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is causing widespread hemlock mortality. We surveyed the spider communities of eastern hemlock and deciduous canopies over 2 yr, collecting over 4,000 spiders from 21 families. We found that eastern hemlock canopies harbored a more abundant, rich, and diverse spider community than did deciduous canopies. Five spider families were present in our hemlock collections that were absent from the deciduous collections, including Mysmenidae, Theridiosomatidae, Mimetidae, Lycosidae, and Agelenidae. In hemlock canopies there were 4× the number of web builders, consisting primarily of the Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, than active hunters, consisting primarily of the Anyphaenidae and the Salticidae. Ours is the first in depth study of the spider community in eastern hemlock. Spider abundance in hemlock canopies suggest that they may play a role regulating herbivore populations, and could possibly affect the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, either through direct consumption of the adelgids themselves or through interactions with classical biological control agents.

  18. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  19. Responding to a Student's Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…

  20. Depression and Old Age Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Steven K.; Boxley, Russell L.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the relationship between psychological depression and feeling old in 308 older adults. Results indicated that regardless of age, people who felt older were more depressed and less healthy than people who felt younger. Depression was predicted by health and purpose in life, rather than where respondents lived. (JAC)

  1. Parenting a Child of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoof, Katharene Kaufman

    1993-01-01

    Presents interviews with two mothers of depressed children. Interviews mother of 11-year-old boy diagnosed with depressive disorder at age 8, who is receiving treatment for her own depressive disorder. Also interviews mother of 12-year-old boy who was interviewed himself in previous article. Mothers describe the difficulties they face in parenting…

  2. Perinatal depression: A clinical update.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-05-19

    Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  3. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  4. Sadness, Depression, and Avoidance Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Allan M.

    2008-01-01

    Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…

  5. Empirical Evidence for Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    Although several theoretical positions deal with the concept of childhood depression, accurate measurement of depression can only occur if valid and reliable measures are available. Current efforts emphasize direct questioning of the child and quantification of parents' observations. One scale used to study childhood depression, the Personality…

  6. Depressive Illness: Pervasive Yet Mystifying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Doctors annually treat between approximately four and eight million Americans for depression. Behavioral changes in depressed individuals are characterized by sadness, loneliness, and apathy. Other symptoms include fatigue, early morning insomnia, loss of appetite, and suicide attempts. Underlying depression may mask itself in physical symptoms,…

  7. Depressive Realism: Wiser or Quieter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; Vadillo, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressive realism consists of the lower personal control over uncontrollable events perceived by depressed as compared to nondepressed individuals. In this article, we propose that the realism of depressed individuals is caused not by an increased accuracy in perception, but by their more comprehensive exposure to the actual environmental…

  8. Sex, Anger and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  9. Depressive Stories for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    While stories with a depressing message are now common for teenagers, resistance to them remains where smaller children are concerned. But is this more a case of the publishers and providers concerned protecting their own particular image of childhood? This article looks at the case for books that also convey a sense of sadness to infants,…

  10. Helping Students through Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Data from the federal Center for Mental Health Services indicate that one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents may be suffering from depression. Up to 70% of children with diagnosable mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders are not receiving mental health services, according to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health.…

  11. Inbreeding Depression and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews sex studies of children of cousin marriages and three studies of children of incestuous matings. It is argued that these studies, taken as a whole, provide no substantial evidence for an inbreeding depression effect within the polygenic system commonly asserted to determine IQ. (Author/DB)

  12. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  13. Occipital bending in depression.

    PubMed

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder.

  14. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  15. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  16. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Noe, Steffen M; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ulle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ulo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2011-07-15

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies.

  17. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  18. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr-1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  19. Variation in the composition of the essential oils, phenolic compounds and mineral elements of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Helmja, Kati; Vaher, Merike; Püssa, Tõnu; Orav, Anne; Viitak, Anu; Levandi, Tuuli; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the chemical composition of the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. collected in three habitations in Estonia was carried out. An analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection established the main components of the essential oils. The phenolic compounds both in ethanol and water extracts of the plant were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis. In addition to the earlier published polyphenols, several new phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as quercetin hexoside malonates and an A-type catechin-epicatechin trimer were identified in this Hypericum for the first time. The contents of the pharmaceutically important antidepressants hyperforin and hypericin were also estimated by LC-MS and compared with the data in the literature. The composition of the mineral elements was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate a rather high variability in the content of different substance groups in H. perforatum L. and, hence, the need for a survey of the raw material in the course of selection of raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations.

  20. Kärdla (Hiiumaa Island, Estonia)—the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuroja, Kalle; Suuroja, Sten; All, Tarmo; Floden, Tom

    The Kärdla marine impact structure (Estonia, 58°58'N, 22°46'E) was formed at 455 Ma (Upper Ordovician), in a shallow epicontinental sea some tens of kilometres from the land and erosion area. The iron-rich projectile about 200 m in diameter approached from the west at an angle of 30-45°. The impactor penetrated about 50-m-thick water layer and the sedimentary cover and exploded in the uppermost part of the crystalline basement. A complex crater, 4 km wide and about 500 m deep, with a central uplift rising 130 m from the crater floor, was formed. The highest point of the rimwall is 110 m above the target level. The rimwall is cut by at least two resurge-excavated gullies. The variable height of the rimwall obviously results from the obliqueness of the impact. Outside the crater an elliptical area was revealed, 12-15 km in diameter, with deformed sedimentary rocks below the target level. The elliptical shape of this area may also be due to the oblique impact. Because the crater and its surroundings were buried directly after the impact, the whole complex of impact-related sediments is preserved there. They are recovered by 160 wells, six of which penetrate the entire complex of impact breccias inside the crater.

  1. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Noe, Steffen M; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ulle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ulo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2011-07-15

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  2. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  3. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  4. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  5. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues. PMID:27476299

  6. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  7. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  8. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr‑1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  9. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  10. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  11. Homonegativity and Associated Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Mangine, Cara; Rüütel, Kristi

    2016-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at higher risk for negative health outcomes including HIV, STIs, depression, substance use, suicidality, and anxiety. Associative relationships between homonegativity (internal and external) and these outcomes are used to explain the observed disproportionate impact. The current study assessed associations between internalized homonegativity and high-risk behaviours, markers of substance use and symptoms of mental illness as well as openness and level of same sex attraction. A 2013 Internet-based survey was conducted among MSM, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexuality, drug and alcohol use, mental health, suicidality, and internalized homonegativity. The sample (n = 265) had a median age of 31 years, with 85 % employed at least part-time; at least a college-level education in 43 %; and 87 % lived in an urban setting. Sexual orientation was reported as: gay, 72 %; bisexual 23 %; other 5 %. Almost all men (97 %) reported ever having sex with a man, with more than one-third (36 %) having a steady male partner. Statistically significant higher homonegativity scores were detected among men reporting any level of opposite sex attraction compared to men attracted to only men; mostly men (p = 0.001), men and women equally (p = 0.002), and mostly women (p = 0.004), as well as less openness of same sex attraction to family and friends; >50 % family (p = 0.032), no family knowing (p = 0.042), and few friends knowing (p = 0.011). Anxiety risk and increased homonegativity also had a statistically significant increasing relationship. The identified associations between homonegativity and opposite sex attraction among MSM warrants further exploration as well as the relationship with increased anxiety risk. PMID:26728280

  12. Genetic features of petroleum systems in rift basins of eastern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qiang, J.; McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Most oil-bearing basins in eastern China are Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rifts which have played a habitat for oil and gas in China. Investigation of the petroleum systems may give a better understanding of the oil and gas habitats in these basins. Of the essential elements of the petroleum system, the source rock is the most important in rift basins. However, rift tectonic evolution controls all the essential elements and processes nevessary for a petroleum system. A four stage evolution model is suggested for the controls in the rift basin. A rift basin may consist of sub-basins, depressions, sub-depressions, and major, moderate, and minor uplifts. A depression or sub-depression has its own depocentre (mainly occupied by source rock) and all kinds of lacustrine sediments, and thus has all the essential elements of a petroleum system. However, only those depressions or sub-depressions which are rich in organic matter and deeply buried to generate oil and gas form petroleum systems. Immature oil, another characteristic, complicates the petroleum system in the rift basins. Three types of oil and gas habitats are described as a result of this analysis of the petroleum systems of the 26 largest oil and gas fields discovered in eastern China rift basins: uplifts between oil source centres are the most prospective areas for oil and gas accumulations, slopes connecting oil source centres and uplifts are the second, and the third type is subtle traps in the soil source centre.Most oil-bearing basins in eastern China are Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rifts which have played a habitat for oil and gas in China. Investigation of the petroleum systems may give a better understanding of the oil and gas habitats in these basins. Of the essential elements of the petroleum system, the source rock is the most important in rift basins. However, rift tectonic evolution controls all the essential elements and processes necessary for a petroleum system. A four stage evolution model

  13. Stress, externality, and depression.

    PubMed

    Ganellen, R J; Blaney, P H

    1984-12-01

    Previous research has found mixed support for the possibility that locus of control moderates the effects of life stress on depression. Two methodological choices may have influenced previous findings: the use of a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional locus of control scale, and reliance on linear statistical methods using median splits. We attempted to correct these choices by using the Levenson IPC scale (1974) and multiple regression analyses in a female undergraduate population (N = 158). The results supported use of a multidimensional scale, since Stress, Internality, and Powerful Others were found to have main effects on depression whereas Chance interacted with life stress. The question of whether locus of control refers to responsibility for causing an event, i.e., self-blame, or belief in control over future events, i.e., coping behavior, was discussed.

  14. [Anhedonia in depression].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, R; Gourion, D; Llorca, P M

    2013-09-01

    Anhedonia, or markedly diminished interest or pleasure, is a hallmark symptom of major depression, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The term "anhedonia" was introduced by the French psychologist Ribot in 1896 to describe the counterpart to analgesia in his patients, for which "it was impossible to find the least pleasure". Over the last decades, the clinical definition of anhedonia has remained relatively unchanged, but recently, behavioral neurosciences have significantly changed our knowledge of reward-related processes. Now, the construct of anhedonia reflects deficits in hedonic capacity, and is closely linked to the processes of reward valuation, decision-making, anticipation, and motivation. The neural circuits underlying these reward-related mechanisms include essentially the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortical regions. Here, we review the clinical concepts, neural bases and psychopharmacological data related to the deficits of hedonia in depression. Understanding anhedonia will facilitate diagnosis and treatment management. PMID:23937895

  15. Complementary medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Karen; Rampes, Hagen; Richardson, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted.

  16. [Depression, culture and evil].

    PubMed

    Pewzner-Apeloig, E

    1994-04-01

    The author has written this article as a reflexion on the relation between depression and guilt feelings by comparing her clinical experience-acquired in a western context-to knowledge gained from psychiatric anthropology studies. Manifestations of suffering are different according to different cultural contexts; in the western world the idea of guilt is prevalent, whereas it is somatic troubles and the idea of persecution that are in the foreground in non-western cultures, more particularly in Black Africa and the Maghreb. In the western world melancholy is not only a genuine standard model of depression but is also a cultural fact as witnessed by the numerous references in the literary and pictorial fields. The author asks us to ponder relations between the strength and frequency of guilt feelings on the one hand and the question of the debt and interiority of evil (sin) in the western christian tradition. PMID:8092662

  17. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    PALKA, Małgorzata; KRZTOŃ-KRÓLEWIECKA, Anna; TOMASIK, Tomasz; SEIFERT, Bohumil; WÓJTOWICZ, Ewa; WINDAK, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal disorders account for 7–10% of all consultations in primary care. General practitioners’ management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern European countries is largely unknown. Aims To identify and compare variations in the self-perceived responsibilities of general practitioners in the management of digestive disorders in Central and Eastern Europe. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a randomized sample of primary care physicians from 9 countries was conducted. An anonymous questionnaire was sent via post to primary care doctors. Results We received 867 responses; the response rate was 28.9%. Over 70% of respondents reported familiarity with available guidelines for gastrointestinal diseases. For uninvestigated dyspepsia in patients under 45 years, the “test and treat” strategy was twice as popular as “test and scope”. The majority (59.8%) of family physicians would refer patients with rectal bleeding without alarm symptoms to a specialist (from 7.6% of doctors in Slovenia to 85.1% of doctors in Bulgaria; p<0.001). 93.4% of respondents declared their involvement in colorectal cancer screening. In the majority of countries, responding doctors most often reported that they order fecal occult blood tests. The exceptions were Estonia and Hungary, where the majority of family physicians referred patients to a specialist (p<0.001). Conclusions Physicians from Central and Eastern European countries understood the need for the use of guidelines for the care of patients with gastrointestinal problems, but there is broad variation between countries in their management. Numerous efforts should be undertaken to establish and implement international standards for digestive disorders’ management in general practice.

  18. [Business prospects in eastern Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Hatmadji, S H; Kiting, A S; Anwar, E N

    1993-06-01

    "This paper shows the demographic prospect of population in the Eastern part of Indonesia, especially in four provinces: Bali, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi." The focus is on the sociodemographic characteristics of consumers in the region, and the implications for commerce. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  20. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  1. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  2. Stress, Depression and Coping among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Burke Winkelman, Sloane; Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one in four migrant farmworkers experienced an episode of one or more mental health disorders such as stress, depression, or anxiety in their lifetime. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore experiences and perceptions related to stress and depression among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs), and to identify their coping behaviors for dealing with these mental health conditions. Using a mixed methods research approach, three focus group interviews of a sample of Latino MSFWs (N = 29) were conducted and a quantitative survey was implemented (N = 57) at community sites in eastern North Carolina. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data: (1) physical stress related to working conditions; (2) mental stress related to family situations, work environment, documentation status, and lack of resources; (3) depression related to separation from family and the lack of resources; and (4) use of positive and negative mechanisms for coping with stress and depression. A discussion of these themes, results from the survey findings, implications for intervention and outreach programs, along with recommendations for further research, are provided. PMID:23644829

  3. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... associated ancillary facilities in Montgomery County, Texas. Specifically, Texas Eastern proposes to...

  4. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD.

  5. Climatic changes in Estonia during the second half of the 20th century in relationship with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in the time series of air temperature, precipitation, snow cover duration and onset of climatic seasons at ten stations in Estonia during 1951-2000 are analysed. Using the conditional Mann-Kendall test, these trends are compared with trends in the characteristics of large-scale atmospheric circulation: the NAO and AO indices, frequency of circulation forms according to the Vangengeim-Girs’ classification, and the northern hemisphere teleconnection indices. The objective of the study is to estimate the influence of trends in circulation on climate changes in Estonia. Statistically significant increasing trends in air temperature are detected in January, February, March, April and May, in winter (DJF), spring (MAM) and in the cold period (NDJFM). The trends in precipitation, as a rule, differ from station to station. Increasing trends are present during the cold half-year - from October until March - and also in June. Snow cover duration has decreased in Estonia by 17-20 days inland and by 21-36 days on the coast. The onsets of early spring and spring have shifted to an earlier date. Some important changes have occurred in the parameters of atmospheric circulation during 1951-2000. Intensity of zonal circulation, i.e. westerlies, has increased during the cold period, especially in February and March. Results of the conditional Mann-Kendall test indicate that the intensification of westerlies in winter is significantly related to climate changes in winter and also in spring. A negative trend in the East Atlantic Jet (EJ) index, i.e. the weakening of the westerlies in May has caused warming during that month. Decrease in northerly circulation, i.e. in frequency of circulation form C and in East Atlantic/West Russia teleconnection index (EW) is related to an increase in precipitation in October.

  6. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  7. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention

  8. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  9. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.

  10. Seasonal Variation of Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Bryan S.; Coryell, William H.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A.; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort – the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. PMID:25176622

  11. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  12. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  13. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  14. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  15. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  16. [Association of obesity and depression].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György; Faludi, Gábor; Halmy, László

    2008-10-01

    It has been long known that the frequency of overweight and obese people is higher among depressed and bipolar patients than in the general population. The marked alteration of body weight (and appetite) is one of the most frequent of the 9 symptoms of major depressive episode, and these symptoms occur during recurrent episodes of depression with a remarkably high consequence. According to studies with representative adult population samples, in case of obesity (BMI over 30) unipolar or bipolar depression is significantly more frequently (20-45%) observable. Since in case of depressed patients appetite and body weight reduction is observable during the acute phase, the more frequent obesity in case of depressed patients is related (primarily) not only to depressive episodes, but rather to lifestyle factors, to diabetes mellitus also more frequently occurring in depressed patients, to comorbid bulimia, and probably to genetic-biological factors (as well as to pharmacotherapy in case of medicated patients). At the same time, according to certain studies, circadian symptoms of depression give rise to such metabolic processes in the body which eventually lead to obesity and insulin resistance. According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy. Certain lifestyle factors relevant to healthy metabolism (calorie reduction in food intake, regular exercise) may be protective factors related to depression as well. The depression- and possibly suicide-provoking effect of sibutramine and rimonabant used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity is one of the greatest recent challenges for professionals and patients

  17. Childhood Depression: Theories, Antecedents and Supportive Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Laura L.

    Early detection and measurement of the intensity of childhood depression are important concerns for those treating depressed children. To examine issues of childhood depression, a review of the research was conducted which focused on: (1) childhood depression scales and their effectiveness; (2) correlates and antecedents of childhood depression;…

  18. Regulatory Biology: Depressed Metabolic States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, E. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Exobiological aspects of depressed metabolism and thermoregulation are discussed for subsequent development of biological space flight experiments. Included is a brief description of differential hypothermia in cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  20. Scaling characteristics of topographic depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristic of land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Landscapes with high density of depressions increase the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increase runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity and the climate--soil--vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high resolution LiDAR based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these distribution attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a fractal structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions, accounting for 4 to 200 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the fractal landscapes on the redistribution of surface energy fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  1. Assessment and pharmacotherapy of depression.

    PubMed

    Van Fleet, Sharon

    2006-04-01

    Depressive disorders are experienced by a significant number of patients with cancer, with reported rates of 0%-58% (Massie, 2004). Numerous studies have demonstrated that depression in patients with cancer is underdiagnosed and inadequately treated as a result of a number of factors (Schwartz, Lander, & Chochinov, 2002). Although more severe or complex situations involving depression or other mental illness necessitate specialist referral, sometimes professionals treating patients with cancer may find the need to initiate treatment. Thus, clinicians need to be aware of basic principles related to the assessment and treatment of depression.

  2. [Psoriasis and depression].

    PubMed

    Chamoun, A; Goudetsidis, L; Poot, F; Bourdeaud'hui, F; Titeca, G

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease affecting 2%-5% of the population of industrialized countries. Although the association between psychiatric pathologies and dermato- logical conditions is well known, the dermato- logist fails to indentify the psychological distress and when he identifies it, he doesn't take care of this suffering. The biological links between psoriasis and depression are now well-established. The impact on the quality of life (QoL) is studied for several years. In this vast domain of the QoL, the first problem revealed by the patients is the feeling of stigmatization. In psoriasis, the psychiatric comorbidity is estimated approximately at 30 %. The psychiatric troubles the most associated with dermatological conditions in general are depression, anxiety and suicidal ideations. The prevalence of depression in patients with psoriasis is estimated between 10 % and 62 % according to different studies. The patient's psychological distress is not correlated to the intensity of the clinical symptoms and the treatment does not modify either this distress, the coping mechanism, or the patient's opinion about his skin condition. Furthermore, it is necessary to know that the dermatological diseases affecting the patients during their childhood or adolescence will have a significant effect on the formation of their personality. However, personality will have an influence on the psychological morbidity. Therefore, it is important to take care of young people. To help the physician to recognize these difficulties, we propose a review of the literature and a method for a better management of the psychological suffering often experienced by the patients with psoriasis. PMID:25856968

  3. [Psoriasis and depression].

    PubMed

    Chamoun, A; Goudetsidis, L; Poot, F; Bourdeaud'hui, F; Titeca, G

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease affecting 2%-5% of the population of industrialized countries. Although the association between psychiatric pathologies and dermato- logical conditions is well known, the dermato- logist fails to indentify the psychological distress and when he identifies it, he doesn't take care of this suffering. The biological links between psoriasis and depression are now well-established. The impact on the quality of life (QoL) is studied for several years. In this vast domain of the QoL, the first problem revealed by the patients is the feeling of stigmatization. In psoriasis, the psychiatric comorbidity is estimated approximately at 30 %. The psychiatric troubles the most associated with dermatological conditions in general are depression, anxiety and suicidal ideations. The prevalence of depression in patients with psoriasis is estimated between 10 % and 62 % according to different studies. The patient's psychological distress is not correlated to the intensity of the clinical symptoms and the treatment does not modify either this distress, the coping mechanism, or the patient's opinion about his skin condition. Furthermore, it is necessary to know that the dermatological diseases affecting the patients during their childhood or adolescence will have a significant effect on the formation of their personality. However, personality will have an influence on the psychological morbidity. Therefore, it is important to take care of young people. To help the physician to recognize these difficulties, we propose a review of the literature and a method for a better management of the psychological suffering often experienced by the patients with psoriasis.

  4. [Alzheimer's disease and depression].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T

    1999-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia (60% of all dementias) and affects nearly 300,000 people in France. Alzheimer's disease is a disease of the elderly which generally begins after 60 years and whose prevalence increases markedly after age 75 years. The elderly population is increasing in all Western countries. Alzheimer's disease thus constitutes a veritable emergent public health problem. The rapid inflation of the epidemiological and etiopathogenetic data have contributed to enhanced nosographic definition and finer semiological characterization of the disease. Thus, the classic concept of senile dementia has been totally abandoned. In contrast, the concept of depressive pseudodementia as defined by Kiloh (1961) remains present in the "psychiatric culture". The concept refers to rare clinical situations in which the controversial concept of "test therapy" with antidepressants retains, in the author's opinion, some utility. Depressive or psychobehavioral signs and symptoms frequently inaugurate Alzheimer's disease giving rise to first-line psychiatric management. The use of multidimensional evaluation instruments such as the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) has enabled demonstration of the signs and symptoms and their quantification through the course of the disease. In the dementia stage, the psychobehavioral symptoms are related to the patient's awareness of the degradation in his intellectual functions and the loss of independence and to specific neuropathological lesions responsible for "frontal deafferentation". Certain clinical forms of depression of late onset are also characterized by symptoms reflecting hypofrontal signs (blunted affect, apathy, defective initiative, etc.) and severe cognitive disorders. Those depressions are associated with risk factors shared with Alzheimer's disease (sex, age, vascular function, APOE 4) and constitute a risk factor for progression to dementia, requiring regular clinical and neuropsychological

  5. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Mesas on Depression Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and buttes on the floor of a depression in the Labyrinthus Noctis region of Mars. This is part of the western Valles Marineris. Each mesa is a remnant of a formerly more extensive sequence of rock. The image is located near 7.0oS, 99.2oW. It covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  7. [Depression and burnout].

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2014-09-01

    Burnout is not a psychiatric diagnosis but a concept of the occupational psychology concerning the impact of working conditions on the psyche of affected persons. Burnout can be a mediator for clinical depression. Severe burnout fulfills mostly the criteria for an adjustment disorder. The treating physician is supposed to clarify the causes of a burnout. In addition to the causes related to working conditions, the role of certain personality traits should be elucidated. Psychological/psychotherapeutic approaches preferably focus on stress reduction. Empirical evidence for these approaches is rather weak.

  8. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  9. Major depression: behavioral parameters of depression and recovery.

    PubMed

    Schelde, J T

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports on an ethological study of 11 depressed hospitalized subjects. Major depression and recovery are described in terms of general behavioral traits, i.e., behavior parameters. The hypothesis, that the primary behavioral feature of major depression is a reduction of social interaction and that secondary features are reduced self occupation and body mobility (posture flexibility) is tested. The behavioral patterns of depression and recovery are described and elucidated by 12 defined behavioral parameters, eight of which show significant changes between the first and the last hospital week. Findings from six of the parameters are consistent with the hypothesis and demonstrate social inhibition during depression; interactions between depression and nonverbal behavior are particularly striking. Findings also confirm that, during depression, self occupation and body mobility are reduced to a less significant degree than social inhibition. Possible relationships between findings and agitated forms of major depression are discussed. A final section examines findings in an evolutionary context and emphasizes their clinical implications. PMID:9521349

  10. Emotional Maltreatment and Depression: Prospective Prediction of Depressive Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Iacoviello, Brian M.; Whitehouse, Wayne G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Most research to date on the role of maltreatment experiences in depression has focused on physical and sexual maltreatment. However, several researchers have theorized that emotional maltreatment may be more strongly linked to depression. Furthermore, prospective studies in this area are lacking. The present study addressed these issues by examining whether experiences of current emotional maltreatment predicted the development of new prospective episodes of major (MD) or minor depression (MiD), and the subtype of hopelessness depression (HD) in young adults. It also assessed whether current emotional maltreatment from peers and from authority figures separately predicted the occurrence of depressive episodes. Method One hundred and sixty-five participants from the Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project were followed prospectively for 2.5 years. Current emotional maltreatment and new depressive episodes were assessed with life event and diagnostic interviews administered every six weeks. Results Greater overall emotional maltreatment predicted shorter time to onset of new MD, MiD, and HD episodes. Peer- and authority-perpetrated emotional maltreatment separately predicted shorter time to development of new HD episodes. Conclusions Greater emotional maltreatment in young adults prospectively predicts onset of depression, particularly HD. These findings highlight the importance of adult emotional maltreatment experiences in determining targets for prevention and treatment. PMID:19152341

  11. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Southwestern Finland and from Vormsi Island in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Johanna; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Oksi, Jarmo; Peltomaa, Miikka; He, Qiushui; Marjamäki, Merja; Viljanen, Matti K

    2003-02-01

    Altogether, 343 adult and 111 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from parks in Turku and suburban and rural islands of the Turku archipelago, Finland, and 100 adult I. ricinus ticks collected from Vormsi Island, Estonia, were included in this study. Using the polymerase chain reaction the ticks were examined for 16S rDNA of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup and for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato recA and flagellin genes. None of the Finnish ticks was found to be infected with E. phagocytophila, whereas 3% of the Estonian ticks were positive for this organism. The rate of Finnish ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato varied from 0% to 11.6% (mean 5%; 9% for adult and 4% for nymphal ticks). The corresponding rate for Estonian ticks was 15%. Borrelia afzelii was the most common genospecies in both Finnish (2.6%) and Estonian (12%) ticks. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 2.0% of the Finnish ticks, but in none of the Estonian ticks. These results suggest that the E. phagocytophila genogroup is very rare in Finnish ticks, although the ticks were collected from an area endemic for Lyme borreliosis. In Estonia, E. phagocytophila is found in ticks and may cause disease.

  12. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  13. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  14. Depression during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, Teri

    2015-07-01

    A proportion of women enter pregnancy with active psychiatric symptoms or disorders, with or without concomitant psychotropic medication. Studies report that exposure to untreated depression and stress during pregnancy may have negative consequences for birth outcome and child development. Studies also report that antenatal exposure to antidepressant medications may have adverse consequences for birth outcome and child development. Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy leads to a small increased risk of miscarriage, a possible small increased risk of congenital cardiac malformations, a small increased risk of preterm birth, a small increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and transient neonatal symptoms in up to one-third of neonates. In addition, there is a possible increased risk of delayed motor development in children. Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the existent literature emphasize that there are minimal definitive conclusions to guide treatment recommendations. This review describes best practices for the management of depression in pregnancy, and it provides suggestions for future research. PMID:25976080

  15. Major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Otte, Christian; Gold, Stefan M; Penninx, Brenda W; Pariante, Carmine M; Etkin, Amit; Fava, Maurizio; Mohr, David C; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep or appetite. MDD occurs about twice as often in women than it does in men and affects one in six adults in their lifetime. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and its heritability is estimated to be approximately 35%. In addition, environmental factors, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse during childhood, are strongly associated with the risk of developing MDD. No established mechanism can explain all aspects of the disease. However, MDD is associated with alterations in regional brain volumes, particularly the hippocampus, and with functional changes in brain circuits, such as the cognitive control network and the affective-salience network. Furthermore, disturbances in the main neurobiological stress-responsive systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, occur in MDD. Management primarily comprises psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. For treatment-resistant patients who have not responded to several augmentation or combination treatment attempts, electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment with the best empirical evidence. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the current evidence of MDD, including its epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27629598

  16. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P < 0.05) relative to controls. Parents given 4.4 ppm selenium produced no malformed nestlings, but femur lengths of young were shorter (P = 0.015) than those of controls. Liver biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  17. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  18. Depression--Medicines To Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Depression--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... who take medicines for depression. Important Warnings about Medicines for Depression Children and teens who take antidepressants ...

  19. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  20. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei

    1996-12-31

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km{sup 2} and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  1. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei )

    1996-01-01

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km[sup 2] and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  2. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  3. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities and…

  4. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  5. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  6. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lemke, M R

    2008-04-01

    Depression occurs in approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), does not correlate with the stage of motor deficits, reduces quality of life independently of motor symptoms and appears to be underrated and undertreated. Anxiety and depression are the risk factors for the development of PD and may be present many years before the appearance of motor symptoms. Studies using functional imaging techniques indicate a primary relationship between depression and PD. Because of overlapping clinical symptoms, the diagnosis is mainly based on subjectively experienced anhedonia and feelings of emptiness. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms play key roles in the aetiology of depression in PD. Tricyclic and newer selective antidepressants including serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors appear to be effective in treating depression in PD. Selective reuptake inhibitors seem to be better tolerated because of their favourable side-effect profile. Experimental and clinical investigations indicate antidepressive effects for pramipexole. Placebo-controlled studies showed antidepressant effects of pramipexole in patients with different forms of depression. Various studies show that pramipexole improves depression in addition to motor symptoms in patients with PD. Because of the data available as well as clinical reasoning, pramipexole may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with PD and depression.

  7. Etiology of Depression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Shirley J.; Markham, Ramona A.

    2005-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is experienced by a significant proportion of youth today, occurring at an earlier age than found in previous generations. Major Depressive Disorder can produce long-lasting detrimental effects on a child's life, which raises the question of etiology. Three areas were examined for evidence identifying specific…

  8. Phenomenological Classification of Depressive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Hollister, Leo E.

    1980-01-01

    Empirical cluster analysis methods have been the basis for development of a phenomenological classification of depressive disorders. Verbal descriptions of the distinguishing features of anxious, hostile, agitated, and retarded subtypes of depression are provided to facilitate development of clinical classification concepts. A review of validity…

  9. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  10. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  11. Depression in Urban Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; DeFrance, Emily; Cox, Deborah; Woodward, April

    2005-01-01

    Depression in urban Hispanic adolescents can have negative influences on their ability to acquire a sound education. This study was conducted on 191 urban Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18. The findings indicated that (a) Hispanic females were more depressed than Hispanic males, (b) 42% of the participants had been retained a grade, (c) 7% had…

  12. Treatment of depression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Depression occurs in about 15% of the general population and is at least two to three times more common in patients with cancer. Depression is often difficult to diagnose in these patients because of the complexity and constraints of cancer care, patient and family reluctance to acknowledge distress, and the presence of multiple other symptoms. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy are effective in treating depression in patients with cancer, much like in patients with other significant medical problems. Precise assessments of the benefits of treating depression in these patients are important in weighing them against the costs and potential adverse effects. Such estimates are limited by a paucity of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and methodological problems in the existing studies that reflect some of the clinical difficulties in case-finding, treatment, and follow-up of patients with cancer. The existing body of research about depression in cancer patients is extremely limited in terms of the number of studies published and the number of total patients reported over the last 30 years. Moreover, these limited data may not generalize well because of high rates of patient dropout and the very limited enrollment of children, adolescents, older adults, and minority groups. There is an emerging trend toward simplifying the assessment of depression in outpatient cancer care settings and studying depression therapies in cohorts of patients with cancer other than those with fully characterized depressive disorders.

  13. Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that menopause leads to mood disturbances such as depression has a long history. How did these beliefs come about, and are they supported by the scientific literature? This article reviews the theories of menopause and depression, the scientific literature, and the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.…

  14. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  15. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  16. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  17. The Identification of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Dorothy K.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical complication of childbearing. Universal screening maximizes the likelihood of prompt identification of PPD. Obstetrician-gynecologists routinely evaluate postpartum women for a general health examination and review of family planning options at approximately 6 weeks after birth; therefore, they are well-positioned to identify PPD. In this paper, we review the diagnostic criteria for postpartum depressive disorders and clinical risk factors predictive of PPD. We examine depression screening tools, appropriate cut-points associated with positive screens, the optimal timing for screening and the acceptability of depression screening in obstetrical settings. Lastly, we explore how to manage patients who screen positive for depression and treatment options for women with PPD. PMID:19661761

  18. [MAJOR DEPRESSION AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health problem. According to the World Health Organization (OMS), depression is currently the second cause of disability in developing countries. Depression is also one of the most frequent mental illnesses. When treating depression, the main objective is to achieve complete remission and to prevent recurrence. Unfor-tunately, in clinical practice, this aim is particularly difficult to reach. Indeed, in clinical trials and in naturalistic studies, remission levels are rather low. The challenge is to individualize the treatment of depression taking account clinical specificities, but also advances in the field of biological and genetic research. Today, intense psychiatric research tries to discover biomarkers to predict treatment response. Because individuals are highly different from a biological, psychological and sociological point of view, more personalized therapeutic approaches are recommended. PMID:26285462

  19. Pseudodementia caused by severe depression

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of pseudodementia may be difficult in a patient with a history of major depressive disorder. Clinical case history. A 70-year-old man with a history of major depressive disorder, in remission for 3 years, presented with confusion, agitation and cognitive disorder. The differential diagnosis included depression with pseudodementia, drug-induced dementia or Alzheimer disease. Mild cognitive improvement was noted after discontinuation of simvastatin. After 9 months of treatment for depression, the patient had remission that was sustained for >1 year, with mild residual difficulty remembering words of songs. The differential diagnosis of dementia includes major depressive disorder and adverse events from simvastatin. PMID:23242083

  20. Depressed College Students and Tricyclic Antidepressant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben Maurice

    1978-01-01

    Depressed college students representing several distinct diagnostic groups were studied. Evidence indicates that patients with depressive neurosis show optimal treatment outcomes following tricyclic antidepressant therapy. (JMF)

  1. Strengthening weak primary care systems: steps towards stronger primary care in selected Western and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, Peter P; Dourgnon, Paul; Greß, Stefan; Jurgutis, Arnoldas; Willems, Sara

    2013-11-01

    European health care systems are facing diverse challenges. In health policy, strong primary care is seen as key to deal with these challenges. European countries differ in how strong their primary care systems are. Two groups of traditionally weak primary care systems are distinguished. First a number of social health insurance systems in Western Europe. In these systems we identified policies to strengthen primary care by small steps, characterized by weak incentives and a voluntary basis for primary care providers and patients. Secondly, transitional countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CCEE) that transformed their state-run, polyclinic based systems to general practice based systems to a varying extent. In this policy review article we describe the policies to strengthen primary care. For Western Europe, Germany, Belgium and France are described. The CCEE transformed their systems in a completely different context and urgency of problems. For this group, we describe the situation in Estonia and Lithuania, as former states of the Soviet Union that are now members of the EU, and Belarus which is not. We discuss the usefulness of voluntary approaches in the context of acceptability of such policies and in the context of (absence of) European policies.

  2. A Review of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Andrews-Fike, Christa

    1999-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an irritable, severely depressed mood that occurs within 4 weeks of giving birth and possibly as late as 30 weeks postpartum. Manifestations include crying spells, insomnia, depressed mood, fatigue, anxiety, and poor concentration. Patients may experience mild, moderate, or severe symptoms. Many psychosocial stressors may have an impact on the development of PPD. Recent studies conclude that the majority of factors are largely social in nature. The greatest risk is in women with a history of depression or other affective illness and in those who have experienced depression during past pregnancies. Women with significant risk factors should be followed closely in the postpartum period. The severity of symptoms and degree of impairment guide the approach to treatment. Treatment should begin with psychotherapy and advance to pharmacotherapy if needed; however, many patients benefit from concomitant treatment with both psychotherapy and medication. Common forms of psychotherapy include interpersonal therapy and short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy. Postpartum depression demands the same pharmacologic treatment as major depression does, with similar doses as those given to patients with nonpuerperal depression. It is essential to use an adequate dose of antidepressants in a duration sufficient to ensure complete recovery. Mothers should continue medication for 6 to 12 months postpartum to ensure a complete recovery. Inadequate treatment of depression puts women at risk for the sequelae of untreated affective illness, and the depression may become chronic, recurrent, and/or refractory. Family physicians are key players in the detection and treatment of PPD owing to the nature of the disease and the tendency for new mothers to negate their feelings as something other than a treatable psychiatric illness. PMID:15014700

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  4. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  5. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume

  6. Cattail population in wastewater treatment wetlands in Estonia: biomass production, retention of nutrients, and heavy metals in phytomass.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Lõhmus, Krista; Mander, Ulo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate and compare common cattail (Typha latifolia) biomass production and annual accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) in phytomass in 3 treatment wetland systems in Estonia. The biomass samples (roots/rhizomes, shoots with leaves, and spadixes) and litter were collected from 1 x 1 m plots--15 plots in Tänassilma seminatural wetland, 15 plots in Põltsamaa constructed wetland, and 10 plots in Häädemeeste constructed wetland. The highest average total cattail phytomass was 2.54 kg DW m(-2) in Häädemeeste. In Tänassilma and Põltsamaa this value was 2.3 and 2.11 kg DW m(-2), respectively. The average total aboveground biomass production and roots/rhizomes phytomass was not significantly different in three studied wetland systems. We have found significantly less spadixes and litter in Tänassilma than in Põltsamaa and Häädemeeste. In Põltsamaa, the N and P content in all plant fractions were higher than in other test areas. The Cd concentration in all samples (shoots, spadixes, litter) varied from < 0.01 to < 0.02 mg/kg. The average concentration of Zn in litter varied from 12.2 mg kg(-1) in Häädemeeste to 12.6 mg kg(-1) in Tänassilma and 13.3 mg kg(-1) in Põltsamaa. There has been found a significantly higher average contents of Cu (39.3 mg kg(-1)), Pb (30.4 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (412.3 mg kg(-1)) in Tänassilma than those in Häädemeeste or Põltsamaa: Cu-11.6 and 15.9, Pb--2.3 and 3.3, and Zn--57.5 and 73.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest heavy metal retention (303.2 mg Pb m(-2), 29.4 mg Zn m(-)2, 22.9 mg Cu m(-2), and 0.35 mg Cd m(-2)) was observed in root and rhizome samples from the Tänassilma wetland.

  7. [Sleep electroencephalography in depression and mental disorders with depressive comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Eiber, R; Escande, M

    1999-01-01

    Traditional scoring of sleep EEG in depressed patients shows abnormalities in sleep maintenance, sleep architecture, REM sleep, the distribution of slow wave and REM sleep during the night. Computerized analysis that comprises the period-amplitude analysis procedure and spectral analysis discloses changes in delta activity and distribution of delta activity. However, these methods of analysing EEG sleep are not able to distinguish the various concepts of depression: endogenous and non-endogenous depression, unipolar and bipolar depression, psychotic and non-psychotic depression. Polysomnographical data in patients with recurrent depression show alteration during remission suggesting trait-like abnormalities of sleep in depression illness. Shortened REM latency is not specific in depression. This sleep parameter is defined in many different ways explaining the heterogeneousness of study results and the failure of constituting a biological marker. Many sleep parameters are affected by several factors such as age, gender and severity. Several physiopathological hypotheses have been proposed to explain EEG sleep alterations. They refer either to circadian rhythms such as the two process model of Borbély, the phase advance hypothesis and the circadian amplitude hypothesis, or to neurotransmitter abnormalities such as the cholinergic hypothesis. None of them takes sufficient account of all the sleep abnormalities. Sleep abnormalities have also been described in other psychiatric disorders such as mania, panic and obsessional-compulsive disorders, generalized anxiety, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, borderline personality, schizophrenia and dementia. None of them have a particular sleep EEG profile which allows to differentiate between them. A concomitant episode of major depression cannot be uncovered by sleep recordings.

  8. Treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Payk, T R

    1994-10-01

    Depressions are the most common psychiatric diseases. For treatment, plant extracts have been used for thousands of years: examples are extracts from the (sleeping) poppy (opium), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Indian hemp (hashish), henbane (hyoscyamine), thorn apple (scopolamine), and St. John's wort (hypericum oil). In addition, psychotherapeutic measures, like playing music, dancing, playing theatre, and also the temple sleep, were used. In the 19th century, the introduction of brome (1826), codeine (1832), chloral hydrate (1869), and paraldehyde (1882), as well as the barbiturates (at the turn of the century) introduced significant improvements in pharmacotherapy. The modern thymoleptica therapy started in 1957 with the introduction of imipramine. Now about 40 active antidepressants are marketed. New drug developments should be characterized mainly by an improvement in tolerance.

  9. Depression in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Abrams, R C; Teresi, J A; Butin, D N

    1992-05-01

    Although their extent remains unclear, major and minor depressions are widespread in the nursing home population. This statement appears intuitively to be correct when consideration is given to the inactivity, decline in functional competence, loss of personal autonomy, and unavoidable confrontation with the process of death and dying that are associated with nursing home placement. In addition, some nursing home residents have had previous episodes of depression or are admitted to the facility already dysthymic or with other chronic forms of the illness. Such circumstances provide a favorable culture for the development and persistence of depressive illness. When the high frequency of other psychiatric disorders among nursing home residents is factored in, it is not surprising that long-term health care facilities have come to be regarded as de facto psychiatric hospitals. Nursing homes largely lack the treatment resources of psychiatric hospitals, however. Nursing home physicians are often unprepared to make psychiatric diagnoses, and a perfunctory annual psychiatric evaluation is insufficient to manage the complex depression syndromes of nursing home residents. Because nursing home psychiatrists typically work on a consultation basis, recommendations are not necessarily acted upon by the primary physicians. The consequences of undiagnosed and untreated depression are substantial. From the psychiatric perspective, the possibility that depression increases the risk for eventual development of permanent dementia highlights the importance of early identification for cases of reversible dementia. From the rehabilitation point of view, persistent depression among individuals with physical dependency following a catastrophic illness is associated with failure to improve in physical functioning. Depression can probably be linked to increased medical morbidity in nursing home residents, a relationship that also has been suggested for elderly medical inpatients. If so

  10. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  11. Rumination and Loneliness Independently Predict Six-Month Later Depression Symptoms among Chinese Elderly in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Pei; Xie, Yan; Duan, Wenjie; Deng, Qing; Yu, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies conducted in Western countries independently demonstrated that loneliness and rumination are remarkable risk factors of depression among the elderly in both community and nursing homes. However, knowledge on the relationship between these three constructs among the elderly in Eastern countries is scarce. The current study aims to determine the relationship between loneliness, rumination, and depression among Chinese elderly in nursing homes. Methods A total of 71 elderly participants with an average age of 82.49 years completed this six-month longitudinal study. Physical reports indicated that none of the participants were clinically depressed before the study. At Time 1, their loneliness and rumination were measured using UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale and Ruminative Responses Scale. Six months later, the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms (Time 2). Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that both loneliness and rumination at Time 1 were the predictors of depression symptoms at Time 2 among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, in the mediation analysis using PROCESS, the indirect effect between loneliness at Time 1 and depression symptoms at Time 2 was insignificant. Conclusions Results suggest that previous loneliness and rumination thinking are predictors of future depression symptoms among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, the insignificant mediation further suggests that the differences between loneliness and rumination should be explored in future studies. Findings have important implications for mental health professionals in nursing homes in China. PMID:26334298

  12. Anomia in major depressive state.

    PubMed

    Georgieff, N; Dominey, P F; Michel, F; Marie-Cardine, M; Dalery, J

    1998-02-27

    Anomia, or word finding difficulty, is a frequent clinical symptom of the depressive state. This study investigates naming and lexicalization processes (or word production processes) in 11 depressive patients (major depressive state), through a picture naming task of 53 images corresponding to low frequency words. Depressives showed significantly more anomia and made more naming errors (semantically related substitution words) than control subjects. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states, which correspond to an impairment at a later stage of phonological encoding with partial activation of phonological shape, remained rare in depressives despite the increase of lexicalization difficulties observed. Anomia observed in depressives could thus be related to an impairment at the early stage of lexicalization or word production processes (pre-phonological item selection and access, or storage of the semantic lexical item in Working Memory for further phonological encoding), without lexical-semantic disorganization. We discuss the relationship between such an elementary speech production disorder and cognitive impairments demonstrated in the depressive state (deficit of effortful and attentional processes, impairment in activation or initiation of cognitive processes and responses).

  13. The continuum approach in analysing the glacial landscapes of the South-Eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally geomorphologists are identifying individual landforms and describing their properties. However any discrimination of individual forms on the Earth's surface is arbitrary and often subjective. We are developing an automated procedure for slope and aspect distribution analysis of the digital elevation models. Instead of considering individual forms and describing them we intend to consider the Earth's surface as continuous plane and calculate the parameters describing it along a regular set of node points. The aim of the research is to identify and characterise fast ice flow zones in the south-eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation. We assume that different glacial landscapes - drumlin fields, glaciolimnic planes, outwash planes, complexes of marginal landforms etc. - do have their own fingerprint of slope and aspect distribution. We expect that this distribution can be used to identify and characterise the particular process that has shaped it, e.g. the fast ice flow usually is associated with streamlined glacial bed and faster flow produces stronger, more distinct lineation. Slope aspect distribution across a drumlin field will have a bidirectional, symetrical character with dominant dip directions transverse to the ice flow direction. In contrast the distribution of slope dip direction at the terrain dominated by ribbed moraines will be asymmetric and clustering in the ice flow direction. The slope and aspect distribution for the terrain at the Saadjärve drumlin field in eastern Estonia is used as the testing ground for the methodology. SRTM elevation data set is the basic data source and results are validated against the excellent laser altimetry (LiDAR) data obtained from Estonian Land Board. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309.

  14. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing.

  15. Malignant mesothelioma in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    Relatively low numbers of malignant mesotheliomas have been reported from Eastern Asia. In order to explore the causes of this fact, the available data on mesothelioma incidence/mortality in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) were reviewed. Data on the industrial histories of the above countries were also examined. Mesothelioma incidence was low, despite a history of high shipbuilding and port activities, in which heavy exposure to asbestos generally has occurred. Underestimation of mesothelioma could partly explain the above discrepancy. Moreover, in some areas a sufficient latency period for mesothelioma development may have not yet elapsed, due to recent industrialization. However, other possibilities have to be considered. The cancer epidemiology in Eastern Asia differs deeply from that seen in Western countries, an indication of differences in etiologic factors of cancer as well as in co-factors. In addition, the oncogenic spectrum of asbestos is wide, and not completely defined. In a very different milieu from that of Western countries, asbestos could preferentially hit targets other than serosal membranes.

  16. Detecting Depression in Elderly Medical Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephen R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used Research Diagnostic Criteria to assess base rate of detection of depression in 150 elderly medical inpatients by nonpsychiatric physicians, and evaluated psychometric properties of screening instruments to assess depression. Found detection of depression by house staff extremely low (8.7 percent). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), BDI…

  17. [Current concepts of depression during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Greszta, Elzbieta

    2004-01-01

    Until the 1960-ties, there was considerable debate on whether or not depression exists before adulthood. Next, there were popular concepts, which emphasized that depression during adolescence is "normal" for that particular stage of development. From 1980-ties, adolescent depression is seen as the same problem as with adults. The diagnosis of depression in adolescents is based on adult diagnostic criteria. Today, there is a more generally accepted standard that adolescence depression is essentially the same phenomenon as adult depression but with some development specific modifications. As compared with adults, adolescents with depression demonstrate a more variable course. The adolescent with depression may exhibit somatic complaints, school difficulties and deconcentration rather than depressed mood. Three conceptualizations of depressive phenomena during adolescence have been presented in the literature: (1) depressed mood alone, (2) depressive syndrome, and (3) depressive disorders. Compas, Ey and Grant have compared and integrated different approaches to a synthesis that reflected a comprehensive model of depressive phenomena during adolescence. Depressed mood, syndromes, and disorders are integrated as 3 levels of depressive phenomena in a hierarchical and sequential model.

  18. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  19. Managing Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2010-01-01

    The menopausal transition is associated with both first onset of depression and recurrent depression. Risk factors include vasomotor symptoms, a history of premenstrual dysphoria, postpartum depression, major depression, and sleep disturbances. Hormone replacement therapy, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and counseling…

  20. [Depression as chronobiological illness].

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Janos; Kálmán, Sára

    2009-06-01

    Chronobiological problems are always present as aetiological or pathoplastic conditions almost in all psychiatric disorders and considered as the greatest contributors to the mood and sleep disorders associated problems. The present review summarise the recent advances in the chronobiology research from the point of the clinician with particular emphasis on the psychobiology and pharmacotherapy of the depression. Human behaviour builds up from different length of circadian, ultradian and seasonal rhytms, strictly controlled by a hierarchical organisation of sub-cellullar, cellular, neuro-humoral and neuro-immunological clock systems. These internal clock systems are orchestrated at molecular level by certain clock genes and on the other hand--at neuro-humoral level--by the effect of the sleep hormone, melatonine, produced by the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Beside the biological factors, social interactions are also considered as important regulators of the biological clock systems. The pacemaker centers of the SCN receive efferents from the serotoninergic raphe nuclei in order to regulate stress responses and neuroimmunological functions. The direction and the level of the chronobiological desynchronisation could be totally divergent in the case of the different affective disorders. Different chronobiological interventions are required therefore in the case of the advanced and delayed sleep disorders. Sleeping disorders are considered as the most recognised signs of the chronobiological desynchronisation in depression, but these symptoms are only the tip of the iceberg, since other chronobiological symptoms could be present due to the hidden physiological abnormalities. The serum melatonine profile is considered to be characteristic to age, gender and certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The natural and synthetic agonist of the melatonine receptors could be used as chronobiotics. The recently marketed agomelatine with a highly selective receptor

  1. Misconceptions of depression in african americans.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  2. The pharmacological management of depression

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are common, recurrent, and chronic, and require treatment A review of the symptom picture and current drug targets demonstrates the need for accument of depression severity, including suicidaliltial focus of treatment is rapid resolution of: during an acute phase, followed by continuation. Maintenance treatment is indicated if the risk of recurrence is high. The range of available medications is considerable and the benefit/risk ratio is acceptable. Depression is diagnosable across the life span and treatable at every age (although recent disagreement has arisen with regard to young patients). Comorbidity, both psychiatric and medical, need to be assessed, as does the possible presence of two subtypes of depression (psychotic and bipolar) often requiring different interventions. It is expected that the next generation of antidepressants would be associated with more specific disease and outcome biomarkers. PMID:16156378

  3. Depression: Should You Consider Antipsychotics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat depression. Aripiprazole Abilify Yes Olanzapine Zyprexa No Data Zyprexa Zydis Quetiapine Seroquel XR Yes – for 300 ... less research to support it. Asenapine Saphris No Data $758 – $761 Clozapine Clozaril Generic No Data No ...

  4. Depression in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician November 15, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by ... Physician January 01, 2007, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20070101/73.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  5. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your teen get enough sleep. Create a healthy diet for your family. Give gentle reminders for your teen to take their medicine. Watch for signs that depression is getting worse. Have a plan if it ...

  6. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  7. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to have depression. Changes in brain chemistry or structure are believed to play a big ... We know that hormones directly affect the brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood. We also know ...

  8. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  9. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  10. Depression and religiosity in older age.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, M; Warzecha, A

    2011-09-12

    We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  11. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  12. The Impact of Pollution Charges, Ash Handling and Carbon Dioxide on the Cost Competitiveness of the Fuel Sources Used for Energy Production in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latisov, Eduard; Kleesmaa, Juri; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of pollution charges, ash handling and of the carbon dioxide quota trade on the competitiveness of natural gas, oil shale, peat and wood chips in Estonia for 2010 and 2015. The pollution charges and levels are calculated based on the Environmental Charges Act, and Regulations No 99/2004 and No 94/2004 of the Estonian Minister of the Environment. The calculations show a considerable change in the cost competitiveness of fuels. Fuel related costs of the fossil fuels with high CO2 emission factors and other environmental impacts may be doubled.

  13. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  14. Uninvited Guests: Traditional Insect Repellents in Estonia used Against the Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella, Human Flea Pulex irritons and Bedbug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective. PMID:21070174

  15. Epigenetics of depression.

    PubMed

    Lolak, Sermsak; Suwannarat, Pim; Lipsky, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is associated with poor psychological, medical, and socioeconomic outcomes. Although much has been learned about the etiology and treatment options of MDD over the past decade, there remain unanswered questions that pose challenges to improving acute and chronic outcomes for those with MDD. MDD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic studies to date have indicated a number of genes, including transporters, neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, and their associated signaling networks that may predispose individuals to MDD and may also predict treatment outcomes. However, twin studies indicate that genes account for only a small degree of the variation in MDD. Thus, other mechanisms, through epigenetic marks, may act to form a molecular memory of previous gene-to-environment interactions and to establish vulnerabilities (or, conversely, resistance) to MDD. Current evidence supports a role for pre-, peri-, and early postnatal adversities and stressful life events into adulthood affecting epigenetic patterns, providing a mechanistic foundation to develop epigenetic marks as biomarkers for MDD. This review presents the evidence supporting a role for epigenetic effects in MDD and in treatment response. We also discuss the controversy behind modulating epigenetic mechanisms in long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy.

  16. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    PubMed

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  17. Depression in the classroom: considerations and strategies.

    PubMed

    Calear, Alison L

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that can severely affect a young person’s social, emotional, and academic functioning. Identifying depression early is essential to reducing the impact of this disorder. Depression is treatable. However, there are a number of classroom and school supports that can be put in place to assist a young person experiencing or recovering from depression. Preventing the development of depression through effective classroom programs should be encouraged and supported within the school environment. PMID:22137817

  18. [Depressive pseudodementia. Differential diagnosis or meeting point?].

    PubMed

    Richly, Pablo; Abdulhamid, Pablo; Bustin, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Depressive pseudodementia is a major depressive disorder in which the cognitive deficits secondary to the affective disorder is so significant that clinicians are obliged to consider dementia as a differential diagnosis. The relationship between depression and dementia is complex and intricate. Even after depressive pseudodementia has remitted, certain cognitive deficits may persist and the risk of developing dementia increases. The concept of depressive pseudodementia continues to be useful in clinical practice in spite of its limitations.

  19. Reconnaissance investigation of brine in the eastern Rub al Khali, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Al Uruq al Mu'taridah-Umm as Samim area is located in a large topographic depression in the eastern Rub al Khali desert where playas several thousand square kilometers in area are exposedo A crust of eolian sand cemented with gypsum and halite has formed on many playa surfaces. Anhydrite nodules are common in the sampled area, where the depth to ground water generally exceeds 172 Cmo The chemistry of the three ground-water samples collected near the water well Ramallah-1 (lat 22?10'20'' N., long 54?20'37'' E.) is similar to that of sabkhah-related brines on the coast of the United Arab Emirates. Although there is no indication of economic quantities of evaporite minerals in the sampled area, the extent of the depression and its unique geologic environment recommend it for resource-evaluation studies.

  20. Potentiometric surface of the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in eastern Arkansas, April through July 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerfield, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    A water-level map of the Sparta and Memphis aquifers for 1993 is presented in this map report. The Sparta-Memphis aquifer, consisting of sands of Eocene age, is present in much of southern and eastern Arkansas. The potentiometric surface map and long-term hydrographs illustrate the effects of large withdrawals for industrial and public supply and, to a lesser extent, agricultural use, on water levels in the aquifer. Three cones of depression, centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties, occur in the potentiometric surface.

  1. Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

    2006-06-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

  2. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  3. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  4. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  5. [Migration patterns in eastern Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Bandiyono, S

    1991-06-01

    The date of Indonesia's 1985 intercensal survey showed interprovincial migration towards the eastern part of the country due to transmigration programs as well as to a higher rate of migration among better educated people. The population of the southeastern and western islands was 2,720,000 in 1980 vs. 2,990,000 in 1985, population density per square km was 148, and the rate of growth from 1971-80 was 2.36% vs. 1.91% from 1980-85. The inhabitants of the southeastern and eastern islands numbered 2,740,000 in 1980 vs. 3,060,000 in 1985, density was 64, and the rate of growth from 1971-80 was 1.95% vs. 2.26% from 1980-85. East Timor's population numbered 630,000 in 1985 with a density of 42 and a growth rate of 2.58% in the period of 1980-85. The population of North Celebes was 2,120,000 in 1980 and 2,310,000 in 1985 with a density of 122 and a growth rate of 2.31% from 1971-80 and 1.8% from 1980-85. Middle Celebes numbered 1,280,000 in 1989 and 1,510,000 in 1985 with a density of 22 and a growth rate of 3.86% from 1971-80 and 3.22% from 1980-85. South Celebes had 6,060,000 people in 1980 and 6.610,000 in 1985 with a density of 91 and a growth rate of 1.74% from 1971-80 and 1.74% from 1980-85. Southeast Celebes had a population of 940,000 in 1980 vs. 1,120,000 in 1985 with a density of 40 and a growth rate of 3.09% from 1971-80 and 3.51% from 1980-85. THe Mollucas totalled 1,410,000 in 1980 and 1.610,000 in 1985 with a density of 22 and growth rate of 2.88% from 1971-80 and 2.66% from 1980-85. Iran and Jaya numbered 1,170,000 in 1980 and 1,370,000 in 1985 with a density of 3 and growth rate of 2.67% from 1971-80 and 3.15% from 1980-85. The whole of eastern Indonesia had a population of 18,440,000 in 1980 and 21,210,000 in 1985 with a density of 62 and growth rate of 2.89% from 1971-80 and 2.83 from 1980-85. The movement of people from the southern part of Celebes was the most massive interprovincial migration in eastern Indonesia.

  6. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  7. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.; Skjoth Bruun, A.; Reid, I.; Chemia, Z.; Greschke, B.

    2011-12-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering the largest part of the land mass. Hence previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where little information about the continental part of the crust could be gained. To get insight into crustal thickness and composition below the Greenland ice sheet, the TopoGreenland project collects the first ever seismic data onshore Greenland. Wide-angle data was acquired along an EW-trending profile, extending 350 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund. Data is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice sheet and provide a link between the composition of the crust and the present-day topography of Greenland.

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  9. Depression's forgotten genealogy: notes towards a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, G

    2000-03-01

    The history of depression remains unwritten, yet historians harbor plentiful assumptions about its pre-1800 past. These views are necessarily colored, even shaped, by modern views of depression formed after its nineteenth-century medicalization. A history of depression from ancient to modern times is an impossible task to complete successfully and would require, as a minimum, the historian's utmost vigilance to nuance, difference, and the inclusion of non-medical literature, especially poetry, drama and non-didactic prose. Nevertheless, five points about depression's pre-1800 European profile can confidently be made: (1) it developed along lines of female rather than male gender; (2) was transformed in the long eighteenth century when it blended with male madness under the sway of the cults of a pan-European sensibility movement; (3) always embedded a problematic pseudo-depressive state, or feigned version, which acted to permit female escape from dire socio-economic situation; (4) included sustained chronic duration as a requirement in its theory from the Renaissance forward; (5) is richly documented in its pre-1800 versions in imaginative literature, its often overlooked genealogy. PMID:11624608

  10. Neuromodulation therapies for geriatric depression.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Verònica; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Alonzo, Angelo; Martin, Donel; George, Duncan; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-07-01

    Depression is frequent in old age and its prognosis is poorer than in younger populations. The use of pharmacological treatments in geriatric depression is limited by specific pharmacodynamic age-related factors that can diminish tolerability and increase the risk of drug interactions. The possibility of modulating cerebral activity using brain stimulation techniques could result in treating geriatric depression more effectively while reducing systemic side effects and medication interactions. This may subsequently improve treatment adherence and overall prognosis in the older patient. Among clinically available neuromodulatory techniques, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the gold standard for the treatment of severe depression in the elderly. Studies have proven that ECT is more effective and has a faster onset of action than antidepressants in the treatment of severe, unipolar, geriatric depression and that older age is a predictor of rapid ECT response and remission. The application of novel and more tolerable forms of ECT for geriatric depression is currently being examined. Preliminary results suggest that right unilateral ultrabrief ECT (RUL-UB ECT) is a promising intervention, with similar efficacy to brief-pulse ECT and fewer adverse cognitive effects. Overall findings in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) suggest that it is a safe intervention in geriatric depression. Higher rTMS stimulation intensity and more treatments may need to be given in the elderly to achieve optimal results. There is no specific data on vagus nerve stimulation in the elderly. Transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy and deep brain stimulation are currently experimental, and more data from geriatric samples is needed. PMID:25995098

  11. [Immunological aspects of depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Müller, N; Schwarz, M J

    2007-11-01

    Beside the monoaminergic deficiency concept as a pathophysiological correlate of depressive disorder, the role of increased glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly being discussed. Causes and interactions of these neurotransmitter disturbances are not fully understood to date. This review presents a concept integrating actual findings of the neurotransmitter dysregulations with immunological and morphological findings in depressive disorder. Several intertwined mechanisms seem to be important: The common cause of serotonin deficiency and increased glutamatergic neurotransmission seems to be the increase of proinflammatory cytokines. Immune activation with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines activate the tryptophan- and serotonin-degradating enzyme indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The increased consumption of serotonin and its precursor tryptophan due to IDO activation may explain the reduced availability of serotonin in depression. In inflammatory somatic disorders, depressive mood is associated with an increase of proinflammatory cytokines and increased consumption of tryptophan. This activation of IDO by proinflammatory cytokines leads to the production of glutamatergic agonists. In the CNS, IDO is activated during inflammatory processes primarily in microglial cells. Therefore the astrocyte:microglial balance in depression is important. The observed decrease of astrocytes in the CNS of depressive patients may contribute to a regulatory fault in the activity of IDO in microglial cells but also can cause an alteration of the glutamatergic neurotransmission. By this mechanism, the dysbalance of the immune response and the astrocyte:microglia dysbalance may contribute to serotonergic deficiency and glutamatergic overproduction in depression. The further search for new antidepressant therapeutic mechanisms should take into regard anti-inflammatory substances, e.g. cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)-inhibitors. PMID:17928982

  12. Physical Activity, Gender Difference, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of physical activity (exercise) and sociodemographic factors in depressive symptoms among men and women in the United States. Data Source 2011 U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Study Design Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) scores are aggregated and divided into five categories. An ordered switching probability model with binary endogenous physical activity is developed to accommodate ordinality of depression categories and ameliorate statistical biases due to endogeneity of physical activity. Principal Findings Average treatment effects suggest physical activity ameliorates depressive symptoms among mildly and moderately depressed individuals, most notably among mildly depressed women. Gender differences exist in the roles of sociodemographic factors, with age, income, race, education, employment status, and recent mental health condition playing differentiated roles in affecting depressive symptoms. Conclusions Regular physical activity reduces depressive symptoms among both men and women with mild to moderate depression, notably among women. PMID:25630931

  13. An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women. PMID:24744918

  14. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  15. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression. PMID:26258131

  16. [Clinical picture of protracted depressive and depressive-paranoid states].

    PubMed

    Pchelina, A L

    1980-01-01

    A structural-dynamic analysis of 85 patients with protracted endogenous depressions was performed. In accordance with th clinical picture all the patients were divided into two groups: 1. with a polymorphic picture of a depressive state and deep psychopathological disturbances (45 cases); 2. with a relatively monomorphic structure of the phase (attack), a mild level of positive disturbances (pseudoneurotic disturbances 40 cases). The clinical picture was characterized by an atypicity, instability of the leading signs. Among the patients there was a prevalence of people with intravert traits, with a high hereditary loading. In the premanifest period, these patients showed alleviated disturbances of mental activity, leading to personality shifts. Following 3--3.5 years after the depression there was a tendency towards its chronification with noncompliance to all forms of therapy.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  18. DEP: A Depression Emulation Program*

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Charles; Glass, Richard M; Banks, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive deficits can be studied by “lesioning” computer simulations of normal cognitive processes. DEP (Depression Emulation Program) implements key aspects of a computational theory of “normal” adaptive reactive depression. A theory of “normal” depression is a step toward a theory of “pathological” depression. Transient depressed mood caused by an environmental event may be an example of fallure-triggered reprogramming of the self-schema. We normally generate responses to our environment in a fast and effortless “compiled” mode. After experiencing a stable, internal, and global failure, we debug our self-schema in a slow and effortful “interpreted” mode. During debugging, we experience a cognitive loop, increased objectivity, decreased motivation, and fluctuating self-generalizations. DEP exhibits analogous behavior and suggests vulnerability in an emotional operating system that normally, and periodically, adapts to a changing environment. Computer simulation of cognitive deficit may become a valuable research tool in psychiatry and neurology.

  19. Geologic framework, evolutionary history, and distribution of hydrocarbon in Jizhong depression

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Q.

    1983-03-01

    North China basin is a large Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary basin in eastern China. A result of strong block-faulting activities, the inner part of the basin reveals the characteristics of multiple uplifts and depressions. Each depression is generally an independent exploration unit. The practice of exploration in recent years has proved the following: taking each depression as an individual unit, the basic geologic framework and evolutionary history are quickly determined. This is very important in order to achieve the best effects in petroleum exploration. Jizhong depression is located at the western part of the North China basin. This area is about 25,000 km/sup 2/ (9650 mi/sup 2/). Extensive seismic surveys and several hundred exploration wells have been completed during the past few years, resulting in the discovery of Renqiu and other oil fields. Taking the Jizhong depression as an example, the writer has considered the four following problems: Pre-Tertiary fault blocks and their distributional form, Some characteristics of block-faulting activities; Block-faulting in relation to the controlling of Tertiary sediments and structures; and the types of oil and/or gas pools. In the future, the exploration of the buried-hill gas or oil pools will continue. This should expedite the exploration for the other two types of oil or gas pools. In addition, we should pay much attention to exploration for Tertiary stratigraphic-lithologic oil or gas pools.

  20. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That