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  1. Mental depression and kundalini yoga.

    PubMed

    Devi, S K; Chansauria, J P; Udupa, K N

    1986-10-01

    In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary - 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and it can be used as a non - medical measure in treating patients with mental depression.

  2. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  3. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depressed mothers are more likely to have a difficult temperament, as well as cognitive and emotional delays. The primary care setting is uniquely poised to be the screening and treatment site for perinatal depression; however, several obstacles, both at patient and systems level, have been identified that interfere with women's treatment engagement. Current published treatment guidelines favour psychotherapy above medicines as first line treatment for mild to moderate perinatal depression, while pharmacotherapy is first choice for severe depression, often in combination with psychosocial or integrative approaches. Among mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants despite ongoing depression during the perinatal period, the majority suffer from relapsing symptoms. If depression continues post‐partum, there is an increased risk of poor mother–infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development and risk for behavioural problems in later life. Complex, comprehensive and multilevel algorithms are warranted to treat perinatal depression. Primary care doctors are best suited to initiate, carry out and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions designed to prevent adverse outcomes of maternal perinatal depression on mother and child wellbeing. PMID:22477948

  4. Induced optimism as mental rehearsal to decrease depressive predictive certainty.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Regina; Weierich, Mariann; Khait, Valerie; Jurska, Justyna; Andersen, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined whether practice in making optimistic future-event predictions would result in change in the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression. Individuals (N = 170) with low, mild, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a condition in which they practiced making optimistic future-event predictions or to a control condition in which they viewed the same stimuli but practiced determining whether a given phrase contained an adjective. Overall, individuals in the induced optimism condition showed increases in optimistic predictions, relative to the control condition, as a result of practice, but only individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression who practiced making optimistic future-event predictions showed decreases in depressive predictive certainty, relative to the control condition. In addition, they showed gains in efficiency in making optimistic predictions over the practice blocks, as assessed by response time. There was no difference in depressed mood by practice condition. Mental rehearsal might be one way of changing the hopelessness-related cognitions that characterize depression.

  5. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.

  6. Mental Imagery in Depression: Phenomenology, Potential Mechanisms, and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Renner, Fritz; Raes, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Mental imagery is an experience like perception in the absence of a percept. It is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition, yet it has been relatively neglected in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression. Imagery abnormalities in depression include an excess of intrusive negative mental imagery; impoverished positive imagery; bias for observer perspective imagery; and overgeneral memory, in which specific imagery is lacking. We consider the contribution of imagery dysfunctions to depressive psychopathology and implications for cognitive behavioral interventions. Treatment advances capitalizing on the representational format of imagery (as opposed to its content) are reviewed, including imagery rescripting, positive imagery generation, and memory specificity training. Consideration of mental imagery can contribute to clinical assessment and imagery-focused psychological therapeutic techniques and promote investigation of underlying mechanisms for treatment innovation. Research into mental imagery in depression is at an early stage. Work that bridges clinical psychology and neuroscience in the investigation of imagery-related mechanisms is recommended.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  8. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  9. Mental health literacy of those with major depression and suicidal ideation: an impediment to help seeking.

    PubMed

    Goldney, Robert D; Fisher, Laura J; Wilson, David H; Cheok, Frida

    2002-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention, and is an important determinant of help seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, particularly for those with major depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. In this study of a random and representative community sample, a vignette depicting classical features of major depression was presented to subjects along with questions related to mental health literacy. The responses of those with major depression, as delineated by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders instrument, both with and without suicidal ideation, were compared to those of a third group of respondents. The results demonstrated that despite increased professional contact by those with major depression and suicidal ideation, there were few differences among the three groups on either open-ended or direct questions related to mental health literacy. This indicates that increased professional contact in itself was not related to increased mental health literacy, and suggests that more specific psychoeducational programs are required.

  10. Have Mental Health Education Programs Influenced the Mental Health Literacy of Those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation? A Comparison between 1998 and 2008 in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…

  11. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife.

  12. The level of depression and its related factors among the mothers with mentally retarded girl children in exceptional primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Newsha; Taebi, Mahboubeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Khalafian, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, depression is one of the most prevalent mental diseases to which some individuals like mothers of mentally retarded children are more vulnerable due to their (children’s) special condition. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the level of depression and its related factors in these mothers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 qualified mothers with mentally retarded children who were from exceptional children girls’ schools in Isfahan. The subjects filled personal characteristics and Beck depression inventory assessment, and their level of depression and its association with some baseline factors were analyzed through descriptive statistics in SPSS. Results: Results showed that 75% of the mothers experienced various levels of depression, of whom 25.8% suffered from minor depression, 24.2% from moderate depression, and 25% suffered from major depression. The results obtained showed that there was a significant direct association between the intensity of depression and students’ age, mothers’ age, fathers’ age, the number of children, and the length of parents’ marriage and a reverse association between the intensity of depression and subjects’, fathers’, and mothers’ education (P = 0.004). No association was observed between mothers’ occupation and the intensity of depression. Meanwhile, there was a negative significant association between fathers’ occupation and mothers’ depression (P = 0.02). About 33.3% of the mothers did not believe that their spouses’ and families’ psychological and mental support was adequate. Conclusions: The present study showed that mothers of mentally retarded children are predisposed to depression. With regard to the important role of mothers in the family and, consequently, the risk of impaired health of the family members, especially these children's health, prevention and diagnosis of depression and treatment of these mothers seem to be

  13. Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)

  14. Immigrant and refugee health: mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Immigrants leave their homes for unfamiliar destinations in search of better lives for themselves and their families. Many immigrants experience profound loss and emotional distress as they adjust to life in different societies. Despite these challenges, the prevalence of mental health conditions among immigrants is low, whereas children of immigrants have rates equal to those of native populations. The prevalence of mental health conditions is high among refugees, who comprise a specific subgroup of immigrants who have been displaced forcibly and often have experienced severe trauma. Cultural factors, such as stigma and somatization of emotional symptoms, make it less likely that immigrants and refugees from certain groups will ever present to mental health subspecialists. Strong therapeutic relationships, cultural sensitivity, involvement of family members, judicious use of medications, and knowledge of available community resources are important tools that can aid clinicians who treat immigrants and refugees with mental health conditions.

  15. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk and Depressive Symptoms Among People With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Pratt, Sarah I; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-02-24

    Depressive symptoms have debilitating effects on the physical health and functioning of people with serious mental illness. We examined change in depressive symptoms among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness (n = 343) using data combined from two randomized trials comparing the 12-month In SHAPE program to a gym membership control condition. In SHAPE consists of a gym membership, weekly individual meetings with a fitness trainer, and instruction on healthy eating and nutrition. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Change in depressive symptoms did not differ between groups, but depressive symptoms decreased over time across the entire sample (p = 0.045). At 12 months, reduced depressive symptoms were associated with clinically significant improved cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.030), 10% or more weight loss (p = 0.044), and cardiovascular risk reduction (p = 0.028) across both groups. Our findings suggest that participation in health promotion programs resulting in cardiovascular risk reduction may be associated with reduced depressive symptoms.

  16. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.

  17. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  18. Contextual fear conditioning depresses infralimbic excitability.

    PubMed

    Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Cruz, Emmanuel; Criado-Marrero, Marangelie; Porter, James T

    2016-04-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show hypo-active ventromedial prefrontal cortices (vmPFC) that correlate with their impaired ability to discriminate between safe and dangerous contexts and cues. Previously, we found that auditory fear conditioning depresses the excitability of neurons populating the homologous structure in rodents, the infralimbic cortex (IL). However, it is undetermined if IL depression was mediated by the cued or contextual information. The objective of this study was to examine whether contextual information was sufficient to depress IL neuronal excitability. After exposing rats to context-alone, pseudoconditioning, or contextual fear conditioning, we used whole-cell current-clamp recordings to examine the excitability of IL neurons in prefrontal brain slices. We found that contextual fear conditioning reduced IL neuronal firing in response to depolarizing current steps. In addition, neurons from contextual fear conditioned animals showed increased slow afterhyperpolarization potentials (sAHPs). Moreover, the observed changes in IL excitability correlated with contextual fear expression, suggesting that IL depression may contribute to the encoding of contextual fear.

  19. Relationship between mental states in depression: the assimilation model perspective.

    PubMed

    Osatuke, Katerine; Stiles, William B; Barkham, Michael; Hardy, Gillian E; Shapiro, David A

    2011-11-30

    Metacognitive theories describe relationships between mental-affective self-states, including the capacity of one self-state to reflect upon another self-state. The assimilation model is a metacognitive approach that understands self-states as made of traces of experiences at different levels of integration. Psychological problems are understood as impaired accessibility of certain self-states to the person's normal awareness. These states are distressing or otherwise subjectively problematic when they emerge. This exploratory study used the assimilation framework to describe mental states in 17 clients who participated in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Three clinically sophisticated raters examined transcripts of 1h-long psychotherapy session per client to construct qualitative descriptions of self-states and their relationship patterns in these depressed individuals. We then systematically compared and integrated these raters' descriptions of the clients' self-states. In each case, we found a conflict between two internally incompatible states: an interpersonally submissive state and an interpersonally dominant one, a pattern consistent with the model's theoretical description of depression.

  20. Definitions and factors associated with subthreshold depressive conditions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subthreshold depressive disorders (minor and subthrehold depression) have been defined in a wide range of forms, varying on the number of symptoms and duration required. Disability associated with these conditions has also been reported. Our aim was to review the different definitions and to determine factors associated with these conditions in order to clarify the nosological implications of these disorders. Methods A Medline search was conducted of the published literature between January 2001 and September 2011. Bibliographies of the retrieved papers were also analysed. Results There is a wide heterogeneity in the definition and diagnostic criteria of minor and subthreshold depression. Minor depression was defined according to DSM-IV criteria. Regarding subthreshold depression, also called subclinical depression or subsyndromal symptomatic depression, between 2 and 5 depressive symptoms were required for the diagnosis, and a minimum duration of 2 weeks. Significant impairment associated with subthreshold depressive conditions, as well as comorbidity with other mental disorders, has been described. Conclusions Depression as a disorder is better explained as a spectrum rather than as a collection of discrete categories. Minor and subthreshold depression are common conditions and patients falling below the diagnostic threshold experience significant difficulties in functioning and a negative impact on their quality of life. Current diagnostic systems need to reexamine the thresholds for depressive disorders and distinguish them from ordinary feelings of sadness. PMID:23110575

  1. Have mental health education programs influenced the mental health literacy of those with major depression and suicidal ideation? A comparison between 1998 and 2008 in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Peter N; Goldney, Robert D; Taylor, Anne W; Eckert, Kerena A

    2012-10-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of community and professional education programs designed to enhance mental health literacy. In this study, whether such programs have influenced help-seeking attitudes and behavior in those who are depressed and suicidal was considered. The results indicate that despite intensive community education programs over the last two decades, there has been little change in those who are depressed and suicidal in terms of their attitudes toward treatment seeking and, more importantly, their treatment-seeking behavior. These results draw into question the value of current community education programs for those most vulnerable to suicidal behavior.

  2. A Framework for Classifying Online Mental Health-Related Communities With an Interest in Depression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620 000 posts made by 80 000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycholinguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modeling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines.

  3. A Framework for Classifying Online Mental Health Related Communities with an Interest in Depression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-03-18

    Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620,000 posts made by 80,000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycho-linguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modelling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines.

  4. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at ... are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  5. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  6. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  7. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressed individuals improves suppression of irrelevant mental-sets.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Shapero, Benjamin G; Mischoulon, David; Lazar, Sara W

    2017-04-01

    An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-set-suppression were associated with improvements in depression scores. Results provide the first evidence that MBCT can improve suppression of irrelevant mental-sets and that such improvements are associated with depressive alleviation.

  8. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  9. Mental Health Literacy of Those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation: An Impediment To Help Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldney, Robert D.; Fisher, Laura J.; Wilson, David H.; Cheok, Frida

    2002-01-01

    A vignette depicting classical features of major depression was presented to subjects along with questions related to mental health literacy. Responses of those with major depression were compared to those of a control group. Results demonstrated that despite increased professional contact by those with major depression and suicidal ideation,…

  10. Distressing visual mental images in depressed patients and healthy controls - Are they one and the same?

    PubMed

    Weßlau, Charlotte; Lieberz, Klara; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Steil, Regina

    2016-12-30

    Negative mental images are common in a range of mental disorders. So far, only inconclusive evidence has been obtained for depression specificity. We assessed the disparities and similarities of a variety of imagery characteristics in 17 patients suffering from depressive disorders and 17 healthy matched controls who all reported negative mental images. The number of intrusive images, their frequency, and the associated distress were significantly greater for the depressed individuals. Compared with non-depressed controls, negative images during depression were more frequently triggered by internal factors and led to depression-related emotions. Approximately 30% of the images in the depressed group did not consist of actual memories of real-life events. No significant differences in vividness or perceived controllability were observed, but the depressed patients experienced significantly more bodily symptoms during the intrusions than the healthy controls. The results indicate that the central characteristics of the negative mental images of depressed and non-depressed individuals are distinguishable, despite some similarities, and may contribute to depressive symptoms.

  11. Depression and Barriers to Mental Health Care in Older Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Mark I.; Bruce, Martha L.; Roth, Andrew J.; Breitbart, William; Nelson, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on depression in cancer patients with a particular focus on depression assessment and barriers to mental health treatment in older cancer patients. Design We conducted a review of the literature on depression and barriers to mental health treatment in older cancer patients. Results Depression is prevalent in cancer patients. However, little is known about prevalence rates of depression in older adults with cancer, assessing depression in older cancer patients and barriers that impede proper mental health treatment in this sample. Conclusion Improved diagnostic clarity and a better understanding of barriers to mental health treatment can help clarify and facilitate mental health referrals and ultimately improve access to care among older cancer patients in need. Continuing to consider the complexities associated with diagnosing depression in older cancer patients is necessary. Further work may be needed to develop new diagnostic measures for such detection, determine the prevalence of depression among older cancer and ways in which to overcome barriers to mental health care. PMID:21157847

  12. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    PubMed

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  13. New Perspectives in Mental Health: Addressing Cognitive Deficits in Remitted Depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason I; Hergert, Danielle C

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this essay is to explore the long-term impact of depression on cognitive functioning and to discuss possible treatment strategies that mental health and psychiatric nurses may employ in practice or pursue in research to improve patient outcomes. As psychiatric and mental health nurses play a valuable role in promoting recovery from depression, addressing cognitive difficulties associated with depression may be an important area for nursing practice. This essay will first introduce the rationale for evaluating cognitive deficits in remitted depression in regards to the impact on quality of life (QOL). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Depression and Social Functioning Among Preschool Children with Chronic Medical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Carmen E.; Luby, Joan L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relations between depressive symptoms, social behavior, and chronic medical illness in preschool children. Study design Caregivers of 273 preschool children (3.0 to 5.2 years of age) completed questionnaires regarding preschoolers’ physical health, depressive symptoms, and social behavior. Interviewers determined ratings for preschoolers’ impairment in social and behavioral functioning. Analyses examined the relationships between chronic medical conditions, depressive symptoms, peer acceptance/rejection, and social behavior. Results Chronic illness was significantly associated with early-onset depressive symptoms and impairment in several social functioning domains, even after accounting for socioeconomic status. Regression analyses demonstrated that the number of health conditions predicted higher depression scores, frequency of asocial behaviors, and impairment in daycare role cooperation and behavior towards others. Preschoolers with at least one medical condition experienced a greater frequency of peer rejection and bullying compared with healthy peers. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between illness and asocial behavior. Conclusions There is a need for greater attention to depression and difficulties in social functioning in preschool children with chronic illness. Given the potential impact on later developmental and mental health outcomes, primary care physicians should now be attentive to depressive symptoms in chronically ill preschoolers. PMID:18534206

  15. Consensus Bundle on Maternal Mental Health: Perinatal Depression and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Susan; Keats, John P; Hoffman, M Camille; Kay, Lisa B; Miller, Emily S; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Frieder, Ariela; Hackley, Barbara; Indman, Pec; Raines, Christena; Semenuk, Kisha; Wisner, Katherine L; Lemieux, Lauren A

    2017-04-06

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue. In 2015, the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care convened an interdisciplinary work group to develop an evidence-based patient safety bundle to address maternal mental health. The focus of this bundle is perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The bundle is modeled after other bundles released by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care and provides broad direction for incorporating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder screening, intervention, referral, and follow-up into maternity care practice across health care settings. This commentary provides information to assist with bundle implementation.

  16. Consensus Bundle on Maternal Mental Health: Perinatal Depression and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Susan; Keats, John P; Hoffman, M Camille; Kay, Lisa B; Miller, Emily S; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Frieder, Ariela; Hackley, Barbara; Indman, Pec; Raines, Christena; Semenuk, Kisha; Wisner, Katherine L; Lemieux, Lauren A

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue. In 2015, the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care convened an interdisciplinary workgroup to develop an evidence-based patient safety bundle to address maternal mental health. The focus of this bundle is perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The bundle is modeled after other bundles released by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care and provides broad direction for incorporating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder screening, intervention, referral, and follow-up into maternity care practice across health care settings. This commentary provides information to assist with bundle implementation.

  17. Consensus Bundle on Maternal Mental Health: Perinatal Depression and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Susan; Keats, John P; Hoffman, M Camille; Kay, Lisa B; Miller, Emily S; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Frieder, Ariela; Hackley, Barbara; Indman, Pec; Raines, Christena; Semenuk, Kisha; Wisner, Katherine L; Lemieux, Lauren A

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue. In 2015, the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care convened an interdisciplinary workgroup to develop an evidence-based patient safety bundle to address maternal mental health. The focus of this bundle is perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The bundle is modeled after other bundles released by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care and provides broad direction for incorporating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder screening, intervention, referral, and follow-up into maternity care practice across health care settings. This commentary provides information to assist with bundle implementation.

  18. Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Zuckoff, Allan; Swartz, Holly; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Geibel, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy…

  19. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.

  2. Mental Health Outcomes of Psychosocial Intervention Among Traditional Health Practitioner Depressed Patients in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Musyimi, Christine W; Mutiso, Victoria; Ndetei, David M; Henderson, David C; Bunders, Joske

    2017-03-01

    Task-shifting in mental health such as engaging Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) in appropriate management of mental disorders is crucial in reducing global mental health challenges. This study aims to determine the outcomes of using evidence-based mental health Global Action Programme Intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) to provide psychosocial interventions among depressed patients seeking care from THPs. THPs were trained to deliver psychosocial interventions to their patients screening positive for mild to severe depression on Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Assessments were conducted at 0, 6 and 12 weeks and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) performed to determine the change in depression scores over the three time period. BDI mean score was 26.52 before intervention and reduced significantly at 6 (13%) and 12 (35%) weeks after intervention. 58 and 78% of patients showed reduction in symptoms of depression at 6 and 12 weeks. It is therefore crucial to engage THPs in the care of patients with depression and the need for inclusion of training packages; and other mental disorders in order to establish and maintain collaboration between THPs and conventional health workers and promote evidence-based care among marginalized populations. Moreover, further research on randomized control trials of mhGAP-IG intervention versus usual care is required.

  3. Contextual socioeconomic status and mental health counseling use among US adolescents with depression.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Janet R

    2014-07-01

    Most adolescents with depressive disorders do not receive any mental health services, even though effective treatments exist. Although research has examined numerous individual-level factors associated with mental health service use among depressed adolescents, less is known about the role of contextual factors. This study examines the relationship between contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and clinic-based mental health counseling use among US adolescents with high depressive symptoms in urban and suburban areas. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,133; 59 % female) were analyzed using multilevel logistic models in which adolescents were nested within counties. After controlling for individual-level predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics, as well as county racial/ethnic composition, county SES was positively associated with clinic-based counseling use among depressed youth. A one standard deviation increase in the county affluence index was associated with 43 % greater odds of receiving any clinical counseling services. Furthermore, the positive relationship between county affluence and clinical counseling use was no longer significant after controlling for the county supply of mental health specialist physicians. The results indicate that county residential context is a key correlate of mental health service use among depressed adolescents, such that those who live in lower SES counties with fewer mental health specialists are less likely to receive treatment.

  4. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  5. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression.

  6. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Mental Fitness for Mildly Depressed Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haverman, Merel; Kramer, Jeannet; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Walburg, Jan A; Boon, Brigitte; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a worldwide problem warranting global solutions to tackle it. Enhancing well-being has benefits in its own right and could be a good strategy for preventing depression. Providing well-being interventions via the Internet may have synergetic effects. Objective Psyfit (“mental fitness online”) is a fully automated self-help intervention to improve well-being based on positive psychology. This study examines the clinical effects of this intervention. Methods We conducted a 2-armed randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of access to Psyfit for 2 months (n=143) to a waiting-list control condition (n=141). Mild to moderately depressed adults in the general population seeking self-help were recruited. Primary outcome was well-being measured by Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5); secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, vitality, and general health measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), and Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF) vitality and general health subscales, respectively. Online measurements were taken at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after baseline. Results The dropout rate was 37.8% in the Psyfit group and 22.7% in the control group. At 2-month follow-up, Psyfit tended to be more effective in enhancing well-being (nonsignificantly for MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.27, P=.06; significantly for WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.31, P=.01), compared to the waiting-list control group. For the secondary outcomes, small but significant effects were found for general health (Cohen’s d=0.14, P=.01), vitality (d=0.22, P=.02), anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.32, P=.001), and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.36, P=.02). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects on well-being (MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.01, P=.90; WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.26, P=.11), whereas depressive symptoms

  7. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jordi; Stein, Dan J.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fukao, Akira; Bunting, Brendan; Haro, Josep Maria; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Hu, Chiyi; Sasu, Carmen; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Methods We performed a series of cross-sectional face-to-face household surveys of community-dwelling adults (n=52,095) in 19 countries. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Diabetes was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis together with its timing. We analysed the associations between all mental disorders and diabetes, without and with comorbidity adjustment. Results We identified 2,580 cases of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (21 years +). Although all 16 DSM-IV disorders were associated with diabetes diagnosis in bivariate models, only depression (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1, 1.5), intermittent explosive disorder (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), binge eating disorder (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7, 4.0) and bulimia nervosa (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) remained after comorbidity adjustment. Conclusions/interpretation Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. PMID:24488082

  8. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities.

  9. Current Use of Depression Rating Scales in Mental Health Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jung Bum; Shin, Im Hee; Lim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Gyung Ah; Sung, Hyung Mo; Jung, Sung Won; Zmimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the current use of depression rating scales by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists in Korea. Methods The questionnaires from many psychiatrists and clinical psychologists were included in the analysis. The questionnaire was composed of items about examining the percentage of patients clinically using depression rating scales, reasons for not use of them, the degree of satisfaction, the perceived agreement rate between the result of depression rating scales and doctor's clinical interview in the evaluation of patients with depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test. Results The clinical use of depression rating scales was more frequent in the psychologists than in the psychiatrists. The purposes for using depression rating scales were assessed into six areas, there was no significant difference in between two groups, and both groups pointed out their purpose as rating of severity and screening. The reasons for not using scales were that their interview may be sufficient for diagnosis and assessment of depressive patients and they are not familiar with the use of depression rating scales. The psychiatrists usually prefer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Symptom Checklist 90-Revision (SCL-90-R) in order of frequency, and the clinical psychologists are more likely to use the BDI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and SCL-90-R. Overall rate of satisfaction in the use of the scales was 67.29±14.45% and overall perceived agreement rate was 70.89±16.45%. Conclusion Currently used depression rating scales at the clinical practice were not various. Therefore, to heighten clinicians' utility of these depression rating scales measures, either educational efforts or advertisements, or both, will be necessary to spread them wildly. PMID:20927305

  10. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  11. International perspectives on psychosocial working conditions, mental health, and stress of dairy farm operators.

    PubMed

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Kallioniemi, Marja; Lundqvist, Peter; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Stallones, Lorann; Brumby, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farm operators-farmers, workers, and family members-are faced with many demands and stressors in their daily work and these appear to be shared across countries and cultures. Dairy operators experience high psychosocial demands with respect to a hard work and production ethos, economic influences, and social and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, both traditional and industrial farms are highly dependent on external conditions, such as weather, fluctuating markets, and regulations from government authorities. Possible external stressors include disease outbreaks, taxes related to dairy production, and recent negative societal attitudes to farming in general. Dairy farm operators may have very few or no opportunities to influence and control these external conditions, demands, and expectations. High work demands and expectations coupled with low control and lack of social support can lead to a poor psychosocial work environment, with increased stress levels, ill mental health, depression, and, in the worst cases, suicide. Internationally, farmers with ill mental health have different health service options depending on their location. Regardless of location, it is initially the responsibility of the individual farmer and farm family to handle mental health and stress, which can be of short- or long-term duration. This paper reviews the literature on the topics of psychosocial working conditions, mental health, stress, depression, and suicide among dairy farm operators, farm workers, and farm family members in an international perspective.

  12. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  13. Deletion of PTEN produces deficits in conditioned fear and increases fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Joaquin N; Smith, Gregory D; Morrison, Jessica B; White, Jessika

    2013-11-15

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new memories. We used delayed fear conditioning and trace fear conditioning to determine learning and memory deficits in neuron subset-specific Pten (NS-Pten) conditional knockout (KO) mice. We found that NS-Pten KO mice had deficits in contextual learning and trace conditioning, but did not have deficits in the ability to learn a conditioned stimulus. Furthermore, we found increased levels in the total and phosphorylated forms of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice.

  14. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset: beyond depression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321

  15. Mutuality as background music in women's lived experience of mental health and depression.

    PubMed

    Hedelin, B; Jonsson, I

    2003-06-01

    Mental health problems, especially depression, have turned into an extensive public health problem, affecting women in particular. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of mental health phenomena through elderly women's lived experiences of mental health and depression. The phenomenological approach was chosen for collecting experience-based and person-centred descriptions from 21 women, focusing on mental health and depression. The interviews were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method. Mutuality in their relationships with themselves and others emerged as a major element in the women's experience of mental health and depression. When the women's existence and value were confirmed in relation to themselves and others, mental health appeared as an ascending spiral. When the women's value and self-esteem in relation to themselves and others were violated, the result was a descending spiral. Metaphorically speaking, 'mutuality' provided the 'background music' to the women's lives. Being a skilled professional psychiatric nurse means making the best use of mutuality as a creative power in the nurse-patient relationship. This means that the nurse must be aware that her/his attitude, appearance and behaviour are interpreted as a confirmation of the patient's worthiness or worthlessness.

  16. Long term life dissatisfaction and subsequent major depressive disorder and poor mental health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor mental health, especially due to depression, is one of the main public health problems. Early indicators of poor mental health in general population are needed. This study examined the relationship between long-term life dissatisfaction and subsequent mental health, including major depressive disorder. Method Health questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected population-based sample in 1998 and repeated in 1999 and 2001. In 2005, a clinically studied sub-sample (n = 330) was composed of subjects with (n = 161) or without (n = 169) repeatedly reported adverse mental symptoms at all three previous data collection times. Clinical symptom assessments were performed with several psychometric scales: life satisfaction (LS), depression (HDRS, BDI), hopelessness (HS), mental distress (GHQ), dissociative experiences (DES), and alexithymia (TAS). The long-term life dissatisfaction burden was calculated by summing these life satisfaction scores in 1998, 1999, 2001 and dividing the sum into tertiles. Psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by SCID-I for DSM-IV in 2005. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the studied relationship. Results The previous life dissatisfaction burden associated with adverse socio-demographic, life style and clinical factors. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, it was independently and strongly associated with subsequent major depressive disorder in 2005, even when the concurrent LS score in 2005 was included in the model. Excluding those with reported major depressive disorder in 1999 did not alter this finding. Limitations MDD in 1999 was based on self-reports and not on structured interview and LS data in 2001-2005 was not available. Conclusions The life satisfaction burden is significantly related to major depressive disorder and poor mental health, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. PMID:21861908

  17. Gender differences in general and specialty outpatient mental health service use for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study ascertain gender-specific determinants of outpatient mental health (MH) service use for depression to highlight gender disparities in barriers to care and explain how depressed men and women in need of care might differ in their help-seeking behaviour. Methods Data used in this study came from the Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Well Being, cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2) conducted by Statistics Canada in 2002 (N = 36,984). The sample was limited to respondents filling the criteria for a probable major depression in the 12 months prior to the interview (n = 1743). Gender-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results The results showed that 54.3% of respondents meeting criteria for major depression had consulted for mental health reasons in the year prior to interview. When looking at type of outpatient mental health service use, males were more likely to consult a general practitioner and a mental health specialist in the past year as opposed to females. However, females were more likely to consult a general practitioner only as opposed to no service use than males. Gender specific differences in determinants associated with outpatient service use included for males, lower adjusted household income, and for females, a younger age, the presence of social support, self-reported availability barriers, the presence of self-reported suicidal thoughts or attempt and a poorer self- perceived mental health. Conclusions It is concluded that continued efforts to promote access to mental health care are needed for men and women affected by depression, and this, to target specific vulnerable populations and increase utilization rates. PMID:24884891

  18. Mental health literacy and postpartum depression: a qualitative description of views of lower income women.

    PubMed

    Guy, Sarah; Sterling, Bobbie Sue; Walker, Lorraine O; Harrison, Tracie C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand mental health literacy (MHL) (Jorm, 2000) in lower income women postpartum and share participant experiences of recognizing and seeking help for depressive symptoms. Focus group textual data were received from 25 participants who completed a weight and psychosocial health longitudinal study. Iterative content data analysis using Jorm's framework provided thematic understandings descriptive of MHL. Women recognized behavioral changes indicating mental distress, but fears prevented them from seeking help, and some resorted to risky behaviors. This framework could guide providers to identify women who may benefit from early intervention for postpartum depressive symptoms.

  19. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery.

  20. Assessing mental health literacy: What medical sciences students’ know about depression

    PubMed Central

    Sayarifard, Azadeh; Ghadirian, Laleh; Mohit, Ahmad; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Badpa, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health literacy is an individual’s knowledge and belief about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health literacy among students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected by the anonymous self-administered questionnaires and finally 324 students participated in the study. Random cluster sampling was used. Questions were in different areas of the mental health literacy for depression include recognition of disorder, intended actions to seek help and perceived barriers, beliefs about interventions, prevention, stigmatization and impact of media. T-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 23.5±2.8. The participants were 188 (58.1%) females and 136 (41.9%) males. In response to the recognition of the disorder 115 (35.6%) students mentioned the correct answer. In help-seeking area, 208 (64.3%) gave positive answer. The majority of affected students sought for help from their friends and parents. Stigma was the greatest barrier for seeking help. Television and Internet were the most common sources of information related to mental health. Conclusion: Generally students’ mental health literacy on depression was low in some areas. Appropriate educational programs specifically for reducing mental disorders stigma seems necessary. Organizing networks of co-helper students for mental health could be considered. PMID:26000256

  1. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less clear. This information has important implications for mental health care and the primary prevention of chronic physical disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of 16 temporally prior DSM-IV mental disorders with the subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 chronic physical conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen face-to-face, cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults were conducted in 17 countries (47 609 individuals; 2 032 942 person-years) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to retrospectively assess the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV–identified mental disorders. Data analysis was performed from January 3, 2012, to September 30, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime history of physical conditions was ascertained via self-report of physician’s diagnosis and year of onset or diagnosis. Survival analyses estimated the associations of temporally prior first onset of mental disorders with subsequent onset or diagnosis of physical conditions. RESULTS Most associations between 16 mental disorders and subsequent onset or diagnosis of 10 physical conditions were statistically significant, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) ranging from 1.2 (1.0–1.5) to 3.6 (2.0–6.6). The associations were attenuated after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity, but mood, anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders remained significantly associated with onset of between 7 and all 10 of the physical conditions (ORs [95% CIs] from 1.2 [1.1–1.3] to 2.0 [1.4–2.8]). An increasing number of mental disorders experienced over the life course was significantly

  2. How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that mental health literacy among the public is low, and stigmatizing attitudes are widespread. So far the effects of anti-stigma campaigns are small, and studies demonstrate that negative attitudes have been quite stable through recent decades. Aims To investigate the relationships between mental health literacy, experience of mental illness and stigmatizing attitudes/social distance towards people with depression or psychosis. Methods A cross-sectional study in which staff members from public services in Sweden (n = 1027) completed questionnaires covering demographic data, self-reported experience of mental illness, identification of a vignette for depression or psychosis, beliefs about helpful interventions for the illness presented in the vignette, and attitudes and social distance towards people with the illness. Results About 50% of participants could identify depression and less than 40% psychosis. A higher degree of mental health literacy was related to less stigma and social distance but mainly towards people with depression. A similar relationship was shown for having personal or family experience of mental illness and attitudes/social distance. Negative attitudes and social distance were significantly higher in all aspects measured towards a person with psychosis than a person with depression. Conclusions A higher degree of mental health literacy relates to more positive attitudes and less desire for social distance towards people with depression. The differences between depression and psychosis should be taken into account in anti-stigma interventions.

  3. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression. PMID:27403273

  4. Detection of Mental Disorders Other Than Depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    We sought to evaluate the capacity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in discriminating mental disorders other than depression in pregnant women in northern Mexico. Three hundred pregnant women attending prenatal consultations in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico submitted a validated EPDS and were examined for mental disorders other than depression using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4(th) Ed. (DSM-IV) criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off points of the EPDS, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 21 had mental disorders other than depression by the DSM-IV criteria. The best EPDS score for screening mental disorders other than depression was 8/9. This threshold showed a sensitivity of 52.4%, a specificity of 67.0%, a positive predictive value of 11.5%, a negative predictive value of 95.4%, and an area under the curve of 0.643 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.76). The EPDS can be considered for screening mental disorders other than depression in Mexican pregnant women whenever a cut-off score of 8/9 is used. However, the tool showed small power to separate pregnant women with and without mental disorders other than depression.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health.

  6. Non-Listening and Self Centered Leadership – Relationships to Socioeconomic Conditions and Employee Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres; Nyberg, Anna; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Background The way in which leadership is experienced in different socioeconomic strata is of interest per se, as well as how it relates to employee mental health. Methods Three waves of SLOSH (Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, a questionnaire survey on a sample of the Swedish working population) were used, 2006, 2008 and 2010 (n = 5141). The leadership variables were: “Non-listening leadership” (one question: “Does your manager listen to you?” - four response categories), “Self centered leadership” (sum of three five-graded questions – “non-participating”, “asocial” and “loner”). The socioeconomic factors were education and income. Emotional exhaustion and depressive symptoms were used as indicators of mental health. Results Non-listening leadership was associated with low income and low education whereas self-centered leadership showed a weaker relationship with education and no association at all with income. Both leadership variables were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depressive symptoms. “Self centered” as well as “non-listening” leadership in 2006 significantly predicted employee depressive symptoms in 2008 after adjustment for demographic variables. These predictions became non-significant when adjustment was made for job conditions (demands and decision latitude) in the “non-listening” leadership analyses, whereas predictions of depressive symptoms remained significant after these adjustments in the “self-centered leadership” analyses. Conclusions Our results show that the leadership variables are associated with socioeconomic status and employee mental health. “Non-listening” scores were more sensitive to societal change and more strongly related to socioeconomic factors and job conditions than “self-centered” scores. PMID:23028491

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Treatment in an Ethnoracially Diverse College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Steve; Archambeau, Olga G.; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study (a) the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (b) the utilization of mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse sample consisting primarily of Asian Americans, European Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. Participants: Five hundred eighty-nine college students. Method: A questionnaire packet that…

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms when Caring for a Child with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerkensmeyer, Janis E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Day, Jennifer; Austin, Joan K.; Scott, Eric L.; Wu, Jingwei

    2011-01-01

    As primary caregivers of children with mental health problems, mothers face challenges that put them at risk for depression, which is rarely identified or addressed. The aims of this paper were to (a) identify mean differences among demographic, stressor, threat, and resource variables specified in a theoretical model and thought to be associated…

  9. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test as an Indication of Depression in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattes, Jeffrey A.; Amsell, Loren

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) for three groups of institutionalized patients with severe/profound mental retardation found that the 12 depressed patients more frequently (though not significantly) had positive DSTs and significantly higher cortisol levels compared with nondepressed patients with and without other…

  10. Pedagogy of the Depressed: Mental Health Consumers, Computers and Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, John

    2002-01-01

    The Shelter Society is a grassroots mental health consumers organization whose members sought access to the Internet and instigated a computer training program to improve their self-advocacy skills. The program fostered a sense of empowerment and prepared participants to make informed decisions. (SK)

  11. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions.

  12. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  13. Diagnostic variability for schizophrenia and major depression in a large public mental health care system dataset.

    PubMed

    Folsom, David P; Lindamer, Laurie; Montross, Lori P; Hawthorne, William; Golshan, Shahrokh; Hough, Richard; Shale, John; Jeste, Dilip V

    2006-11-15

    Administrative datasets can provide information about mental health treatment in real world settings; however, an important limitation in using these datasets is the uncertainty regarding psychiatric diagnosis. To better understand the psychiatric diagnoses, we investigated the diagnostic variability of schizophrenia and major depression in a large public mental health system. Using schizophrenia and major depression as the two comparison diagnoses, we compared the variability of diagnoses assigned to patients with one recorded diagnosis of schizophrenia or major depression. In addition, for both of these diagnoses, the diagnostic variability was compared across seven types of treatment settings. Statistical analyses were conducted using t tests for continuous data and chi-square tests for categorical data. We found that schizophrenia had greater diagnostic variability than major depression (31% vs. 43%). For both schizophrenia and major depression, variability was significantly higher in jail and the emergency psychiatric unit than in inpatient or outpatient settings. These findings demonstrate that the variability of psychiatric diagnoses recorded in the administrative dataset of a large public mental health system varies by diagnosis and by treatment setting. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between psychiatric diagnosis, diagnostic variability and treatment setting.

  14. Mental Health Literacy in Hmong and Cambodian Elderly Refugees: A Barrier to Understanding, Recognizing, and Responding to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the…

  15. Desired mental health resources for urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women struggling with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education.

  16. Understanding mental and physical fatigue complaints in those with depression and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Carney, Colleen E; Moss, Taryn G; Lachowski, Angela M; Atwood, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is a concern for both people with insomnia and with depression, yet it remains poorly understood. Participants (N = 62) included those meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision) criteria for insomnia and major depressive disorder (MDD). Multiple regression examined sleep, mood, activity, and cognitive factors as predictors of mental and physical fatigue. Only the cognitive factors (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about sleep and symptom-focused rumination) were predictive of both physical and mental fatigue. Beliefs about not being able to function and needing to avoid activities after a poor night of sleep were related to both types of fatigue. Targeting these beliefs via cognitive therapy and encouraging patients to test maladaptive beliefs about sleep may enhance fatigue response in those with MDD and insomnia.

  17. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired.

  18. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11) and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78), and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24) alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19) and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04). All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892 PMID:26974430

  19. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not.

  20. Neurohormonal and Inflammatory Hyper-Responsiveness to Acute Mental Stress in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Ali A.; Deuster, Patricia A.; Francis, Jennifer L.; Bonsall, Robert W.; Tracy, Russell P.; Kop, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is associated with dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, overactivity of the sympathoadrenal system, and increased levels of inflammation markers. It is not known whether these biological processes are disproportionately elevated in response to acute negative emotional arousal by mental stress (MS). The present study investigates responses of neurohormones and inflammatory markers to MS in 14 clinically depressed (age: 42±10 years; 50% female) and 14 non-depressed control participants (age: 39±6 years; 50% female). Heightened acute MS reactivity was documented in depressed participants (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ρ=0.001; Norepinephrine, ρ=0.042; Epinephrine, ρ=0.039), and a delayed increase in cortisol was observed (ρ=0.002). Inflammation markers increased more strongly in depressed vs. non-depressed participants (IL-6, ρ=0.027; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ρ=0.050; and recovery C-reactive protein, ρ=0.003). It is concluded that depressed individuals display hyper-reactivity of neuroimmunological markers in response to acute negative emotions. This hyper-reactivity may serve a pathologic role in the elevated morbidity and mortality risk associated with depression. PMID:20117167

  1. Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Wisner, Katherine L

    2005-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman's risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients.

  2. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness.

  3. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  4. The Role of an Early Head Start Mental Health Coordinator: Screening for Maternal Depression in a Comprehensive Approach to Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuso, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mental health needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mental health coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…

  5. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care.

  6. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted.

  7. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Cooper, Douglas B; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tate, David F; Eapen, Blessen C; York, Gerald E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-09-01

    U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression. Our cross-sectional, observational study included 303,716 IAVs who received care in the Veterans Health Administration in 2010-2011. Symptoms and conditions were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and symptom-clusters were identified using latent class analysis. We identified seven classes with distinct symptom compositions. One class had low probability of any condition and low health care utilization (HCU) (48 %). Other classes were characterized by high probabilities of mental health comorbidities (14 %); chronic pain and sleep disturbance (20 %); headaches and memory problems (6 %); and auditory problems (2.5 %). Another class had mental health comorbidities and chronic pain (7 %), and the last had high probabilities of most symptoms examined (3 %). These last two classes had the highest likelihood of TBI, PTSD, and depression and were identified as high healthcare utilizers. There are subgroups of IAVs with distinct clusters of symptom that are meaningfully associated with TBI, PTSD, depression, and HCU. Additional studies examining these veteran subgroups could improve our understanding of this complex comorbid patient population.

  8. [Social representations and living conditions of the mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly in nursing homes.].

    PubMed

    Dorvil, H; Benoit, M

    1999-01-01

    The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.

  9. Maternal depression as a risk factor for children's inadequate housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Depression among mothers with young children is an important public health issue that not only has implications for their own well-being, but can also potentially affect their children's health and developmental trajectories. This study explored the extent to which maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing conditions related to utilities, a noteworthy risk factor for poor child health. Using data on 2965 mothers and children from a national urban cohort of U.S. births in 1998-2000, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models of associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) measure of severely inadequate housing due to heating issues, as well as a broader measure of energy insecurity that encompasses various types of utility problems. We also considered outcomes that incorporated housing instability and food insecurity in conjunction with housing inadequacy. Mothers who experienced depression had about 60% higher odds of experiencing severely inadequate housing due to heat (OR: 1.57) and 70% higher odds of experiencing energy insecurity (OR: 1.69) compared to mothers who did not experience depression. Maternal depression was even more strongly associated with multiple hardships in the forms of housing inadequacy plus housing instability and/or food insecurity than it was with housing inadequacy. This study provides robust evidence that maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing and multiple hardships during a critical period of children's development. The findings suggest that policy efforts should not occur in mental health, housing, and food security silos.

  10. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  11. 3 CFR 8969 - Proclamation 8969 of April 30, 2013. National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a mental health problem. They shoulder conditions like depression and anxiety, post-traumatic... recommended preventive services like depression screening and behavioral assessments for children at no...

  12. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression: Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Gardner, Sandra; Collins, Evan J.; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study with administrative health databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. Current depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize prevalence outcomes. Results Of 990 HIV-positive patients with depression, 493 (50%) patients used mental health services; 182 (18%) used primary services (general practitioners); 176 (18%) used secondary services (psychiatrists); and 135 (14%) used both. Antidepressants were used by 407 (39%) patients. Patients who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, as having low income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. Conclusions Our results showed gaps in delivering publicly funded mental health services to depressed HIV-positive patients and identified unequal access to these services, particularly among vulnerable groups. More effective mental health policies and better access to mental health services are required to address HIV-positive patient needs and reduce depression’s impact on their lives. PMID:27280751

  13. Nervous Facilitation in Cardiodynamic Response of Exercising Athletes to Superimposed Mental Tasks: Implications in Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tocco, Filippo; Crisafulli, Antonio; Milia, Raffaele; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Mura, Roberto; Roberto, Silvana; Todde, Francesco; Concu, Daniele; Melis, Salvatore; Velluzzi, Fernanda; Loviselli, Andrea; Concu, Alberto; Melis, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Motor commands to perform exercise tasks may also induce activation of cardiovascular centres to supply the energy needs of the contracting muscles. Mental stressors per se may also influence cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the cardiovascular response of trained runners simultaneously engaged in mental and physical tasks to establish if aerobically trained subjects could develop, differently from untrained ones, nervous facilitation in the brain cardiovascular centre. Methods : Cardiovascular responses of 8 male middle-distance runners (MDR), simultaneously engaged in mental (colour-word interference test) and physical (cycle ergometer exercise) tasks, were compared with those of 8 untrained subjects. Heart rate, cardiac (CI) and stroke indexes were assessed by impedance cardiography while arterial blood pressures were assessed with a brachial sphygmomanometer. Results : Only in MDR simultaneous engagement in mental and physical tasks induced a significant CI increase which was higher (p<0.05) than that obtained on summing CI values from each task separately performed. Conclusion : Aerobic training, when performed together with a mental effort, induced a CI oversupply which allowed a redundant oxygen delivery to satisfy a sudden fuel demand from exercising muscles by utilizing aerobic sources of ATP, thus shifting the anaerobic threshold towards a higher work load. From data of this study it may also be indirectly stated that, in patients with major depressive disorder, the promotion of regular low-intensity exercise together with mental engagement could ameliorate the perceived physical quality of life, thus reducing their heart risk associated with physical stress. PMID:26535050

  14. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders.

  15. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2015-12-23

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health.

  16. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health. PMID:26703654

  17. The Impact of Group-as-a-Whole Work on Anxiety and Depression in a Severely Mentally Ill Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmelhack, Diana J.; Hazell, Clive; Hoffman, William

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a group-as-a-whole processing group on 11 severely mentally ill adult clients residing in a long term care facility over 30 weeks. Participants were evaluated for the effect of the group on anxiety and depression, using the Beck Depression Index (BDI-II) and the Beck Anxiety Index (BAI). This longitudinal study…

  18. Primary Care Patients with Depression Are Less Accepting of Treatment Than Those Seen by Mental Health Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Cooper, Lisa A; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined whether depressed patients treated exclusively in primary care report less need for care and less acceptability of treatment options than those depressed patients treated in the specialty mental health setting after up to 6 months of treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Forty-five community primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS A total of 881 persons with major depression who had received mental health services in the previous 6 months and who enrolled in 3 of the 4 Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration Studies. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: 1) having received mental health services exclusively from a primary care provider (45%), or 2) having received any services from a mental health specialist (55%) in the previous 6 months. Compared with patients who received care from mental health specialists, patients who received mental health services exclusively from primary care providers had 2.7-fold the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4) of reporting that no treatment was definitely acceptable and had 2.4-fold the odds (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9) of reporting that evidence-based treatment options (antidepressant medication) were definitely not acceptable. These results were adjusted for demographic, social/behavioral, depression severity, and economic factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with depression treated exclusively by primary care providers have attitudes and beliefs more averse to care than those seen by mental health specialists. These differences in attitudes and beliefs may contribute to lower quality depression care observed in comparisons of primary care and specialty mental health providers. PMID:14687257

  19. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  20. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  1. The contribution of working conditions and social support to the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders among male and female employees.

    PubMed

    Plaisier, Inger; de Bruijn, Jeanne G M; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2007-01-01

    Poor working conditions may be an important source of stress and may therefore contribute to the development of depressive and anxiety disorders. Social support may act as a buffer and protect against the development of depression or anxiety in the face of poor working conditions. With longitudinal data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), the effect of working conditions and social support on the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders was examined among 2646 working men and women, aged 18 through 65 years. Three dimensions of self reported working conditions were assessed: psychological demands, decision latitude and job security. Social support was assessed through validated scales for daily emotional support. About 10.5% of working women and 4.6% among working men developed an incident depressive and/or anxiety disorder over 2 years. Psychological demands predicted the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in both men and women (RR per score increase=2.29, 95% CI: 1.44-3.63), whereas decision latitude and job security did not. Social support protected against the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders. This effect was stronger for men compared to women. Social support did not buffer the unfavorable mental effect of working conditions. Women were more likely to report low levels of decision latitude, whereas men reported higher psychological demands. Working conditions did not explain sex differences in the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders.

  2. Neurocognitive impairment of mental rotation in major depressive disorder: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lai-Qi; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Xingqu; Deng, Zihe

    2014-08-01

    Mental rotation performance may be used as an index of mental slowing or bradyphrenia and may reflect speed of motor preparation. Previous studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) presents correlates of impaired behavioral performance for mental rotation and psychomotor disturbance. Very little is known about the electrophysiological mechanism underlying this deficit. The present study was the first to investigate the event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of mental rotation and their mental slowing or bradyphrenia in MDD. ERPs were recorded while we tested 25 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls by evaluating the performance of MDD patients on hand and letter rotation tasks at different orientations, and their 400-to-600-msec time window was measured and analyzed for latencies and peak amplitudes over the electrodes. First, individuals with MDD were slower and made more errors in mentally rotating hands and letters than healthy controls did, and individuals with MDD exhibited a greater difference in response times and errors than controls did between hands and letters. Second, the mean peak amplitude was significantly lower and the mean latency was significantly longer in the 400-to-600-msec time window at the parietal site in the hand tasks in MDD patients than in controls, but this was not seen in the letter task, with only lower mean peak amplitude. MDD patients present the absence of a typical mental rotation function for the amplitude of the rotation-related negativity in the hand and letter tasks. Third, the scalp activity maps in MDD patients exhibited the absence of activation in the left parietal site for the mental rotation of hands, as shown in healthy participants. In contrast, their brain activation for the letter task was similar to those of healthy participants. These data suggest that mental imagery of hands and letters relies on different cognitive and neural mechanisms and indicate that the left posterior parietal lobe is a

  3. Brain stimulation in the treatment of late-life severe mental illness other than unipolar nonpsychotic depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Angela Y; Rajji, Tarek K; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2014-03-01

    Late-life mental illness is a growing concern. Current medications have limited efficacy and are associated with safety concerns. A variety of brain stimulation approaches offers alternative treatments. We performed a systematic literature search on the efficacy and safety of brain stimulation in late-life mental illnesses, excluding unipolar nonpsychotic depression. Studies on deep brain stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation that enrolled exclusively older adults (≥65 years) or analyzed older adults as a separate group were included. The search identified 1,181 publications, of which 43 met the above inclusion criteria: 24 were related to the treatment of non-unipolar depression (ECT: 21; rTMS: 2; ECT and rTMS: 1), 14 related to dementia (ECT: 7[2 of these studies were also related to depression]; vagal nerve stimulation: 2; rTMS: 4; deep brain stimulation: 1), and 7 to schizophrenia (ECT: 7). These studies reported a high degree of variability in efficacy and safety with promising results in general, particularly in the treatment of dementia and schizophrenia. Most publications were limited by small sample sizes, lack of control conditions, and lack of randomization. Large studies with a randomized controlled design or other designs such as crossover or off-on-off-on are needed. In contrast to the empiric and nonspecific use of ECT, future studies using modalities other than ECT could focus on novel biologically based interventions that target specific circuitry. These interventions could also be combined with other non-brain stimulation treatments for possible synergistic effects.

  4. An Innovative Model of Depression Care Delivery: Peer Mentors in Collaboration with a Mental Health Professional to Relieve Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jin Hui; Hwang, Seungyoung; Abu, Hawa; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Traditional mental health services are not used by a majority of older adults with depression, suggesting a need for new methods of health service delivery. We conducted a pilot study using peer mentors to deliver depression care to older adults in collaboration with a mental health professional. We evaluated the acceptability of peer mentors to older adults and examined patient experiences of the intervention. Methods Six peer mentors met 30 patients for 1 hour weekly for 8 weeks. A mental health professional provided an initial clinical evaluation as well as supervision and guidance to peer mentors concurrent with patient meetings. We measured depressive symptoms at baseline and after study completion, and depressive symptoms and working alliance at weekly peer-patient meetings. We also interviewed participants and peer mentors to assess their experiences of the intervention. Results Ninety-six percent of patients attended all eight meetings with the peer mentor and PHQ-9 scores decreased for 85% of patients. Patients formed strong, trusting relationships with peer mentors. Patients emphasized the importance of trust, of developing a strong relationship, and of the credibility and communication skills of the peer mentor. Participants described benefits such as feeling hopeful, and reported changes in attitude, behavior, and insight. Conclusions Use of peer mentors working in collaboration with a mental health professional is promising as a model of depression care delivery for older adults. Testing of effectiveness is needed and processes of recruitment, role definition, and supervision should be further developed. PMID:27066731

  5. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  6. Methods for Incorporating Patient Preferences for Treatments of Depression in Community Mental Health Settings.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly

    2016-06-22

    We developed three methods (rating, ranking, and discrete choice) for identifying patients' preferred depression treatments based on their prioritization of specific treatment attributes (e.g., medication side effects, psychotherapy characteristics) at treatment intake. Community mental health patients with depressive symptoms participated in separate studies of predictive validity (N = 193) and short-term (1-week) stability (N = 40). Patients who received non-preferred initial treatments (based on the choice method) switched treatments significantly more often than those who received preferred initial treatments. Receiving a non-preferred treatment at any point (based on rating and choice methods) was a significant predictor of longer treatment duration. All three methods demonstrated good short-term stability.

  7. Volume and social context of physical activity in association with mental health, anxiety and depression among youth.

    PubMed

    Doré, Isabelle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Fournier, Louise

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in physical activity (PA) to prevent mental disorders in youth. However, few studies examine the association between PA and mental health. Further, how PA volume and context relate to mental health and mental disorders remains unclear, especially among youth in transition to adulthood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations among PA volume and context, mental health, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in post-secondary students. A total of 1527 post-secondary students (97.4% were age 16-24years) recruited in a CEGEP in Quebec, Canada completed a self-report questionnaire during class-time in October 2013. Multivariate linear regression was used to model the associations between PA volume and context and mental health, anxiety and depression controlling for sex, age and perceived socioeconomic status. Volume of moderate-to-vigorous leisure time PA (MVPA) was positively associated with mental health (β (95% CI)=0.072 (0.045, 0.099)) and inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety (-0.011 (-0.020, -0.001)) and depression (-0.010 (-0.017, -0.003)). Volume including all PA intensities was associated with mental health (0.052 (0.028, 0.076)). After controlling for PA volume, active youth involved in team sports had better mental health than those who engaged in PA individually. PA volume and the social context of PA are independently associated with mental health among youth. MVPA is inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  8. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  9. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed.

  10. Perceptions of the impact of depression and anxiety and the medication for these conditions on safety in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, C; Atkinson, S; Brown, S; Haslam, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: The number of people taking prescribed medication for anxiety and depression has increased greatly, but little is known of how this medication impacts on safety at work. Aims: To examine the relation between anxiety and depression, prescribed medication, performance, and safety in the workplace. Methods: The research involved nine focus groups with sufferers of anxiety and depression to investigate experiences of mental health problems and the impact of psychotropic drugs. A further three focus groups were conducted with staff in human resources, personnel, occupational health, and health and safety departments, to explore organisational perspectives. The sample comprised 74 individuals drawn from a wide range of occupational sectors. Finally, the results were presented to a panel of experts from occupational medicine, general practice, psychology, health and safety, and psychiatry, to consider the implications for practice. Results: Workers reported that both the symptoms and the medication impaired work performance. Participants described accidents which they attributed to their condition or to the medication. Workers with responsibilities for others, such as teachers, healthcare workers, and managers appeared to present a particular safety risk. Healthcare workers believed that they placed themselves and their patients at risk when carrying out medical procedures. Conclusions: Respondents in this study felt that their symptoms of anxiety and depression and the medication they took to treat these conditions placed them at risk with respect to safety in the workplace. Drawing on the results, the authors outline areas for improvement in the management of mental health problems at work. PMID:16046606

  11. Psychosocial conditions on and off the job and psychological ill health: depressive symptoms, impaired psychological wellbeing, heavy consumption of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, H; Bildt, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric epidemiology has revealed a number of associations between gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders. Aims: To examine psychosocial conditions on and off the job in relation to psychological ill health. Methods: Longitudinal design with 24 year follow up of employed persons (190 women, 177 men). Interview and questionnaire data on work and leisure conditions were collected in 1969 and 1993. Risk analyses were performed in relation to three outcomes in 1993: depression within the preceding 12 months, impaired psychological wellbeing, and heavy alcohol use. Results: Thirteen per cent of the women and 11% of the men showed symptoms of depression, 21% and 22% had impaired psychological wellbeing, and 7% and 15% respectively were heavy alcohol users. Dissatisfaction with the quality (women) or quantity (men) of social contacts 24 years earlier was a significant risk factor for depression. Dissatisfaction with the quality of social contacts was also associated with impaired psychological wellbeing (among women), and dissatisfaction with leisure time activities was associated with heavy alcohol use (among men). Frequent overtime work 24 years earlier was associated with heavy alcohol use among women. Cross sectional analyses also showed associations between psychological ill health and some work related factors (mentally demanding work and lack of job pride). Conclusions: Perceived inadequacies in social contacts, and practical obstacles to social relationships are viewed as risk factors for depression. In this longitudinal study, work related factors, including mental demands and time pressure, do not appear sufficiently associated with psychological ill health. PMID:12819282

  12. 76 FR 35683 - Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health Centers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... 42 CFR Part 485 Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health... 485 RIN 0938-AP51 Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health... (no password required). I. Background A. Introduction In 2007, 224 certified Community Mental...

  13. Depression and mental health in neoliberal times: a critical analysis of policy and discourse.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Depression has received increasing attention as a significant public health issue over the past ten years, both in Canada and elsewhere in the industrialized west. During the same period, many of the social and economic policies adopted by governments in these jurisdictions have reflected neoliberal goals and orientations. The purpose of this article is to explore the points of contact between these two features of contemporary social and political life in the industrialized west, using the Canadian province of British Columbia as an empirical site. My analysis draws on the Foucauldian literature on governmentality in presenting a close reading of provincial government documents concerned with depression and mental health literacy that have been produced since the election of the Liberal Party to office in British Columbia in 2001. This analysis identifies discourses of "responsibilization" circulating in these documents, within which individuals, families, communities and workplaces - rather than publicly-funded services - appear as key resources in responding to experiences of mental distress. It also points to a number of strategies visible in the documents that work to align the interests of individuals and their practitioners in pursuing particular approaches to treatment with a governing interest in reducing public spending on services and supports. The article concludes by identifying a number of resistive discourses and proposing further research in a range of empirical contexts within which they may be evident.

  14. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; de Boer, A G E M; Verbeek, J; Blonk, R; van Dijk, F J H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were assessed. Furthermore, the ability to identify anxiety disorders or depression was evaluated by calculating posterior probabilities of these disorders following positive and negative test results for different cut off scores of the DASS-Depression and DASS-Anxiety subscales. Results: Internal consistency of the DASS subscales was high, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.94, 0.88, and 0.93 for depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Factor analysis revealed a three factor solution, which corresponded well with the three subscales of the DASS. Construct validity was further supported by moderately high correlations of the DASS with indices of convergent validity (0.65 and 0.75), and lower correlations of the DASS with indices of divergent validity (range -0.22 to 0.07). Support for criterion validity was provided by a statistically significant difference in DASS scores between two diagnostic groups. A cut off score of 5 for anxiety and 12 for depression is recommended. The DASS showed probabilities of anxiety and depression after a negative test result of 0.05 and 0.06 respectively. Probabilities of 0.29 for anxiety disorder and 0.33 for depression after a positive test result reflect relatively low specificity of the DASS. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the DASS are suitable for use in an occupational health care setting. The DASS can be helpful in ruling out anxiety disorder and depression in employees with mental health problems. PMID:12782751

  15. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click for more information Depression is more than ... that contribute to depression. Is It Grief or Depression? Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish grief ...

  16. Psychological treatments for common mental health problems experienced by informal carers of adults with chronic physical health conditions (Protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improved life expectancy is resulting in increased outpatient treatment of people with chronic physical health conditions and reliance on the provision of informal care in the community. However, informal care is also associated with increased risk of experiencing common mental health difficulties such as depression and anxiety. Currently there is a lack of evidence-based treatments for such difficulties, resulting in poor health outcomes for both the informal carer and care recipient. Methods/Design Electronic databases will be systemically searched for randomised controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological interventions targeted at treating depression or anxiety experienced by informal carers of patients with chronic physical health conditions. Database searches will be supplemented by contact with experts, reference and citation checking and grey literature. Both published and unpublished research in English language will be reviewed with no limitations on year or source. Individual, group and patient-carer dyad focused interventions will be eligible. Primary outcomes of interest will be validated self-report or clinician administered measures of depression or anxiety. If data allows a meta-analysis will examine: (1) the overall effectiveness of psychological interventions in relation to outcomes of depression or anxiety; (2) intervention components associated with effectiveness. Discussion This review will provide evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for depression and anxiety experienced by informal carers of patients with chronic physical health conditions. In addition, it will examine intervention components associated with effectiveness. Results will inform the design and development of a psychological intervention for carers of people with chronic physical health conditions experiencing depression and anxiety. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42012003114 PMID:23369319

  17. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  18. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking Among African American Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to care. Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined the influence of mental health stigma and social support on depressive symptoms among African American adolescent boys. Findings indicated the protective effects of social support in decreasing depressive symptoms, especially when participants experienced mental health stigma. Results also revealed the pivotal role of family social support over both professional and peer support for participants who struggled with depressive symptoms. The primacy of family support among the sample, combined with the frequent distrust of professionals and peer networks, would indicate that working with families may improve initial identification of depression among African American adolescent boys and decrease their barriers to care. PMID:20953336

  19. Policy for Promotion of Women's Mental Health: Insight from Analysis of Policy on Postnatal Depression in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2016-03-01

    This article critically examines federal, state and facility-level policies, as well as clinical practice guidelines regarding postnatal depression in Mexico. Thirteen documents including national health plans, national action plans, federal and state laws and regulations, clinical practice guidelines, and public-sector healthcare facility policies were collected and evaluated according to whether they included a statement of intent and/or actions related to the care of women at risk for or experiencing postnatal depression. While postnatal depression is included in several policies in Mexico, it is not addressed in ways that guide actions to manage postnatal depression. Specific direction on postnatal depression in policies would bridge a gap in maternal mental healthcare given that medication, treatment, and timing of interventions is unique in the postpartum context.

  20. Patterns of Psychopathology in the Families of Children with Conduct Problems, Depression, and both Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2009-01-01

    Comorbid conduct problems (CPs) and depression are observed far more often than expected by chance, which is perplexing given minimal symptom overlap. In this study, relations between parental psychopathology and children’s diagnostic status were evaluated to test competing theories of comorbidity. Participants included 180 families with an 8–12-year-old child diagnosed with CPs, depression, both conditions, or neither condition. Although no single theory of comorbidity was supported fully, evidence suggested that CPs and depression may be inherited separately. Paternal antisocial characteristics and maternal depression provided independent prediction of both child depression and CPs. However, paternal antisocial behavior moderated the effect of maternal depression on CPs. For children with antisocial fathers, CPs were observed regardless of maternal depression levels. In contrast, a strong relation was observed between CPs and maternal depression for children without antisocial fathers. PMID:17216344

  1. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  2. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  3. Depression and chronic health conditions in parents of children with and without developmental disabilities: the growing up in Ireland cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Hannigan, Ailish

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that poor physical health and depression are highly co-morbid. To date, however, no study has considered whether depression in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities is partly driven by poor physical health. Using data from the Growing Up in Ireland national cohort study (2006 to date), 627 parents of children with developmental disabilities were compared with 7941 parents of typically developing children on scores from the Centre for Epidemiological Depression Scale, chronic health conditions, socio-demographic and child behavioural characteristics. Having a child with disabilities was associated with a higher risk of depression (odds ratio (OR)=1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 2.35) compared to parents of typically developing children. Adjusting for the presence of chronic health conditions accounted for some of this excess risk (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.27). The association between having a child with disabilities and increased risk of depression was explained, however, by adjusting for the child problem behaviours (OR=1.07, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.43). This study has confirmed, in a population-based sample, the high risk of depression in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities after adjusting for the presence of a chronic health condition. Importantly, given that poor mental health in these parents is associated with a battery of negative health and social family outcomes, it is imperative that health professionals pay attention to the mental health needs of these parents.

  4. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Public Mental Health: Comparison to Treatment as Usual for Treatment -Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Molly A.; Basco, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    State mental health systems have been leaders in the implementation of evidence-based approaches to care for individuals with severe mental illness. Numerous case studies of the wide-scale implementation of research-supported models such as Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment and Assertive Community Treatment are documented. However, relatively few dissemination efforts have focused on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for individuals with major depression despite evidence indicating its efficacy with this population. A multi-site effectiveness trial of CBT was conducted within the Texas public mental health system. Eighty-three adults with major depression received CBT from community clinicians trained through a workshop and regular consultation with a master clinician. Outcomes were compared to a matched sample of individuals receiving pharmacotherapy. Outcome measures used included the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Beck Depression Inventory. Individuals receiving CBT showed greater improvements in depression symptoms than those in the comparison group. Greater pre-treatment symptom severity predicted better treatment response, while the presence of comorbid personality disorders was associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:24692026

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in public mental health: comparison to treatment as usual for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Molly A; Basco, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    State mental health systems have been leaders in the implementation of evidence-based approaches to care for individuals with severe mental illness. Numerous case studies of the wide-scale implementation of research-supported models such as integrated dual diagnosis treatment and assertive community treatment are documented. However, relatively few dissemination efforts have focused on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for individuals with major depression despite evidence indicating its efficacy with this population. A multi-site effectiveness trial of CBT was conducted within the Texas public mental health system. Eighty-three adults with major depression received CBT from community clinicians trained through a workshop and regular consultation with a master clinician. Outcomes were compared to a matched sample of individuals receiving pharmacotherapy. Outcome measures used included the quick inventory of depressive symptomatology and beck depression inventory. Individuals receiving CBT showed greater improvements in depression symptoms than those in the comparison group. Greater pre-treatment symptom severity predicted better treatment response, while the presence of comorbid personality disorders was associated with poorer outcomes.

  6. Deletion of PTEN Produces Deficits in Conditioned Fear and Increases Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D.; Morrison, Jessica B.; White, Jessika

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new…

  7. Brightening the Day With Flashes of Positive Mental Imagery: A Case Study of an Individual With Depression.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

    2017-02-02

    This article presents a case example of an individual with current major depression engaging in a positive mental imagery intervention, specifically a computerized cognitive training paradigm involving repeated practice in generating positive imagery in response to ambiguous scenarios. The patient's reported experience of the intervention suggests the potential of the positive imagery intervention to "brighten" everyday life via promoting involuntary "flashes" of positive mental imagery in situations related to the scenarios, with associated beneficial effects on positive affect, future expectations, and behavior. Enhancing this aspect of the training-i.e., involuntary positive imagery in contexts where it is adaptive-may hold particular promise for reducing anhedonic symptoms of depression. Developing simple computerized interventions to increase the experience of positive mental imagery in everyday life could therefore provide a useful addition to the drive to improve treatment outcomes.

  8. Anti-sleepiness sensor systems for sober mental condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Won Heum; Jung, Hyung Sik; Lee, Hyo Gun

    2011-05-01

    The anti-sleepiness sensor systems have been devised for soldier's sober mental condition. These systems judge whether the soldier is sleepy or not, on one hand by monitoring open or closed eyes, on the other hand by measuring the heart blood beat and rate on the carotid of human's neck. They reasonably adopt one of the following methods such as optical, mechanical, magnetic impedance and piezoelectric sensor and so on. In this paper, the characteristics of those sensors are compared to one another and subsequently the suitable ones are proposed from the viewpoint of measurement and judgment reliability.; as a sensor to directly monitor the soldier's open/closed eyes the IR (Infrared) sensor is recommended, which is equipped on glasses (so called the anti-sleepiness glasses), and as a sensor to measure the heart beat and rate of blood vein, the piezoelectric PMN-PT crystal sensor mounted on a necklace turns out to be the most suitable owing to its high sensitivity (i.e. the anti-sleepiness necklace). These systems and relevant ideas are also applicable to the civilian usage, namely to the student preparing an examination as well as to the car-driver for safety.

  9. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Susan Douglas Kelley, Ph.D...Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0172 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER... mental health clinicians (See Appendix F). In these meetings, military providers shared rich detail on the presentation, history, and background of

  10. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  11. 78 FR 26221 - National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... with the burden of a mental health problem. They shoulder conditions like depression and anxiety, post... requires new health plans to cover recommended preventive services like depression screening and...

  12. Besides Depression, Number of Physiological Diseases is More Important than Physical Function on Mental Health of Elderly Adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Hau; Wu, Yi-Ying; Tsang, Hin-Yeung

    2017-02-01

    This study contrasted the relative importance between the number of physiological diseases and activities of daily living (ADLs) to the mental health of elderly adults after controlling for mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores and depression. Participants were 1342 elderly people with a mean age of 73.22 years and living in three communities in southern Taiwan. Age, gender, years of education duration, marital status, and MMSE and hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) scores were control variables. The ability of the ADLs scale scores and number of physiological diseases to predict mental health, as measured by the 12-item Chinese health questionnaire, was compared using hierarchical regression analyses. The final hierarchical model indicated that only HAMD and the number of physiological diseases scores were significant and that the former was much more predictive than the latter. The results imply that the number of physiological diseases is more predictive of mental health than ADLs scores and that depression is a dangerous risk factor for elderly people.

  13. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  14. An Evaluation of IMPACT for the Treatment of Late-Life Depression in a Public Mental Health System.

    PubMed

    Penkunas, Michael J; Hahn-Smith, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    IMPACT (Improving Mood--Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment) has a large body of evidence demonstrating its effectiveness for treating late-life depression in clients enrolled in a clinical research study, but little is known about how well the collaborative care model translates into treatment provided in a public mental health setting. This evaluation examines the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics in 112 older adults treated for late-life depression through publicly funded IMPACT in a large San Francisco Bay Area county. Depression severity decreased for 85% of clients between enrollment and treatments' end and 46% of clients realized a 50% reduction in symptom severity. Depression severity at enrollment, number of treatment sessions attended, ethnicity, and gender reliably predicted depression severity at the end of treatment. Men, clients attending more therapy sessions, and clients without substance abuse diagnoses had an increased likelihood of realizing a 50% reduction in symptoms. Results highlight the success of this evidence-based treatment program offered through the public mental health system but suggest that the demographic and clinical characteristics of the population being treated must be considered when adopting evidence-based practices.

  15. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Methods Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Results Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Conclusion Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed. PMID:27050776

  16. Predicting the Impact of the 2011 Conflict in Libya on Population Mental Health: PTSD and Depression Prevalence and Mental Health Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion

  17. Depression and Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos: The Role of Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Soto, Sandra; Arredondo, Elva M; Villodas, Miguel T; Elder, John P; Quintanar, Elena; Madanat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "buffering hypothesis" of social network characteristics in the association between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Cross-sectional self-report data from the San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey of Latinos were used (n = 393). Separate multiple logistic regression models tested the role of chronic conditions and social network characteristics in the likelihood of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Having a greater proportion of the network comprised of friends increased the likelihood of depression among those with high cholesterol. Having a greater proportion of women in the social network was directly related to the increased likelihood of depression, regardless of the presence of chronic health conditions. Findings suggest that network characteristics may play a role in the link between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Future research should explore strategies targeting the social networks of Latinos to improve health outcomes.

  18. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  19. The psychosocial impact of cancer: exploring relationships between conditional goal setting and depression.

    PubMed

    Street, Helen

    2003-09-01

    This study explores depression in cancer patients with reference to conditional goal setting (CGS) theory. CGS theory proposes that depressed individuals believe that personal happiness is conditional upon attainment of specific goals (personal CGS). Other individuals may set important goals believing that goal achievement is a necessary prerequisite of social acceptance and approval (social CGS). CGS has been found to contribute to depression in normal populations. 15.2% of the 67 newly diagnosed cancer patients in this study showed clinical levels of depression. A significant relationship was identified between personal CGS, rumination and depression, as predicted in CGS theory. Two months later, 46.7% of patients demonstrated clinical levels of depression. This later experience of depression was significantly related to social CGS. The results suggest CGS involving a misdirected pursuit of happiness is initially associated with depression whereas subsequent experiences of depression are related to a misdirected pursuit of social acceptance. Implications are discussed in terms of understanding the cancer patients' motivations controlling goal setting. It is suggested that successful psychotherapy for depression in cancer patients needs to examine the motivations controlling goal setting in addition to the process of goal pursuit.

  20. Effort Deficits and Depression: The Influence of Anhedonic Depressive Symptoms on Cardiac Autonomic Activity During a Mental Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Paul J.; Nusbaum, Emily C.; Eddington, Kari M.; Beaty, Roger E.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a “do your best” challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task’s goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the DASS Depression scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work. PMID:25431505

  1. Effort Deficits and Depression: The Influence of Anhedonic Depressive Symptoms on Cardiac Autonomic Activity During a Mental Challenge.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Nusbaum, Emily C; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Motivational approaches to depression emphasize the role of dysfunctional motivational dynamics, particularly diminished reward and incentive processes associated with anhedonia. A study examined how anhedonic depressive symptoms, measured continuously across a wide range of severity, influenced the physiological mobilization of effort during a cognitive task. Using motivational intensity theory as a guide, we expected that the diminished incentive value associated with anhedonic depressive symptoms would reduce effort during a "do your best" challenge (also known as an unfixed or self-paced challenge), in which effort is a function of the value of achieving the task's goal. Using impedance cardiography, two cardiac autonomic responses were assessed: pre-ejection period (PEP), a measure of sympathetic activity and our primary measure of interest, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic activity. As expected, PEP slowed from baseline to task as anhedonic depressive symptoms increased (as measured with the DASS Depression scale), indicating diminished effort-related sympathetic activity. No significant effects appeared for RSA. The findings support motivational intensity theory as a translational model of effort processes in depression and clarify some inconsistent effects of depressive symptoms on effort-related physiology found in past work.

  2. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  3. Working conditions and mental health: Results from the CARESUN study.

    PubMed

    Feola, Daniela; Pedata, Paola; D'Ancicco, Francesco; Santalucia, Laura; Sannolo, Nicola; Ascione, Eduardo; Nienhaus, Albert; Magliano, Lorenza; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-05-03

    The authors conducted a work-related stress surveillance study in 2013 on 6,558 public-sector employees in Italy, examining how they perceived their jobs, via the Job Content Questionnaire, and their mental health status, via the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Of the 2,094 employees completing the questionnaires, 60% were male, 52% had a medium-level education, and 76% had a medium-level job. Three hundred and eighty-five employees (18%) had a GHQ-12 score >3 and were classified as GHQ-12 cases: these were more often female (54%), medium-to-highly educated (54%), and had more often reported health problems over the previous year (51%). Thus, GHQ-12 cases represented a significant percentage of the examined population, indicating that work-related stress surveillance programs are needed for the planning of psychosocial interventions aimed at the reintegration of individuals with mental health problems.

  4. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J; Petukhova, M; Vilagut, G; Chatterji, S; Heeringa, S; Üstün, T B; Alhamzawi, A O; Viana, M C; Angermeyer, M; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Hu, C-y; Karam, E G; Kovess, V; Levinson, D; Medina-Mora, M E; Nakamura, Y; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Tsang, A; Williams, D R; Kessler, R C

    2011-01-01

    Days out of role because of health problems are a major source of lost human capital. We examined the relative importance of commonly occurring physical and mental disorders in accounting for days out of role in 24 countries that participated in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 62 971 respondents (72.0% pooled response rate). Presence of ten chronic physical disorders and nine mental disorders was assessed for each respondent along with information about the number of days in the past month each respondent reported being totally unable to work or carry out their other normal daily activities because of problems with either physical or mental health. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate associations of specific conditions and comorbidities with days out of role, controlling by basic socio-demographics (age, gender, employment status and country). Overall, 12.8% of respondents had some day totally out of role, with a median of 51.1 a year. The strongest individual-level effects (days out of role per year) were associated with neurological disorders (17.4), bipolar disorder (17.3) and post-traumatic stress disorder (15.2). The strongest population-level effect was associated with pain conditions, which accounted for 21.5% of all days out of role (population attributable risk proportion). The 19 conditions accounted for 62.2% of all days out of role. Common health conditions, including mental disorders, make up a large proportion of the number of days out of role across a wide range of countries and should be addressed to substantially increase overall productivity. PMID:20938433

  5. Visual grouping under isoluminant condition: impact of mental fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pladere, Tatjana; Bete, Diana; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2016-09-01

    Instead of selecting arbitrary elements our visual perception prefers only certain grouping of information. There is ample evidence that the visual attention and perception is substantially impaired in the presence of mental fatigue. The question is how visual grouping, which can be considered a bottom-up controlled neuronal gain mechanism, is influenced. The main purpose of our study is to determine the influence of mental fatigue on visual grouping of definite information - color and configuration of stimuli in the psychophysical experiment. Individuals provided subjective data by filling in the questionnaire about their health and general feeling. The objective evidence was obtained in the specially designed visual search task were achromatic and chromatic isoluminant stimuli were used in order to avoid so called pop-out effect due to differences in light intensity. Each individual was instructed to define the symbols with aperture in the same direction in four tasks. The color component differed in the visual search tasks according to the goals of study. The results reveal that visual grouping is completed faster when visual stimuli have the same color and aperture direction. The shortest reaction time is in the evening. What is more, the results of reaction time suggest that the analysis of two grouping processes compete for selective attention in the visual system when similarity in color conflicts with similarity in configuration of stimuli. The described effect increases significantly in the presence of mental fatigue. But it does not have strong influence on the accuracy of task accomplishment.

  6. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Weil, Kristina; Salgado, Carolina; Asenjo, Maria Andrea; Potthoff, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma) was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas). PMID:24695633

  7. Deployment Related Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    B . PROBLEM IMPORTANCE.....................................................................2 C. HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION...9 B . AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION COMMUNITY .............................12 C. MENTAL HEALTH CONDITION OF MILITARY...INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW AND DATA COLLECTION................25 B . PARTICIPANTS

  8. Risk of Mental Health Disorders Following an Initial Diagnosis of Postpartum Depression, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kasi M; Emasealu, Oseizame V; Hu, Zheng; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions of the postpartum period. Several studies have found an association between PPD and other mental health disorders. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was used to identify a cohort of primiparous service women with PPD between 1998 and 2010 and match them by month of delivery to a cohort of women without PPD. During the surveillance period, there were 5,203 incident cases of PPD with a crude rate of 44.9 per 1,000 person-years. Individuals in the PPD cohort, when compared to their matched controls, were at higher risk for subsequent depressive disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 7.3 [95% CI: 5.2-10.3]), anxiety disorders (adjusted HR: 3.2 [95% CI: 2.5-4.0]), and bipolar disorders (adjusted HR: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.9-11.9]). There were higher rates of these mental health diagnoses among individuals who eventually left service. Early screening, support, and treatment are essential during this vulnerable postpartum time frame to preserve the female fighting force.

  9. Implicit Mentalizing Persists beyond Early Childhood and Is Profoundly Impaired in Children with Autism Spectrum Condition

    PubMed Central

    Schuwerk, Tobias; Jarvers, Irina; Vuori, Maria; Sodian, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other’s mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC). This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and non-verbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems. PMID:27840620

  10. Vitamin D Intoxication, with Hypernatraemia, Potassium and Water Depletion, and Mental Depression

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. C.; Cooper, A. F.; Naylor, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Two elderly patients suffering from manic-depressive psychosis/depressive reaction had concurrently hypercalcaemia from vitamin D intoxication. They developed hypernatraemia with severe potassium and water depletion. Hypercalcaemia was pronounced, but both patients recovered quickly and their depressive symptoms resolved following water and potassium repletion and corticosteroid therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5723727

  11. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment.

  12. Fear conditioning and extinction in anxiety- and depression-prone persons.

    PubMed

    Dibbets, Pauline; van den Broek, Anne; Evers, Elisabeth A T

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur and may share similar deficits in the processing of emotional stimuli. High anxiety is associated with a failure in the acquisition and extinction of fear conditioning. Despite the supposed common deficits, no research has been conducted on fear acquisition and extinction in depression. The main aim of the present study was to investigate and compare fear acquisition and extinction in anxiety- and depression-prone participants. Non-clinical anxious, depressive, anxious-depressive and control participants performed a fear discrimination task. During acquisition, the CS+ predicted an aversive event (unconditioned stimulus, US) and the CS- safety (no US). During extinction, the CS+ was no longer followed by the US, rendering it (temporarily) into a safety signal. On each CS participants rated their US expectancy; skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured throughout. The expectancy scores indicated that high anxiety resulted in less safety learning during acquisition and extinction; no effect of depression was observed. SCRs showed that high-anxiety persons displayed less discrimination learning (CS+ minus CS-) during acquisition than low-anxiety persons. During extinction, high-depression persons demonstrated more discriminative SCR than low-depression persons. The observed discrepancies in response patterns of high-anxiety and -depression persons seem to indicate distinctive information processing of emotional stimuli.

  13. Have broad-based community and professional education programs influenced mental health literacy and treatment seeking of those with major depression and suicidal ideation?

    PubMed

    Goldney, Robert D; Fisher, Laura J

    2008-04-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and charitable organizations as well as pharmaceutical company suicide prevention initiatives which have been designed to enhance public and professional knowledge about mental disorders, particularly depression. This naturalistic study conducted between 1998 and 2004 in a random and representative population sample examined the changes in mental health literacy and treatment seeking of those with major depression, both with and without suicidal ideation, and those who were neither depressed nor suicidal. Results indicated that there was marked improvement in mental health literacy for all three groups, although there was less change for those most in need of intervention (i.e., those with major depression and suicidal ideation). Furthermore, there were fewer changes in appropriate treatment seeking in those with major depression and suicidal ideation. These findings are consistent with literature reporting limited problem solving and decision making in those who are suicidal, and indicate that there are limits to broadbased community education programs. More focused suicide prevention initiatives are required, specifically for those who are depressed and suicidal.

  14. An interprofessional nurse-led mental health promotion intervention for older home care clients with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion

  15. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    PubMed Central

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  16. Personal and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical and Mental Health Outcomes and Course of Depression among Depressed Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbourne, Cathy Donald; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data from 604 depressed patients in The Medical Outcomes Study showed improvements in measures of functioning and well-being associated with patients who were employed, drank less alcohol, had active coping styles and higher levels of social support, who had active and less avoidant coping styles, who were physically active, and who had fewer…

  17. Persistent reflux symptoms cause anxiety, depression, and mental health and sleep disorders in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Kamiya, Takeshi; Senoo, Kyouji; Tsuchida, Kenji; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Kojima, Hisayo; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Ozeki, Tomonori; Endo, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhisa; Sando, Motoki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shikano, Michiko; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Katsumi, Kohei; Joh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease experience persistent reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. These symptoms reduce their health-related quality of life. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between proton pump inhibitor efficacy and health-related quality of life and to evaluate predictive factors affecting treatment response in Japanese patients. Using the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire, 145 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients undergoing proton pump inhibitor therapy were evaluated and classified as responders or partial-responders. Their health-related quality of life was then evaluated using the 8-item Short Form Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Sixty-nine patients (47.6%) were partial responders. These patients had significantly lower scores than responders in 5/8 subscales and in the mental health component summary of the 8-item Short Form Health Survey. Partial responders had significantly higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, including anxiety and depression scores, than those of responders. Non-erosive reflux disease and double proton pump inhibitor doses were predictive factors of partial responders. Persistent reflux symptoms, despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, caused mental health disorders, sleep disorders, and psychological distress in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients. PMID:27499583

  18. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... of depressants, including alcohol and the illegal drugs GHB and Rohypnol , come in liquid or powder form ... by prescription only. Some depressants, including Rohypnol and GHB, are illegal in the United States. Illegal possession ...

  19. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is ... alone. Others with moderate to severe depression might benefit from antidepressants. It may take a few weeks ...

  20. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, ...

  1. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis, get help quickly. Reprints Share Depression Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... a serious but treatable mood disorder. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or low sometimes, but these ...

  2. Self-harm in postpartum depression and referrals to a perinatal mental health team: an audit study.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Morriss, Richard; Henshaw, Carol; Wadoo, Ovais; Sajjad, Aamer; Scholefield, Helen; Kinderman, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of research on self-harm during pregnancy and the postpartum period despite suicide being a leading cause of death and high rates of mental disorder during this time. This audit describes a cohort of women referred to a new perinatal mental health team (PMHT) based in a large maternity hospital in the UK over a 12-month period. The audit was conducted in two stages. Stage one describes the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of 225 pregnant women referred to the team after screening positive for a significant mental health history. Stage two determines the veracity of data on a subgroup of 73 pregnant women referred for previous postpartum depression (PPD), 58 % of whom disclosed an episode of self-harm with the 'intent to kill themselves' to the maternity staff when they first booked in for antenatal care. Previous PPD accounted for the largest majority of referrals (32 %) to the PMHT followed by depression (27 %) and self-harm (10 %). The majority of women (85 %) referred to the PMHT were engaged. Eight percent were so unwell at the point of referral they required an admission to the hospital. Attempted suicide in the subgroup of 73 women with previous PPD ranged from 24-49 %. The findings from this audit suggest that self-harm in PPD warrants further investigation.

  3. Working Conditions and Mental Health of Nursing Staff in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Mawn, Barbara; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Nursing staff in nursing homes suffer from poor mental health, probably associated with stressful working conditions. Working conditions may distribute differently among nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses due to their different levels in the organizational hierarchy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between working conditions and mental health among different nursing groups, and examine the potential moderating effect of job group on this association. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,129 nursing staff in 15 for-profit non-unionized nursing homes. Working conditions included both physical and psychosocial domains. Multivariate linear regression modeling found that mental health was associated with different working conditions in different nursing groups: physical safety (β = 2.37, p < 0.05) and work-family conflict (β = -2.44, p < 0.01) in NAs; work-family conflict (β = -4.17, p < 0.01) in LPNs; and physical demands (β = 10.54, p < 0.05) in RNs. Job group did not moderate the association between working conditions and mental health. Future workplace interventions to improve mental health should reach to nursing staff at different levels and consider tailored working condition interventions in different nursing groups.

  4. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  5. The Mental Representation of Causal Conditional Reasoning: Mental Models or Causal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Nilufa; Chater, Nick; Oaksford, Mike

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two experiments are reported investigating the nature of the cognitive representations underlying causal conditional reasoning performance. The predictions of causal and logical interpretations of the conditional diverge sharply when inferences involving "pairs" of conditionals--such as "if P[subscript 1] then Q" and "if P[subscript…

  6. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  7. Depression: Should You Consider Antipsychotics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies have compared them to see which ones work better. Our advice: If your depression is not getting better, try other treatments before you try antipsychotics. • Ask your doctor to make sure you do not have other medical and mental health conditions that can cause depression or make it worse— ...

  8. Access to services, quality of care, and family impact for children with autism, other developmental disabilities, and other mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs was utilized to examine the association between child's special needs condition and three outcomes (N = 18,136): access to services (difficulty using services, difficulty getting referrals, lack of source of care, and inadequate insurance coverage), quality of care (lack of care coordination, lack of shared decision making, and no routine screening), and family impact (financial, employment, and time-related burden). Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to compare caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, developmental delay, or intellectual disability), mental health conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral/conduct problems, or depression), or both developmental disabilities and mental health conditions. Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders were significantly more likely to report difficulty using services, lack of source of care, inadequate insurance coverage, lack of shared decision making and care coordination, and adverse family impact as compared to caregivers of children with developmental disabilities, mental health conditions, or both.

  9. Substance Use, Depression and Mental Health Functioning in Patients Seeking Acute Medical Care in an Inner-City ED

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristin L.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the behavioral health of a consecutive sample of 5,641 adult emergency department (ED) patients aged 19 through 60 presenting for medical care in a large, inner-city hospital emergency department. Twenty-three percent met criteria for major depression; average mental health functioning, as measured by the mental health component of the SF-12, was half of a standard deviation lower than in the general population; 15% met criteria for alcohol or drug abuse/dependence in the past year. Comorbidity was high. These behavioral health disorders may complicate treatment and diagnosis of the chief presenting complaint. These findings, coupled with the high rates of these disorders, suggest the importance of screening and either beginning appropriate treatment or offering appropriate referral for such disorders in ED settings. PMID:21086057

  10. [The association between common mental disorders and subjective health conditions among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Feres, Sara de Barros Lima; Soares, Bruno Porto; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of common mental disorders and the impairment of subjective health conditions among the elderly. It involved a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted among all the elderly residents in the urban area of a Brazilian municipality with low population density. Mental disorders were evaluated using the short version of the Goldberg General Health questionnaire. Subjective and normative health conditions were evaluated and logistic regression was applied (OR/CI95%) with a 5% significance level. The survey included 419 elderly residents and the prevalence of mental disorders was 44.6%. The presence of mental disorders was greater among seniors who reported dissatisfaction with life, impairment in the mental and physical control of quality of life and with self-perception of the appearance of teeth and gums as negative. The prevalence of disorders was less identified between men and among those for whom oral health did not affect their relationships with other people The common mental disorder was identified in a significant number of the elderly investigated and the presence of this disorder has been mainly associated with oral health conditions.

  11. Chronic pain in HIV-infected patients: relationship to depression, substance use, and mental health and pain treatment

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Herman, Debra S.; Bailey, Genie L.; Pinkston, Megan M.; Stein, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV has become a chronic disease for most individuals in developed countries. Chronic pain is a common occurrence for HIV –infected patients and has an impact on quality of life and antiretroviral adherence. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between chronic pain and depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment in HIV-infected patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Three primary care sites where HIV+ patients receive treatment. Subjects 238 HIV-infected primary care patients. Methods We collected self-report and chart-review information on demographics, HIV clinical status, chronic pain, depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment. We collected data between October 2012 and November 2013. Results Of the patients enrolled in this study, 107 reported no chronic pain, 24 reported mild chronic pain, and 107 reported moderate-severe chronic pain. Participants in the moderate-severe pain group were more likely to have high levels of depressive symptoms than those in the no chronic pain group. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between chronic pain status and interference with life activities due to pain. Participants with moderate-severe chronic pain were more likely to be taking an antidepressant medication than those with mild chronic pain, and more likely to be taking a prescription opioid than the other two groups. We did not find a significant relationship between problematic substance use and chronic pain status. Conclusions Despite pharmacologic treatment, moderate-severe chronic pain and elevated depression symptoms are common among HIV-infected patients and frequently co-occur. PMID:26119642

  12. Workplace effectiveness and psychotherapy for mental, substance abuse, and subsyndromal conditions.

    PubMed

    Sledge, William H; Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    While it is known that psychiatric illness and subclinical psychiatric illness can be very disabling, their impact on workers' productivity has been little appreciated or appropriately addressed. Complex variables are involved in fashioning an appropriate policy to ameliorate the impact of mental illness on productivity including the identification of effective treatments and potential negative effects of controlling patients' access to them. The cost-effectiveness of such treatments is considered from the differing perspectives and goals of the various stakeholders involved, including employers, insurers, and workers with psychiatric illness. Depression in workers leads to significant absenteeism, "presenteeism" (diminished capacity due to illness while still present at work), and significantly increased medical expenses in addition to the costs of psychiatric care. In addition to the specific usefulness of psychotropic medication, there are a variety of studies on the cost-effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic treatments that improve health and productivity in psychiatrically ill workers. Research indicates the usefulness of approaches including employee assistance programs, specialized cognitive-behavioral treatments, and brief and longer term psychodynamic interventions. It is clear that substance abuse disorders and especially depression and subsyndromal depression have a profound negative effect on work productivity and increases in medical visits and expenses. The current system of mental health care suffers from ignorance of the negative effects of psychiatric illness in workers, from a lack of subtle awareness of which treatments are most appropriate for which diagnoses and from the reluctance by payers to invest in them. Access to evidence-based appropriate treatment can improve the negative impact on productivity as well as workers' health. This article considers these issues and argues for a role of psychotherapy in the treatment of mental

  13. Chronic health conditions and depressive symptoms strongly predict persistent food insecurity among rural low-income families.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.

  14. Insomnia brings soldiers into mental health treatment, predicts treatment engagement, and outperforms other suicide-related symptoms as a predictor of major depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Stanley, Ian H; Chiurliza, Bruno; Podlogar, Matthew C; Michaels, Matthew S; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Given the high rates of suicide among military personnel and the need to characterize suicide risk factors associated with mental health service use, this study aimed to identify suicide-relevant factors that predict: (1) treatment engagement and treatment adherence, and (2) suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and major depressive episodes in a military sample. Army recruiters (N = 2596) completed a battery of self-report measures upon study enrollment. Eighteen months later, information regarding suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, major depressive episodes, and mental health visits were obtained from participants' military medical records. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation were very rare in this sample; negative binomial regression analyses with robust estimation were used to assess correlates and predictors of mental health treatment visits and major depressive episodes. More severe insomnia and agitation were significantly associated with mental health visits at baseline and over the 18-month study period. In contrast, suicide-specific hopelessness was significantly associated with fewer mental health visits. Insomnia severity was the only significant predictor of major depressive episodes. Findings suggest that assessment of sleep problems might be useful in identifying at-risk military service members who may engage in mental health treatment. Additional research is warranted to examine the predictive validity of these suicide-related symptom measures in a more representative, higher suicide risk military sample.

  15. Review of Randomised Controlled Trials of Internet Interventions for Mental Disorders and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Kathleen M.; Christensen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Self-help Internet interventions have the potential to enable consumers to play a central role in managing their own health. This paper contains a systematic review of 15 randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-help Internet interventions for mental disorders and related conditions. Conditions addressed by the interventions…

  16. Women At Work and At Home: Implications for Depression and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanefield, Linda

    Researchers in the area of depression, aware that women are more likely than men to be depressed, have examined women's marital and employment status to explain this phenomenon. However, the meanings, perceptions, and situations encountered within marital and work roles also contribute to emotional distress. The traditional sex role explanation of…

  17. Atypical Depression

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...

  18. Sedentary behavior, depressed affect, and indicators of mental well-being in adolescence: Does the screen only matter for girls?

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of sedentary behavior (SB) on mental well-being and examined differences between screen-based (sSB) and non-screen-based sedentary behaviors (nSB) separately by gender. In a total sample of 1296 students (609 girls) aged 12-17 (m = 13.7, SD = 0.67), SB, depressed affect, self-esteem, physical self-concept, general self-efficacy and physical activity were assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Among girls, lower scores in self-esteem, physical self-concept as well as general self-efficacy were associated with higher sSB but not nSB. Among boys higher levels of sSB related to higher self-esteem, nSB but not sSB predicted higher scores in depressed affect, and there was a u-shaped association between sSB and general self-efficacy. Results replicate the inverse association between SB and mental well-being, and suggest a distinction between nSB and sSB especially among girls. Additional studies will be necessary to replicate, and further examine mediating mechanisms.

  19. Integrated primary care for patients with mental and physical multimorbidity: cluster randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for patients with depression comorbid with diabetes or cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Karina; Dickens, Chris; Bower, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; McElvenny, Damien; Hann, Mark; Cherrington, Andrea; Garrett, Charlotte; Gibbons, Chris J; Baguley, Clare; Roughley, Kate; Adeyemi, Isabel; Reeves, David; Waheed, Waquas; Gask, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of an integrated collaborative care model for people with depression and long term physical conditions. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 36 general practices in the north west of England. Participants 387 patients with a record of diabetes or heart disease, or both, who had depressive symptoms (≥10 on patient health questionaire-9 (PHQ-9)) for at least two weeks. Mean age was 58.5 (SD 11.7). Participants reported a mean of 6.2 (SD 3.0) long term conditions other than diabetes or heart disease; 240 (62%) were men; 360 (90%) completed the trial. Interventions Collaborative care included patient preference for behavioural activation, cognitive restructuring, graded exposure, and/or lifestyle advice, management of drug treatment, and prevention of relapse. Up to eight sessions of psychological treatment were delivered by specially trained psychological wellbeing practitioners employed by Improving Access to Psychological Therapy services in the English National Health Service; integration of care was enhanced by two treatment sessions delivered jointly with the practice nurse. Usual care was standard clinical practice provided by general practitioners and practice nurses. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was reduction in symptoms of depression on the self reported symptom checklist-13 depression scale (SCL-D13) at four months after baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes included anxiety symptoms (generalised anxiety disorder 7), self management (health education impact questionnaire), disability (Sheehan disability scale), and global quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Results 19 general practices were randomised to collaborative care and 20 to usual care; three practices withdrew from the trial before patients were recruited. 191 patients were recruited from practices allocated to collaborative care, and 196 from practices allocated to usual care. After adjustment for baseline depression score, mean

  20. Associations between Childhood Parental Mental Health Difficulties and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: The Influence of Life-Course Socioeconomic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Viola; Klijs, Bart; Smidt, Nynke; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression among older adults (i.e., the 50+) is a major health concern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether growing up with a parent suffering from mental health problems is associated with depressive symptoms in late-adulthood and how this association is influenced by life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood. Methods We used life-history data from the SHARE survey, consisting of 21,127 participants living in 13 European countries. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the EURO-D scale. Parental mental health was assessed by asking respondents to report whether any of their parents had mental health problems during the respondents’ childhood. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between parental mental health status and depression. Variables on childhood and late-life socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors were sequentially added to the model to assess the extent to which this association is influenced by life-course circumstances. Results Individuals who were exposed during childhood to a parent with mental health problems suffered from depressive symptoms more often in late adulthood than those who were not (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.43–2.17). Adjustment for life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood diminished this association to an OR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.24–1.90) and OR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.16–1.82), respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate a substantial association between parental mental health problems in childhood and depression in late adulthood and that this association is partly explained by childhood as well as late adulthood socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors. PMID:27936078

  1. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  2. Cortisol reaction in success and failure condition in endogenous depressed patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Croes, S; Merz, P; Netter, P

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied differences in cortisol response to controllable and uncontrollable stress and its relationship to Seligman's theory of learned helplessness in hospitalized unipolar depressed patients (11 nontreated, acutely depressed; 11 treated patients) and 11 age and sex matched controls hospitalized for traumatic surgery. Control and lack of control were achieved by induction of success and failure in a simple number addition test and applied in balanced order on 2 consecutive days. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after the test. No group differences in baseline cortisol levels were observed. Cortisol increased after uncontrollable and decreased after controllable stress in control patients, whereas cortisol decreased after both conditions in the acutely depressed group and less so in the treated group, although they were as emotionally upset after failure as controls. Thus, the normally observed ability of the neuroendocrine system to discriminate between controllable and uncontrollable stress deteriorates with increasing severity of depression.

  3. Depression in bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carmen; Hasin, Deborah S.; Arango, Celso; Oquendo, Maria A.; Vieta, Eduard; Liu, Shangmin; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical features and course of major depressive episodes (MDE) occurring in subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001–2002), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of more than 43,000 adults in the United States, including 5,695 subjects with lifetime MDD, 935 with BD-I and lifetime MDE, and 494 with BD-II and lifetime MDE. Differences on sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features, course, and treatment patterns of MDE were analyzed. Results Most depressive symptoms, family psychiatric history, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were more frequent—and number of depressive symptoms per MDE were higher—among subjects with BD-I, followed by BD-II, and MDD. BD-I individuals experienced a higher number of lifetime MDE, had the worst quality of life, and received significantly more treatment for MDE than BD-II and MDD subjects. Individuals with BD-I and BD-II experienced their first mood episode about 10 years earlier than those with MDD (21.2, 20.5, and 30.4 years, respectively). Conclusions Our results support the existence of a spectrum of severity of MDE, with highest severity for BD-I, followed by BD-II and MDD, suggesting the utility of dimensional assessments in current categorical classifications. PMID:22548900

  4. Working conditions, visual fatigue, and mental health among systems analysts in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, L; Debert-Ribeiro, M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the association between working conditions and visual fatigue and mental health among systems analysts living in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team. It included: ergonomic analysis of work, individual and group interviews, and 553 self applied questionnaires in two enterprises. The comparison population numbered 136 workers in different occupations. Results: The study population mainly comprised young males. Among systems analysts, visual fatigue was associated with mental workload, inadequate equipment and workstation, low level of worker participation, being a woman, and subject's attitude of fascination by the computer. Nervousness and intellectual performance were associated with mental workload, inadequate equipment, work environment, and tools. Continuing education and leisure were protective factors. Work interfering in family life was associated with mental workload, difficulties with clients, strict deadlines, subject's attitude of fascination by the computer, and finding solutions of work problems outside work. Family support, satisfaction in life and work, and adequate work environment and tools were protective factors. Work interfering in personal life was associated with subject's attitude of fascination by the computer, strict deadlines, inadequate equipment, and high level of work participation. Satisfaction in life and work and continuing education were protective factors. The comparison population did not share common working factors with the systems analysts in the regression analysis. Conclusions: The main health effects of systems analysts' work were expressed by machine anthropomorphism, being very demanding, mental acceleration, mental absorption, and difficulty in dealing with emotions. PMID:14691269

  5. [Mental health of gas and gas-transport industry workers as an indispensable condition of their efficient occupational activity].

    PubMed

    Polozhiĭ, B S

    2013-01-01

    Mental health workers in industry is a major health and social resource of any developed country. Unfortunately, Russia's level of mental health workers is unfavorable level. We have conducted a survey of employees psychoprophylactic mass of the gas industry, which occupies a leading position in the economy. Found that the prevalence of mental disorders in this professional group is 187 per 1,000 workers. In this case, 99.3% of employees with mental health problems of mentally ill for a long time, they do not receive appropriate treatment. Leading position in the structure occupy disorder with anxious and depressive symptoms, about 75% of all cases. In the treatment of these patients showed the highest efficiency Luvox, which is one of the most appropriate products in a production environment.

  6. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  7. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  8. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  9. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  10. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other drugs to add to the other drugs ’ high or to deal with their side effects. Abusers take higher doses than people taking the drugs under a doctor ’ s supervision for therapeutic purposes. Depressants ...

  11. Temporal Assessment of Mental Disorders, Smoking, and Hazardous Drinking in United States Troops Deployed in Support of the Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    syndrome. Additionally, participants who self-reported having been diagnosed with PTSD, depression , manic - depressive disorder, or schizophrenia or...having one or more of the following conditions: depression , schizophrenia or psychosis, manic - depressive disorder, or PTSD. Mental Disorder Symptoms and...participants approximately 3 years later. Main Outcome Measures Posttraumatic stress disorder was assessed using the PTSD Checklist. Depression , panic, and

  12. Major depressive disorder in the perinatal period: using data linkage to inform perinatal mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenglian; Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Hilder, Lisa; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to investigate hospital admission of major depressive disorders (MDD) before and after birth. Population data for all primiparous women admitted to the hospital with depressive disorders before and after birth were used. The comparison group consisted of 10 % of primiparous women not admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder or substance use. A total of 728 women had a first admission with depressive disorders (501 in the first postpartum year). The rate of first hospital admission for depressive disorders decreased during pregnancy and increased markedly in the first three months after birth (peaking in the second month with a rate of 10.74/1,000 person year and rate ratio of 12.56) compared with the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Admission remained elevated in the second postpartum year. Older maternal age, smoking, elective caesarian section and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit or special care nursery were associated with a higher rate of admission. Women born outside Australia and those most socioeconomically disadvantaged were less likely to be admitted to the hospital in the first postpartum year. Overall risk of hospital admission with depressive disorders rose significantly across the entire first postpartum year. This has significant implications for policy and service planning for women with mood disorders in the perinatal period.

  13. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  14. Adaptive learning can result in a failure to profit from good conditions: implications for understanding depression

    PubMed Central

    Trimmer, Pete C.; Higginson, Andrew D.; Fawcett, Tim W.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Depression is a major medical problem diagnosed in an increasing proportion of people and for which commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs are frequently ineffective. Development of treatment options may be facilitated by an evolutionary perspective; several adaptive reasons for proneness to depression have been proposed. A common feature of many explanations is that depressive behaviour is a way to avoid costly effort where benefits are small and/or unlikely. However, this viewpoint fails to explain why low mood persists when the situation improves. We investigate whether a behavioural rule that is adapted to a stochastically changing world can cause inactivity which appears similar to the effect of depression, in that it persists after the situation has improved. Methodology: We develop an adaptive learning model in which an individual has repeated choices of whether to invest costly effort that may result in a net benefit. Investing effort also provides information about the current conditions and rates of change of the conditions. Results: An individual following the optimal behavioural strategy may sometimes remain inactive when conditions are favourable (i.e. when it would be better to invest effort) when it is poorly informed about the current environmental state. Initially benign conditions can predispose an individual to inactivity after a relatively brief period of negative experiences. Conclusions and implications: Our approach suggests that the antecedent factors causing depressed behaviour could go much further back in an individual s history than is currently appreciated. The insights from our approach have implications for the ongoing debate about best treatment options for patients with depressive symptoms. PMID:25916884

  15. Rwanda – lasting imprints of a genocide: trauma, mental health and psychosocial conditions in survivors, former prisoners and their children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    the symptom severity of PTSD, whereas economic status, age and gender were not. Descendants of genocide survivors presented with more symptoms than descendants of former prisoners with regard to all assessed mental disorders. Conclusions Our study demonstrated particular long-term consequences of massive organized violence, such as war and genocide, on mental health and psychosocial conditions. Differences between families of survivors and families of former prisoners accused for participation in the Rwandan genocide are reflected in the mental health of the next generation. PMID:23531331

  16. Strategies to improve anxiety and depression in patients with COPD: a mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tselebis, Athanasios; Pachi, Argyro; Ilias, Ioannis; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by progressive and only partially reversible symptoms. Worldwide, the incidence of COPD presents a disturbing continuous increase. Anxiety and depression are remarkably common in COPD patients, but the evidence about optimal approaches for managing psychological comorbidities in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Pharmacological treatment based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has almost replaced tricyclic antidepressants. The main psychological intervention is cognitive behavioral therapy. Of particular interest are pulmonary rehabilitation programs, which can reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in these patients. Although the literature on treating anxiety and depression in patients with COPD is limited, we believe that it points to the implementation of personalized strategies to address their psychopathological comorbidities. PMID:26929625

  17. Mental health measures of anxiety and depression in patients with retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarieh, Maneli; Sacu, Stefan; Benesch, Thomas; Wedrich, Andreas

    2007-07-19

    In this study, the researchers examined anxious and depressive symptoms of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) prior to and up to year after retinal detachment surgery. One hundred and thirteen (113) patients with RRD took part in this prospective longitudinal study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Visual acuity (VA) results and HADS scores of all participants were recorded prior to and 3, 6 and 12 months after retinal detachment surgery. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant association between the patients' VA and HADS psychological scores both prior to and three months after surgery, regardless of the type of surgery performed. Psychological distress is a significant problem associated with retinal detachments that requires more attention.

  18. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, David; Kose, Samet; Arana, Ashley; Johnson, Kevin; Morgan, Paul S.; Borckardt, Jeffrey; Herbsman, Tal; Hardaway, Fran; George, Mark S.; Panksepp, Jaak; Nahas, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fMRI 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril). Each subject performed reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET) before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance. PMID:21423444

  19. Depression, Mental Distress, and Domestic Conflict among Louisiana Women Exposed to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the WaTCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Rung, Ariane L.; Gaston, Symielle; Oral, Evrim; Robinson, William T.; Fontham, Elizabeth; Harrington, Daniel J.; Trapido, Edward; Peters, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychological sequelae are among the most pronounced effects in populations following exposure to oil spills. Women in particular represent a vulnerable yet influential population but have remained relatively understudied with respect to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS). Objective: To describe the relationship between oil spill exposure and mental health among women living in the southern coastal Louisiana parishes affected by the DHOS. Methods: The Women and Their Children’s Health Study administered telephone interviews to a population-based sample of 2,842 women between 2012 and 2014 following the DHOS. Participants were asked about depression, mental distress, domestic conflict, and exposure to the oil spill. Results: Over 28% of the sample reported symptoms of depression, 13% reported severe mental distress, 16% reported an increase in the number of fights with their partners, and 11% reported an increase in the intensity of partner fights. Both economic and physical exposure were significantly associated with depressive symptoms and domestic conflict, whereas only physical exposure was related to mental distress. Conclusions: This large, population-based study of women in southern coastal Louisiana, a particularly disaster-prone area of the country, revealed high rates of poor mental health outcomes. Reported exposure to the DHOS was a significant predictor of these outcomes, suggesting avenues for future disaster mitigation through the provision of mental health services. Citation: Rung AL, Gaston S, Oral E, Robinson WT, Fontham E, Harrington DJ, Trapido E, Peters ES. 2016. Depression, mental distress, and domestic conflict among Louisiana women exposed to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the WaTCH Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1429–1435; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP167 PMID:27164620

  20. Theory of mind in social anxiety disorder, depression, and comorbid conditions.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Dustin; Wilson, Gillian; Roes, Meighen; Rnic, Katerina; Harkness, Kate Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is characterized by marked interpersonal impairment, particularly when presenting with comorbid major depression. However, the foundational social-cognitive skills that underlie interpersonal impairment in comorbid and non-comorbid manifestations of SAD has to date received very little empirical investigation. In a sample of 119 young adults, the current study examined differences in theory of mind (ToM), defined as the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states, across four groups: (a) non-comorbid SAD; (b) non-comorbid Lifetime MDD; (c) comorbid SAD and Lifetime MDD; and (d) healthy control. The non-comorbid SAD group was significantly less accurate at decoding mental states than the non-comorbid MDD and control groups. Further, both the comorbid and non-comorbid SAD groups made significantly more 'excessive' ToM reasoning errors than the non-comorbid MDD group, suggesting a pattern of over-mentalizing. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the social cognitive foundations of social anxiety.

  1. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions. PMID:28327593

  2. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B; Dutta, Rina

    2017-03-22

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients' own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of 'in the moment' daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.

  3. Characterisation of mental health conditions in social media using Informed Deep Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Velupillai, Sumithra; Liakata, Maria; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Dobson, Richard J. B.; Dutta, Rina

    2017-03-01

    The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients’ own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care. Social media platforms have become a source of ‘in the moment’ daily exchange, with topics including well-being and mental health. In this study, we analysed posts from the social media platform Reddit and developed classifiers to recognise and classify posts related to mental illness according to 11 disorder themes. Using a neural network and deep learning approach, we could automatically recognise mental illness-related posts in our balenced dataset with an accuracy of 91.08% and select the correct theme with a weighted average accuracy of 71.37%. We believe that these results are a first step in developing methods to characterise large amounts of user-generated content that could support content curation and targeted interventions.

  4. The relationships of change in work climate with changes in burnout and depression: a 2-year longitudinal study of Chinese mental health care workers.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H; Au-Yeung, Friendly S W; Sing, C Y; Law, K Y; Lee, L F; Ng, S M

    2015-09-01

    Mental health care workers face heavy emotional demand and are prone to work burnout. Work burnout has been associated with poor mental health and work climate, which refers to individual perceptions about work setting. The purpose of this study was to examine whether intra-individual changes in work climate were associated with intra-individual changes in burnout and depression over two years. The present sample included Chinese mental health care workers (N = 312; mean age = 38.6, SD = 9.9) working in a psychosocial rehabilitation institution. The participants completed questionnaires on work climate, work burnout and depression at seven time points across two years. Parallel process latent growth modeling was used to analyze the associations of change between work climate and burnout and depression. Work climate displayed a logarithmic decreasing trend while burnout and depression displayed logarithmic increasing trends over two years. Baseline levels of work climate were negatively and moderately associated with baseline levels of burnout and depression (r = -.44 to -.60, p < .01). Changes in work climate were negatively and moderately associated with change in burnout (r = -.43, p < .01) and change in depression (r = -.31, p < .05). Change in burnout was positively and strongly associated (r = .58, p < .01) with change in depression. The current results support temporal relationships among changes in work climate, burnout and depression across time. Practical implications for future preventive work in burnout interventions were discussed within this population.

  5. Depression or Endocrine Disorder?: What Mental Health Counselors Need to Know about Hypothyroidism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)

  6. Career Thoughts, Indecision, and Depression: Implications for Mental Health Assessment in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jerry V., III; Peterson, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts and career indecision with respect to symptoms of depression. Such information could be useful to counselors in identifying individuals at the outset of career counseling who may be experiencing emotional distress from life stressors in addition to career stress.…

  7. Self-Reports of Depression by Community-Based Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Schaefer, Bianca M.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-seven institutionalized profoundly mentally retarded adults were studied to determine whether thyroid medication is an essential component of a recently introduced nutritional supplementation treatment. Biochemical assessments confirmed that compliance with the treatments was adequate; however, no significant IQ improvements were observed.…

  8. Defense Health Care: Better Tracking and Oversight Needed of Servicemember Separations for Non-Disability Mental Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    deficit hyperactivity disorder . 4GAO, Defense Health Care: Additional Efforts Needed to Ensure Compliance with Personality Disorder Separation...acute adjustment disorder , disruptive behavior disorder , impulse control disorder , personality disorder , and other mental conditions, such as attention ...This Study Non-disability mental conditions, such as personality disorders , can render a servicemember unsuitable for military service and can lead

  9. Psychostimulant withdrawal as an inducing condition in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Barr, Alasdair M; Markou, Athina

    2005-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that the withdrawal from high doses of psychostimulant drugs in humans induces a transient syndrome, with symptoms that appear isomorphic to those of major depressive disorder. Pharmacological treatment strategies for psychostimulant withdrawal in humans have focused mainly on compounds with antidepressant properties. Animal models of psychostimulant withdrawal have been shown to demonstrate a wide range of deficits, including changes in homeostatic, affective and cognitive behaviors, as well as numerous physiological changes. Many of these behavioral and physiological sequelae parallel specific symptoms of major depressive disorder, and have been reversed by treatment with antidepressant drugs. These combined findings provide strong support for the use of psychostimulant withdrawal as an inducing condition in animal models of depression. In the current review we propound that the psychostimulant withdrawal model displays high levels of predictive and construct validity. Recent progress and limitations in the development of this model, as well as future directions for research, are evaluated and discussed.

  10. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G.; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health. PMID:25821435

  11. [From the Competence Network on Depression and Suicidality to the German Depression Foundation. National and international prevention of suicidal behaviour and optimizing health care through using of E‑Mental-Health].

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Heinz, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a very common, severe, socio-economically highly relevant disorder and the main cause for approximately 10,000 suicides in Germany annually. There is capital room for improvement and optimization of the care for depressed patients, as effective and evidence-based treatment options are available. However, they are only used optimally by a minority of the people affected due to huge diagnostic and therapeutic deficits. The "Compentence Network on Depression and Suicidality" provided several evidence-based concepts to improve care for patients affected by depression and to prevent suicidal behaviour. Especially the four-level intervention approach of the Alliances Against Depression has been successfully adapted and implemented by more than 100 regions within Europe and globally as well. The infrastructure of the Competence Network could be efficiently sustained throughout the establishment of the German Depression Foundation and the European Alliance against Depression. Since 2014, all research activities have been extended nationally and internationally by the establishment of a Depression Research Centre with a special focus on various E‑Mental-Health-projects.

  12. Biobehavioral Correlates of Depression in Reaction to Mental and Physical Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-07

    perceived to exceed ability, anxiety and frustration are likely outcomes (Yeung, 1996). Therefore, the participants’ expectations of performance...DATE MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biobehavioral Correlates of Depression in...cardiovascular health outcomes . These findings may also lead to novel interventions aimed at reducing hyper-reactivity to challenge with potential

  13. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... crime punishable by hefty fines and jail time. How Can Someone Quit? Quitting depressants can be very difficult. A person who tries to stop taking the drugs can have tremors, breathing problems, and seizures, go into a coma, or even die. Because the body's systems get used to the ...

  14. Subjective Versus Objective: An Exploratory Analysis of Latino Primary Care Patients With Self-Perceived Depression Who Do Not Fulfill Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire Criteria for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I.; Dixon, Jane K.; Desai, Mayur M.; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. Method: A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as “depression” from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Results: Participants’ descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with “subjective” depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with “objective” depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P < .0001). Conclusions: Latino immigrants who perceive that they need help with depression, but do not meet screening criteria for depression, still have significant distress and impairment. To avoid having these patients “fall through the cracks,” it is important to take into account culturally accepted expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual. PMID:21274360

  15. Depression and College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  16. Association of Painful Musculoskeletal Conditions and Migraine Headache With Mental and Sleep Disorders Among Adults With Disabilities, Spain, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Failde, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine headache or any other headache in a sample of Spanish adults with disabilities and their association with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Spanish national disability and dependence survey (2007–2008) of 16,932 adults aged 18 or older who have disabilities. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of painful musculoskeletal conditions was determined according to a diagnosis of arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, muscular dystrophy, and neck or back pain. The prevalence of migraine or other headache was also calculated. Factors associated with these painful conditions were analyzed separately for men and women by using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions was 66.9% (95% CI, 66.2%–67.6%) and that of migraine or other headache was 23.4% (95% CI, 22.8%–24.1%), both of which were higher in women than in men. Factors associated with these conditions in both men and women included older age, a sleep disorder, and concomitant chronic anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion The prevalence of painful musculoskeletal conditions and migraine or other headache is high in people with disability in Spain, especially in women, and these conditions often coexist with depression, anxiety, and/or a sleep disorder. To design programs for rehabilitating and improving the quality of life of adults with disability and painful conditions, treatments for mental and/or sleep disorders should be considered in addition to conventional treatments. PMID:24576397

  17. Depression.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  18. [Survey regarding mental health conditions of high school students and attitudes of students and their teachers toward students' mental health issues].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Isao; Fujii, Chiyo; Fukuzawa, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    We administered a self-reporting questionnaire survey regarding the mental health conditions of high school students and attitudes of students and their teachers toward students' mental health issues. In addition, we discussed the requirements for high school students' mental health support system. The subjects were 3,312 students and 208 teachers in four Shizuoka prefectural public high schools in 2009. University Personality Inventory (UPI) is usually conducted to assess university students' mental state and is a questionnaire that high school students can answer easily. Therefore, we adopted UPI for this survey. UPI was composed of 56 unhealthy and 4 healthy condition items. High school students completed the UPI and determined the sum of unhealthy condition items; a higher score indicated a poorer mental health status. The average UPI score of all students (n = 3,312) was 12.7 points, and that of females (n = 1,217)was 15.2 points, which was significantly higher than the 11.3 points of males (n = 2,095). Those with scores > or = 30 points (7.5%), which was more than half of the maximum score, were designated as the High Score (HS) group and considered to have poor mental health. Those with scores of > or = 40 (1.4%) seemed to have very poor mental health, and there was concern that they may be suffering from psychosis. Our observations indicated that HS students were likely to avoid seeking help regarding mental health issues, which was especially true for male HS students. The majority of students chose their friends and parents as advisers, but HS students were significantly more likely to choose advisers who were engaged in jobs related to medical work. Students in both the HS and non-HS groups who did not wish to consult anyone else about their mental conditions wanted to be approached by those around them. High school teachers hesitated to intervene with mentally disturbed students and attempted to resolve problems within the school. Thus, it appears

  19. Experience of primary care among homeless individuals with mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, Joya G; Glover, Dawn L; Young, Alexander S; Whelan, Fiona; Austin, Erika L; Johnson, Nancy K; Pollio, David E; Holt, Cheryl L; Stringfellow, Erin; Gordon, Adam J; Kim, Theresa A; Daigle, Shanette G; Steward, Jocelyn L; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of primary care to homeless individuals with mental health conditions presents unique challenges. To inform healthcare improvement, we studied predictors of favorable primary care experience among homeless persons with mental health conditions treated at sites that varied in degree of homeless-specific service tailoring. This was a multi-site, survey-based comparison of primary care experiences at three mainstream primary care clinics of the Veterans Administration (VA), one homeless-tailored VA clinic, and one tailored non-VA healthcare program. Persons who accessed primary care service two or more times from July 2008 through June 2010 (N = 366) were randomly sampled. Predictor variables included patient and organization characteristics suggested by the patient perception model developed by Sofaer and Firminger (2005), with an emphasis on mental health. The primary care experience was assessed with the Primary Care Quality-Homeless (PCQ-H) questionnaire, a validated survey instrument. Multiple regression identified predictors of positive experiences (i.e. higher PCQ-H total score). Significant predictors of a positive experience included a site offering tailored service design, perceived choice among providers, and currently domiciled status. There was an interaction effect between site and severe psychiatric symptoms. For persons with severe psychiatric symptoms, a homeless-tailored service design was significantly associated with a more favorable primary care experience. For persons without severe psychiatric symptoms, this difference was not significant. This study supports the importance of tailored healthcare delivery designed for homeless persons' needs, with such services potentially holding special relevance for persons with mental health conditions. To improve patient experience among the homeless, organizations may want to deliver services that are tailored to homelessness and offer a choice of providers.

  20. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Birchler-Pedross, Angelina; Frey, Sylvia; Götz, Thomas; Brunner, Patrick; Knoblauch, Vera; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Chellappa, Sarah L.; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD) can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD) without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure) and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure) protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m.), under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established. PMID:27941666

  1. The Relations between the Mental Condition of the Care House Residents and Finger Plethysmograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohashi, Yoko; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Lee, Sangjae

    2011-06-01

    We measured the fingertip pulse waves of some of the elderly living in a care house (a welfare facility for the elderly) four times a day over two days to investigate their mental condition. We analyzed the chaotic information produced by the finger pulse waves using a nonlinear analysis method. The results of our research are as follows: 1) The Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE), which synchronizes to mental revitalization, rose when the care house residents felt happy. 2) After moderate movement (a stroll, etc.), the LLE was high. 3) The LLE did not rise when a regular action was carried out non-vigorously to kill time. 4) When residents made contact (a phone call or letter, etc.) with a family member, the LLE was high. 5) The LLE of long-term residents was high. 6) The majority of residents with high LLE moved into the care house in their early seventies. 7) The LLE of short-term residents was low and their sympathetic nerves were high. 8) There was no relativity between the LLE and present age of the care house residents. On this basis, the authors propose that fuller support of care house residents is crucial for the objective ascertainment of their mental condition.

  2. "Did I bring it on myself?" An exploratory study of the beliefs that adolescents referred to mental health services have about the causes of their depression.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nick; Parkinson, Sally; Holmes, Joshua; Stapley, Emily; Eatough, Virginia; Target, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The causal beliefs which adults have regarding their mental health difficulties have been linked to help-seeking behaviour, treatment preferences, and the outcome of therapy; yet, the topic remains a relatively unexplored one in the adolescent literature. This exploratory study aims to explore the causal beliefs regarding depression among a sample of clinically referred adolescents. Seventy seven adolescents, aged between 11 and 17, all diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule, at the beginning of their participation in a randomised controlled trial. Data were analysed qualitatively using framework analysis. The study identified three themes related to causal beliefs: (1) bewilderment about why they were depressed; (2) depression as a result of rejection, victimisation, and stress; and (3) something inside is to blame. Although some adolescents struggled to identify the causes of their depression, many identified stressful life experiences as the cause of their current depression. They also tended to emphasise their own negative ways of interpreting those events, and some believed that their depression was caused by something inside them. Adolescents' causal beliefs are likely to have implications for the way they seek help and engage in treatment, making it important to understand how adolescents understand their difficulties.

  3. The contribution of negative reproductive experiences and chronic medical conditions to depression and pain among Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Sarid, Orly; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Cwikel, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms on pain. Our findings corroborate with previous studies demonstrating that depression and pain are two interrelated, but different phenomena, which have both common and distinct risk factors. The findings are discussed in the light of stress and adaptation theories that point to the long-term effects of stressful life events on emotional and physiological aspects such as depression and pain.

  4. A tool for sexual minority mental health research: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a depressive symptom severity measure for sexual minority women in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent validity, good external construct validity, and excellent reliability. The sample’s high endorsement of scale items emphasizes the need to study minority stress and mental health in this population. PMID:27642381

  5. Adherence to a Depression Self-Care Intervention among Primary Care Patients with Chronic Physical Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G.; Yaffe, Mark; Strumpf, Erin; Sewitch, Maida; Sussman, Tamara; Ciampi, Antonio; Lavoie, Kim; Belzile, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Among primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms, to assess (1) the effect of lay telephone coaching on adherence to a psycho-educational intervention for depression, (2) demographic characteristics that predict adherence and (3) the association between adherence and 6-month outcomes. Design:…

  6. Differences in Active Avoidance Conditioning in Male and Female Rats with Experimental Anxiety-Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khlebnikova, N N; Krupina, N A; Kushnareva, E Yu; Orlova, I N

    2015-07-01

    Using rat model of experimental anxiety-depressive disorder caused by postnatal administration of methionyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, we compared conditioned active avoidance response and memory retention in males and females. In experimental males and females, conditioning was impaired in comparison with the control. In experimental groups, females were worse learners than males, while in control groups, females were better learners than males. Memory retention in experimental animals did not differ from that in controls 24 h after learning. Two months after learning, control females demonstrated better retention than control males.

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Transdiagnostic Behavioral Intervention for Mental Health and Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Dindo, Lilian; Van Liew, Julia R; Arch, Joanna J

    2017-03-07

    Psychological interventions have a long history of successful treatment of patients suffering from mental health and certain medical conditions. At the same time, psychotherapy research has revealed key areas of growth for optimizing patient care. These include identifying novel treatment delivery methods that increase treatment adherence, developing new strategies to more effectively address the ever-growing population of patients with comorbid conditions, and elucidating the mechanisms by which effective treatments work in order to further refine their design. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported psychotherapy that offers promise for patients suffering from a wide range of mental and physical conditions, while addressing these gaps and challenges in the field. ACT rests on the fundamental premise that pain, grief, disappointment, illness, and anxiety are inevitable features of human life, with the therapeutic goal of helping individuals productively adapt to these types of challenges by developing greater psychological flexibility rather than engaging in counterproductive attempts to eliminate or suppress undesirable experiences. This is achieved through committed pursuit of valued life areas and directions, even in the face of the natural desire to escape or avoid painful and troubling experiences, emotions, and thoughts. ACT is transdiagnostic (applies to more than one condition), process-focused, and flexibly delivered. In a relatively short period of time, ACT has been effectively implemented across a broad range of therapeutic settings, including mental health, primary care, and specialty medical clinics. ACT has also been delivered in a variety of formats, including 1-day group workshops, online and smartphone applications, and telehealth. Focus on how best to package and deliver treatment to meet the unique needs of different patient populations helps to ensure treatment adherence and has fostered successful application of

  8. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health, chronic medical conditions, and development in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zhang, Jinjin; Nadeem, Erum; Stein, Ruth E. K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health, chronic medical conditions and social development among young children in the child welfare system. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, using a nationally representative sample of children investigated by child welfare (National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II) from 2008–2009. Our analysis included caregiver interviews and caseworker reports about children age 18–71 months who were not in out-of-home care (N=912). We examined the associations between ACEs and mental health (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), reported chronic medical conditions, and social development (measured by the Vineland Socialization Scale), in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Nearly all children (98.1%) were reported to have had an ACE in their lifetime; the average number of ACEs was 3.6. For every additional reported ACE there was a 32% increased odds of having a problem score on the CBCL (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.14, 1.53), and a 21% increased odds of having a chronic medical condition (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40). Among children 36–71 months, for every additional reported ACE there was a 77% increased odds of a low Vineland Socialization score (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78). Conclusion and Relevance ACEs were associated with poor early childhood mental health and chronic medical conditions, and, among children age 3–5, social development. Efforts are needed to examine whether providing early intervention to families with multiple stressors mitigates the impact of ACEs on children’s outcomes. PMID:26183001

  9. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-12-26

    Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006-2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.

  10. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults. PMID:28035968

  11. The aftermath of public housing relocations: relationships between changes in local socioeconomic conditions and depressive symptoms in a cohort of adult relocaters.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny; Haley, Danielle F; Ross, Zev; Rothenberg, Richard; Bonney, Loida E

    2014-04-01

    and social disorder; these reductions were sustained across waves 2-4. A 1 standard deviation improvement in economic conditions was associated with a 1-unit reduction in CES-D scores; the magnitude of this relationship did not vary by baseline substance misuse or gender. Reduced perceived community violence also predicted lower CES-D scores. Our objective measure of social disorder was unrelated to depressive symptoms. We found that relocaters who experienced greater pre-/postrelocation improvements in economic conditions or in perceived community violence experienced fewer depressive symptoms. Combined with past research, these findings suggest that relocation initiatives should focus on the quality of the places to which relocaters move; future research should also identify pathways linking pre-/postrelocation changes in place characteristics to changes in mental health.

  12. Meeting the "Now" Need: PMH-APRN-- Interpreter Teams Provide In-Home Mental Health Intervention for Depressed Latina Mothers With Limited English Proficiency.

    PubMed

    Beeber, Linda S; Lewis, Virginia S; Cooper, Carolyn; Maxwell, Lauren; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2009-08-01

    Latina mothers of infants and toddlers are at high risk for developing serious depressive symptoms if they are newly immigrated and have limited English proficiency (LEP). Depressive symptoms compromise these mothers and result in severe consequences for their U.S.-born children. A randomized clinical trial of a short-term, in-home psychotherapy intervention for symptomatic mothers in an area of the United States where bilingual mental health providers were scarce used teams of English-speaking advanced practice psychiatric mental health nurses and bilingual community interpreters who were trained in a conduit, consecutive model of interpretation. The article describes the development of a theoretically congruent interpreter model, the training program that supported it, the challenges that surfaced and lessons learned during successful implementation in the field. Future refinements in progress and uses of the model are discussed.

  13. Comorbid Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in 509 Individuals With an At-Risk Mental State: Impact on Psychopathology and Transition to Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current diagnostic system for subjects at enhanced clinical risk of psychosis allows concurrent comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders. Their impact on the presenting high-risk psychopathology, functioning, and transition outcomes has not been widely researched. Methods: In a large sample of subjects with an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS, n = 509), we estimated the prevalence of DSM/SCID anxiety or depressive disorders and their impact on psychopathology, functioning, and psychosis transition. A meta-analytical review of the literature complemented the analysis. Results: About 73% of ARMS subjects had a comorbid axis I diagnosis in addition to the “at-risk” signs and symptoms. About 40% of ARMS subjects had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder while anxiety disorders were less frequent (8%). The meta-analysis conducted in 1683 high-risk subjects confirmed that baseline prevalence of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders is respectively 41% and 15%. At a psychopathological level, comorbid diagnoses of anxiety or depression were associated with higher suicidality or self-harm behaviors, disorganized/odd/stigmatizing behavior, and avolition/apathy. Comorbid anxiety and depressive diagnoses were also associated with impaired global functioning but had no effect on risk of transition to frank psychosis. Meta-regression analyses confirmed no effect of baseline anxiety and/or depressive comorbid diagnoses on transition to psychosis. Conclusions: The ARMS patients are characterized by high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in addition to their attenuated psychotic symptoms. These symptoms may reflect core emotional dysregulation processes and delusional mood in prodromal psychosis. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are likely to impact the ongoing psychopathology, the global functioning, and the overall longitudinal outcome of these patients. PMID:23180756

  14. Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, PTSD and Use of Mental Health Resources among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; BOLYARD, RICHELLE; MCFADGION, AKOSOA L.; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; CALLWOOD, GLORIA B.; COVERSTON, CATHERINE R.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Methods Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n=431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the US and the US Virgin Islands. Results Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Conclusions Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs. PMID:23581838

  15. Intimate partner violence, depression, PTSD, and use of mental health resources among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Bolyard, Richelle; McFadgion, Akosoa L; Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Callwood, Gloria B; Coverston, Catherine R; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n = 431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African-American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs.

  16. Work and Mental Complaints: Are Response Outcome Expectancies More Important Than Work Conditions and Number of Subjective Health Complaints?

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Indahl, Aage; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2016-06-24

    Purpose Investigate the relative effect of response outcome expectancies, work conditions, and number of subjective health complaints (SHC) on anxiety and depression in Norwegian employees. Learned response outcome expectancies are important contributors to health. Individual differences in the expectancy to cope with workplace and general life demands may be important for how work conditions influence health. Method A survey was conducted among 1746 municipal employees (mean age 44.1, SD = 11.5, 81.5 % female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This cross-sectional study used baseline data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Outcome variables were anxiety and depression; response outcome expectancies, work conditions, and number of SHC were independent variables. Results A high number of SHC was a significant factor in explaining anxiety (OR 1.26), depression (OR 1.22) and comorbid anxiety and depression (OR 1.31). A high degree of no and/or negative response outcome expectancies was a significant factor in explaining depression (OR 1.19) and comorbid anxiety and depression (OR 1.28). The variance accounted for in the full models was 14 % for anxiety, 23 % for depression, and 41 % for comorbid anxiety and depression. Conclusion A high number of SHC, and a high degree of no and/or negative response outcome expectancies were associated with anxiety and depression. The strongest association was found for number of SHC. However, previous studies indicate that it may not be possible to prevent the occurrence of SHC. We suggest that workplace interventions targeting anxiety and depression could focus on influencing and altering employees' response outcome expectancies.

  17. Relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees' working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p < .001). The strength of relationship between working conditions and intention to leave was slightly mediated by employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.

  18. Comparing barriers to mental health treatment and substance use disorder treatment among individuals with comorbid major depression and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Crum, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    Barriers to both mental health and substance use disorder treatments have rarely been examined among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. In a sample of 393 adults with 12-month major depressive episodes and substance use disorders, we compared perceived barriers to these two types of treatments. Data were drawn from the 2005-2011 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Overall, the same individuals experienced different barriers to mental health treatment versus substance use disorder treatment. Concerns about negative views of the community, effects on job, and inconvenience of services were more commonly reported as reasons for not receiving substance use disorder treatment. Not affording the cost of care was the most common barrier to both types of treatments, but more commonly reported as a barrier to mental health treatment. Improved financial access through the Affordable Care Act and parity legislation and integration of mental health and substance use disorder services may help to reduce treatment barriers among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance disorders.

  19. Smokers with Self-Reported Mental Health Conditions: A Case for Screening in the Context of Tobacco Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Anthenelli, Robert M.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background People with mental health conditions (MHC) smoke at high rates and many die prematurely from smoking-related illnesses. Smoking cessation programs, however, generally do not screen for MHC. This study examined the utility of MHC screening in a large tobacco quitline to determine whether self-reported MHC predicts service utilization and quitting behaviors. Methods & Findings A brief set of question on MHC was embedded in the routine intake of a state quitline, and 125,261 smokers calling from June 2012 to September 2015 were asked the questions. Quit attempt rate and 6-month success rate were analyzed for a random subset of participants. Overall, 52.2% of smokers reported at least one MHC. Demographic patterns like gender or ethnic difference in self-reported MHC were similar to that in the general population. Depression disorder was reported most often (38.6%), followed by anxiety disorder (33.8%), bipolar disorder (17.0%), drug/alcohol abuse (11.9%), and schizophrenia (7.9%). Among those reporting any MHC, about two-thirds reported more than 1 MHC. Smokers with MHC received more counseling than smokers with no MHC. Quit attempt rates were high for all three groups (>70%). The probability of relapse was greater for those with more than one MHC than for those with one MHC (p<0.005), which in turn was greater than those with no MHC (p < .01). The six-month prolonged abstinence rates for the three conditions were, 21.8%, 28.6%, and 33.7%, respectively. The main limitation of this study is the use of a non-validated self-report question to assess MHC, even though it appears to be useful for predicting quitting behavior. Conclusions Smokers with MHC actively seek treatment to quit. Smoking cessation services can use a brief set of questions to screen for MHC to help identify smokers in need of more intensive treatment to quit smoking. PMID:27391334

  20. Effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for obesity on mental and physical components of quality of life: the mediatory role of depression.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, Chiara; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Laghezza, Loredana; Reboldi, Gian Paolo; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2013-02-01

    The current study investigates the effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for obesity on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). In this study, 92 adults with obesity were weighed and completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the baseline and at the end of a 3-month intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), a series of hierarchical regressions, and the statistical mediation analysis of Baron and Kenny were conducted. (a) Over 3 months, changes in weight and the mental and physical scales of the SF-36 and depression were all significant. (b) The results indicate a significant mediation of changes in depression scores for the association between weight loss and enhancement on the General Health scale of the SF-36. Improvements to HRQoL from a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention seem to affect both the physical and mental components of the SF-36 score and to reduce depression, contributing to enhanced self-perceptions of well-being.

  1. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers.

  2. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. PMID:26366433

  3. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.

  4. Timing conditions and the magnitude of gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Rodgers, Marguerite A; McCormick, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of timing conditions on the magnitude of gender differences in performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). In Experiment 1, each of 196 females and 119 males was administered the MRT via a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in one of five timing conditions (15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 sec). The participants were exposed to each MRT item for the period specified in the assigned timing condition. Experiment 2 was conducted to address flaws found in Experiment 1. Accordingly, each of 105 females and 105 males was individually administered the task in one of three timing conditions (15 sec, 25 sec, or unlimited duration). The results of both experiments showed that the magnitude of gender differences was similar across timing conditions when a conventional scoring method was used. An analysis of guessing behavior generally indicated that men tend to show little effect of timing conditions, whereas women's propensity to guess increases when they are given more time to respond. In general, the results supported an interpretation of gender differences on the MRT that relies on the joint operation of performance factors and level of spatial ability.

  5. Bereavement and depression: possible changes to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: a report from the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Association for Death Education and Counseling.

    PubMed

    Balk, David E; Noppe, Illee; Sandler, Irwin; Werth, James

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is being revised. A proposed revision hotly debated is to remove what is known as the exclusionary criterion and allow clinicians to diagnose a person with a major depressive episode within the early days and weeks following a death. The Executive Committee of the Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC) commissioned its Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) to examine the debate over removing the exclusionary criterion and provide a written report. The DSM-IV-TR classifies bereavement as a clinical condition that is not a mental disorder. The exclusionary criterion states that within the first 2 months of the onset of bereavement a person should not be diagnosed as having major depression unless certain symptoms not characteristic of a normal grief reaction are present. We note these symptoms when discussing the exclusionary criterion. In the report we identify the features that comprise the exclusionary criterion, examine reasons (including research conclusions and clinical concerns) given for retaining and for eliminating the exclusionary criterion, offer extensive comments from experienced licensed clinicians about the issues involved, discuss diagnostic and treatment implications, and offer specific recommendations for ADEC to implement.

  6. Preferred Features of E-Mental Health Programs for Prevention of Major Depression in Male Workers: Results From a Canadian National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W; Ho, Kendall; Attridge, Mark; Lashewicz, Bonnie M; Patten, Scott B; Marchand, Alain; Aiken, Alice; Schmitz, Norbert; Gundu, Sarika; Rewari, Nitika; Hodgins, David; Bulloch, Andrew; Merali, Zul

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression is a prevalent mental disorder and imposes considerable burden on health and productivity. Men are not immune to major depression, yet they often delay seeking help because of perceived stigma and gender norms. E-mental health programs hold potential for early prevention of major depression. However, we have little knowledge about men’s preferences for design features of e-mental health programs. Objectives The objective of this study was to (1) estimate and compare the proportions of Internet use for medical information, preferred design features, and likely use of e-mental health programs; (2) examine factors associated with the likely use of e-mental health programs; and (3) understand potential barriers to the use of e-mental health programs among Canadian working men, who were at high risk of a major depressive episode (MDE). Methods A cross-sectional survey in 10 Canadian provinces was conducted between March and December 2015. Random digit dialing method was used through household landlines and cell phones to collect data from 511 working men who were at high risk of having an MDE and 330 working men who were at low risk of having an MDE. Results High-risk men were more likely to endorse the importance of accessing health resources on the Internet than low-risk men (83.4% vs 75.0%, respectively; P=.01). Of the 17 different features assessed, the top three features most likely to be used by high-risk men were: “information about improving sleep hygiene” (61.3%), “practice and exercise to help reduce symptoms of stress and depression” (59.5%), and “having access to quality information and resources about work stress issues” (57.8%). Compared with men at low risk for MDE, men at high risk for MDE were much more likely to consider using almost every one of the different design features. Differences in preferences for the design features by age among men at high risk of MDE were found only for 3 of 17 features

  7. Cycling through the Blues: The Impact of Systemic External Stressors on Student Mental States and Symptoms of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to find if the structure of the demands of the quarter system impacts the levels of depression reported in the school's student body. That is, can the external and systemic stressors at be linked to levels of depressive symptoms? This study proposes that depressive symptoms may be linked to external stresses exerted on the student…

  8. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued.

  9. Effects of 6-Times-Weekly Versus 3-Times-Weekly Hemodialysis on Depressive Symptoms and Self-reported Mental Health: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Mark L.; Larive, Brett; Chertow, Glenn M; Eggers, Paul W.; Garg, Amit X.; Gassman, Jennifer; Tarallo, Maria; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis frequently exhibit poor mental health. We studied the effects of frequent in-center and nocturnal hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and self-reported mental health. Study Design 1-year randomized-controlled clinical trials. Setting & Participants Hemodialysis centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 332 patients were randomized to frequent (six times per week) as compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily (n=245) and Nocturnal (n=87) Trials. Intervention Daily Trial was a trial of frequent (six times per week), as compared with conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial assigned patients to either frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (six times per week) or conventional hemodialysis (three times per week). Outcomes Self-reported depressive symptoms and mental health. Measurements Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the mental health composite (MHC) score and emotional subscale of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The MHC score is derived by summarizing these domains of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey: emotional, role emotional, energy/fatigue, and social functioning scales. Results In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis demonstrated no significant change over 12 months in adjusted mean BDI (−1.9 ± 0.7 vs. −0.6 ± 0.7; p=0.2), but experienced clinically significant improvements in adjusted mean MHC (3.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 1.0; P<0.01) and the emotional subscale (5.2 ± 1.6 vs. −0.3 ± 1.7; p=0.01). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant changes among subjects randomized to nocturnal as compared with conventional hemodialysis on the same metrics. Limitations The trial interventions were not blinded. Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis, as compared with conventional in

  10. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Miguel; Vilagut, Gemma; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C.; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of the societal burden of mental disorders is the extent to which these problems cause disability. Aims To assess days out of role associated with commonly occurring mental disorders in comparison with physical disorders in Portugal. Method National cross-sectional survey, with home interviews carried out with 3849 adult (aged 18+) respondents (57.3% response rate). Results Twelve-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 21.8%, any physical disorder 55.1% and any disorder 63.1%, with an average of 2.3 disorders per respondent with a disorder. Close to one out of every 10 respondents (9.2%) reported at least one day totally out of role in the past month (median of 6.4 days/any). The 18 conditions accounted for 78.2% of all days out of role, with 20.2% because of mental disorders and 59.2% because of physical disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders account for a substantial proportion of all role disability in the Portuguese population. Early detection and intervention would have a positive societal effect. Owing to highly frequent comorbidity, simultaneous management of mental and physical disorder comorbidities is advised for greater effect. Declaration of interest R.C.K. in the past 3 years has been a consultant for Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Johnson & Johnson’s Wellness and Prevention, Inc. and Sanofi-Aventis Groupe. He has served on advisory boards for Mensante Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Lake Nona Life Project and U.S. Preventive Medicine, Inc. He is a co-owner of DataStat, Inc. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243461

  11. Suppositions, Extensionality, and Conditionals: A Critique of the Mental Model Theory of Johnson-Laird and Byrne (2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Over, David E.; Handley, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    P. N. Johnson-Laird and R. M. J. Byrne proposed an influential theory of conditionals in which mental models represent logical possibilities and inferences are drawn from the extensions of possibilities that are used to represent conditionals. In this article, the authors argue that the extensional semantics underlying this theory is equivalent to…

  12. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  13. How to Use the H1 Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil for Conditions Other than Depression

    PubMed Central

    Tendler, Aron; Roth, Yiftach; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zangen, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a relatively new technique that uses different coils for the treatment of different neuropathologies. The coils are made of soft copper windings in multiple planes that lie adjacent to the skull. They are located within a special helmet so that their magnetic fields combine and improve depth penetration. The H1 dTMS coil is designed to stimulate bilateral prefrontal cortices with greater effective stimulation over the left than the right. By positioning the left side of the coil close to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the H1 coil was used in a multisite study, leading to FDA approval for treatment-resistant depression. In this same position, the H1 coil was also explored as a possible treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar depression, and migraine. When moved to different positions over the subject's skull, the H1 coil was also explored as a possible treatment for other conditions. Such manipulation of the H1 coil was demonstrated for PTSD and alcohol dependence by positioning it over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), for anxiety by positioning it over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), for auditory hallucinations and tinnitus by positioning it over the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), and for Parkinson's and fatigue from multiple sclerosis (MS) by positioning it over the motor cortex (MC) and PFC. Corresponding electrical field diagrams measured with an oscilloscope through a saline-filled head are included. PMID:28190035

  14. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  15. Conditional Probabilities in the Diagnosis of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Determined most efficient inclusion and exclusion criteria for differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety in children. Results from fourth through seventh graders indicated that four symptoms served as efficient inclusion and exclusion criteria for depressive disorders: feeling unloved, anhedonia, excessive guilt, and depressed mood.…

  16. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems.

  17. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits

  18. A collaborative approach to identifying effective incentives for mental health clinicians to improve depression care in a large managed behavioral healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Branstrom, Robert B; Azocar, Francisca; Fikes, Ruth; Ettner, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    This descriptive study used stakeholder input to prioritize evidence-based strategies for improving depression care and to select incentives for mental health clinicians to adopt those strategies, and to conduct a feasibility test of an incentive-based program in a managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO). In two rounds of interviews and a stakeholder meeting, MBHO administrators and clinicians selected increasing combination treatment (antidepressant plus psychotherapy) rates as the program goal; and paying a bonus for case reviews, clinician feedback, and clinician education as incentives. We assessed program feasibility with case review and clinician surveys from a large independent practice association that contracts with the MBHO. Findings suggest that providing incentives for mental health clinicians is feasible and the incentive program did increase awareness. However, adoption may be challenging because of administrative barriers and limited clinical data available to MBHOs.

  19. Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002–2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is known to be a significant risk factor for mental disorders in Western societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar association exists in Japan. Methods We used data from the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted from 2002–2006 (weighted N = 1,682). Respondents completed diagnostic interviews that assessed lifetime prevalence of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Associations between parental education (a proxy of SES in childhood) and lifetime onset of both disorders were estimated and stratified by gender using discrete-time survival analysis. Results Among women, high parental education was positively associated with MD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-3.18) in comparison with low parental education, even after adjustment for age, childhood characteristics, and SES in adulthood. This same effect was not found for men. In contrast, higher parental education was associated with GAD (OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 1.62-28.94) in comparison with low parental education among men, but this association was not found among the women, in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions In Japan, childhood SES is likely to be positively associated with the lifetime onset of mental disorders, regardless of family history of mental disorders, childhood physical illness, or SES in adulthood. Further study is required to replicate the current findings and elucidate the mechanism of the positive association between mental disorders and childhood SES. PMID:24735450

  20. Associations between comorbid health conditions and the use of mental health services among adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined to what extent the number of comorbid health conditions was associated with various mental health service utilization among people with bipolar disorder. The results of logistic regression models indicate that a greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with higher odds of using specialty mental health service, while they were not associated with utilization of services provided by general health care providers. The type of bipolar disorder, functional impairment, and marital status were found to be associated with the use of a specialty service, while ethnicity was the only covariate significantly related to general health care use.

  1. Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R.C.; Sampson, N.A.; Berglund, P.; Gruber, M.J.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Karam, E.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E. Medina; Moskalewicz, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Oakley Browne, Mark A.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Vilagut, G.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Shahly, V.; Wilcox, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS 45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, p<.001) and suicide ideation (19.5% vs. 8.9%; χ21=71.6, p<.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people

  2. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... higher healthcare costs than non-depressed seniors. [5] Suicide Depression is a significant predictor of suicide in ...

  3. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers ... those suffering from severe depression will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a ...

  4. [Treatment of depressive patients in private practice--empirical results, health political and social conditions and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Goesmann, Cornelia; Bühren, Astrid; Neuy-Bartmann, Astrid

    2007-09-01

    Although depression and symptoms of depression belong to the most common disorders in private practice, affected patients are not always diagnosed as early as possible in Germany and often not sufficiently treated. In order to improve the care for persons with depression it is necessary that family doctors are prepared to guide these patients with empathy, treat them adequately pharmacologically both in respect to the depression and to all other somatic aspects and to refer them in time to specialists for psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine or psychotherapy. Political and social conditions that have pathogenic effects should be changed and the shortage of psychotherapy needs to be overcome. In future, the integrated care in ambulant and clinical settings will probably be successful, first trials and test setups have shown good results.

  5. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD.

  6. Risk of Incident Mental Health Conditions Among Critical Care Air Transport (CCATT) Team Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    disorder , 300.0 for anxiety, 300.2 for phobias, 300.3 for obsessive compulsive disorder , 300.4 for neurotic depression, 308 for acute reaction to stress...reaction not including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, major depressive disorder , specific disorders of sleep of nonorganic origin...PTSD, and depressive disorder not elsewhere classified. Females were at marginally increased risk and nurses and technicians were at twice the risk of

  7. Serious mental illness, criminal risk, parole supervision, and recidivism: testing of conditional effects.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Ostermann, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who are released from prison tend to recidivate more quickly and at higher rates than similarly situated adults who do not have SMI. The current study examined whether this relationship with recidivism is mediated by criminal risk level and whether parole supervision can ameliorate the effects of SMI on recidivism. Findings indicate that SMI did exhibit a significant indirect effect with recidivism when considering its relationship with actuarially assessed risk. However, this indirect effect was not conditioned by whether the individual was released to parole; specifically release status did not moderate the relationship between risk and recidivism. The direct effects of SMI on recidivism were found to be conditioned upon release status. Specifically, we found no relationship between SMI and recidivism for parolees and a negative relationship between SMI and recidivism among nonparolees. Findings indicate a need for paroling authorities to find more effective ways of reducing criminal risk, which can decrease subsequent recidivism, among the individuals they supervise.

  8. Helping Students through Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Data from the federal Center for Mental Health Services indicate that one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents may be suffering from depression. Up to 70% of children with diagnosable mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders are not receiving mental health services, according to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health.…

  9. The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory.

    PubMed

    Girotto, V; Mazzocco, A; Tasso, A

    1997-04-01

    The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus ponens because people do not represent the case not-q in their initial model of the conditional. On the basis of this theory, we predicted that conditions in which reasoners are forced to represent the not-q case should improve correct performance on modus tollens. In particular, we predicted that the presentation of the minor premise (not-q) as the initial premise should produce facilitation. Experiment 1 showed that this is the case: whereas the inversion of the premise order did not affect modus ponens, it produced a significant increase of valid conclusions for modus tollens. Experiment 2 showed that this facilitation does not depend on the negative form (contrary vs. contradictory) of the minor premise. Experiments 3 and 4 (and/or some of their replications) demonstrated that facilitation also occurs when participants are asked to find the cases compatible with not-q or to evaluate a p conclusion. No premise order effect was found for sentences which make explicit the not-q case right from the start, i.e. p only if q conditionals and biconditionals (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, Experiments 7 and 8 showed that the conditional fallacies are not significantly affected by the premise order.

  10. Substance use and mental health disorders among heterosexual identified men and women who have same-sex partners or same-sex attraction: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences.

  11. Initial Severity and Differential Treatment Outcome in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Irene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Random regression models were used to investigate the role of initial severity in the outcome of four treatments for major depression: cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, imipramine plus clinical management, and placebo plus clinical management. Initial severity of depression and impairment of functioning significantly…

  12. Mindfulness as an Alternative for Supporting University Student Mental Health: Cognitive-Emotional and Depressive Self-Criticism Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azam, Muhammad Abid; Mongrain, Myriam; Vora, Khushboo; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Azargive, Saam; Changoor, Tina; Wayne, Noah; Guglietti, Crissa; Macpherson, Alison; Irvine, Jane; Rotondi, Michael; Smith, Dawn; Perez, Daniel; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Increases in university-based mental health problems require alternative mental health programs, applicable to students with elevated psychological risks due to personality traits. This study examined the cognitive-emotional outcomes of a university mindfulness meditation (MM) program and their relationship with Self-Criticism (SC), a personality…

  13. Maternal sex effects and inbreeding depression under varied environmental conditions in gynodioecious Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Rebecca M.; Koski, Matthew H.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Gynodioecy (coexistence of females and hermaphrodites) is a sexual system that occurs in numerous flowering plant lineages. Thus, understanding the features that affect its maintenance has wide importance. Models predict that females must have a seed fitness advantage over hermaphrodites, and this may be achieved via seed quality or quantity. Females in a population of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata, a long-lived gynodioecious perennial, do not demonstrate a seed quantity advantage, so this study explored whether females produced better quality seed via maternal sex effects or avoidance of inbreeding depression (IBD). Methods Families of selfed and outcrossed seed were created using hermaphrodite mothers and families of outcrossed seed were created using female mothers. The effects of these pollination treatments were assessed under benign conditions early in life and under varied conditions later in life. To test for an effect of maternal sex, fitness components and traits associated with acclimation to variable environments of progeny of outbred hermaphrodites and females were compared. To test for expression of IBD, fitness parameters between inbred and outbred progeny of hermaphrodites were compared. Key Results Offspring of females were more likely to germinate in benign conditions and survive in harsh resource environments than outbred progeny of hermaphrodites. IBD was low across most life stages, and both the effect of maternal sex on progeny quality and the expression of IBD depended on both maternal family and resource condition of the progeny. Conclusions The effect of maternal sex and IBD on progeny quality depended on resource conditions, maternal lineage and progeny life stage. In conjunction with known lack of differences in seed quantity, the quality advantages and IBD observed here are still unlikely to be sufficient for maintenance of gynodioecy under nuclear inheritance of male sterility. PMID:23723257

  14. Mental health and functioning of children of low-income depressed mothers: Influences of parenting, family environment, and raters

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anne W.; Coiro, Mary Jo; Broitman, Marina; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Hurley, Kristen; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To extend understanding of the effects of maternal depression on children to low-income and minority families; to apply advanced analytic methods to incorporate the reports of mothers, fathers, and teachers on the emotional and behavior problems and adaptive skills of 4–10 year old urban children; and to examine parenting quality and family environment as possible explanations of high rates of problems among children whose mothers have depression compared to those whose mothers are not depressed. Methods Mothers who participated either had major depressive disorder (n=84) or did not (n=49). They were predominantly African-American or Latino and lived in low-income, urban communities. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children’s emotional, behavioral and adaptive functioning. Parenting behavior and family stress were examined as potential mediators and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to test mediation and to account for discrepancies in reports by different raters. Results By mother, father and teacher reports, children of depressed mothers had significantly poorer adaptive skills than children of sociodemographically-similar non-depressed mothers; and they had more emotional/behavior problems according to mothers and fathers. The quality of mothers’ parenting mediated these associations, but quality of the family environment did not. Conclusions This study extends the literature on the effects of maternal depression to low-income, minority families, and demonstrates that mothers, fathers and teachers observe worse functioning in children of depressed mothers than those of non-depressed mothers, although their perspectives vary somewhat. The impact of maternal depression suggests the importance of developing and funding services to address the needs of affected families. PMID:19252045

  15. Working with Students in the Medication Era: Do We All Have to Know How to Diagnose and Treat Mental Conditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alishio, Kip

    2005-01-01

    A marked increase in the number of college students on medications for depression, attention deficit disorder, and other conditions may have intimidated counselors and educators into believing that they all need to be medical experts. The widespread practice of medicalizing behavior and experience contrasts dramatically with the approach in which…

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  17. E-therapies in England for stress, anxiety or depression: what is being used in the NHS? A survey of mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, G; Moore, R K

    2017-01-01

    Objective To document the range of web and smartphone apps used and recommended for stress, anxiety or depression by the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Design The study was conducted using Freedom of Information (FOI) requests and systematic website searches. Data sources Data were collected via FOI requests to NHS services between 13 February 2015 and 31 March 2015, and searches conducted on NHS apps library websites between 26 March 2015 and 2 November 2015. Data collection/extraction methods Data were compiled from responses to: (1) FOI requests sent to all Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services and NHS Mental Health Trusts in England and (2) NHS apps library search results. Results A total of 61 (54.95%) out of the then 111 IAPT service providers responded, accounting for 191 IAPT services, and all 51 of the then NHS Mental Health Trusts responded. The results were that 13 different web apps and 35 different smartphone apps for depression, anxiety or stress were available through either referral services or the online NHS Apps Libraries. The apps used and recommended vary by area and by point of access (online library/IAPT/trust). Conclusions Future research is required to establish the evidence base for the apps that are being used in the NHS in England. There is a need for service provision to be based on evidence and established guidelines. PMID:28115336

  18. Maternal depression and mental health in early childhood: an examination of underlying mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Herba, Catherine M; Glover, Vivette; Ramchandani, Paul G; Rondon, Marta B

    2016-10-01

    Studies examining mechanisms underlying associations between maternal depression and adverse child outcomes (including behaviour, socioemotional adjustment, and emotion regulation) indicate that during pregnancy, maternal depression could affect child outcomes through altered placental function, epigenetic changes in the child, and stress reactivity. Infection and dietary deficiencies in the mother and the child, together with the child's genetic vulnerability, might also affect outcome. Postnatally, associations between maternal depression and child outcome are influenced by altered mother-child interactions, sociodemographic or environmental influences, and social support. Knowledge is scarce on mechanisms in low-income and middle-income countries where maternal depression is highly prevalent, and stressful factors that influence the development of perinatal maternal depression and adverse child outcome (eg, food insecurity, perinatal infections, crowded or rural living conditions, and interpersonal violence) are both more intense and more common than in high-income countries. We reviewed evidence and use the biopsychosocial model to illustrate risk factors, mediators and moderators underlying associations between maternal depression and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries.

  19. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  20. Risk Factors for Incident Postdeployment Mental Health Conditions Among U.S. Air Force Medical Service Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maupin, Genny M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; White, Edward D; Lysfjord, Heather J

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in military health care personnel appears to be on par with that of other military personnel. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of incident PDMH conditions within the overall population of U.S. Air Force Medical Service personnel. This study explored the epidemiology of incident PDMH conditions among Air Force Medical Service personnel returning from deployment. A cohort survival analysis was conducted of 24,409 subjects without preexisting mental health conditions and at least one deployment during 2003-2013. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a PDMH condition. The primary outcome measure was an incident PDMH condition defined as a mental health diagnosis on at least two separate clinical encounters. The incidence of PDMH conditions was 59.74 per 1,000 person-years. Adjustment, anxiety, mood, sleep, and post-traumatic stress disorders accounted for 78% diagnoses. Protective factors included officer, surgeon, specific enlisted career fields, Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, and multiple deployments. Risk factors included nurse, other specific enlisted career fields, female, and unmarried with dependents. Most subjects (73%) were diagnosed within the standard 30-month surveillance time period; median time to diagnosis was 13 months.

  1. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers.

  2. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  3. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015.

    PubMed

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2016-12-23

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS.

  4. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems among Adults with Mental Health Conditions, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) are especially likely to smoke and experience tobacco-related health disparities. Individuals with MHC may also use electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) at disproportionately high rates. However, there is a relative dearth of knowledge regarding ENDS use among individuals with MHC. In a large representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 6051), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and ENDS use and susceptibility were examined, stratified by smoking status. Participants with MHC were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have used ENDS in their lifetime and almost twice as likely to currently use ENDS as those without MHC. MHC status was most strongly linked to higher ENDS use among former smokers, and former smokers with MHC were more likely to report using ENDS during past smoking quit attempts than those without MHC. Among participants who had not tried ENDS, former smokers with MHC were especially susceptible to future ENDS use. The potential advantage of ENDS for cessation purposes should be balanced with the risk of attracting former smokers with MHC to ENDS. PMID:28025560

  5. Methodological considerations in service use assessment for children and youth with mental health conditions; issues for economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woolderink, M; Lynch, F L; van Asselt, A D I; Beecham, J; Evers, S M A A; Paulus, A T G; van Schayck, C P

    2015-05-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly used in decision-making. Accurate measurement of service use is critical to economic evaluation. This qualitative study, based on expert interviews, aims to identify best approaches to service use measurement for child mental health conditions, and to identify problems in current methods. Results suggest considerable agreement on strengths (e.g., availability of accurate instruments to measure service use) and weaknesses, (e.g., lack of unit prices for services outside the health sector) or alternative approaches to service use measurement. Experts also identified some unresolved problems, for example the lack of uniform definitions for some mental health services.

  6. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  7. Impact of obesity on the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Hrabosky, Joshua I; Francione, Caren; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy; Galione, Janine N

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several symptoms that are components of the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Compared with nonobese individuals, obese individuals report more fatigue, sleep disturbance, and overeating. Obesity might, therefore, impact the psychometric properties of the MDD criteria. The goal of the present report from the Rhode Island Hospital Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project was to examine the impact of obesity on the psychometric characteristics of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition symptom criteria for major depression. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight psychiatric outpatients were administered a semistructured diagnostic interview. We inquired about all symptoms of depression for all patients. The mean sensitivity of the 9 criteria in the nonobese and obese patients was nearly identical (74.6% vs 74.3%). The mean specificity was slightly higher in the nonobese patients (82.0% vs 79.5%). No symptom was more specific in the obese than the nonobese patients, whereas the specificity of increased appetite, increased weight, and fatigue was more than 5% lower in the obese patients. Increased appetite, increased weight, hypersomnia, and fatigue had a higher sensitivity in the obese than the nonobese patients, whereas decreased appetite, weight loss, and diminished concentration had a higher sensitivity in the nonobese than the obese patients. Thus, although there were small differences between obese and nonobese patients in the operating characteristics of some symptoms, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for MDD generally performed equally well for obese and nonobese patients.

  8. Lessons from community mental health to drive implementation in health care systems for people with long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    Tansella, Michele; Thornicroft, Graham; Lempp, Heidi

    2014-04-30

    This paper aims to identify which lessons learned from the evidence and the experiences accruing from the transformation in mental health services in recent decades may have relevance for the future development of healthcare for people with long-term physical conditions. First, nine principles are discussed which we first identified to guide mental health service organisation, and all of which can be potentially applied to long term care as well (autonomy, continuity, effectiveness, accessibility, comprehensiveness, equity, accountability, co-ordination, and efficiency). Second, we have outlined innovative operational aspects of service user participation, many of which were first initiated and consolidated in the mental health field, and some of which are now also being implemented in long term care (including case management, and crisis plans). We conclude that long term conditions, whether mental or physical, deserve a long-term commitment from the relevant health services, and indeed where continuity and co-ordination are properly funded implemented, this can ensure that the symptomatic course is more stable, quality of life is enhanced, and the clinical outcomes are more favourable. Innovations such as self-management for long-term conditions (intended to promote autonomy and empowerment) need to be subjected to the same level of rigorous scientific scrutiny as any other treatment or service interventions.

  9. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important.

  10. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    PubMed

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  11. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  12. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  13. Thermal conditions for geothermal energy exploitation in the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcin, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Bilčík, Dušan; Bezák, Vladimír; Korchagin, Ignat

    2016-03-01

    The contribution presents the results acquired both by direct cognitive geothermic methods and by modelling approaches of the lithosphere thermal state in the region of the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units. The activities were aimed at the determination of the temperature field distribution and heat flow density distribution in the upper parts of the Earth's crust within the studied area. Primary new terrestrial heat flow density map was constructed from values determined for boreholes, from their interpretations and from newest outcomes of geothermal modelling methods based on steady-state and transient approaches, and also from other recently gained geophysical and geological knowledge. Thereafter we constructed the maps of temperature field distribution for selected depth levels of up to 5000 m below the surface. For the construction we have used measured borehole temperature data, the interpolation and extrapolation methods, and the modelling results of the refraction effects and of the influences of source type anomalies. New maps and other geothermic data served for the determination of depths with rock temperatures suitable for energy utilization namely production of electric energy minimally by the binary cycles. Consequently the thermal conditions were used to identify the most perspective areas for geothermal energy exploitation in the region under study.

  14. Slow inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster express as much inbreeding depression as fast inbred lines under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Knudsen, Morten Ravn; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-04-01

    Selection may reduce the deleterious consequences of inbreeding. This may be due to purging of recessive deleterious alleles or balancing selection favouring heterozygote offspring. Such selection is expected to be more efficient at slower compared to at faster rates of inbreeding. In this study we tested the impact of inbreeding and the rate of inbreeding on fitness related traits (egg productivity, egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and behaviour) under cold and benign semi-natural thermal conditions using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. We used non-inbred control and slow and fast inbred lines (both with an expected inbreeding level of 0.25). The results show that contrary to expectations the slow inbred lines do not maintain higher average fitness than the fast inbred lines. Furthermore, we found that stressful environmental conditions increased the level of inbreeding depression but the impact of inbreeding rate on the level of inbreeding depression was not affected by the environmental conditions. The results do not support the hypothesis that inbreeding depression is less severe with slow compared to fast rates of inbreeding and illustrate that although selection may be more efficient with slower rates of inbreeding this does not necessary lead to less inbreeding depression.

  15. The effects of a brief CBT intervention, delivered by frontline mental health staff, to promote recovery in people with psychosis and comorbid anxiety or depression (the GOALS study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background NICE guidance states that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) should be offered to all patients with psychosis. However, there is a need to improve access to therapeutic interventions. We aim to train frontline mental health staff to deliver brief, structured CBT-based therapies. We have developed and piloted a manualized intervention to support people with psychosis and anxious avoidance or depression to work towards a personal recovery goal. Methods/Design The ‘GOALS Study’ is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing usual care plus an 8-week intervention with usual care alone. The key objective is to assess clinical feasibility (recruitment and randomization; compliance with the treatment manual; acceptability and satisfaction; progress towards goals). A secondary objective is a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Sixty-six participants with a diagnosis of psychosis, plus symptoms of depression or anxiety will be recruited from adult mental health services. Those currently refusing medication, in receipt of CBT, or with a primary diagnosis of an organic mental health problem or substance dependency will be excluded. Following informed consent, randomization will be independent of the trial team, at a 50:50 ratio, at the level of the individual and stratified by main problem focus. Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group will begin the 8-week intervention with a local, trained member of staff, supervised by the study coordinator. Outcomes will be assessed blind to treatment condition at 0, 12 and 18 weeks post-randomization. The primary outcome measure for the efficacy analysis will be activity levels at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include mood, psychotic symptoms, quality of life and clinical distress. A health economic analysis comparing service use in each condition will also be performed. Recruitment began in March, 2013 and is ongoing until December, 2014. Discussion This is the first trial of

  16. Latino adolescents' mental health: exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2007-08-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group comparison approach, path analyses indicated that higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and resolution significantly predicted higher levels of self-esteem for both boys and girls. Furthermore, self-esteem partially mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Additional analyses revealed that boys' cultural orientations moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Taken together, findings indicated that various aspects of the self (i.e. self-esteem, ethnic identity, cultural orientations) can protect and/or enhance the risks associated with discrimination.

  17. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  18. The associations between psychosocial working conditions and changes in common mental disorders: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. Methods The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001–2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N = 4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Results Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health. PMID:24916716

  19. The effect of adolescents' sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún

    2013-01-01

    Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way.

  20. Suppositions, extensionality, and conditionals: a critique of the mental model theory of Johnson-Laird And Byrne (2002).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Over, David E; Handley, Simon J

    2005-10-01

    P. N. Johnson-Laird and R. M. J. Byrne proposed an influential theory of conditionals in which mental models represent logical possibilities and inferences are drawn from the extensions of possibilities that are used to represent conditionals. In this article, the authors argue that the extensional semantics underlying this theory is equivalent to that of the material, truth-functional conditional, at least for what they term "basic" conditionals, concerning arbitrary problem content. On the basis of both logical argument and psychological evidence, the authors propose that this approach is fundamentally mistaken and that conditionals must be viewed within a suppositional theory based on what philosophical logicians call the Ramsey test. The Johnson-Laird and Byrne theory is critically examined with respect to its account of basic conditionals, nonbasic conditionals, and counterfactuals.

  1. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  2. Dietary inflammatory index, cardiometabolic conditions and depression in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ruíz-Canela, Miguel; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Gea, Alfredo; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2015-11-14

    Only one prospective study has analysed the relationship between the inflammatory properties of diet and risk of depression thus far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the incidence of depression. In a cohort study of 15 093 university graduates, participants completed a validated FFQ at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The DII was calculated based on the FFQ. Each of the twenty-eight nutrients or foods received a score based on findings from the peer-reviewed literature reporting on the relationships between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and C-reactive protein). Participants were classified as having depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician, antidepressant drugs, or both. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to quintiles of the DII. After a median 8·5 years of follow-up, we observed 1051 incident cases of depression. The HR for participants in the highest quintile of DII (strongly pro-inflammatory) was 1·47 (95% CI 1·17, 1·85) compared with those in the bottom quintile, with a significant dose-response relationship (P trend=0·01). In the subgroup analyses, the association between DII and depression was stronger among participants >55 years and among those with cardiometabolic comorbidities (HR 2·70; 95% CI 1·22, 5·97 and HR 1·80; 95% CI 1·27, 2·57, respectively). A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk of depression in a Mediterranean population. This association was stronger among older subjects and subjects with cardiometabolic diseases.

  3. Applying social and cultural capital frameworks: understanding employment perspectives of transition age youth with serious mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Vorhies, Vanessa; Davis, Kristin E; Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Kaiser, Susan M

    2012-07-01

    Vulnerable transition age youth, such as those in foster care and with serious mental health conditions, are at increased risk for lower rates of employment. Social capital is empirically linked to employment in the general population, yet little is known about the role of social capital in employment for at-risk transition age youth. Focus groups were conducted with young people with serious mental health conditions and their vocational specialists. Discussions reveal that both social and cultural capital influence employment processes. Those with employment experience value the motivation to work provided through others compared to those with no employment experience. Consistently employed describe strong working relationships with vocational specialists and possession of self-awareness, professionalism, and work-place knowledge as critical for employment success, while inconsistently employed describe worries about controlling emotions or behaviors on the job. Building social and cultural capital are explored as potential service provider goals.

  4. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode with and without atypical features: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Vesga-López, Oriana; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment-seeking among individuals with a lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) with and without atypical features. Methods Data were derived from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population, which assessed psychiatric disorders using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Comparison groups were defined based on the presence or absence of hypersomnia or hyperphagia in individuals who meet criteria for lifetime DSM-IV MDE. Results The presence of atypical features during a MDE was associated with greater rates of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol abuse, drug dependence, dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia and any personality disorder (PD), except antisocial PD, than MDE without atypical features. Compared with the later group, MDE with atypical features was associated with female gender, younger age of onset, more MDEs, greater episode severity and disability, higher rates of family history of depression, bipolar I disorder, suicide attempts, and larger mental health treatment-seeking rates. Conclusions Our data provide further evidence for the clinical significance and validity of this depressive specifier. Based on the presence of any of the two reversed vegetative symptoms during an MDE most of the commonly cited validators of atypical depression were confirmed in our study. MDE with atypical features may be more common, severe, and impairing than previously documented. PMID:21939615

  5. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  6. The Theory of Planned Behavior as It Predicts Potential Intention to Seek Mental Health Services for Depression among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohon, Lisa M.; Cotter, Kelly A.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Cello, Philip C.; Fernandez y Garcia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between 9.5% and 31.3% of college students suffer from depression ("American college health association national college health assessment II: reference group executive summary spring 2013." "Amer. Coll. Health Assoc." 2013; Eagan K, Stolzenberg EB, Ramirez JJ, Aragon, MC, Suchard, RS, Hurtado S. "The American…

  7. The interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among hospital physicians in Japan: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Hayano, Keiko; Ozaki, Makiko; Bito, Seiji; Yanai, Haruo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2009-04-01

    A growing number of physicians are leaving their hospitals because of painful working conditions in hospitals throughout Japan. We set out to analyze the interrelationships between working conditions, job satisfaction, burnout and mental health among Japanese physicians. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 for hospital physicians throughout Japan. A path analysis based on structural equation modeling was utilized for examining the interrelationships between work control, on-call duty volume, job satisfaction (the Japan Hospital Physicians Satisfaction Scale), burnout (the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory) and mental health (the General Health Questionnaire). Of 336 physicians who received a solicitation E-mail, 236 participated in our study (response rate, 70%). Sixty physicians (25.4%) were women with a mean age of 41 yr. In the path analysis, burnout and poor mental health were related directly to job dissatisfaction and short sleeping time, while they were related indirectly to poor work control and heavy on-call duty. In the multi-group path analysis of both genders, sleeping time was related to job satisfaction more likely among female physicians but less among male physicians. Healthcare policy makers need to implement immediate, extensive and decisive measures to improve work condition and to reduce overwork among hospital physicians.

  8. HIV and Elevated Mental Health Problems: Diagnostic, Treatment, and Risk Patterns for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a National Community-Based Cohort of Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.

  9. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  10. Relationships between Psychiatric Conditions and Behavior Problems among Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Matson, Johnny L.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Mayville, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Adults with predominantly severe and profound mental retardation (N = 180) who lived in a developmental center were assessed with the Behavior Problems Inventory and the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II. Individuals with self-injurious, stereotyped, or aggressive/destructive behavior had generally higher psychopathology scores…

  11. Mortality associated with depression as compared with other severe mental disorders: a 20-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Lemogne, Cédric; Nabi, Hermann; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, Marcel; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Zins, Marie

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with severe mental disorders (SMD) have an increased risk of mortality from somatic diseases. This study examined whether this risk is different in persons with depressive disorders compared to those with other SMD (i.e. schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). In 1989, 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company (15,011 men and 5614 women, aged 35-50) agreed to participate in the GAZEL cohort study. Three diagnosis groups were created based on sick leave spells from 1978 onwards: 1) no SMD, 2) depressive disorders and 3) other SMD. Dates and causes of death were available from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2010. The association of diagnosis groups with mortality was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using Cox regression. During a mean follow-up of 19.8 years, 1544 participants died, including 1343 from a natural cause, of which 258 died from cardiovascular diseases. After adjustment for age, gender, occupational status, alcohol consumption, smoking and body-mass index, participants with a history of sickness absence for SMD had a greater risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.24, CI: 1.08-1.43), cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.49, CI: 1.08-2.05) and non-cardiovascular natural mortality (HR: 1.19, CI: 1.02-1.39). Compared to depressive disorders, other SMD were associated with an increased risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.94, CI: 1.17-3.22) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.58, CI: 1.53-8.39). Job security and systematic medical follow-up may fall short of preventing premature death among workers with sickness absence due to SMD.

  12. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  13. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...

  14. Activation and Self-Efficacy in a Randomized Trial of a Depression Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCusker, Jane; Lambert, Sylvie D.; Cole, Martin G.; Ciampi, Antonio; Strumpf, Erin; Freeman, Ellen E.; Belzile, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In a sample of primary care participants with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms: to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of activation and self-efficacy with demographic, physical and mental health status, health behaviors, depression self-care, health care utilization, and use of…

  15. Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders Is Associated with Individual Features and Psychosocial Work Conditions

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aims Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). Methods The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. Results All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Conclusions Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the

  16. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  17. Patterns of Psychopathology in the Families of Children with Conduct Problems, Depression, and Both Psychiatric Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    Comorbid conduct problems (CPs) and depression are observed far more often than expected by chance, which is perplexing given minimal symptom overlap. In this study, relations between parental psychopathology and children's diagnostic status were evaluated to test competing theories of comorbidity. Participants included 180 families with an…

  18. From Mental Disorder to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism - Dilemmas in Conceptualizing Gender Identity Variants as Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2009-01-01

    The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856

  19. Major depression in primary care: making the diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chung Wai Mark; How, Choon How; Ng, Yin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting, often presenting with somatic symptoms. It is potentially a chronic illness with considerable morbidity, and a high rate of relapse and recurrence. Major depression has a bidirectional relationship with chronic diseases, and a strong association with increased age and coexisting mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders). Screening can be performed using clinical tools for major depression, such as the Patient Health Questionaire-2, Patient Health Questionaire-9 and Beck Depression Inventory, so that timely treatment can be initiated. An accurate diagnosis of major depression and its severity is essential for prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. This is the first of a series of articles that illustrates the approach to the management of major depression in primary care. Our next articles will cover suicide risk assessment in a depressed patient and outline the basic principles of management and treatment modalities. PMID:27872937

  20. Parents with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Abuse Conditions Involved in Child Protection Services: Clinical Profile and Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromwall, Layne K.; Larson, Nancy C.; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C.; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, Jose B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC…

  1. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual

  2. Conditioned breathing depression during neonatal life as a function of associating ethanol odor and the drug's intoxicating effects.

    PubMed

    Macchione, A F; Anunziata, F; Culleré, M E; Haymal, B O; Spear, N; Abate, P; Molina, J C

    2016-09-01

    Fetal and neonatal ethanol-related alterations upon the respiratory system have been described in different mammals. Studies also indicate that perinates learn about the sensory attributes of ethanol and associate them with diverse physiological effects of the state of intoxication. The present study was conducted in rat neonates during a developmental stage equivalent to the third human gestational trimester. The major goal was to analyze the consequences of ethanol odor exposure, the state of intoxication, or the temporal contiguity between these factors upon breathing patterns. The main findings were as follows: (a) a conditioned breathing depression was observed following few trials defined by the association between ethanol odor and the state of intoxication and (b) sequential exposure to ethanol sensitizes the organism to the drug's respiratory depressant effects without affecting ethanol metabolism. These results indicate that early breathing disruptions caused by ethanol can be determined or modulated via learning processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:670-686, 2016.

  3. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  4. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... related. Depression can cause pain — and pain can cause depression. Sometimes pain and depression create a vicious cycle ... depression worsens feelings of pain. In many people, depression causes unexplained physical symptoms such as back pain or ...

  5. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  6. A high-risk group of pregnant women with elevated levels of conflict-related trauma, intimate partner violence, symptoms of depression and other forms of mental distress in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S J; Tol, W; Mohammad, M; Tay, A K; Tam, N; dos Reis, N; da Costa, E; Soares, C; Silove, D M

    2016-01-01

    Women in post-conflict, low-income, post-conflict (LI-PC) countries are at risk of exposure to the traumatic events (TEs) of war and intimate partner violence (IPV), forms of stress that are known to lead to depression and other adverse mental health outcomes. We aimed to assess an index of exposure to these two forms of trauma to identify pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in conflict-affected Timor-Leste at high risk of depression and other forms of stress. A large, cross-sectional study of women in the second trimester of pregnancy was conducted in the four main government antenatal clinics in Dili district of Timor-Leste, between May 2014, and January 2015. The sample consisted of 1672 consecutive women, 3 to 6 months pregnant, with a response rate of 96%. We applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Kessler-10 psychological distress scale and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. IPV was assessed by the World Health Organisation measure. Composite categories of conflict-related TEs and severity of IPV showed a dose–response relationship with depressive symptoms: for exposure to four or more conflict-related TEs and severe psychological IPV, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 3.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–7.40); for four or more TEs and physical abuse, AOR 8.16 (95% CI 3.53–18.85); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse, AOR 9.78 (95% CI 5.31–18.02). For any mental distress, the AOR for four or more TEs and severe psychological abuse was 3.60 (95% CI 2.08–6.23); for four or more TEs and physical abuse 7.03 (95% CI 3.23–15.29); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse the AOR was 10.45 (95% CI 6.06–18.01). Of 184 women (11% of the sample) who reported ⩾4 TEs and either physical abuse alone or in combination with severe psychological abuse, 78 (42%) reached threshold for depressive symptoms and 93 (51%) for any mental distress, a 10-fold increase in depressive and

  7. Comparison of agomelatine and escitalopram on nighttime sleep and daytime condition and efficacy in major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Hajak, Goeran; Philip, Pierre; Montplaisir, Jaques; Keufer-Le Gall, Sophie; Laredo, Judith; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Agomelatine, an MT1/MT2 receptor agonist and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist antidepressant, is known to have beneficial effects on subjective sleep in major depressive disorder patients. This international multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the effects of agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) and escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) on sleep polysomnographic parameters in major depressive disorder patients treated up to 24 weeks. A total of 138 outpatients were randomly allocated to agomelatine (n=71) or escitalopram (n=67). Treatment with agomelatine was associated with a reduction in sleep latency from week 2 onward. The difference between treatments was significant on all evaluations. Rapid eye movement latency was increased with escitalopram compared with agomelatine, with significant between-group differences at every visit. Agomelatine preserved the number of sleep cycles, whereas it was decreased with escitalopram with significant between-group differences at every visit. Assessments on visual analogue scales indicated that treatment with agomelatine improved morning condition, and reduced daytime sleepiness compared with escitalopram.17-item Hamilton depression rating scale total score was reduced in both groups, agomelatine was statistically noninferior to escitalopram at 6 weeks. Both treatments were well tolerated. This study showed that the clinical effects of agomelatine on sleep and wake parameters are different from that of escitalopram.

  8. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  9. Concordance between a simpler definition of major depressive disorder and Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition: an independent replication in an outpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) symptom criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) are somewhat lengthy with several studies showing that clinicians have difficulty recalling all 9 symptoms. Moreover, the criteria include somatic symptoms that are difficult to apply in patients with medical illnesses. To address these problems, a simpler definition of MDD was developed that did not include the somatic symptoms. Previous reports found high levels of agreement between the simplified and full DSM-IV definition of MDD. However, the same research group has conducted all previous studies of psychiatric patients. The goal of the present study was to determine if a high level of concordance between the 2 definitions would be replicated in an independent setting. We interviewed 2907 psychiatric outpatients presenting for treatment at the Boston University Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders. A trained diagnostic rater administered a semistructured interview and inquired about all symptoms of depression for all patients. A high level of agreement was found between the DSM-IV and the simpler definition of MDD. The absolute level of agreement between the 2 definitions was 95.5% and the κ coefficient was 0.88. Thus, consistent with previous studies, a high level of concordance was found between a simpler definition of MDD and the DSM-IV definition. This new definition offers 2 advantages over the current DSM-IV definition-it is briefer, and it is easier to apply with medically ill patients because it is free of somatic symptoms. Implications of these findings for DSM-5 are discussed.

  10. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    PubMed

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2016-11-02

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.

  11. Is there any evidence to support the use of anti-depressants in painful rheumatological conditions? Systematic review of pharmacological and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Perrot, S; Javier, R-M; Marty, M; Le Jeunne, C; Laroche, F

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the evidence supporting the use of anti-depressants in painful rheumatological conditions. A systematic review of papers published between 1966 and 2007, in five European languages, on anti-depressants in rheumatological conditions was performed. Papers were scored using Jadad method and analgesic ES was calculated. We selected 78 clinical studies and 12 meta-analyses, from 140 papers. The strongest evidence of an analgesic effect of anti-depressants has been obtained for fibromyalgia. A weak analgesic effect is observed for chronic low back pain, with an efficacy level close to that of analgesics. In RA and AS, there is no analgesic effect of anti-depressants, but these drugs may help to manage fatigue and sleep disorders. There is no clear evidence of an analgesic effect inOA, but studies have poor methodological quality. Analgesic effects of anti-depressants are independent of their anti-depressant effects. Tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs), even at low doses, have analgesic effects equivalent to those of serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), but are less well tolerated. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have modest analgesic effects, but higher doses are required to achieve analgesia. Anti-depressant drugs, particularly TCAs and SNRIs, have analgesic effects in chronic rheumatic painful states in which analgesics and NSAIDs are not very efficient, such as fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain. In inflammatory rheumatic diseases, anti-depressants may be useful for managing fatigue and sleep disorders. Further studies are required to compare anti-depressants with other analgesics in the management of chronic painful rheumatological conditions.

  12. Review of the Evidence: Prevalence of Medical Conditions in the United States Population with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ellen M.; McGinty, Emma E.; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Persons with serious mental illness (SMI) have high rates of premature mortality from preventable medical conditions, but this group is underrepresented in epidemiologic surveys and we lack national estimates of the prevalence of conditions such as obesity and diabetes in this group. We performed a comprehensive review to synthesize estimates of the prevalence of 15 medical conditions among the population with SMI. Method We reviewed studies published in the peer-reviewed literature from January 2000-August 2012. Studies were included if they assessed prevalence in a sample of 100 or more US adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Results 57 studies were included in the review. For most medical conditions, the prevalence estimates varied considerably. For example, estimates of obesity prevalence ranged from 26% to 55%. This variation appeared to be due to differences in measurement (e.g. self-report versus clinical measures) and underlying differences in study populations. Few studies assessed prevalence in representative, community samples of persons with SMI. Conclusions In many studies, the prevalence of medical conditions among the population with SMI was higher than among the overall US population. Screening for and monitoring of these conditions should be common practice in clinical settings serving persons with SMI. PMID:25881768

  13. Nedley Depression Hit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nedley, Neil; Ramirez, Francisco E.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or “blows” to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test. Ten cause categories were examined as predictors of depression are (1) Genetic, (2)Developmental, (3)Lifestyle, (4)Circadian Rhythm, (5)Addiction, (6)Nutrition, (7)Toxic, (8)Social/Complicated Grief, (9)Medical Condition, and (10)Frontal Lobe. Results. The relationship between the DSM-5 score and a person having four hits categories in the first program week showed a sensitivity of 89.98 % (95% CI: 89.20 % - 90.73%), specificity 48.84% (CI 45.94-51.75) and Matthew Correlation Coefficient (MCC) .41 . For the eight-week test, the results showed a sensitivity 83.6% (CI 81.9-85.5), specificity 53.7% (CI 51.7-55.6) and MCC .38. Overall, the hits that improved the most from baseline after the eighth week were: Nutrition (47%), Frontal lobe (36%), Addiction (24%), Circadian rhythm (24%), Lifestyle (20%), Social (12%) and Medical (10%). Conclusions. The Nedley four-hit hypothesis seems to predict a depressive episode and correlates well with the DSM-5 criteria with good sensitivity and MCC but less specificity. Identifying these factors and applying lifestyle therapies could play an important role in the treatment of depressed individuals. PMID:27885322

  14. What Does the Term "Clinical Depression" Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more severe form of depression, also known as major depression or major depressive disorder. It isn't the same as depression caused ... you must meet the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...

  15. Interventions to Address Medical Conditions and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050

  16. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  17. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's physical and mental well-being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, Marja J.; Rose, M. Sarah; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between chinook conditions and physical and psychological symptoms in women aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. The evidence for this relationship is at present merely anecdotal. The study carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary comprises the secondary analysis of a large survey of various health and health-related factors, including different symptoms, of urban women aged 20 49 years. The interview date was used to link these data to days on which pre-chinook, chinook, post-chinook and non-chinook conditions occurred. Between November 1, 1985 and February 28, 1986, 182 women were interviewed on pre-chinook days, 74 on chinook days, 229 on post-chinook days and 886 on non-chinook days. Autonomic reactions and skin disorders were found to be significantly related to chinook conditions. None of the psychological symptoms was related to chinook conditions. However, a significant relationship was found between symptoms and chinook conditions in women with a history of emotional disorders. This type of information is important to educate chinook-sensitive women and health professionals as well as for hospital emergency departments in order to be able to prepare for potential increases in workload.

  18. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  19. Inbreeding depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) under field conditions and implications for mating system evolution.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Scanlon, Sarah R; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    The clonal weed Solanum carolinense exhibits plasticity in the strength of its self-incompatibility (SI) system and suffers low levels of inbreeding depression (δ) in the greenhouse. We planted one inbred and one outbred plant from each of eight maternal plants in a ring (replicated twice) and monitored clonal growth, herbivory, and reproduction over two years. Per ramet δ was estimated to be 0.63 in year one and 0.79 in year two, and outbred plants produced 2.5 times more ramets than inbred plants in the spring of year two. Inbred plants also suffered more herbivore damage than outbred plants in both fields, suggesting that inbreeding compromises herbivore resistance. Total per genet δ was 0.85 over the two years, indicating that S. carolinense is unlikely to become completely self-compatible, and suggesting that plasticity in the SI system is part of a stable mixed-mating system permitting self-fertilization when cross pollen limits seed production.

  20. Performance of Seven Tree Breeding Strategies Under Conditions of Inbreeding Depression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Harry X; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Sánchez, Leopoldo

    2016-01-06

    In the domestication and breeding of tree species that suffer from inbreeding depression (ID), the long-term performance of different breeding strategies is poorly known. Therefore, seven tree breeding strategies including single population, subline, selfing, and nucleus breeding were simulated using a multi-locus model with additive, partial, and complete dominance allele effects, and with intermediate, U-shaped, and major allele distributions. The strategies were compared for genetic gain, inbreeding accumulation, capacity to show ID, the frequencies and fixations of unfavorable alleles, and genetic variances in breeding and production populations. Measured by genetic gain of production population, the nucleus breeding and the single breeding population with mass selection strategies were equal or superior to subline and single breeding population with within-family selection strategies in all simulated scenarios, in spite of their higher inbreeding coefficients. Inbreeding and cross-breeding effectively decreased ID and could in some scenarios produce genetic gains during the first few generations. However, in all scenarios, considerable fixation of unfavorable alleles rendered the purging performance of selfing and cross-breeding strategies ineffective, and resulted in substantial inferiority in comparison to the other strategies in the long-term.

  1. [Conditions, controversies and contradictions between Central Sensitivity Syndrome and Depressive Disorders].

    PubMed

    Maresca, Tomás; Covini, Elvira; Mato, Andrea Márquez López

    2013-01-01

    We present a description of the Central Sensitivity Syndrome (CSS) and some of its main components such as Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. We review the changes in pain perception, describing the physiology and pathophysiology of the painful experience from the medulla horn to the CNS. We explain the theory of central sensitization as the basis to the syndrome. We refer to the differences between fibromyalgia and depressive disorders, is spite of their frequent presentation in comorbidity. We state the main clinical and neurobiological differences. We point out the main psychoneuroimmunoendocrinologic differences such as adrenal activity (hypoactivity vs. hyperactivity, DST hypersuppressive response vs. DST non suppression, hypersensitivity of central glucocorticoid receptors vs. desensitization of these, among others), thyroid (probable reverse T3 vs. flat stimuli TSH response curve) and growth hormone secretion (probable increase vs. disruption of normal circadian rhythm) that makes CSS resemble PTSD. We describe differential changes in sleep patterns (alpha-delta intrusion vs. altered sleep time, REM latency, and stage 3/4) and immunological disturbances almost opposite in each pathological entity. We finally argue which medical specialty should treat these complex syndromes.

  2. Inbreeding Depression in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) under Field Conditions and Implications for Mating System Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Scanlon, Sarah R.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    The clonal weed Solanum carolinense exhibits plasticity in the strength of its self-incompatibility (SI) system and suffers low levels of inbreeding depression (δ) in the greenhouse. We planted one inbred and one outbred plant from each of eight maternal plants in a ring (replicated twice) and monitored clonal growth, herbivory, and reproduction over two years. Per ramet δ was estimated to be 0.63 in year one and 0.79 in year two, and outbred plants produced 2.5 times more ramets than inbred plants in the spring of year two. Inbred plants also suffered more herbivore damage than outbred plants in both fields, suggesting that inbreeding compromises herbivore resistance. Total per genet δ was 0.85 over the two years, indicating that S. carolinense is unlikely to become completely self-compatible, and suggesting that plasticity in the SI system is part of a stable mixed-mating system permitting self-fertilization when cross pollen limits seed production. PMID:22174810

  3. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  4. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... health condition, such as bipolar disorder, which can cause or worsen depression and may require different treatment; dysthymia, a mild ... better Consider physical health conditions that can sometimes cause or worsen depression, such as thyroid disorders, chronic pain or heart ...

  5. Approximate entropy: a new evaluation approach of mental workload under multitask conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuanzhe; Jiang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous instruments and an abundance of complex information in the traditional cockpit display-control system, and pilots require a long time to familiarize themselves with the cockpit interface. This can cause accidents when they cope with emergency events, suggesting that it is necessary to evaluate pilot cognitive workload. In order to establish a simplified method to evaluate cognitive workload under a multitask condition. We designed a series of experiments involving different instrument panels and collected electroencephalograms (EEG) from 10 healthy volunteers. The data were classified and analyzed with an approximate entropy (ApEn) signal processing. ApEn increased with increasing experiment difficulty, suggesting that it can be used to evaluate cognitive workload. Our results demonstrate that ApEn can be used as an evaluation criteria of cognitive workload and has good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we determined an empirical formula to assess the cognitive workload interval, which can simplify cognitive workload evaluation under multitask conditions.

  6. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  7. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. Aims and Discussion This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. Conclusion The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression. PMID:25328843

  8. The Role of Sleep Disturbances in the Longitudinal Relationship Between Psychosocial Working Conditions, Measured by Work Demands and Support, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Because work demands and lack of social support seem to be prospectively linked to sleep problems, and sleep problems are linked to depression, sleep problems may play a role in the relationship between these work characteristics and depressive symptoms. In order to shed more light on this relationship, the current study investigated whether disturbed sleep is a mediator in the longitudinal relationships between work demands, social support, and depression. Design: Longitudinal cohort study with repeated survey measures on four occasions. Setting: Swedish workforce. Participants: 2,017 working participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Measurements and results: Work demands (four items) and social support (six items) were assessed with the Demand Control Questionnaire, disturbed sleep (four items) with the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with a brief subscale (six items) from the Symptom Checklist. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were tested. The work characteristics, and disturbed sleep, were found to be separately associated with depressive symptoms in subsequent waves. However, only demands were found to be longitudinally related to subsequent disturbed sleep. The longitudinal autoregressive models supported a weak mediating role of disturbed sleep in the relationship between demands and depressive symptoms (standardized beta 0.008, P < 0.001), but not between support and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results indicate that higher demands at work might cause an increase in depressive symptoms, in part, by increasing disturbed sleep, although the mediated effect was relatively small compared to the total effect. Citation: Magnusson Hanson LL, Chungkham HS, Åkerstedt T, Westerlund H. The role of sleep disturbances in the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial working conditions, measured by work

  9. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland: the association of childhood conditions, language, and urbanization with mental health and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit of Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2002-01-01

    In Greenland, the rapid sociocultural change of the last 50 years has been paralleled by an epidemiological transition characterized by a reduction in infectious diseases, an increase in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and an increased prevalence of mental health problems. During 1993-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts were studied in relation to childhood residence and father's occupation, current residence, and language. The statistical methods included logistic regression and graphical independence models. The results indicated a U-shaped association in Greenland of GHQ-cases with age and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among young people; a low prevalence of GHQ-cases among those who were bilingual or spoke only Danish; and a high prevalence of suicidal thoughts among migrants who grew up in Denmark and among residents of the capital of Greenland. In Greenland, women were more often GHQ-cases and had suicidal thoughts more often than men. The association between language and GHQ-cases is presumed to operate through socioeconomic factors. It is necessary to modify the common notion that rapid societal development is in itself a cause of poor mental health: as a result of successful integration into the modern Greenlandic society, some population groups have better mental health compared to other groups.

  10. Responding to a Student's Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…

  11. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  12. Exploratory analysis of the French version of the beliefs about medicines questionnaire in patients with severe mental disorders: Factorial structure and reliability in specific populations of schizophrenic, bipolar and depressive patients

    PubMed Central

    Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Belzeaux, Raoul; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of the French version of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in patients with severe mental illness and in specific populations of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Methods A cross-sectional study including patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder was conducted (n = 150). Principal component analysis (PCA), reliability and validity of the French version of the BMQ were performed. Results PCA revealed a two-factor structure similar to the original structure for the BMQ-Specific scale but only a one-component solution for the BMQ-General scale in both the total sample and the three subgroups. These subscales have satisfactory internal consistency. Validity was supported by the significant correlations of all BMQ subscales with the Drug Attitude Inventory. Conclusion The French version of the BMQ appears as a three-dimensional scale and presents satisfactory psychometric properties for use in patients with severe mental illness as well as specific populations of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. PMID:28257447

  13. Home care assistants’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health

  14. [Working conditions and common mental disorders among primary health care workers from Botucatu, São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Braga, Ludmila Candida de; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de; Binder, Maria Cecília Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) present high prevalence among general populations and workers with important individual and social consequences. This cross-sectional and descriptive study explores the relationship between psychological job demands, job control degree and job support and prevalence of CMD among primary health care workers of Botucatu - SP. The data collection was carried out using an unidentified self-administered questionnaire, with emphasis on items relating to demand-control-support situation and occurrence of CMD (Self Reporting Questionnaire, SRQ-20). The data were stored using the software Excel / Office XP 2003, and the statistical analyses were performed in SAS system. It was evidenced that 42.6% of primary health care workers presented CMD. The observed association - high prevalence of CMD with high-strain job (Karasek model) and low prevalence of CMD with low-strain job - indicates that, in the studied city, primary health care work conditions are contributive factors to workers' illness. The survey reveals the need of interventions aiming at caring the workers and also gets better work conditions and increase social support at work.

  15. The role of war trauma survivors in managing their own mental conditions, Syria civil war as an example

    PubMed Central

    Almoshmosh, Nadim

    2016-01-01

    War trauma leads to a wide range of psychological consequences and disorders that can be quite disabling to individuals and their families. At times of war, existing resources become strained to cope with all demands of trauma sufferers. The survivors’ role of managing their own mental conditions becomes highly important and relevant as a way of reducing the resulted suffering. Unfortunately, this role is often ignored or trivialized by all concerned. The self-efficacy and resilience of people are the factors not to be underestimated and should be built upon. Reaching solutions are generally more satisfying and long-lasting when the affected person has taken a positive active part in finding them. Encouraging the use of own resources and experiences and using own problem-solving skills can be all that is needed for survivors to feel enabled. Engaging survivors and focusing on promoting recovery and social inclusion along with the use of self-help skills make them feel more positive about their own conditions. Being more involved, taking even small steps reduces the development of learned helplessness and reduces the psychiatric morbidities. PMID:27144143

  16. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O’Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remains unclear. Further, there is little data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys (comprising 19 countries, and 52,095 adults) were used. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of common mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension, with and without psychiatric comorbidity adjustment. Variations in the strength of associations by gender and by life course stage of onset of both the mental disorder and hypertension were investigated. Results After psychiatric comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of hypertension (with ORs ranging from 1.1 to 1.6). Number of lifetime mental disorders was associated with subsequent hypertension in a dose-response fashion. For social phobia and alcohol abuse, associations with hypertension were stronger for males than females. For panic disorder, the association with hypertension was particularly apparent in earlier onset hypertension. Conclusions Depression, anxiety, impulsive eating disorders, and substance use disorders disorders were significantly associated with the subsequent diagnosis of hypertension. These data underscore the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and of physical health monitoring in people with these conditions.. PMID:24342112

  17. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss.

  18. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  19. Plasma neurotransmitters, blood pressure, and heart rate during supine-resting, orthostasis, and moderate exercise conditions in major depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Lechin, F; van der Dijs, B; Orozco, B; Lechin, M E; Báez, S; Lechin, A E; Rada, I; Acosta, E; Arocha, L; Jiménez, V

    1995-08-01

    Major depressed patients showed greater heart rate, noradrenaline, and free-serotonin values than normal. Conversely, platelet-serotonin values in major depressed patients were significantly lower than normal. Patients registered the normal differential blood pressure reduction during orthostasis. They also revealed progressive and significantly higher heart rate rises during orthostasis and exercise periods, when compared to normals. Whereas noradrenaline showed maximal rises during the two last periods, adrenaline only showed small but significant increase during exercise. The analysis of correlations, together with the above data, suggests that major depressed patients register maximal neural sympathetic activity as well as adrenal glands sympathetic hypoactivity. In addition, these patients show hyperparasympathetic activity, as reflected by the free-serotonin profile. Finally, the fact that both the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio and free-serotonin values strongly suggests that both neural sympathetic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in major depression.

  20. The "Reading the Mind in Films" Task [Child Version]: Complex Emotion and Mental State Recognition in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on "basic" emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of "complex" emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general…

  1. Access to Services, Quality of Care, and Family Impact for Children with Autism, Other Developmental Disabilities, and Other Mental Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; St Peter, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived access to services, quality of care, and family impact reported by caregivers of children aged 3-17 years with autism spectrum disorders, as compared to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities and other mental health conditions. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with…

  2. Systematic reviews of randomised clinical trials examining the effects of psychotherapeutic interventions versus "no intervention" for acute major depressive disorder and a randomised trial examining the effects of "third wave" cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based treatment for acute major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy may be effective treatment options for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. The two modern forms of psychotherapy, "third wave" cognitive therapy and mentalization-based treatment, have both gained some ground as treatments of psychiatric disorders. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for major depressive disorder. We performed two systematic reviews with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses using The Cochrane Collaboration methodology examining the effects of cognitive therapy and psycho-dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder. We developed a thorough treatment protocol for a randomised trial with low risks of bias (systematic error) and low risks of random errors ("play of chance") examining the effects of third wave' cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based treatment for major depressive disorder. We conducted a randomised trial according to good clinical practice examining the effects of "third wave" cognitive therapy versus mentalisation-based treatment for major depressive disorder. The first systematic review included five randomised trials examining the effects of psychodynamic therapy versus "no intervention' for major depressive disorder. Altogether the five trials randomised 365 participants who in each trial received similar antidepressants as co-interventions. All trials had high risk of bias. Four trials assessed "interpersonal psychotherapy" and one trial "short psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy". Both of these interventions are different forms of psychodynamic therapy. Meta-analysis showed that psychodynamic therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) compared with "no intervention" (mean difference -3.01 (95

  3. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    Background Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. Methods The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote) regions were compared using data from a 2003–04 Australian national survey of the mental health literacy of 3998 adults. Measures included the perceived helpfulness of a range of professionals, non-professionals and interventions, and the causes, prognosis, and outcomes after treatment for four case vignettes describing depression, depression with suicidal ideation, early schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Participant awareness of Australia's national depression initiative and depression in the media, their symptoms of depression and exposure to the conditions depicted in the vignettes were also compared. Results Mental health literacy was similar across remoteness categories. However, inner regional residents showed superior identification of the disorders depicted in the suicidal ideation and chronic schizophrenia vignettes. They were also more likely to report having heard of Australia's national depression health promotion campaign. Conversely, they were less likely than major city residents to rate the evidence-based treatment of psychotherapy helpful for depression. Both inner regional and outer-remote residents were less likely to rate psychologists as helpful for depression alone. The rural groups were more likely to rate the non-evidence based interventions of drinking and painkillers as helpful for a depression vignette. In addition, outer-remote residents were more likely to identify the evidence based treatment of antipsychotics as harmful for early schizophrenia and less likely to endorse psychiatrists, psychologists

  4. Integrating mental health into chronic care in South Africa: the development of a district mental healthcare plan

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Inge; Fairall, Lara; Bhana, Arvin; Kathree, Tasneem; Selohilwe, One; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Faris, Gill; Breuer, Erica; Sibanyoni, Nomvula; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the escalating prevalence of chronic illness and its high comorbidity with mental disorders bring to the fore the need for integrating mental health into chronic care at district level. Aims To develop a district mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in South Africa that integrates mental healthcare for depression, alcohol use disorders and schizophrenia into chronic care. Method Mixed methods using a situation analysis, qualitative key informant interviews, theory of change workshops and piloting of the plan in one health facility informed the development of the MHCP. Results Collaborative care packages for the three conditions were developed to enable integration at the organisational, facility and community levels, supported by a human resource mix and implementation tools. Potential barriers to the feasibility of implementation at scale were identified. Conclusions The plan leverages resources and systems availed by the emerging chronic care service delivery platform for the integration of mental health. This strengthens the potential for future scale up. PMID:26447176

  5. Evidence for a fragile X mental retardation protein-mediated translational switch in metabotropic glutamate receptor-triggered Arc translation and long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Niere, Farr; Wilkerson, Julia R; Huber, Kimberly M

    2012-04-25

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-stimulated protein synthesis and long-term synaptic depression (mGluR-LTD) are altered in the mouse model of fragile X syndrome, Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice. Fmr1 encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a dendritic RNA binding protein that functions, in part, as a translational suppressor. It is unknown whether and how FMRP acutely regulates LTD and/or the rapid synthesis of new proteins required for LTD, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc). The protein phosphatase PP2A dephosphorylates FMRP, which contributes to translational activation of some target mRNAs. Here, we report that PP2A and dephosphorylation of FMRP at S500 are required for an mGluR-induced, rapid (5 min) increase in dendritic Arc protein and LTD in rat and mouse hippocampal neurons. In Fmr1 KO neurons, basal, dendritic Arc protein levels and mGluR-LTD are enhanced, but mGluR-triggered Arc synthesis is absent. Lentiviral-mediated expression of wild-type FMRP in Fmr1 KO neurons suppresses basal dendritic Arc levels and mGluR-LTD, and restores rapid mGluR-triggered Arc synthesis. A phosphomimic of FMRP (S500D) suppresses steady-state dendritic Arc levels but does not rescue mGluR-induced Arc synthesis. A dephosphomimic of FMRP (S500A) neither suppresses dendritic Arc nor supports mGluR-induced Arc synthesis. Accordingly, S500D-FMRP expression in Fmr1 KO neurons suppresses mGluR-LTD, whereas S500A-FMRP has no effect. These data support a model in which phosphorylated FMRP functions to suppress steady-state translation of Arc and LTD. Upon mGluR activation of PP2A, FMRP is rapidly dephosphorylated, which contributes to rapid new synthesis of Arc and mGluR-LTD.

  6. “It’s Like Being in a Labyrinth:” Hispanic Immigrants’ Perceptions of Depression and Attitudes Toward Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rebecca; Zayas, Luis H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe Hispanic immigrants’ perceptions of depression and attitudes toward treatments and to examine how demographics, acculturation, clinical factors, and past service use were associated with their perceptions and attitudes. A convenience sample of 95 Hispanic immigrant patients was presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression. Structured interviews that included standardized instruments and open-ended questions were used to query patients about their views of depression and its treatments. Findings showed that Hispanic immigrants perceived depression as a serious condition caused by interpersonal and social factors. Consistent with existing literature, most patients endorsed positive attitudes toward depression treatments yet reported apprehensions toward antidepressants. Demographic factors, acculturation, depressive symptoms, and past mental health service use were related to patients’ views of depression and attitudes toward care. This study emphasizes the need to incorporate Hispanic immigrants’ perceptions and attitudes into depression treatments. PMID:17001516

  7. Depression during pregnancy: molecular regulations of mothers' and children's behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pariante, Carmine M

    2014-04-01

    Depression in pregnancy (also called 'antenatal depression') is being increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant condition that affects obstetric outcome, maternal behaviour and children's future mental health. The present review focuses on the molecular mechanisms operating in utero that underlie the potential effects of antenatal depression on mothers' and children's behaviour. In particular, I discuss evidence, coming largely from animal and cellular studies, that activation of the main hormonal stress-response system, the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis, in mothers who are depressed during pregnancy may affect maternal care as well as offspring's behaviour and future psychopathology. The evidence summarized in the present review supports the notion that preventing or treating depression in pregnancy will alleviate not only the suffering of mothers, but also the suffering of the next generation.

  8. Citalopram amplifies the influence of living conditions on mood in depressed patients enrolled in the STAR*D study.

    PubMed

    Chiarotti, F; Viglione, A; Giuliani, A; Branchi, I

    2017-03-21

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs, have a variable and incomplete efficacy. In order to better understand SSRI action, we explored the hypothesis that SSRIs do not affect mood per se but amplify the influence of the living conditions on mood. To this aim, we exploited the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) data set, selected a subpopulation of 591 patients with an overlapping clinical history and analyzed treatment outcome according to dosage -20 or 40 mg per day of citalopram. We found that sociodemographic characteristics affected treatment response in the same direction in the two dose groups, but these effects reached statistical significance only in the 40 mg per day dose group. In the latter, higher improvement rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0219), longer education (P=0.0053), high income (P=0.01) or a private insurance (P=0.0031), and the higher remission rate was associated with having a working employment status (P=0.0326) or longer education (P=0.0484). Moreover, the magnitude of the effect of the sociodemographic characteristics on mood, measured as the percent of patients showing a positive outcome when exposed to favorable living conditions, was much greater-up to 37-fold-in the 40 compared to the 20 mg per day dose group. Overall, our results indicate that citalopram amplifies the influence of the living conditions on mood in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provide a potential explanation for the variable efficacy of SSRIs and might lead to the development of personalized strategies aimed at enhancing their efficacy.

  9. Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders are common in the general population in countries around the world. This article provides a review of the recent literature on anxiety and depressive disorders with a focus on linkages with several important viral diseases. Although the majority of studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Great Britain, some studies have been carried out in less developed nations where only a small percentage of persons with mental illness receive treatment for their condition. The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between anxiety and depression and viral diseases such as influenza A (H1N1) and other influenza viruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms for interactions between mental health and communicable diseases, in order to assist patients and further prevention and control efforts.

  10. The Impact of Education and Socioeconomic and Occupational Conditions on Self-Perceived and Mental Health Inequalities Among Immigrants and Native Workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Ana; Malmusi, Davide; López-Jacob, María José; Gotsens, Mercè; Ronda, Elena

    2015-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, odds ratios and explicative fractions. Mental (OR 2.02; CI 1.39-2.93) and self-perceived health (OR 2.64; CI 1.77-3.93) were poorer for immigrant women compared to natives. Occupational social class variable contributes 25% to self-perceived health OR in immigrant women. Settled immigrant women workers are a vulnerable group in Spain.

  11. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... different causes and types. Could you have an eating disorder? top Eating disorders involve serious problems with eating behaviors. They include: ... Binge eating , which is out-of-control eating Eating disorders happen more often to girls than to boys. ...

  12. Have Broad-Based Community and Professional Education Programs Influenced Mental Health Literacy and Treatment Seeking of those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldney, Robert D.; Fisher, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    "Mental health literacy" is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and…

  13. Sexual Identity, Stigma, and Depression: the Role of the "Anti-gay Propaganda Law" in Mental Health among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    Hylton, Emily; Wirtz, Andrea L; Zelaya, Carla E; Latkin, Carl; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladmir; Dzhigun, Petr; Kostetskaya, Irina; Galai, Noya; Beyrer, Chris

    2017-02-27

    Depression is a major public health problem in the Russian Federation and is particularly of concern for men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM living in Moscow City were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and participated in a cross-sectional survey from October 2010 to April 2013. Multiple logistic regression models compared the relationship between sexual identity, recent stigma, and probable depression, defined as a score of ≥23 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. We investigated the interactive effect of stigma and participation in the study after the passage of multiple "anti-gay propaganda laws" in Russian provinces, municipalities, and in neighboring Ukraine on depression among MSM. Among 1367 MSM, 36.7% (n = 505) qualified as probably depressed. Fifty-five percent identified as homosexual (n = 741) and 42.9% identified as bisexual (n = 578). Bisexual identity had a protective association against probable depression (reference: homosexual identity AOR 0.71; 95%CI 0.52-0.97; p < 0.01). Those who experienced recent stigma (last 12 months) were more likely to report probable depression (reference: no stigma; AOR 1.75; 95%CI 1.20-2.56; p < 0.01). The interaction between stigma and the propaganda laws was significant. Among participants with stigma, probable depression increased 1.67-fold after the passage of the anti-gay laws AOR 1.67; 95%CI 1.04-2.68; p < 0.01). Depressive symptoms are common among MSM in Russia and exacerbated by stigma and laws that deny homosexual identities. Repeal of Russia's federal anti-gay propaganda law is urgent but other social interventions may address depression and stigma in the current context.

  14. Impact of Mental Disorders on the Association Between Adherence to Antihypertensive Agents and All-Cause Healthcare Costs.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Lia; Vasiliadis, Helen Maria; Préville, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are factors associated with poor adherence to medications that lead to increased healthcare costs. The authors hypothesize that these conditions will moderate the association between adherence and healthcare costs. The aim was to examine the healthcare costs associated with adherence to antihypertensive agents in the elderly with and without depression and anxiety. The sample included participants with hypertension and used hypertensive agents (N=926). Medication possession ratio was used to calculate medication adherence. Mean total healthcare costs included costs for inpatient stays, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, physician fees, and outpatient medications. Mental disorders were assessed using a questionnaire based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. The total healthcare costs were significantly greater for nonadherent participants with depression/anxiety than for adherent participants without depression/anxiety (Δ$1841, P<.0001). This study suggests that treating mental disorders in elderly patients with hypertension will decrease total healthcare costs.

  15. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  16. Nonverbal communication sets the conditions for the relationship between parental bonding and the short-term treatment response in depression.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Gerlsma, Coby

    2009-01-30

    The role of parental bonding and nonverbal communication in the short-term treatment response was investigated in 104 depressed outpatients. At baseline patients completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. We registered the nonverbal involvement behaviour of patients and interviewers from video recordings of baseline clinical interviews and calculated the convergence between patient-interviewer behaviour over the interview. The course of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. As hypothesized, low maternal care and high paternal overprotection predicted a poor response to an 8-week treatment. Maternal care was positively correlated with nonverbal convergence. Moreover, convergence moderated the relationship between maternal care and the response to treatment: Lack of convergence between patients and interviewers turned out to annul the positive effects of maternal care on the treatment response. The findings link theories on early parenting to interpersonal theories of depression.

  17. Assessing visual attention in young children and adolescents with severe mental retardation utilizing conditional-discrimination tasks and multiple testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, Nancy H

    2004-01-01

    To effectively reduce overselective attention, a fine-grained analysis of the control exhibited by compound training cues is first needed. Computer software was developed in this study to administer two different stimulus control-testing procedures to assess how three young children of normal development and three adolescents with severe mental retardation attended to stimulus compounds when conditional-discrimination tasks were provided. One test assessed stimulus control by determining response accuracy for each component of the S+ compounds. The other testing procedure measured the response topographies of the compound stimuli using a touch screen attached to a computer monitor screen. After pretraining each stimulus component, all three children attended simultaneously to two elements in a conditional-discrimination task with few errors occurring. The adolescents with mental retardation eventually attended to both elements simultaneously but required more pretraining and exposure to the conditional-discrimination tasks before simultaneous attention occurred. Since the adolescents with severe mental retardation learned to simultaneously attend to multiple cues in the conditional-discrimination tasks, this demonstrated that restricted attention is not an unmodifiable perceptual characteristic among individuals with developmental disabilities. Recording response topographies with a touch screen was also discovered to be a sensitive measure of stimulus preferences for both groups. Utilizing touch-screen technology may prove to be critical for accurately identifying stimulus preferences and contribute to the understanding and treatment of overselective attention in students with attentional deficits.

  18. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J; Croft, Rodney J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS.

  19. Modulation of the N170 with Classical Conditioning: The Use of Emotional Imagery and Acoustic Startle in Healthy and Depressed Participants

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Mills, Jessica; Kornfeld, Emma J.; Croft, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that classical conditioning may be capable of modulating early sensory processing in the human brain, and that there may be differences in the magnitude of the conditioned changes for individuals with major depressive disorder. The effect of conditioning on the N170 event-related potential was investigated using neutral faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+) and emotional imagery and acoustic startle as unconditioned stimuli (UCS). In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students (M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. In the second experiment, 26 healthy control participants were tested (17 females and 9 males, age M = 25.97 years, SD = 9.42) together with 18 depressed participants (13 females and 5 males, age M = 23.26 years, SD = 4.01) and three conditions were used: CS+/aversive imagery, CS+/pleasant imagery, and CS-. N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. No differences between depressed and healthy participants were found. Across both experiments, evaluative conditioning was absent. It was concluded that aversive UCS are capable of modulating early sensory processing of faces, although further research is also warranted in regards to positive UCS. PMID:27445773

  20. Depression: A repair response to stress-induced neuronal microdamage that can grade into a chronic neuroinflammatory condition?

    PubMed Central

    Wager-Smith, Karen; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Depression is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, yet it is poorly understood. Here we review data supporting a novel theoretical model for the biology of depression. In this model, a stressful life event leads to microdamage in the brain. This damage triggers an injury repair response consisting of a neuroinflammatory phase to clear cellular debris, and a spontaneous tissue regeneration phase involving neurotrophins and neurogenesis. During healing, released inflammatory mediators trigger sickness behavior and psychological pain via mechanisms similar to those that produce physical pain during wound healing. The depression remits if the neuronal injury repair process resolves successfully. Importantly, however, the acute psychological pain and neuroinflammation often transition to chronicity and develop into pathological depressive states. This hypothesis for depression explains substantially more data than alternative models, including why emerging data show that analgesic, anti-inflammatory, pro-neurogenic and pro-neurotrophic treatments have antidepressant effects. Thus, an acute depressive episode can be conceptualized as a normally self-limiting but highly error-prone process of recuperation from stress-triggered neuronal microdamage. PMID:20883718

  1. The Epidemiology of Depression in an Elderly Community Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Screened community adults (N=1,300) 60 years of age or older for depressive symptomatology. Found a gap between significant depressive symptoms and major depression. Suggests that traditional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) depressive categories do not capture most depressed older adults in community populations.…

  2. Causal and mediating factors for anxiety, depression and well-being.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Tai, Sara; Pontin, Eleanor; Schwannauer, Matthias; Jarman, Ian; Lisboa, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Background The relationship between well-being and mental ill health is complex; people may experience very low levels of well-being even in the absence of overt mental health problems. Aims This study tested the hypothesis that anxiety, depression and well-being have different causal determinants and psychological mediating mechanisms. Method The influence of causal and mediating factors on anxiety, depression and well-being were investigated in a cross-sectional online questionnaire survey hosted on a UK national broadcasting website. Results Multivariate conditional independence analysis of data from 27 397 participants revealed different association pathways for the two constructs. Anxiety and depression were associated with negative life events mediated by rumination; low levels of subjective well-being were associated with material deprivation and social isolation, mediated by adaptive coping style. Conclusions Our findings support the 'two continua' model of the relationship between psychological well-being and mental health problems, with implications for both treatment and prevention.

  3. Mental Health Condition of the Only-Child: A Study of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2005-01-01

    The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age =…

  4. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  5. The Effects of an E-Mental Health Program and Job Coaching on the Risk of Major Depression and Productivity in Canadian Male Workers: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Scott B; Lam, Raymond W; Attridge, Mark; Ho, Kendall; Schmitz, Norbert; Marchand, Alain; Lashewicz, Bonnie M

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression (MDE) is prevalent in men and affects men’s health and productivity. Because of the stigma against depression and social/gender norms, men are less likely to seek help for emotion and stress-related issues. Therefore, innovative solutions tailored for men are needed. With rapid development of the Internet and information technologies, one promising solution that has drawn considerable attentions is electronic mental (e-mental) health programs and services. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the e-mental health program BroHealth on reducing the risk of having MDE and improving productivity and return to investment. Methods The target population is Canadian working men who are at high risk of having MDE (N=1200). Participants will be recruited using the method of random digit dialing across the country and workplace advertisement. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated into the following groups: (1) a control group, (2) a group receiving BroHealth only, and (3) a group receiving BroHealth and telephone-based job coaching service. The groups will be assessed at 6 and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the risk proportion of MDE over 12 months, which will be assessed by the World Health Organization's (WHO’s) Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form for Major Depression. Intention-to-treat principle will be used in the analysis. The 12-month proportions of MDE in the groups will be estimated and compared. Logistic regression modeling will be used to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcome, controlling for the effects of baseline confounders. Results It is anticipated that the randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be completed by 2018. This study has been approved by the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Review Board of the University of Calgary. The trial is funded by a team grant from the Movember Foundation, a global charity for men

  6. Olfactory Dysfunction in Older Adults is Associated with Feelings of Depression and Loneliness.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Anita; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Barnes, Lisa L; Wilson, Robert S; Bennett, David A; Pinto, Jayant M

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common complaint among physician visits. Olfactory loss affects quality of life and impairs function and activities of daily living. The purpose of our study was to assess the degree of odor identification associated with mental health. Olfactory function was measured using the brief smell identification test. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Loneliness was assessed by the de Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Cognition was measured by a battery of 19 cognitive tests. The frequency of olfactory dysfunction in our study was ~40%. Older subjects had worse olfactory performance, as previously found. More loneliness was associated with worse odor identification. Similarly, symptoms of depression were associated with worse olfaction (among men). Although better global cognitive function was strongly associated with better odor identification, after controlling for multiple factors, the associations with depression and loneliness were unchanged. Clinicians should assess these mental health conditions when treating older patients who present with olfactory deficits.

  7. The Fall and Rise of Resilience: Prevention and Holistic Treatment of Depression among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Henry C.

    2007-01-01

    Stress-related mental health problems are among the most common and disabling medical conditions in the United States, and they have increased in frequency over the past 100 years. Lifestyle changes such as diet, sleep, activity level and the nature of modern stresses may all play a role in the increasing frequency of depression, and these changes…

  8. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    PubMed

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  9. Mental Health Service Use for Patients with Co-occurring Mental and Physical Chronic Health Care Needs in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Roberts, Megan C.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with mental illness experience poor health and may die prematurely from chronic illness. Understanding whether the presence of co-occurring chronic physical health conditions complicates mental health treatment is important, particularly among patients seeking treatment in primary care settings. Objectives Examine (1) whether the presence of chronic physical conditions is associated with mental health service use for individuals with depression who visit a primary care physician, and (2) whether race modifies this relationship. Research Design Secondary analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a survey of patient-visits collected annually from a random sample of 3,000 physicians in office-based settings. Subjects Office visits from 2007–2010 were pooled for adults ages 35–85 with a depression diagnosis at the time of visit (N=3,659 visits). Measures Mental health services were measured using a dichotomous variable indicating whether mental health services were provided during the office visit or a referral made for: (1) counseling, including psychotherapy and other mental health counseling and/or (2) prescribing of psychotropic medications. Results Most patient office visits (70%) where a depression diagnosis was recorded also had co-occurring chronic physical conditions recorded. The presence of at least one physical chronic condition was associated with a 6% decrease in the probability of receiving any mental health services (p<0.05). There were no differences in service use by race/ethnicity after controlling for other factors. Conclusions Additional research is needed on medical care delivery among patients with co-occurring health conditions, particularly as the health care system moves towards an integrated care model. PMID:26147863

  10. [Depression in protracted simple schizophrenia (on the problem of correlation between positive and negative disorders)].

    PubMed

    Drobizhev, M Iu; Luk'ianova, L L

    1991-01-01

    Three types of depressions were distinguished in sluggish simple schizophrenia: "stupid" (18 cases) " cenesthesiopathic" (20 cases), and "existential" (24 cases). The relationship was established between the manifestations of depressions and characteristic features of defect conditions. It has been established that the structure of depressive phases in sluggish simple schizophrenia includes specific psychopathological signs heralding defect formation and united by the notion "transitory syndrome". The common psychopathological property for the transitory (between positive and negative disorders) syndromes distinguished in all three types of depressive conditions under study is the phenomenon of psychic estrangement--pathology of self-consciousness with disturbed perception of the mental and physical "self", accompanied by sensation of the loss of functions (intellect, energy possibilities, emotionality and so forth). The patients with "stupid" depressions manifest the formation of a ++pseudo-organic defect; those with " cenesthesiopathic" of an asthenic defect, and those with "existential" of a defect by the personality deformity type.

  11. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Results Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. Conclusion This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated

  12. The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance in Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy Outcome: Findings in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Janice L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome for depressed outpatients who received interpersonal psychotherapy, imipramine with clinical management, or placebo with clinical management. Clinical raters scored videotapes of early, middle, and late therapy sessions for 225 cases (619 sessions). Results indicate the…

  13. Social Media as It Interfaces with Psychosocial Development and Mental Illness in Transitional Age Youth.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Escobar-Viera, César G

    2017-04-01

    For transitional age individuals, social media (SM) is an integral component of connecting with others. There are 2 billion SM users worldwide. SM users may experience an increase in perceived social support and life satisfaction. Use of SM may facilitate forming connections among people with potentially stigmatizing mental disorders. However, epidemiologic studies suggest that increased SM use is associated with conditions such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Future research should examine directionality of these associations and the role of contextual factors. It also will be useful to leverage SM to provide mental health care and surveillance of mental health concerns.

  14. Managing depression in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kerry A.; Wolfe, Vicky V.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne; Steele, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate family physicians’ practice patterns for managing depression and mental health concerns among adolescent and adult patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING London, Ont, a mid-sized Canadian city. PARTICIPANTS One hundred sixty-three family physicians identified through the London and District Academy of Medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Practice patterns for managing depression, including screening, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, shared care, and training needs. RESULTS Response rate was 63%. Family physicians reported spending a substantial portion of their time during patient visits (26% to 50%) addressing mental health issues, with depression being the most common issue (51% to 75% of patients with mental health issues). About 40% of respondents did routine mental health screening, and 60% screened patients with risk factors for depression. Shared care with mental health professionals was common (care was shared for 26% to 50% of patients). Physicians and patients were moderately satisfied with shared care, but were frustrated by long waiting lists and communication barriers. Most physicians provided psychotherapy to patients in the form of general advice. Differences in practice patterns were observed; physicians treated more adults than adolescents with depression, and they reported greater comfort in treating adults. Although 33% of physicians described using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), they reported having little training in CBT. Moderate interest was expressed in CBT training, with a preference for a workshop format. CONCLUSION Although 40% of family physicians routinely screen patients for mental health issues, depression is often not detected. Satisfaction with shared care can be increased through better communication with mental health professionals. Physicians’ management of adolescent patients can be improved by further medical training, consultation, and collaboration with mental health professionals

  15. Reproductive and other health outcomes in Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans using VA health care: Association with mental health diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Beth E.; Maguen, Shira; Bertenthal, Daniel; Shi, Ying; Jacoby, Vanessa; Seal, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of women serve in the military and are exposed to trauma during service that can lead to mental health problems. Understanding how these mental health problems affect reproductive and physical health outcomes will inform interventions to improve care for women veterans. Methods We analyzed national VA data from women Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from 10/7/2001 through 12/31/2010 (N=71,504). We used ICD-9 codes to categorize veterans into 5 groups by mental health diagnoses (MH Dx), those with: no MH Dx, PTSD, depression, comorbid PTSD and depression, and MH Dx other than PTSD and depression. We determined the association between mental health category and reproductive and other physical health outcomes defined by ICD-9 codes. Categories included sexually transmitted infections, other infections (e.g. urinary tract infections), pain-related conditions (e.g. dysmenorrhea and dsypareunia), and other conditions (e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, sexual dysfunction). Models were adjusted for sociodemographics and military service factors. Results 31,481 (44%) received at least one mental health diagnosis. Women veterans with any mental health diagnosis had significantly higher prevalences of nearly all categories of reproductive and physical disease diagnoses (p <.0001 for adjusted prevalences). There was a trend of increasing prevalence of disease outcomes in women with PTSD, depression, and comorbid PTSD and depression (p for trend <.0001 for all outcomes). Conclusions Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans with mental health diagnoses had significantly greater prevalences of several important reproductive and physical health diagnoses. These results provide support for VA initiatives to address mental and physical health concerns and improve comprehensive care for women veterans. PMID:22944901

  16. Characteristics of subjects with comorbidity of symptoms of generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders and the corresponding threshold and subthreshold conditions in an Arab general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is controversy about differential meaningfulness between comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)/ major depressive disorder (MDD), the corresponding “pure” disorders and subthreshold conditions. We compared subjects who met DSM-IVTR criteria of symptoms and functional impairment for comorbid GAD/MDD, versus those with GAD, MDD, subthreshold conditions, and without significant symptoms. The comparison measures were socio-demographics, clinical severity, and quality of life (QOL). Material/Methods Participants (N=3155: 55.1% female, aged 16–87 yrs) were a general population sample of Kuwaitis who self-completed DSM-IVTR criteria-based questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF in 2006/7. We scrutinized the questionnaires and classified them into categories. Results Of the 273 GAD and 210 MDD cases, the prevalence of comorbidity among cases with GAD was 30.8%, and 40% among MDD. Of the 398 subthreshold GAD and 194 subthreshold MDD cases, 58 had subthreshold anxiety/depression comorbidity. Comorbid threshold GAD/MDD cases were significantly older, and more likely to be women, divorced and unemployed, compared with GAD and MDD. In all measures, the threshold GAD/MDD comorbidity was the severest condition. There was a monotonic decrease in QOL with increasing anxiety-depression symptoms. For the predictors of subjective QOL, the GAD/MDD comorbidity group differed markedly from the others. Conclusions The high prevalence of comorbidity and subthreshold conditions supports the recommendation to assess them routinely, regardless of the primary reason for consultation. Our findings support a dimensional model with comorbid GAD/MDD at the higher end of a continuum, and differing from the “pure” conditions by a later onset and predictors of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22367127

  17. The integration of care for mental health, substance abuse, and other behavioral health conditions into primary care: executive summary of an American College of Physicians position paper.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Ryan A; Kirschner, Neil

    2015-08-18

    Behavioral health care includes care for patients around mental health and substance abuse conditions, health behavior change, life stresses and crises, and stress-related physical symptoms. Mental and substance use disorders alone are estimated to surpass all physical diseases as a major cause of worldwide disability by 2020. The literature recognizes the importance of the health care system effectively addressing behavioral health conditions. Recently, there has been a call for the use of the primary care delivery platform and the related patient-centered medical home model to effectively address these conditions. This position paper focuses on the issue of better integration of behavioral health into the primary care setting. It provides an environmental scan of the current state of conditions included in the concept of behavioral health and examines the arguments for and barriers to increased integration into primary care. It also examines various approaches of integrated care delivery and offers a series of policy recommendations that are based on the reviewed information and evidence to inform the actions of the American College of Physicians and its members regarding advocacy, research, and practice.

  18. Depression and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2003-01-01

    Depressive disorders are common among 20% to 32% of people with HIV disease but are frequently unrecognized. Major depression is a recurring and disabling illness that typically responds to medications, cognitive psychotherapy, education, and social support. A large percentage of the emotional distress and major depression associated with HIV disease results from immunosuppression, treatment, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the disease. People with a history of intravenous drug use also have increased rates of depressive disorders. Untreated depression along with other comorbid conditions may increase costly clinic visits, hospitalizations, substance abuse, and risky behaviors and may reduce adherence to treatment and quality of life. HIV clinicians need not have psychiatric expertise to play a major role in depression. Screening tools improve case finding and encourage early treatment. Effective treatments can reduce major depression in 80% to 90% of patients. Clinicians who mistake depressive signs and symptoms for those of HIV disease make a common error that increases morbidity and mortality.

  19. Sex, Anger and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  20. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crying Reduced concentration Appetite problems Trouble sleeping Postpartum depression symptoms Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby ... drugs, which can make mood swings worse Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also ...

  1. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  2. Health-related conditions and depression in elderly mexican american and non-Hispanic white residents of a United States-Mexico border county: moderating effects of educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Briones, David F; Heller, Peter L; Carcoba, Luis M; Weisman, Henry W; Ledger, Elizabeth M; Escamilla, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of "high" levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life-conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  3. Posttraumatic stress and depression in Yazidi refugees

    PubMed Central

    Nasıroğlu, Serhat; Çeri, Veysi

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of mental pathologies in children and adolescents of the Yazidi minority group who immigrated to Turkey from Iraq. The refugees were asked about preventive and risk factors that occurred before and after their immigration. Subjects and methods The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (30 males and 25 females) who were Yazidi refugees and had settled in the Uçkuyular, Oğuz, Onbaşı, and Uğurca villages of Batman, Turkey. The study was conducted 9 months after the refugees had immigrated. The participants were evaluated in their native language through a semistructured interview titled “Reliability and Validity of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version – Turkish Version”. A sociodemographic form was prepared so that investigators could understand their traumatic experiences before and after the migration and their current social conditions. All the interviews were conducted in the participants’ native language without the help of translators. The investigators filled out the sociodemographic forms. Results Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was detected in 20 children (36.4%), depression in 18 (32.7%), nocturnal enuresis in six (10.9%), and anxiety in four (7.3%). The following factors were found to be associated with depression: witnessing violence and/or death, being a girl, having older parents, being the elder child, and having multiple siblings (P<0.05). Risk factors for PTSD, depression, and comorbid conditions included witnessing violence and/or death (P<0.05). Four participants were observed to have both PTSD and depression (7.3%). Conclusion Most of the refugee children had experienced serious traumatic events in their home country. PTSD, depression, and comorbid mental problems are frequently seen in refugee children. PMID:27881919

  4. An Implicit Measure of Associations with Mental Illness versus Physical Illness: Response Latency Decomposition and Stimuli Differential Functioning in Relation to IAT Order of Associative Conditions and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at the definition of a latent measurement dimension underlying an implicit measure of automatic associations between the concept of mental illness and the psychosocial and biogenetic causal explanatory attributes. To this end, an Implicit Association Test (IAT) assessing the association between the Mental Illness and Physical Illness target categories to the Psychological and Biologic attribute categories, representative of the causal explanation domains, was developed. The IAT presented 22 stimuli (words and pictures) to be categorized into the four categories. After 360 university students completed the IAT, a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) modelling approach was applied. The model specified a person latency parameter and a stimulus latency parameter. Two additional parameters were introduced to denote the order of presentation of the task associative conditions and the general response accuracy. Beyond the overall definition of the latent measurement dimension, the MFRM was also applied to disentangle the effect of the task block order and the general response accuracy on the stimuli response latency. Further, the MFRM allowed detecting any differential functioning of each stimulus in relation to both block ordering and accuracy. The results evidenced: a) the existence of a latency measurement dimension underlying the Mental Illness versus Physical Illness - Implicit Association Test; b) significant effects of block order and accuracy on the overall latency; c) a differential functioning of specific stimuli. The results of the present study can contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of an implicit measure of semantic associations with mental illness and give a first blueprint for the examination of relevant issues in the development of an IAT. PMID:25000406

  5. Prevention of depressive disorders in older adults: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Patel, Vikram; Dias, Amit; Li, Juan; Reynolds, Charles F

    2015-03-01

    Prevention of depressive disorders is one of the most important challenges for health care in coming decades. Depressive disorders in all age groups have a high disease burden and are associated with huge economic costs, and current treatments are only capable of taking away one-third of the (nonfatal) disease burden of depression under optimal conditions. Prevention may be one alternative strategy that may help in further reducing the disease burden of depression. Because of the worldwide increase in the number of older adults, the number of depressed older adults will also increase considerably in the next few decades, making prevention of depression an important priority for research. Identifying the high-risk target groups for preventive interventions is complicated because most risk indicators have a low specificity, indicating that most people from these groups will not develop the disorder despite increased risk levels. We describe one promising method to identify the best target groups, based on the principle that the high-risk group should be as small as possible, should be responsible for as many new cases of depression as possible, and that intervention be as effective as possible. The number of trials examining the possibility to prevent the onset of depressive disorders in those who do not (yet) meet diagnostic criteria for depression is increasing rapidly. A recent meta-analysis identified more than 30 randomized trials and these studies showed that the incidence of depressive disorders was 21% lower in the prevention groups compared with the control groups who did not receive the preventive intervention. Most of these trials are aimed at adolescents and younger adults. Only six trials were specifically aimed at older adults. The development of evidence-based preventive interventions for major depression and other mental disorders should be an important scientific and public health objective for the 21st century.

  6. Deployment, PTSD Symptoms, and Co-morbid Mental Health Conditions in the Active Force and Reserve Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Janice M. Brown 6209 W. Sugar Pine Trail Tucson , AZ 85743 Telephone: (919) 541-7125 Facsimile: (520) 544-5764 E-mail: jmbrown@rti.org Abstract...substance use have been observed in both military and civilian samples. Keane et al. ( 1983 ) were among the first to report high rates of alcohol and...Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(5), 425–428. Keane, T. M., Caddell, J. M., Martin, B. W., Zimering, R. T., & Fairbank, J. A. ( 1983 ). Substance abuse

  7. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  8. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18 months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use. PMID:26452630

  9. Impacts of Family Rewards on Adolescents' Mental Health and Problem Behavior: Understanding the Full Range of Effects of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Pamela A; Aber, J Lawrence; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the USA, on adolescents' mental health and problem behavior (key outcomes outside of the direct targets of the program) as well as on key potential mechanisms of these effects. The Family Rewards program, launched by the Center for Economic Opportunity in the Mayor's Office of the City of New York in 2007 and co-designed and evaluated by MDRC, offered cash assistance to low-income families to reduce economic hardship. The cash rewards were offered to families in three key areas: children's education, family preventive health care, and parents' employment. Results that rely on the random assignment design of the study find that Family Rewards resulted in statistically significant reductions in adolescent aggression and rates of substance use by program group adolescents as well as their friends, relative to adolescents in the control condition, but no statistically significant impacts on adolescent mental health. One possible mechanism for the benefits to adolescent behavior appears to be time spent with peers, as fewer adolescents in the program group spent time with friends and more adolescents in the program group spent time with family. Findings are discussed with regard to their implication for conditional cash transfer programs as well as for interventions targeting high-risk youth.

  10. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3

  11. Comorbidity of 9/11-related PTSD and depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 years postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity.

  12. [Depression in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul

    2006-05-01

    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.

  13. Social contagion of mental health: Evidence from college roommates

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L.; Downs, Marilyn F.

    2015-01-01

    From a policy standpoint the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, due to selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context-specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446

  14. Social contagion of mental health: evidence from college roommates.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L; Downs, Marilyn F

    2013-08-01

    From a policy standpoint, the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, because of selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall, our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature.

  15. Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Umit; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Akbulut, Halil; Sonmez, Alper; Yuksel, Servet; Basaran, Yalcin; Uzun, Ozcan; Bolu, Erol; Saglam, Kenan

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients' anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, p<0.001, respectively). The ASEX and BDI scores significantly improved after the TRT (p<0.001 for both), while the improvement in the BAI score was not statistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.

  16. Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression Among Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vonnahme, Laura A; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Refugees are at risk for psychiatric morbidity, yet little is known about their mental health conditions. We identified factors associated with depression symptoms among Bhutanese refugees in the US. We randomly selected adult Bhutanese refugees (N = 386) to complete a cross-sectional survey concerning demographics, mental health symptoms, and associated risk factors. The case definition for depression symptoms was ≥1.75 mean depression score on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. More women (26%) than men (16%) reported depression symptoms (p = 0.0097). Higher odds of depression symptoms were associated with being a family provider, self-reported poor health, and inability to read and write Nepali (OR 4.6, 39.7 and 4.3, respectively) among men; and self-reported poor health and inability to read and write Nepali (OR 7.6, and 2.6 respectively) among women. US-settled Bhutanese refugees are at risk for depression. Providers should be aware of these concerns. Culturally appropriate mental health services should be made more accessible at a local level.

  17. Loss of Resources and Hurricane Experience as Predictors of Postpartum Depression Among Women in Southern Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Matthew; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background After a natural disaster, mental disorders often become a long-term public health concern. Previous studies under smaller-scale natural disaster conditions suggest loss of psychosocial resources is associated with psychological distress. Methods We examined the occurrence of depression 6 and 12 months postpartum among 208 women residing in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina's landfall. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of both tangible/financial and nontangible (psychosocial) loss of resources (LOR) on the outcome of depression, measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We also investigated the influence on depression of individuals' hurricane experience through a Hurricane Experience Score (HES) that includes such factors as witnessing death, contact with flood waters, and injury to self or family members. Results Both tangible and nontangible LOR were associated with depression cross-sectionally and prospectively. Severe hurricane exposure (high HES) was also associated with depression. Regression analysis showed LOR-associated depression was explained almost entirely by nontangible rather than tangible factors. Consistent with COR theory, however, nontangible LOR explained some of the association between severe hurricane exposure and depression in our models. A similar result was seen prospectively for depression at 12 months, even controlling for depression symptoms at 6 months. Conclusions These results suggest the need for preventive measures aimed at preserving psychosocial resources to reduce the long-term effects of disasters. PMID:20438305

  18. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC) models

    PubMed Central

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters) simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold) depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27). The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR) in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1) older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes) and 2) older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. PMID:28003768

  19. Dissociative depression among women with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozge; Sar, Vedat; Taycan, Okan; Aksoy-Poyraz, Cana; Erol, Turgut C; Tecer, Ozlem; Emul, Murat H; Ozmen, Mine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to inquire about the possible relations of childhood trauma, anger, and dissociation to depression among women with fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty female patients diagnosed as having fibromyalgia (n = 30) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 20) participated in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ), Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule were administered to all participants. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had higher scores for somatoform and psychoform dissociation than the nondepressive patients. However, childhood trauma scores did not differ between the 2 groups. In regression analysis, current severity of depression (BDI) was predicted by psychoform dissociation (DIS-Q) and lower education, and lifetime diagnosis of major depression was predicted by somatoform dissociation (SDQ). Whereas childhood emotional neglect predicted somatoform dissociation, psychoform dissociation was predicted by childhood sexual abuse. Mental processing of anger seems to be 1 of the dimensions of psychodynamics in trauma-related depressive conditions. In the context of the perceived threat of loss of control due to expressed anger and mental disintegration, somatoform dissociation seems to contribute to overmodulation of emotions in dissociative depression. Among patients suffering from physical illness with possible psychosomatic dimensions, assessment of somatoform dissociation in addition to psychoform dissociation may be helpful to understand diverse psychopathological trajectories emerging in the aftermath of childhood adversities. The recently proposed category of "dissociative depression" (Sar, 2011) seems to be a promising concept for future research on psychosomatic aspects of traumatic stress.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Hospitalized Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Galea, Sandro; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To document the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, and their associations with mortality among hospitalized breast cancer patients. Methods We examined the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and the diagnoses of anxiety or depression among 4,164 hospitalized breast cancer cases matched with 4,164 non-breast cancer controls using 2006-2009 inpatient data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and diagnoses of anxiety or depression. We also used binary logistic regression models to examine the association between diagnoses of depression or anxiety, and in-hospital mortality among breast cancer patients. Results We observed that breast cancer cases were less likely to have a diagnosis of depression (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.77), and less likely to have a diagnosis of anxiety (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90) compared with controls. This association remained after controlling for race/ethnicity, residential income, insurance and residential region. Breast cancer patients with a depression diagnosis also had lower mortality (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89) compared with those without a depression diagnosis, but there was no significant difference in mortality among those with and without anxiety diagnoses. Conclusion Diagnoses of depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients were less prevalent than expected based on our analysis of hospitalized breast cancer patients and matched non-breast cancer controls identified in the NIS dataset using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. Results suggest that under-diagnosis of mental health problems may be common among hospitalized women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work may fruitfully explore reasons for, and consequences of, inappropriate identification of the mental health needs of breast cancer patients. PMID

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Resiliency among African American Women in a Community-Based Primary Health Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha B.; Bradford, L. Dianne; Hall, Stephanie P.; Belton, Allyson S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and resiliency among 290 African American women (AAW) in a community-based primary health care center. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are experienced by 49% of the participants, while 10% indicated a history of suicidal ideation. Participants had moderately high resiliency scores that had a statistically significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms. This suggests that resiliency is potentially a protective factor for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with participants’ diagnosis of at least one chronic disease. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were previous diagnoses of a mental health condition and unemployment. This study identifies risk and potential protective factors for depression among a clinic sample of AAW. PMID:24241263

  2. A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: diet, sleep and exercise.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Hood, Sean D; Drummond, Peter D

    2013-05-15

    Research on major depression has confirmed that it is caused by an array of biopsychosocial and lifestyle factors. Diet, exercise and sleep are three such influences that play a significant mediating role in the development, progression and treatment of this condition. This review summarises animal- and human-based studies on the relationship between these three lifestyle factors and major depressive disorder, and their influence on dysregulated pathways associated with depression: namely neurotransmitter processes, immuno-inflammatory pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems, neuroprogression, and mitochondrial disturbances. Increased attention in future clinical studies on the influence of diet, sleep and exercise on major depressive disorder and investigations of their effect on physiological processes will help to expand our understanding and treatment of major depressive disorder. Mental health interventions, taking into account the bidirectional relationship between these lifestyle factors and major depression are also likely to enhance the efficacy of interventions associated with this disorder.

  3. Mental Disorders and Their Association With Disability Among Internally Displaced Persons and Returnees in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makhashvili, Nino; Chikovani, Ivdity; McKee, Martin; Bisson, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-01

    There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25322880

  4. Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  5. Depression in older adults: screening and referral.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brown, Ellen; Raue, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Depression is related to disability and affects rehabilitation participation, outcomes, and compliance with treatment. Improving older adult depression detection and referral requires knowledge, skills, supportive organizational policies, and access to mental health experts. This review provides a selected overview of evidence-based approaches for screening of suspected cases of depression in older adults by physical therapists and other non-mental health professionals and discusses procedures to refer suspected cases to primary care providers and/or mental health specialists for evaluation, including resources and a tool to assist in communicating depression-related information to the primary care provider or mental health specialist. We hope that this review will promote the incorporation of evidence-based screening and referral of suspected cases of depression in older adults into routine practice.

  6. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  7. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention. Extinction of taste aversive memory led to the reduced insular synaptic efficacy, which precluded further LTD induction. The impaired LTD and extinction learning in ASIC1a null mice were restored by virus-mediated expression of wild-type ASIC1a, but not its ion-impermeable mutant, in the insular cortices. Our data demonstrate the involvement of an ASIC1a-mediated insular synaptic depression mechanism in extinction learning, which raises the possibility of targeting ASIC1a to manage adaptive behaviours. PMID:27924869

  8. Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611

  9. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  10. Mental Health and Its Personal and Social Predictors in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour, Shirin; Bani, Soheila; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Yahyavi Kochaksarayie, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is considered a traumatic stressor for infertile couples, and it becomes a psychosocial crisis for that person. Considering the importance of fertility and based on the cultural and social aspects of it in Iran, the present study aimed to determine mental health and its individual and social predictors in infertile women referring to the infertility center of Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, during 2012-2013. Methods: This was a descriptive-correlational study on 345 infertile women referring to Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran, via convenient sampling. Data was gathered by the perceived social support questionnaire and mental health questionnaire. To determine the relationship between social support and personal and social characteristics, and mental health, multivariate linear regression was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean (SD) total score of mental health of women was 29.70 (11.50), the score ranged from 0 to 84. The best condition was below the depression scale, and the worst condition was below the social dysfunction scale. Social support from the family was also a predictor of the mental health of infertile women. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that infertile women, in terms of mental health and its subscales, have unfavorable conditions. Moreover, social support from the family is an important factor influencing mental health. Therefore, strengthening the social support of the family to improve the mental health of infertile women seems necessary. PMID:25276747

  11. Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among International Students at a Japanese University: With Special Reference to Their Financial Status.

    PubMed

    Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-12-01

    We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.

  12. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  13. [Mental disorders in puberty].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andreas

    2005-03-24

    Puberty is characterized by a complexity of different developmental tasks. During this period of sometimes dramatic changes, the adolescent must find a new balance between personal experiences and the demands made by the environment. In this period of development, some 18% of all adolescents experience a mental crisis, and 5% need specialist treatment. Such mental disorders in puberty as anorexia nervosa, depression or suicidality can be classified on the basis of their development and course. They must be taken seriously and treated as early as possible.

  14. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  15. NIDDK International Conference Report on Diabetes and Depression: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M.; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H.

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. PMID:25061135

  16. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro G.; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Flores-Saiffe, María E.; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  17. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  18. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... unrelated to the reason for your appointment Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life ... accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve personal inadequacy or other negative themes Catatonia — depression that ...

  19. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  20. Effectiveness of Workplace Interventions in Return-to-Work for Musculoskeletal, Pain-Related and Mental Health Conditions: An Update of the Evidence and Messages for Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K L; Irvin, E; Collie, A; Clay, F; Gensby, U; Jennings, P A; Hogg-Johnson, S; Kristman, V; Laberge, M; McKenzie, D; Newnam, S; Palagyi, A; Ruseckaite, R; Sheppard, D M; Shourie, S; Steenstra, I; Van Eerd, D; Amick, B C

    2017-02-21

    Purpose The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based return-to-work (RTW) interventions and work disability management (DM) interventions that assist workers with musculoskeletal (MSK) and pain-related conditions and mental health (MH) conditions with RTW. Methods We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis that ranked evidence as strong, moderate, limited, or insufficient. Results Seven electronic databases were searched from January 1990 until April 2015, yielding 8898 non-duplicate references. Evidence from 36 medium and high quality studies were synthesized on 12 different intervention categories across three broad domains: health-focused, service coordination, and work modification interventions. There was strong evidence that duration away from work from both MSK or pain-related conditions and MH conditions were significantly reduced by multi-domain interventions encompassing at least two of the three domains. There was moderate evidence that these multi-domain interventions had a positive impact on cost outcomes. There was strong evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy interventions that do not also include workplace modifications or service coordination components are not effective in helping workers with MH conditions in RTW. Evidence for the effectiveness of other single-domain interventions was mixed, with some studies reporting positive effects and others reporting no effects on lost time and work functioning. Conclusions While there is substantial research literature focused on RTW, there are only a small number of quality workplace-based RTW intervention studies that involve workers with MSK or pain-related conditions and MH conditions. We recommend implementing multi-domain interventions (i.e. with healthcare provision, service coordination, and work accommodation components) to help reduce lost time for

  1. Efficacy of depression treatments for immigrant patients: results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unprecedented rates of global migration present unique challenges to mental health services in migrant receiving countries to provide efficacious and culturally salient treatment for mental health conditions including depression. This review aimed to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of depression interventions specifically directed towards first-generation immigrant populations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of original research published between 2000 and 2013 that investigated depression interventions in first generation immigrants. Results Fifteen studies were included; the majority focused on Latino immigrants living in the United States (US). Twelve studies investigated the use of psychotherapies; the remainder examined collaborative care models and physical exercise-based interventions. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation tended to improve depressive symptoms, especially when culturally adapted to suit clients while Problem Solving Therapy improved depressive symptomology with and without adaptations. Collaborative care and exercise did not significantly improve depressive symptoms. Conclusion Depression may be effectively treated by means of psychotherapies, especially when treatments are culturally adapted. However the reviewed studies were limited due to methodological weaknesses and were predominantly undertaken in the US with Latino patients. To improve generalizability, future research should be undertaken in non-US settings, amongst diverse ethnic groups and utilize larger sample sizes in either randomized clinical trials or observational cohort studies. PMID:24930429

  2. Isotretinoin and mental health in adolescents: Australian consensus.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Casey; Spelman, Lynda; Oziemski, Margaret; Ryan, Alexander; Manoharan, Shobhan; Wilson, Perry; Daubney, Michael; Scott, James

    2014-05-01

    Acne is a common condition among adolescents and has the potential to negatively impact on the psychological well-being of those who suffer from it. In particular, depression and suicidal ideation are more common in adolescents with acne. Successful treatment of acne can improve the quality of life and reduce levels of anxiety and depression in these individuals. The current treatment of choice for severe or refractive acne is isotretinoin, a retinoid. While the possible causal association between isotretinoin and mental illness remains a controversial topic, a recent systematic review has presented evidence to support this relationship. In light of this evidence, a group of dermatologists and psychiatrists have collaborated to develop these recommendations to aid the safe prescribing of isotretinoin in adolescents. These clinical suggestions are aimed at practitioners in both disciplines to increase awareness of the current evidence in support of the association between isotretinoin and adolescent depression.

  3. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  4. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  5. The Co-Occurrence and Unique Mental Health Effects of Political Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy A; Yacoubian, Kim; Flaherty Fischette, Patricia; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2015-09-22

    The global mental health ramifications of political violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) are well established. There also exists a growing body of evidence about the increased risks for IPV within situations of political violence. Yet, except for a few studies, there is little literature that simultaneously examines how political violence and IPV might result in unique risks for particular types of mental health sequela. Delineating possible divergent patterns between specific mental health conditions resulting from political violence and IPV takes on an increased urgency given that, although they are related, the two most commonly reported outcomes of these two types of violence-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression-not only require different types of treatment, but may in fact be generated or maintained by disparate paths. Using survey data from adult women in Palestine (n = 122), this study explores the relationships between IPV and political violence (both lifetime and past-month exposure) and tests their independent relationships to PTSD and depressive symptomology. After controlling for the other form of violence exposure, political violence was correlated with PTSD and not with depressive symptomology, while IPV was correlated with depressive symptomology and not with PTSD. Findings demonstrate that distinct forms of violence exposure might indeed be associated with specific mental health outcomes. Results illustrate the need to assess for both political violence and IPV when researching and designing interventions related to violence.

  6. An Overview of 9/11 Experiences and Respiratory and Mental Health Conditions among World Trade Center Health Registry Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    DiGrande, Laura; Brackbill, Robert; Prann, Angela; Cone, James; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J.; Pezeshki, Grant; Thomas, Pauline; Galea, Sandro; Williamson, David; Frieden, Thomas R.; Thorpe, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    To date, health effects of exposure to the September 11, 2001 disaster in New York City have been studied in specific groups, but no studies have estimated its impact across the different exposed populations. This report provides an overview of the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) enrollees, their exposures, and their respiratory and mental health outcomes 2–3 years post-9/11. Results are extrapolated to the estimated universe of people eligible to enroll in the WTCHR to determine magnitude of impact. Building occupants, persons on the street or in transit in lower Manhattan on 9/11, local residents, rescue and recovery workers/volunteers, and area school children and staff were interviewed and enrolled in the WTCHR between September 2003 and November 2004. A total of 71,437 people enrolled in the WTCHR, for 17.4% coverage of the estimated eligible exposed population (nearly 410,000); 30% were recruited from lists, and 70% were self-identified. Many reported being in the dust cloud from the collapsing WTC Towers (51%), witnessing traumatic events (70%), or sustaining an injury (13%). After 9/11, 67% of adult enrollees reported new or worsening respiratory symptoms, 3% reported newly diagnosed asthma, 16% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 8% for serious psychological distress (SPD). Newly diagnosed asthma was most common among rescue and recovery workers who worked on the debris pile (4.1%). PTSD was higher among those who reported Hispanic ethnicity (30%), household income <$25,000 (31%), or being injured (35%). Using previously published estimates of the total number of exposed people per WTCHR eligibility criteria, we estimate between 3,800 and 12,600 adults experienced newly diagnosed asthma and 34,600–70,200 adults experienced PTSD following the attacks, suggesting extensive adverse health impacts beyond the immediate deaths and injuries from the acute event. PMID:18785012

  7. An overview of 9/11 experiences and respiratory and mental health conditions among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees.

    PubMed

    Farfel, Mark; DiGrande, Laura; Brackbill, Robert; Prann, Angela; Cone, James; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J; Pezeshki, Grant; Thomas, Pauline; Galea, Sandro; Williamson, David; Frieden, Thomas R; Thorpe, Lorna

    2008-11-01

    To date, health effects of exposure to the September 11, 2001 disaster in New York City have been studied in specific groups, but no studies have estimated its impact across the different exposed populations. This report provides an overview of the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) enrollees, their exposures, and their respiratory and mental health outcomes 2-3 years post-9/11. Results are extrapolated to the estimated universe of people eligible to enroll in the WTCHR to determine magnitude of impact. Building occupants, persons on the street or in transit in lower Manhattan on 9/11, local residents, rescue and recovery workers/volunteers, and area school children and staff were interviewed and enrolled in the WTCHR between September 2003 and November 2004. A total of 71,437 people enrolled in the WTCHR, for 17.4% coverage of the estimated eligible exposed population (nearly 410,000); 30% were recruited from lists, and 70% were self-identified. Many reported being in the dust cloud from the collapsing WTC Towers (51%), witnessing traumatic events (70%), or sustaining an injury (13%). After 9/11, 67% of adult enrollees reported new or worsening respiratory symptoms, 3% reported newly diagnosed asthma, 16% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 8% for serious psychological distress (SPD). Newly diagnosed asthma was most common among rescue and recovery workers who worked on the debris pile (4.1%). PTSD was higher among those who reported Hispanic ethnicity (30%), household income < $25,000 (31%), or being injured (35%). Using previously published estimates of the total number of exposed people per WTCHR eligibility criteria, we estimate between 3,800 and 12,600 adults experienced newly diagnosed asthma and 34,600-70,200 adults experienced PTSD following the attacks, suggesting extensive adverse health impacts beyond the immediate deaths and injuries from the acute event.

  8. A narrative review of factors influencing detection and treatment of depression in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Depression is among the most common psychiatric conditions in primary health care, and constitutes an important part of the global disease burden. However, it is difficult to obtain comparable data on depression worldwide and models for treatment and intervention need to be locally adapted. We conducted a narrative review of research literature on factors that influence depression screening, diagnosis and treatment among the Vietnamese population. This explorative approach included studies describing: a) culturally or contextually specific risk-factors for depression; b) any depression treatment seeking or treatment acceptability/adherence aspects or; c) depression screening among Vietnamese patients. We searched the PubMed and Cinahl databases, as well as relevant Vietnamese peer-reviewed journals and this produced 20 articles that were included in the review. Our findings indicate the importance of considering somatic symptoms when screening for depression in Vietnam as well as the use of culturally adapted and dimensional screening instruments. Our study confirms that depression reflects chronic social adversity, and thus an approach to mental health management that focuses solely on individual pathology will fail to address its important social causes. Further studies should elucidate whether neurasthenia is a commonly used illness label among Vietnamese patients that coincides with depression. The tendency among Vietnamese to seek traditional Vietnamese medicine and meditation practice when experiencing emotional distress was supported by our findings. PMID:23647977

  9. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    PubMed

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  10. Feeling Bad on Facebook: Depression disclosures by college students on a Social Networking Site

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Egan, Katie G; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Gannon, Kerry E; Becker, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is common and frequently undiagnosed among college students. Social networking sites are popular among college students and can include displayed depression references. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' Facebook disclosures that met DSM criteria for a depression symptom or a major depressive episode (MDE). Methods We selected public Facebook profiles from sophomore and junior undergraduates and evaluated personally written text: “status updates.” We applied DSM criteria to one year of status updates from each profile to determine prevalence of displayed depression symptoms and MDE criteria. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the association between depression disclosures and demographics or Facebook use characteristics. Results A total of 200 profiles were evaluated, profile owners were 43.5% female with a mean age of 20 years. Overall, 25% of profiles displayed depressive symptoms and 2.5% met criteria for MDE. Profile owners were more likely to reference depression if they averaged at least one online response from their friends to a status update disclosing depressive symptoms (exp(B)=2.1, p<0.001), or if they used Facebook more frequently (p<0.001). Conclusion College students commonly display symptoms consistent with depression on Facebook. Our findings suggest that those who receive online reinforcement from their friends are more likely to discuss their depressive symptoms publicly on Facebook. Given the frequency of depression symptom displays on public profiles, SNSs could be an innovative avenue for combating stigma surrounding mental health conditions, or for identifying students at risk for depression. PMID:21400639

  11. Implementation of a Positive Development, Evidence-Supported Practice for Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions: The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Karyn; Clark, Hewitt B; Deschênes, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Transition into adulthood represents a particularly challenging period for youth and young adults with serious mental health conditions and related needs. The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) model is based on a positive development approach and has been demonstrated to be an evidence-supported practice for preparing emerging adults in their movement into employment/career, education, living situation, personal effectiveness/well-being, and community-life functioning--and to be responsive to their families. This article describes the TIP model from a positive youth development framework, its empirical underpinnings, and the fidelity and outcome tracking tools that have been developed for use with transition sites for implementation and sustainability. A research study on the fidelity tools showed their reliability and validity and a second study presents progress and outcome findings for youth and young adults at a new TIP model site. The implications of the TIP model and these findings are discussed.

  12. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  13. Depression and resilience mediate the relationship between traumatic life events and ill physical health: results from a population study.

    PubMed

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Yan, Elsie; Raeside, Robert; Howard, Ruth

    2016-11-10

    We set out to investigate the mediating roles of depression, resilience, smoking, and alcohol use, in the relationship between potentially traumatic life events and objective and subjective, physical and mental health in a single study. A face-to-face, population-based survey was conducted in Hong Kong (N = 1147). Information on health conditions and traumatic life events was obtained, and participants completed measures of subjective physical and mental health, depression, and resilience. Smoking and drinking were not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and both objective and subjective health. Depressive symptomatology was found to mediate the relationship between life threatening illness and subjective physical health, the relationship between abuse (physical and sexual) and subjective mental health, and the relationship between the death of a parent/partner and subjective mental health. Resilience was found to mediate the relationships between multiple traumatic life events and subjective physical and mental health. Our results indicate that psychological factors rather than biological are important mediators of the relationship between life events exposure and health. Our findings provide evidence that depressive symptomatology has a mediating role only in the case of specific potentially traumatic life events and that resilience is only a critical factor in the face of exposure to multiple traumatic events, rather than single events. Our results also indicate that behavioural factors, such as smoking and drinking, are not significant mediators of the relationship between life events and health.

  14. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  15. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  16. A multilevel study on the association of observer-assessed working conditions with depressive symptoms among female eldercare workers from 56 work units in 10 care homes in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Louise M; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Thomsen, Birthe L; Greiner, Birgit A; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eldercare workers in Denmark have a higher prevalence of poor psychological health than other occupational groups. We examined the association between working conditions assessed by trained observers and depressive symptoms assessed by self-report in a study of female Danish eldercare workers. Methods Working conditions were observed based on action regulation theory and defined as (1) regulation requirements, a workplace resource providing opportunity for decision-making and skill development and (2) barriers for task completion. We examined the associations of individual and work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 95 individually observed eldercare workers. Further, we examined the association of work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 205 care workers, including both observed and non-observed individuals. We used regression models that allowed for correlations within work units and care homes and adjusted these models for demographics, job characteristics and stressful life events. Results Higher levels of regulation requirements were associated with lower depressive symptoms at the individual level (p=0.04), but not at the workplace level. Barriers were not associated with depressive symptoms at the individual level. At the workplace level, a higher number of qualitatively different barriers (p=0.04) and a higher number of barriers for equipment use (p=0.03) were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in the age and cohabitation adjusted model, however statistical significance was lost in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Low level of regulation requirements was associated with a high level of depressive symptoms. The study highlights the importance of examining both individual and workplace levels of working conditions. PMID:26560058

  17. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060

  18. A Review of the Role of Social Cognition in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weightman, Michael James; Air, Tracy Michele; Baune, Bernhard Theodor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive, and interpret socially relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognized to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterize the current understanding of: (i) the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical presentation of social cognition in acute and remitted depressive states, and (iii) the effect of severity of depression on social cognitive performance. Methods: Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder population, yielding 31 studies for this review. Results: Patients with major depressive disorder appear to interpret social cognitive stimuli differently to healthy controls: depressed individuals may interpret emotion through a mood-congruent bias and have difficulty with cognitive theory of mind tasks requiring interpretation of complex mental states. Social cognitive performance appears to be inversely associated with severity of depression, whilst the bias toward negative emotions persists even in remission. Some deficits may normalize following effective pharmacotherapy. Conclusions: The difficulties with social interaction observed in major depressive disorder may, at least in part, be due to an altered ability to correctly interpret emotional stimuli and mental states. These features seem to persist even in remission, although some may respond to intervention. Further research is required in this area to better understand the functional impact of these findings and the way in which targeted therapy could aid depressed individuals with social interactions. PMID:25566100

  19. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups.

  20. Memory specificity and mindfulness jointly moderate the effect of reflective pondering on depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Kate; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-05-01

    In previously depressed individuals, reflective thinking may easily get derailed and lead to detrimental effects. This study investigated the conditions in which such thinking is, or is not, adaptive. Levels of mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity were assessed as potential moderators of the relationship between reflective thinking and depressive symptoms. Two hundred seventy-four individuals with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, rumination-including subscales for reflection and brooding-and mindfulness, as well as an autobiographical memory task to assess memory specificity. In those low in both mindfulness and memory specificity, higher levels of reflection were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas in all other groups higher levels of reflection were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The results demonstrate that the relation between reflective pondering and depressive symptoms varies depending on individual state or trait factors. In previously depressed individuals, the cognitive problem-solving aspect of reflection may be easily hampered when tendencies toward unspecific processing are increased, and awareness of mental processes such as self-judgment and reactivity is decreased.

  1. Staying Engaged: The Role of Teachers and Schools in Keeping Young People with Health Conditions Engaged in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Liza; Green, Julie; Henry, John; Edwards, Brian; Wong, Shanti

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that having a chronic or traumatic health condition can seriously impact on a young person's educational trajectory, as well as placing the young person at higher risk of experiencing mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety, and increasing their likelihood of participation in risky behaviours. This paper…

  2. Clinical risk and depression (continuing education credit).

    PubMed

    Sharkey, S

    1997-01-22

    This article provides information and guidance to nurses on clinical risks in mental health, particularly that of depression. It relates to UKCC professional development category: Reducing risk and Care enhancement.

  3. Self versus Others' Perception of Youths' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviano, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Data was analyzed in the National Longitudinal Survey Study from 1997 specifically relating to questions regarding depression in youth. In the analysis it was found that how the respondent defined their own depression and poor mental health was different than the perceptions about their mental health from those that live with them in the same…

  4. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better

  5. Rodent Models of Depression: Neurotrophic and Neuroinflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Stepanichev, Mikhail; Dygalo, Nikolay N.; Grigoryan, Grigory; Shishkina, Galina T.; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Rodent models are an indispensable tool for studying etiology and progress of depression. Since interrelated systems of neurotrophic factors and cytokines comprise major regulatory mechanisms controlling normal brain plasticity, impairments of these systems form the basis for development of cerebral pathologies, including mental diseases. The present review focuses on the numerous experimental rodent models of depression induced by different stress factors (exteroceptive and interoceptive) during early life (including prenatal period) or adulthood, giving emphasis to the data on the changes of neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammatory indices in the brain. These parameters are closely related to behavioral depression-like symptoms and impairments of neuronal plasticity and are both gender- and genotype-dependent. Stress-related changes in expression of neurotrophins and cytokines in rodent brain are region-specific. Some contradictory data reported by different groups may be a consequence of differences of stress paradigms or their realization in different laboratories. Like all experimental models, stress-induced depression-like conditions are experimental simplification of clinical depression states; however, they are suitable for understanding the involvement of neurotrophic factors and cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease—a goal unachievable in the clinical reality. These major regulatory systems may be important targets for therapeutic measures as well as for development of drugs for treatment of depression states. PMID:24999483

  6. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk.

  7. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Arielle Y.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R. Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L.; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind–the ability to decode and reason about others’ mental states–is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes task’ and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  8. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  9. [Mental health of the world population: epidemiological aspects (the analysis of foreign research results for 2000-2010)].

    PubMed

    Mitikhina, I A; Mitikhin, V G; Iasterbov, V S; Limankin, O V

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches to studying prevalence of a mental pathology and the results received during 2000-2010 are analyzed according to a condition of mental health of the population of separate regions and countries of the world. Information sources were databases of the WHO, a database of the United States National Library of Medicine "PubMed", archives of publications of leading foreign medical magazines in the field of mental health. The growth of prevalence and incidence of mental illnesses, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, with the corresponding increasing burden of mental disorders worldwide is observed. To obtain reliable results, modern schemes of epidemiological studies should be realized with the account of social-cultural level of the population, adaptation of diagnostic tools, qualitative preparation and training of the personnel and with the precise use of statistical criteria and requirements to the selection and analysis of research information.

  10. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  11. Vitamin D and depression: where is all the sunshine?

    PubMed

    Penckofer, Sue; Kouba, Joanne; Byrn, Mary; Estwing Ferrans, Carol

    2010-06-01

    Depression in its own right is a disabling condition impairing all aspects of human function. In persons with a chronic medical disease, depression often makes the management of chronic illness more difficult. Recently, vitamin D has been reported in the scientific and lay press as an important factor that may have significant health benefits in the prevention and the treatment of many chronic illnesses. Most individuals in this country have insufficient levels of vitamin D. This is also true for persons with depression as well as other mental disorders. Whether this is due to insufficient dietary intake, lifestyle (e.g., little outdoor exposure to sunshine), or other factors is addressed in this paper. In addition, groups at risk and suggested treatment for inadequate vitamin D levels are addressed. Effective detection and treatment of inadequate vitamin D levels in persons with depression and other mental disorders may be an easy and cost-effective therapy which could improve patients' long-term health outcomes as well as their quality of life.

  12. Disability and Depression.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovich, A; Wilkerson, A

    2016-12-01

    Here, Ann Cvetkovich, interviewed by Abby Wilkerson, brings Cvetkovich's influential cultural studies analysis of depression explicitly into conversation with disability studies. Cvetkovich understands "feeling bad" (a term she prefers to "depression") as a defining affective state under neoliberalism. Drawing on a distinctive historical/cultural archive, she challenges the atomism of the neoliberal medical model that frames depression and affective distress more generally as the result of faulty brain chemistry-individual organisms gone awry. Instead, she traces these common experiences to sociopolitical phenomena ranging from current neoliberal demands for productivity as exemplified in university life, to histories of colonization, slavery, and displacement. The conversation considers the value of disability frameworks for understanding mental health diagnoses and the intersections of social institutions, bodily practices, and everyday affective life.

  13. Infidelity, initiation, and the emotional climate of divorce: are there implications for mental health?

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M M; Horwitz, A V

    2001-09-01

    A large literature has examined the role of "secondary" stressors, such as problems with finances, social support, residential mobility, and children, in producing the well-documented association between divorce and a variety of psychopathological conditions. Much less attention, however, has been paid to variation in the "primary" disruption experience. We address this omission using data from the National Survey of Families and Households to investigate the interrelationships among depression, initiator status, and spousal infidelity. While we find little evidence of direct effects of initiator status or spousal infidelity on post-divorce depression, the importance of these characteristics emerges when they are considered in an interactive context. Specifically, while divorce initiation is associated with reduced depression among individuals with unfaithful spouses, initiation is associated with increased depression in the absence of spousal infidelity. Taken together, our findings suggest that characteristics of the divorce experience may interact in complex ways to produce variation in mental health outcomes.

  14. Angina and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is a common phenomenon in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and an emerging prognostic factor. Mental stress ischemia is correlated with ambulatory ischemia. However, whether it is related to angina symptoms during daily life has not been examined. Methods We assessed angina-frequency (past month) in 98 post-myocardial infarction (MI) subjects (age 18-60 years) using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi SPECT perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed-difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, CAD-severity, depressive, anger and anxiety symptoms, each 1-point increase in mental-stress SDS was associated with 1.73-unit increase in the angina-frequency score (95% CI: 0.09-3.37) and 17% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38). Depressive symptoms were associated with 12% higher odds of being in a higher angina-frequency category (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). In contrast, exercise/pharmacological stress-induced SDS was not associated with angina-frequency. Conclusion Among young and middle-aged post-MI patients, myocardial ischemia induced by mental stress in the lab, but not by exercise/pharmacological stress, is associated with higher frequency of retrospectively reported angina during the day. Psychosocial stressors related to mental stress ischemia may be important contributory factor to daily angina. PMID:25727240

  15. Public Beliefs and Attitudes towards Depression in Italy: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Munizza, Carmine; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Coppo, Alessandro; Tibaldi, Giuseppe; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Rucci, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that attitudes towards depression may be influenced by country-specific social and cultural factors. A survey was carried out to collect beliefs on and attitudes toward depression in Italy, which has an established community-based mental health system. Methods A telephone survey was carried out in a probabilistic sample aged ≥15 years. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to explore knowledge of depression, stigma, causal beliefs, treatment preference, and help-seeking attitudes. Results Of the 1001 participants, 98% were aware of depression, and 62% had experienced it, either directly or indirectly. A widespread belief (75%) was that people suffering from depression should avoid talking about their problem. A minority of the sample viewed depression as a condition that should be managed without recourse to external help or a “socially dangerous” illness. Among perceived causes of depression, most respondents mentioned life stressors or physical strains. Psychologists were often indicated as an adequate source of professional help. Half of the sample believed that depression should be pharmacologically treated, but drugs were often seen as addictive. Referring to a primary care physician (PCP) was considered embarrassing; furthermore, many people thought that PCPs are too busy to treat patients suffering from depression. Conclusions Our findings indicate that depression is seen as a reaction to significant life events that should be overcome with the support of significant others or the help of health professionals (mainly psychologists). However, there are still barriers to the disclosure of depressive symptoms to PCPs, and concerns about the addictive effect of antidepressants. In the presence of a gap between people’s beliefs and what health professionals consider appropriate for the treatment of depression, a “shared decision making” approach to treatment selection should be adopted taking into account the

  16. Prevalence of HIV risk behaviors, risk perceptions, and testing among US adults with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Dickey, Wayne C

    2003-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders may lack the knowledge, skills, and social networks that help limit the spread of HIV by reducing risk behaviors. Nationally representative data from the 1999 U.S. National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among civilian noninstitutionalized adults with and without at least one of three psychiatric conditions (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic attacks) in the previous 12 months. Relative to adults without these mental disorders, adults with a mental disorder (8.8% of adults nationally) were more likely to have engaged in HIV risk behaviors since 1980 (5.5% vs. 1.6%). Adults with a mental disorder were also more likely to report a high or medium chance of becoming infected, were more likely to have been tested for HIV infection, and were more likely to expect to be tested within the next 12 months.

  17. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  18. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  19. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-03

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques.

  20. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  1. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  2. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  3. Mental health and general wellness in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Joshi, Spruha; Pietrzak, Robert H; Galea, Sandro; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across