Science.gov

Sample records for deprivation amplification revisited

  1. Deprivation amplification revisited; or, is it always true that poorer places have poorer access to resources for healthy diets and physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Background It has commonly been suggested (including by this author) that individual or household deprivation (for example, low income) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of affordable nutritious food or facilities for physical activity in the neighbourhood). Discussion The idea of deprivation amplification has some intuitive attractiveness and helps divert attention away from purely individual determinants of diet and physical activity, and towards health promoting or health damaging features of the physical and social environment. Such environmental features may be modifiable, and environmental changes may help promote healthier behaviors. However, recent empirical examination of the distribution of facilities and resources shows that location does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods. This suggests that we need: a) to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date empirical evidence on the socio-economic distribution of neighbourhood resources, and b) to engage in further research on the relative importance of, and interactions between, individual and environmental factors in shaping behavior. Summary In this debate paper I suggest that it may not always be true that poorer neighbourhoods are more likely to lack health promoting resources, and to be exposed to more health damaging resources. The spatial distribution of environmental resources by area socioeconomic status may vary between types of resource, countries, and time periods. It may also be that the presence or absence of resources is less important than their quality, their social meaning, or local perceptions of their accessibility and relevance. PMID:17683624

  2. Neighborhood Deprivation and Physical Activity Facilities - No Support for the Deprivation Amplification Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; D'Agostino, Adriana; Weyers, Simone; Diehl, Katharina; Gruber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    The "deprivation amplification" hypothesis states that individuals who are already socially disadvantaged experience a further contextual disadvantage regarding their access to health relevant facilities. This hypothesis is investigated for the first time for Germany, led by the question as to whether deprived neighborhoods experience worse access to physical activity facilities than affluent ones. We differentiate between facilities for children and adolescents vs. for adults, and between free vs. fee-based facilities. We identified all physical activity facilities by traversing each neighborhood by foot or bicycle in the framework of a systematic audit. Number, location, and type of facilities were recorded and visualized. The investigation area encompassed 18 social areas in a major German city with 92,000 inhabitants and an area of 12.0 km2. A lower socioeconomic area status was related to a higher availability of physical activity facilities for children and adolescents (7.11/1000 minors in deprived social areas versus 4.46/1000 minors in affluent social areas; P < .05). For adults, the pattern was similar but not significant (P ≥ .05). These results were also shown in analyses in which only free facilities were taken into consideration. Our study cannot support the "deprivation amplification" hypothesis regarding the availability of physical activity facilities.

  3. Neurobehavioural sequelae of social deprivation in rodents revisited: Modelling social adversity for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W

    2016-11-01

    The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function. The relevance of the isolate for animal models of psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia is reviewed, and it is considered that the paradigm best exemplifies a manipulation that can be applied to test effects of certain forms of social adversity during adolescence on brain development and behaviour.

  4. Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data.

    PubMed

    Sariaslan, A; Fazel, S; D'Onofrio, B M; Långström, N; Larsson, H; Bergen, S E; Kuja-Halkola, R; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-05-03

    Neighborhood influences in the etiology of schizophrenia have been emphasized in a number of systematic reviews, but causality remains uncertain. To test the social drift hypothesis, we used three complementary genetically informed Swedish cohorts. First, we used nationwide Swedish data on approximately 760 000 full- and half-sibling pairs born between 1951 and 1974 and quantitative genetic models to study genetic and environmental influences on the overlap between schizophrenia in young adulthood and subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Schizophrenia diagnoses were ascertained using the National Patient Registry. Second, we tested the overlap between childhood psychotic experiences and neighborhood deprivation in early adulthood in the longitudinal Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=2960). Third, we investigated to what extent polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia predicted residence in deprived neighborhoods during late adulthood using the TwinGene sample (n=6796). Sibling data suggested that living in deprived neighborhoods was substantially heritable; 65% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 60-71%) of the variance was attributed to genetic influences. Although the correlation between schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was moderate in magnitude (r=0.22; 95% CI: 0.20-0.24), it was entirely explained by genetic influences. We replicated these findings in the TCHAD sample. Moreover, the association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was statistically significant (R(2)=0.15%, P=0.002). Our findings are primarily consistent with a genetic selection interpretation where genetic liability for schizophrenia also predicts subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Previous studies may have overemphasized the relative importance of environmental influences in the social drift of schizophrenia patients. Clinical and policy interventions will therefore

  5. Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Sariaslan, A; Fazel, S; D'Onofrio, B M; Långström, N; Larsson, H; Bergen, S E; Kuja-Halkola, R; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood influences in the etiology of schizophrenia have been emphasized in a number of systematic reviews, but causality remains uncertain. To test the social drift hypothesis, we used three complementary genetically informed Swedish cohorts. First, we used nationwide Swedish data on approximately 760 000 full- and half-sibling pairs born between 1951 and 1974 and quantitative genetic models to study genetic and environmental influences on the overlap between schizophrenia in young adulthood and subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Schizophrenia diagnoses were ascertained using the National Patient Registry. Second, we tested the overlap between childhood psychotic experiences and neighborhood deprivation in early adulthood in the longitudinal Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=2960). Third, we investigated to what extent polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia predicted residence in deprived neighborhoods during late adulthood using the TwinGene sample (n=6796). Sibling data suggested that living in deprived neighborhoods was substantially heritable; 65% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 60–71%) of the variance was attributed to genetic influences. Although the correlation between schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was moderate in magnitude (r=0.22; 95% CI: 0.20–0.24), it was entirely explained by genetic influences. We replicated these findings in the TCHAD sample. Moreover, the association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was statistically significant (R2=0.15%, P=0.002). Our findings are primarily consistent with a genetic selection interpretation where genetic liability for schizophrenia also predicts subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Previous studies may have overemphasized the relative importance of environmental influences in the social drift of schizophrenia patients. Clinical and policy interventions will therefore

  6. Neurogentics of Dopaminergic Receptor Super-sensitivity in Activation of Brain Reward Circuitry and Relapse: Proposing “Deprivation-Amplification Relapse Therapy” (DART)

    PubMed Central

    Downs, B. William; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Waite, Roger L.; Braverman, Eric R.; Madigan, Margaret; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; DiNubile, Nicholas; Gold, Mark

    2013-01-01

    , enkephalinase and catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) enzyme inhibition, which have resulted in attenuated relapse rates in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) probands. Future warranted translational research with positive outcome showing prevented or lower relapse in RDS will ultimately support the proposed concept, which we term “Deprivation-Amplification Relapse Therapy (DART).” PMID:19940429

  7. SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report was confined to considering the effects of sleep deprivation , in man, with particular reference to studies of the resulting biochemical...have a limited value when taken separately: the biochemical and physiological changes that occur in response to sleep deprivation may depend...three separate heads: first, the biochemical changes resulting from sleep deprivation ; secondly, the physiological ones; and last, the changes in performance and behaviour. (Author)

  8. Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs when inadequate sleep leads to decreased performance, inadequate alertness, and deterioration in health. It is incompletely understood why humans need sleep, although some theories include energy conservation, restoration, and information processing. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious health effects. Residency programs have enacted strict work restrictions because of medically related errors due to sleep deprivation. Because obstetrics is an unpredictable specialty with long irregular hours, enacting a hospitalist program enhances patient safety, decreases malpractice risk, and improves the physician's quality of life by allowing obstetricians to get sufficient rest.

  9. The maternal deprivation animal model revisited.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Prada, Carmen; Viveros, María-Paz

    2015-04-01

    Early life stress, in the form of MD (24h at pnd 9), interferes with brain developmental trajectories modifying both behavioral and neurobiochemical parameters. MD has been reported to enhance neuroendocrine responses to stress, to affect emotional behavior and to impair cognitive function. More recently, changes in body weight gain, metabolic parameters and immunological responding have also been described. Present data give support to the fact that neuronal degeneration and/or astrocyte proliferation are present in specific brain regions, mainly hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of neonatal stress. The MD animal model arises as a valuable tool for the investigation of the brain processes occurring at the narrow time window comprised between pnd 9 and 10 that are critical for the establishment of brain circuitries critical for the regulation of behavior, metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the present review we will discuss three possible mechanisms that might be crucial for the effects of MD, namely, the rapid increase in glucocorticoids, the lack of the neonatal leptin surge, and the enhanced endocannabinoid signaling during the specific critical period of MD. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental consequences of MD is a concern for public health and may provide new insights into mental health prevention strategies and into novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatry.

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  11. A reassessment of the hyperphagia/weight-loss paradox during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paulo J F; D'Almeida, Vânia; Nobrega, José N; Tufik, Sergio

    2006-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is a well-known paradigm to investigate the deleterious effects of prolonged wakefulness. Previous studies have shown that, during sleep deprivation, rats are hyperphagic but, paradoxically, lose body weight. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased metabolism. However, most previous studies have failed to account for food spillage, which may be considerable during sleep deprivation. In the present study, we revisited the issue of feeding changes in sleep-deprived rats and introduced different procedures to allow accurate estimation of food spillage prior to, during, and after 120 hours of sleep deprivation by a single platform technique. Animal Sleep Research Laboratory, Psychobiology Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. The main finding was that, once corrected for spillage, food intake was not significantly increased during sleep deprivation. Increases in food removed from feeders were accompanied by proportional increases in food spillage, resulting in no net changes in food intake. Further, weight loss did occur during the sleep-deprivation period, especially in the first 24 hours, and it was actually explained by a reduction in food intake. The hyperphagia/weight-loss paradox previously seen during prolonged sleep deprivation does not necessarily occur with shorter periods of deprivation. Although we found no evidence of hyperphagia for up to 5 days of sleep deprivation in chow-fed rats, our data suggest that an impairment in the ability to increase food intake in response to increased energy expenditure contributes to the energy deficit during sleep deprivation in rats.

  12. Lakatos Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  13. Lakatos Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  14. Environmentally Deprived Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimnicht, Glen

    This paper discusses the meaning of environmental deprivation, specifically the effects of racial, ethnic, and cultural differences on education. Objectives are also given for a Head Start and Follow Through program. A child is environmentally deprived to the extent that he has not developed his intellectual ability and a positive self-image.…

  15. Deprivation, Development, and Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan W.; Klaus, Rupert A.

    The Early Training Project, supported by the National Institute of Mental Health experimentally tested a developmental intervention program designed to improve the educability of young educationally deprived children. Three groups were randomized from a group of 65 deprived children born in 1958 in a small southern city. One group had three…

  16. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    PubMed

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate.

  17. [Diabetes and social deprivation].

    PubMed

    Jaffiol, Claude; Fontbonne, Annick; Vannereau, Denyse; Olive, Jean-Paul; Passeron, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence is frequently associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but little is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes control, follow-up and quality of life. We evaluated SES by using the EPICES score, an individual index of deprivation (Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de Santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé; Evaluation of Precariousness and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers). A total of 1686 subjects aged from 25 to 85 years were selected at random in Montpellier and 154 in Narbonne, of whom 126 were managed by a care network including diabetologists, general practitioners and nurses. Capillary glycemia, the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were measured in all the subjects. HbA1c was measured in subjects with above-normal glycemia. Five hundred sixty-four subjects from the study population (190 diabetic patients, 292 subjects with non diabetic hyperglycemia, and 86 euglycemic subjects) were clinically evaluated and asked to complete a questionnaire covering socioeconomic status and diet. The data were then compared between deprived and non deprived subjects. One hundred sixty-one diabetic patients had a clinical examination and completed a detailed questionnaire including their history, therapy, control and follow-up of diabetes, perception of diabetes, quality of life, socioeconomic status and diet. The data were then compared between deprived and non deprived patients. One hundred twenty-six diabetic subjects managed by the AUDIAB care network were compared with 163 diabetics recruited in Montpellier, based on the same investigations and the same questionnaires. The data were compared between the overall patients and between deprived and non deprived patients. In the overall population, deprived subjects were younger and more frequently smokers, and had higher BMI than non deprived subjects. The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 8.1%. Among patients

  18. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  19. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  20. Linguistics and "Cultural Deprivation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of certain methodological issues in linguistics as they bear on the debate over cultural deprivation. Whether or not the non-standard English (NNE) of a minority group can be considered a distinct language with its own grammar is arbitrary and therefore not a useful question. However, one can compare standard and NNE forms for…

  1. Linguistics and "Cultural Deprivation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of certain methodological issues in linguistics as they bear on the debate over cultural deprivation. Whether or not the non-standard English (NNE) of a minority group can be considered a distinct language with its own grammar is arbitrary and therefore not a useful question. However, one can compare standard and NNE forms for…

  2. Femtosecond optical pulse amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Wayne H.

    1988-02-01

    A number of techniques have been developed for amplification of optical pulses of approximately 100-fs duration. These amplifiers span a wide range of operating parameters from kilowatt to gigawatt peak powers and from 10 Hz to megahertz repetition rates. Amplification of femtosecond pulses has also been demonstrated at several wavelengths including visible, near-infrared, and ultraviolet regions. Several problems arise when amplifying short optical pulses to very high intensities. The problems are discussed and the state of the art of femtosecond optical pulse amplification is reviewed.

  3. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    PubMed Central

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by – more or less qualified – advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  4. Early amplification options.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed.

  5. Diet and deprivation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Paul; Campbell, Doris M; Duthie, Susan; Andrews, Katherine; Hoad, Gwen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; McNeill, Geraldine

    2009-11-01

    Deprivation is associated with poor pregnancy outcome but the role of nutrition as a mediating factor is not well understood. We carried out a prospective cohort study of 1461 singleton pregnancies in Aberdeen, UK during 2000-6. We measured nutrient intake and supplement use, B vitamin and homocysteine status, birth weight, gestational age, neonatal treatment and socio-economic deprivation status. Women in the most deprived deciles were approximately 6 years younger and half as likely to take folic acid supplements periconceptually as the least deprived mothers. Deprivation was associated with low blood folate, high homocysteine and diets low in protein, fibre and many of the vitamins and minerals. The diets of the more deprived women were also characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables and oily fish and higher intakes of processed meat, fried potatoes, crisps and snacks. Deprivation was related to preterm birth (OR 1.14 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.25); P = 0.009) and whether the baby required neonatal treatment (OR 1.07 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.14); P = 0.028). Low birth weight was more common in women consuming diets low in vitamin C (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.97); P = 0.028), riboflavin (OR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.63, 0.93); P = 0.008), pantothenic acid (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.65, 0.97); P = 0.023) and sugars (OR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.96); P = 0.017) even after adjustment for deprivation index, smoking, marital status and parity. Deprivation in pregnancy is associated with diets poor in specific nutrients and poor diet appears to contribute to inequalities in pregnancy outcome. Improving the nutrient intake of disadvantaged women of childbearing age may potentially improve pregnancy outcome.

  6. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  7. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  8. Biomaterials in light amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  9. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  10. Gravitomagnetic amplification in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsagas, Christos G.

    2010-02-15

    Magnetic fields interact with gravitational waves in various ways. We consider the coupling between the Weyl and the Maxwell fields in cosmology and study the effects of the former on the latter. The approach is fully analytical and the results are gauge invariant. We show that the nature and the outcome of the gravitomagnetic interaction depends on the electric properties of the cosmic medium. When the conductivity is high, gravitational waves reduce the standard (adiabatic) decay rate of the B field, leading to its superadiabatic amplification. In poorly conductive environments, on the other hand, Weyl-curvature distortions can result into the resonant amplification of large-scale cosmological magnetic fields. Driven by the gravitational waves, these B fields oscillate with an amplitude that is found to diverge when the wavelengths of the two sources coincide. We present technical and physical aspects of the gravitomagnetic interaction and discuss its potential implications.

  11. Voltage Amplification using Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, E. E.; Cavalcanti, G. H.; Santiago, M. A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to present experimental results about voltage amplification using plasma produced by a simple neon lamp, series connected with a signal generator and discrete circuit elements. The main advantage of employing plasma as an amplifier is due to its ability to drive larger power and potentially to operate in a larger frequency range compared with traditional amplifiers. Our results show that both, the voltage gain and the frequency range where the gain is bigger than one, are related to the plasma density which may be adjusted by a proper control of electrical discharge conditions. The plasma produced into the neon lamp exhibits a diode characteristic that is the principal responsible by the nonlinear plasma response. The amplification occurs when the plasma shows a negative conductance. In this regime the lamp works as an active amplifier and voltage gain higher than 18 was obtained.

  12. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future.

  13. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neuromodulatory changes in brain physiology that could explain why recovery from it may require more time than from acute sleep loss. High intraclass correlations in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggest that these trait-like differences are phenotypic and may include genetic components. Sleep deprivation induces changes in brain metabolism and neural activation that involve distributed networks and connectivity. PMID:23523374

  14. Isothermal Multiple Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal multiple strand displacement amplification (IMDA) of the whole human genome is a promising method for procuring abundant DNA from valuable and often limited clinical specimens. However, whether DNA generated by this method is of high quality and a faithful replication of the DNA in the original specimen, allowing for subsequent molecular diagnostic testing, requires verification. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of IMDA-generated DNA (IMDA-DNA) for detecting antigen receptor gene rearrangements, chromosomal translocations, and gene mutations using Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, or sequencing methods in 28 lymphoma and leukemia clinical specimens. Molecular testing before and after whole genome amplification of these specimens using the IMDA technique showed concordance in 27 of 28 (96%) specimens. Analysis of IMDA-DNA by Southern blot analysis detected restriction fragments >12 kilobases long. No amplification bias was observed at all loci tested demonstrating that this method can be useful in generating large amounts of unbiased, high molecular weight DNA from limited clinical specimens. PMID:15269301

  15. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Goldstein, Andrea N; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insular cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical limbic responsivity, resulting in the selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain.

  16. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were... sleep deprivation , physiological regulating systems are relatively unaffected by sleep loss. (Author)

  18. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  19. URBAN EDUCATION AND CULTURAL DEPRIVATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUNNICUTT, C.W.

    VARIOUS SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES WERE REPRESENTED. ASPECTS OF PROGRAMS FOR THE CULTURALLY DEPRIVED WERE DISCUSSED IN THE AREAS OF (1) SUPPORT, (2) HOME AND NEIGHBORS, (3) THE STUDENT, AND (4) THE SCHOOL. PROBLEMS IN FINANCING PROGRAMS ARE CAUSED BY UNEQUAL TAX BASES IN THE CITIES, THE APPARENT UNCONCERN OF THE STATE FOR THE CITIES, AND THE…

  20. Justice, Deprivation and the Chicano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Julius

    1973-01-01

    The paper differentiates between relative and comparative deprivation by relating the first to distributive justice and the second to social justice. Examining Chicano health, housing, and education problems, the article concludes that, for Chicanos and Blacks, the "Administration of justice" means the perpetuation of injustice. (NQ)

  1. Justice, Deprivation and the Chicano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Julius

    1973-01-01

    The paper differentiates between relative and comparative deprivation by relating the first to distributive justice and the second to social justice. Examining Chicano health, housing, and education problems, the article concludes that, for Chicanos and Blacks, the "Administration of justice" means the perpetuation of injustice. (NQ)

  2. Deprivation in Education. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Rose; Rutt, Simon; Sims, David

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between deprivation and education is a critical relationship with profound implications for a country's economic prosperity and the social mobility of its citizens. This is highlighted by the Welsh Government which states that: "A good education is critical to better life chances and a commitment to achieving this has been an…

  3. Revisiting Curriculum Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the notion of curriculum potential by revisiting the ideas of Miriam Ben-Peretz and Joseph Schwab. Invoking the German "Didaktik" tradition and by way of a curriculum-making framework, the paper argues that interpreting curriculum materials for curriculum potential requires a careful analysis and unpacking of the meanings and…

  4. The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic…

  5. Concept Image Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…

  6. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…

  7. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  8. Parametric Resonance Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, C.; Bena, I.

    The phenomenon of parametric resonance is revisited. Several physical examples are reviewed and an exactly solvable model is discussed. A mean field theory is presented for globally coupled parametric oscillators with randomly distributed phases. A new type of collective instability appears, which is similar in nature to that of noise induced phase transitions.

  9. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  10. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  11. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  12. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  13. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  14. Revisiting Teachers as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of teachers as learners within the context of radical changes that have taken place within the education system in England over the past 25 years. The concept of "professional courage" is discussed and examined in relation to questions and issues raised by Paulo Freire in a series of letters to teachers…

  15. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…

  16. Predicting shaft torque amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Achilles, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Shaft Torque Amplification (STA) is the form of SSR characterized by the higher system-model complexity and computational requirements its simulation, normally in a time-domain environment, demands. A multi-modal approach drawing the turbogenerator torsional response to electrical torque impulses applied to the machine air-gap is introduced in this article as an alternative STA analysis frame. Peak torque results from the proposed algorithm are compared with similar ones obtained from EMTP runs. Loss-of-life calculations and a capacitor-reinsertion application as STA control means, are included.

  17. Coherent white light amplification

    DOEpatents

    Jovanovic, Igor; Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-05-25

    A system for coherent simultaneous amplification of a broad spectral range of light that includes an optical parametric amplifier and a source of a seed pulse is described. A first angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the source of a seed pulse. A first imaging telescope is operatively connected to the first angular dispersive element and operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A source of a pump pulse is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A second imaging telescope is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier and a second angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the second imaging telescope.

  18. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  19. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  20. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961–2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction. PMID:26753547

  1. Cystine Deprivation Triggers Programmed Necrosis in VHL-Deficient Renal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaohu; Wu, Jianli; Ding, Chien-Kuang; Lu, Min; Keenan, Melissa M; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Lin, Chih-An; Wang, Charles C; George, Daniel; Hsu, David S; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2016-04-01

    Oncogenic transformation may reprogram tumor metabolism and render cancer cells addicted to extracellular nutrients. Deprivation of these nutrients may therefore represent a therapeutic opportunity, but predicting which nutrients cancer cells become addicted remains difficult. Here, we performed a nutrigenetic screen to determine the phenotypes of isogenic pairs of clear cell renal cancer cells (ccRCC), with or without VHL, upon the deprivation of individual amino acids. We found that cystine deprivation triggered rapid programmed necrosis in VHL-deficient cell lines and primary ccRCC tumor cells, but not in VHL-restored counterparts. Blocking cystine uptake significantly delayed xenograft growth of ccRCC. Importantly, cystine deprivation triggered similar metabolic changes regardless of VHL status, suggesting that metabolic responses alone are not sufficient to explain the observed distinct fates of VHL-deficient and restored cells. Instead, we found that increased levels of TNFα associated with VHL loss forced VHL-deficient cells to rely on intact RIPK1 to inhibit apoptosis. However, the preexisting elevation in TNFα expression rendered VHL-deficient cells susceptible to necrosis triggered by cystine deprivation. We further determined that reciprocal amplification of the Src-p38 (MAPK14)-Noxa (PMAIP1) signaling and TNFα-RIP1/3 (RIPK1/RIPK3)-MLKL necrosis pathways potentiated cystine-deprived necrosis. Together, our findings reveal that cystine deprivation in VHL-deficient RCCs presents an attractive therapeutic opportunity that may bypass the apoptosis-evading mechanisms characteristic of drug-resistant tumor cells. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1892-903. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Cystine deprivation triggers programmed necrosis in VHL-deficient renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Wu, Jianli; Ding, Chien-Kuang; Lu, Min; Keenan, Melissa M.; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Lin, Chih-An; Wang, Charles C.; George, Daniel; Hsu, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation may reprogram tumor metabolism and render cancer cells addicted to extracellular nutrients. Deprivation of these nutrients may therefore represent a therapeutic opportunity, but predicting which nutrients cancer cells become addicted to remains difficult. Here, we performed a nutrigenetic screen to determine the phenotypes of isogenic pairs of clear-cell renal cancer cells (ccRCC), with or without VHL, upon the deprivation of individual amino acids. We found that cystine deprivation triggered rapid programmed necrosis in VHL-deficient cell lines and primary ccRCC tumor cells, but not in VHL-restored counterparts. Blocking cystine uptake significantly delayed xenograft growth of ccRCC. Importantly, cystine deprivation triggered similar metabolic changes regardless of VHL status, suggesting that metabolic responses alone are not sufficient to explain the observed distinct fates of VHL-deficient and restored cells. Instead, we found that increased levels of TNFα (TNF) associated with VHL loss forced VHL-deficient cells to rely on intact RIPK1 to inhibit apoptosis. However, the pre-existing elevation in TNFα expression rendered VHL-deficient cells susceptible to necrosis triggered by cystine deprivation. We further determined that reciprocal amplification of the Src-p38 (MAPK14)-Noxa (PMAIP1) signaling and TNFα-RIP1/3 (RALBP1/RIPK3)-MLKL necrosis pathways potentiated cystine deprived-necrosis. Together, our findings reveal that cystine deprivation in VHL-deficient RCCs presents an attractive therapeutic opportunity that may bypass the apoptosis-evading mechanisms characteristic of drug-resistant tumor cells. PMID:26833124

  3. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed.

  4. Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Randall W.; Borges, Chad R.

    2013-01-01

    The progressive understanding and improvement of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS), realized over the years through the considerable efforts of Dr. Marvin Vestal, have made possible numerous comparable efforts involving its application in the biological sciences. Here we revisit the concepts behind one such analytical approach, Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay, which is designed to selectively detect and quantify proteins present in biological milieu. PMID:21953037

  5. Clinical ethics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456

  6. Mountain Rivers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Published in 2000, the original Mountain Rivers was written to provide a concise summary of the scientific understanding of the distinct subset of rivers that gave the book its name. Spurred by developments in the field in the past decade, the book's author, Ellen Wohl, produced Mountain Rivers Revisited, an updated edition aimed at graduate students and professional researchers. In this interview, Eos talks to Wohl about steep channels, climate change, and opportunities for future research.

  7. Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2012-01-01

    In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…

  8. Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2012-01-01

    In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…

  9. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Kutcher, Matthew R.; Mitchell, Donald E.; Duffy, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal development of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway is partly guided by visually driven activity. Disruption of normal visual input during certain critical periods can alter the structure of neurons, as well as their connections and functional properties. Within the layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), a brief early period of monocular deprivation can alter the structure and soma size of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers. This modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament protein, a principle component of the stable cytoskeleton. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery), or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion). The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were ameliorated equally and substantially in both recovery conditions after 8 days. The degree to which this recovery was dependent on visually driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in darkness showed recovery of soma size in deprived layers, the manipulation catalyzed a loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to non-deprived layers as well. Overall, these results indicate that both recovery of soma size and neurofilament labeling is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye. However, while the former occurred even in the absence of visually driven activity, recovery of neurofilament did not. The finding that a period of darkness produced an overall loss of neurofilament throughout the dLGN suggests that this experiential manipulation may cause the visual pathways to revert to an earlier more plastic developmental stage. It is possible that short periods of darkness could be incorporated as a component of

  10. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Oztürk, Levent; Kurt, Cem; Bulut, Erdogan; Sut, Necdet; Vardar, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance. Key pointsShort time total sleep deprivation (30 hours) increases state anxiety without any competition stress.Anaerobic performance parameters such as peak power, mean power and minimum power may not show a distinctive difference from anaerobic performance in a normal sleep day despite the high anxiety level induced by short time sleep deprivation.Partial sleep deprivation does not affect anxiety level and anaerobic performance of the next day.

  11. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    anoxia, shock, hypoglycemia, hypotension, physical exercise, psychological stimuli, and drugs in common use, such as caffeine , nicotine , and alcohol...iiii1i’tl 11,11H1 HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION P. Naitoh T. I- Kelly C. Englund Repori No. 89-46 9 - 1 3 92 J20 28 Apmrowd fto P..bII .nO~m dI...mand to IO MMuwM I. AGENCY USE ONLY (Laom b 2 REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATE COVERED 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Health Effects of

  12. Amplification With Chalcogenide Glass Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-12

    34AMPLIFICATION WITH CHALCOGENIDE GLASS FIBER" request for release for publication. REF: (a) NRL Instruction 5510.40C (b) Chapter 6, ONRINST 5870.1C...Serial Number: Patent Application Navy Case Number: 82,848 AMPLIFICATION WITH CFfALCOGENTDE GLASS FIBER Field of the Invention: This invention...pertains to the use of a low phonon energy chalcogenide glass waveguide in conjunction with stimulated Raman scattering to amplify an optical signal

  13. Temporal Dynamic Controllability Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul H.; Muscettola, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. We revisit the question of how to determine whether a given set of temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. In particular, we consider how best to determine whether a network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether a dynamic strategy exists for executing the network that is guaranteed to satisfy the requirements. Previous work has shown the existence of a pseudo-polynomial algorithm for testing Dynamic Controllability. Here, we greatly simplify the previous framework, and present a true polynomial algorithm with a cutoff based only on the number of nodes.

  14. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  15. Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Durmer, Jeffrey S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments—which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle—demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss. PMID:19742409

  16. WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REGAN, J.

    THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

  17. A Model of Egoistical Relative Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Faye

    1976-01-01

    Examines the theory of relative deprivation. This theory states, basically, that objective and subjective well-being are not isomorphically related, so that sometimes the better-off one is, the worse-off one feels subjectively. After a brief review of work in the area of relative deprivation, a formal model is developed. (Editor/RK)

  18. Relative Deprivation in Contemporary South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelgryn, Ans E. M.; Bornman, Elirea

    1996-01-01

    Identifies relative deprivation as a subjective feeling of discontent based on a belief that one is getting less than one feels entitled to. Investigates the relationship between relative deprivation, ethnic identification, and racial attitudes in South Africa. Discusses the connections between these beliefs and recent sociopolitical changes. (MJP)

  19. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  20. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  1. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  2. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  3. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  4. Sleep deprivation in the rat: III. Total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Everson, C A; Bergmann, B M; Rechtschaffen, A

    1989-02-01

    Ten rats were subjected to total sleep deprivation (TSD) by the disk apparatus. All TSD rats died or were sacrificed when death seemed imminent within 11-32 days. No anatomical cause of death was identified. All TSD rats showed a debilitated appearance, lesions on their tails and paws, and weight loss in spite of increased food intake. Their yoked control (TSC) rats remained healthy. Since dehydration was ruled out and several measures indicated accelerated use rather than failure to absorb nutrients, the food-weight changes in TSD rats were attributed to increased energy expenditure (EE). The measurement of EE, based upon caloric value of food, weight, and wastes, indicated that all TSD rats increased EE, with mean levels reaching more than twice baseline values.

  5. Maternal nutrition in deprived populations.

    PubMed

    Shah, K P

    1981-02-01

    In deprived populations, a large proportion of women are chronically undernourished, the chances being therefore great that their infants will be undernourished in utero and present a low birth weight. Their children thus have a poor start in life, for which even breastmilk with its special protective and nutritive qualities cannot completely compensate, especially if the mothers continue to be chronically malnourished while subject to heavy workloads and repeated pregnancies. The supplementary feeding of pregnant and lactating women can to some extent offset these negative effects on both mother and child, but constitute a late intervention. Current literature on these issues is reviewed, and areas of action to improve women's nutritional status are indicated. In order to ensure that those most in need are reached at the grass roots level, the actions undertaken should be based on community participation, within the context of a multisectoral approach and a primary health care strategy.

  6. Sleep deprivation and antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The mood-improving effect of sleep deprivation (SD) in depression is even today still not fully understood. Despite the fact that mood and cognitive functions are lowered by prolonged sleep loss and despite convincing data that insomnia is a strong risk factor for subsequent depression,1 acute SD for one night or even partial SD in the second half of the night improves mood in about 60% of depressed patients the day after.2,3 In this respect, among alt types of antidepressant treatments, SD elicits the fastest results, faster even than electroconvulsive therapy. Many authors correlate the likelihood of responding to SD with clinical variables. A summary of predictors is listed in Table I. PMID:22033748

  7. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  9. Epilepsy prevalence and socioeconomic deprivation in England.

    PubMed

    Steer, Samuel; Pickrell, William O; Kerr, Michael P; Thomas, Rhys H

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is more prevalent in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation; however, the factors that comprise this deprivation are not understood. We aimed to investigate the association between epilepsy, individual elements of deprivation, and geographic region in order to identify modifiable elements. Epilepsy prevalence was calculated via retrospective analysis of data recorded by general practitioners via the Quality and Outcomes Framework. The Index of Multiple Deprivation scores at Local Authority level for the entire population of England was employed. Epilepsy prevalence was evaluated for correlation against all seven indicators within the Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Data were analyzed including and excluding the city of London. Of the 37,699,503 patients in this study, 304,331 were registered as having epilepsy (prevalence 8 per 1,000; range 4.3-11.6). Positive correlation was seen with total Index of Multiple Deprivation score (r = 0.468, p < 0.01); education skills and training (r = 0.665, p < 0.01); employment deprivation (r = 0.629, p < 0.01); health deprivation and disability (r = 0.617, p < 0.01); income deprivation (r = 0.358, p < 0.01); crime (r = 0.232, p < 0.01); but not living environment (r = 0.079, p = 0.08). Negative correlation was seen between epilepsy prevalence and barriers to housing and services (r = -0.415, p < 0.01). When the data were analyzed excluding London, all correlations were strengthened. Epilepsy prevalence in adults varies by 2.5-fold across England, from 4.3 per 1,000 in Kensington and Chelsea to 11.6 per 1,000 in Blackpool. This study shows a strong correlation between epilepsy prevalence and specific measures of socioeconomic deprivation. Many of these deprivation factors are potentially remediable. We hypothesize that people with epilepsy may move into urban areas and toward their general practitioner. This predominantly means an urban location but avoiding areas where the cost of living-particularly housing

  10. "Deprivation" and "the Rural": An Investigation into Contradictory Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    Rural respondents in the (English) Rural Lifestyles Project frequently denied rural "deprivation" through representations of rural areas as problem-free and idyllic, portrayals of deprivation as an individual fault, and constructions of deprivation as an urban feature. Argues that normative constructions of "deprivation"…

  11. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, Stefan K.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

  12. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, S.K.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

  13. ``Robinson's sum rule'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2010-02-01

    This discussion revisits two articles on synchrotron radiation damping published in 1958, one by this author and Evgeny K. Tarasov [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 651 (1958)ZETFA70044-4510; Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 449 (1958)SPHJAR0038-5646], and one by Kenneth W. Robinson [Phys. Rev. 111, 373 (1958)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.111.373]. The latter is the source of what is known as “Robinson’s sum rule.” Both present the familiar rule, but with very different proofs and calculations of concrete damping decrements. Comparative analysis of these differences reveals serious flaws in Robinson’s proof and calculations.

  14. Quantum duel revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Paiva, Milena M.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α1 and α2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent.

  15. Effective string theory revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Flauger, Raphael; Gorbenko, Victor

    2012-09-01

    We revisit the effective field theory of long relativistic strings such as confining flux tubes in QCD. We derive the Polchinski-Strominger interaction by a calculation in static gauge. This interaction implies that a non-critical string which initially oscillates in one direction gets excited in orthogonal directions as well. In static gauge no additional term in the effective action is needed to obtain this effect. It results from a one-loop calculation using the Nambu-Goto action. Non-linearly realized Lorentz symmetry is manifest at all stages in dimensional regularization. We also explain that independent of the number of dimensions non-covariant counterterms have to be added to the action in the commonly used zeta-function regularization.

  16. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  17. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  19. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOMAINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Area-level deprivation is consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Using US census data (2000) and principal components analysis, a priori defined socio-demographic indices of poverty, housing, residential stability, occupation, employment and education were created fo...

  20. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  1. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  2. Court-authorised deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P in 2014 introduced a more inclusive 'acid test' for determining the objective element of a deprivation of liberty in cases concerning people who lack decision-making capacity. The case made clear that adults and young people who lack capacity could be deprived of their liberty in care settings other than hospitals and care homes, including the person's own home. A deprivation of liberty that occurs in a setting other than a hospital or care home must be authorised by a Court. This article explains the revised process for applying for Court authorisation of a deprivation of liberty where it occurs in supported living, Shared Lives placements or the incapable person's own home.

  3. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  4. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children.

    PubMed

    Maski, Kiran P; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can result in significant impairments in daytime neurobehavioral functioning in children. Neural substrates impacted by sleep deprivation include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and amygdala and result in difficulties with executive functioning, reward anticipation and emotional reactivity respectively. In everyday life, such difficulties contribute to academic struggles, challenging behaviors and public health concerns of substance abuse and suicidality. In this article, we aim to review 1) core neural structures impacted by sleep deprivation; 2) neurobehavioral problems associated with sleep deprivation; 3) specific mechanisms that may explain the relationship between sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral dysfunction; and 4) sleep problems reported in common neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs).

  5. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOMAINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Area-level deprivation is consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Using US census data (2000) and principal components analysis, a priori defined socio-demographic indices of poverty, housing, residential stability, occupation, employment and education were created fo...

  6. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation.

  7. Glucose deprivation activates a metabolic and signaling amplification loop leading to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Nicholas A; Tahmasian, Martik; Kohli, Bitika; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Zhu, Maggie; Vivanco, Igor; Teitell, Michael A; Wu, Hong; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Mischel, Paul S; Graeber, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer can render cells dependent on the availability of metabolic substrates for viability. Investigating the signaling mechanisms underlying cell death in cells dependent upon glucose for survival, we demonstrate that glucose withdrawal rapidly induces supra-physiological levels of phospho-tyrosine signaling, even in cells expressing constitutively active tyrosine kinases. Using unbiased mass spectrometry-based phospho-proteomics, we show that glucose withdrawal initiates a unique signature of phospho-tyrosine activation that is associated with focal adhesions. Building upon this observation, we demonstrate that glucose withdrawal activates a positive feedback loop involving generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by oxidation, and increased tyrosine kinase signaling. In cells dependent on glucose for survival, glucose withdrawal-induced ROS generation and tyrosine kinase signaling synergize to amplify ROS levels, ultimately resulting in ROS-mediated cell death. Taken together, these findings illustrate the systems-level cross-talk between metabolism and signaling in the maintenance of cancer cell homeostasis. PMID:22735335

  8. Sleep deprivation sensitizes human craniofacial muscles.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Eva Szuchy; Nielsen, Louise Skou; Christensen, Siv Sofie; Botvid, Sofia Hedvig Christina; Nørgaard Poulsen, Jeppe; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-06-01

    It is unknown whether and how sleep deprivation influences craniofacial muscle sensitivity in healthy humans. We investigated whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep (RS) can alter mechanical pain sensitivity in temporal and masseter muscles. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in three consecutive sessions. Pressure pain thresholds were measured on the temporal and masseter muscles. Both temporal and masseter muscles became sensitized after 24 h of TSD. RS reversed the muscle sensitization.

  9. Microwave amplification with nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Massel, F; Heikkilä, T T; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Saloniemi, H; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A

    2011-12-14

    The sensitive measurement of electrical signals is at the heart of modern technology. According to the principles of quantum mechanics, any detector or amplifier necessarily adds a certain amount of noise to the signal, equal to at least the noise added by quantum fluctuations. This quantum limit of added noise has nearly been reached in superconducting devices that take advantage of nonlinearities in Josephson junctions. Here we introduce the concept of the amplification of microwave signals using mechanical oscillation, which seems likely to enable quantum-limited operation. We drive a nanomechanical resonator with a radiation pressure force, and provide an experimental demonstration and an analytical description of how a signal input to a microwave cavity induces coherent stimulated emission and, consequently, signal amplification. This generic scheme, which is based on two linear oscillators, has the advantage of being conceptually and practically simpler than the Josephson junction devices. In our device, we achieve signal amplification of 25 decibels with the addition of 20 quanta of noise, which is consistent with the expected amount of added noise. The generality of the model allows for realization in other physical systems as well, and we anticipate that near-quantum-limited mechanical microwave amplification will soon be feasible in various applications involving integrated electrical circuits.

  10. Chronic centrosome amplification without tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vitre, Benjamin; Holland, Andrew J.; Kulukian, Anita; Shoshani, Ofer; Hirai, Maretoshi; Wang, Yin; Maldonado, Marcus; Cho, Thomas; Boubaker, Jihane; Swing, Deborah A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Evans, Sylvia M.; Fuchs, Elaine; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes are microtubule-organizing centers that facilitate bipolar mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Recognizing that centrosome amplification is a common feature of aneuploid cancer cells, we tested whether supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive tumor development. To do this, we constructed and analyzed mice in which centrosome amplification can be induced by a Cre-recombinase–mediated increase in expression of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4). Elevated Plk4 in mouse fibroblasts produced supernumerary centrosomes and enhanced the expected mitotic errors, but proliferation continued only after inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Increasing Plk4 levels in mice with functional p53 produced centrosome amplification in liver and skin, but this did not promote spontaneous tumor development in these tissues or enhance the growth of chemically induced skin tumors. In the absence of p53, Plk4 overexpression generated widespread centrosome amplification, but did not drive additional tumors or affect development of the fatal thymic lymphomas that arise in animals lacking p53. We conclude that, independent of p53 status, supernumerary centrosomes are not sufficient to drive tumor formation. PMID:26578792

  11. Genome position and gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Gajduskova, Pavla; Snijders, Antoine M; Kwek, Serena; Roydasgupta, Ritu; Fridlyand, Jane; Tokuyasu, Taku; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2007-01-01

    Amplifications, regions of focal high-level copy number change, lead to overexpression of oncogenes or drug resistance genes in tumors. Their presence is often associated with poor prognosis; however, the use of amplification as a mechanism for overexpression of a particular gene in tumors varies. To investigate the influence of genome position on propensity to amplify, we integrated a mutant form of the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase into different positions in the human genome, challenged cells with methotrexate and then studied the genomic alterations arising in drug resistant cells. We observed site-specific differences in methotrexate sensitivity, amplicon organization and amplification frequency. One site was uniquely associated with a significantly enhanced propensity to amplify and recurrent amplicon boundaries, possibly implicating a rare folate-sensitive fragile site in initiating amplification. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns and subsequent gene enrichment analysis revealed two clusters differing significantly in expression of MYC target genes independent of integration site. These studies suggest that genome context together with the particular challenges to genome stability experienced during the progression to cancer contribute to the propensity to amplify a specific oncogene or drug resistance gene, whereas the overall functional response to drug (or other) challenge may be independent of the genomic location of an oncogene.

  12. Sleep deprivation and interference by emotional distracters.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Lisa Y M; Dolcos, Florin; Chen, Annette K; Zheng, Hui; Parimal, Sarayu; Chee, Michael W L

    2010-10-01

    We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory. A crossover design involving 2 functional neuroimaging scans conducted at least one week apart. One scan followed a normal night of sleep and the other followed 24 h of sleep deprivation. Scanning order was counterbalanced across subjects. The study took place in a research laboratory. 24 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. N/A. Study participants were scanned while performing a delayed-response working memory task. Two distracters were presented during the maintenance phase, and these differed in content: highly arousing, negative emotional scenes; low-arousing, neutral scenes; and digitally scrambled versions of the pictures. Irrespective of whether volunteers were sleep deprived, negative emotional (relative to neutral) distracters elicited greater maintenance-related activity in the amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyri, while concurrently depressing activity in cognitive control regions. Individuals who maintained or increased distracter-related amygdala activation after sleep deprivation showed increased working memory disruptions by negative emotional distracters. These individuals also showed reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, regions postulated to mediate cognitive control against emotional distraction. Increased distraction by emotional stimuli following sleep deprivation is accompanied by increases in amygdala activation and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cognitive control regions. These findings shed light on the neural basis for interindividual variation in how negative emotional stimuli might distract sleep deprived persons.

  13. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  15. Optical chirped beam amplification and propagation

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-10-12

    A short pulse laser system uses dispersive optics in a chirped-beam amplification architecture to produce high peak power pulses and high peak intensities without the potential for intensity dependent damage to downstream optical components after amplification.

  16. Classroom Amplification To Enhance Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSarno, Neil J.; Schowalter, Melissa; Grassa, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of classroom amplification systems to improve the performance of students with hearing loss or learning disabilities addresses the auditory challenges of inclusive classrooms, changing the classroom environment to reduce noise, types of amplification systems, and what teachers observe about amplification. (Contains references.) (DB)

  17. Neighbourhood Deprivation, School Disorder and Academic Achievement in Primary Schools in Deprived Communities in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Belsky, Jay; Broomfield, Kate A.; Melhuish, Edward

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern about violent behaviour in schools, involving students, staff and/or parents. A survey of 1777 primary schools (for children aged 5 to 11) throughout England, most in areas of social and economic deprivation, found more disorder in neighbourhoods with greater deprivation. More disorder was also observed when there was more…

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Interference by Emotional Distracters

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Lisa Y.M.; Dolcos, Florin; Chen, Annette K.; Zheng, Hui; Parimal, Sarayu; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory. Design: A crossover design involving 2 functional neuroimaging scans conducted at least one week apart. One scan followed a normal night of sleep and the other followed 24 h of sleep deprivation. Scanning order was counterbalanced across subjects. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: 24 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Study participants were scanned while performing a delayed-response working memory task. Two distracters were presented during the maintenance phase, and these differed in content: highly arousing, negative emotional scenes; low-arousing, neutral scenes; and digitally scrambled versions of the pictures. Irrespective of whether volunteers were sleep deprived, negative emotional (relative to neutral) distracters elicited greater maintenance-related activity in the amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyri, while concurrently depressing activity in cognitive control regions. Individuals who maintained or increased distracter-related amygdala activation after sleep deprivation showed increased working memory disruptions by negative emotional distracters. These individuals also showed reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, regions postulated to mediate cognitive control against emtional distraction. Conclusions: Increased distraction by emotional stimuli following sleep deprivation is accompanied by increases in amygdala activation and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cognitive control regions. These findings shed light on the neural basis for interindividual variation in how negative emotional stimuli might distract sleep deprived persons. Citation: Chuah LYM

  19. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  20. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  1. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  2. Dynamic causal modelling revisited.

    PubMed

    Friston, K J; Preller, Katrin H; Mathys, Chris; Cagnan, Hayriye; Heinzle, Jakob; Razi, Adeel; Zeidman, Peter

    2017-02-17

    This paper revisits the dynamic causal modelling of fMRI timeseries by replacing the usual (Taylor) approximation to neuronal dynamics with a neural mass model of the canonical microcircuit. This provides a generative or dynamic causal model of laminar specific responses that can generate haemodynamic and electrophysiological measurements. In principle, this allows the fusion of haemodynamic and (event related or induced) electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, it enables Bayesian model comparison of competing hypotheses about physiologically plausible synaptic effects; for example, does attentional modulation act on superficial or deep pyramidal cells - or both? In this technical note, we describe the resulting dynamic causal model and provide an illustrative application to the attention to visual motion dataset used in previous papers. Our focus here is on how to answer long-standing questions in fMRI; for example, do haemodynamic responses reflect extrinsic (afferent) input from distant cortical regions, or do they reflect intrinsic (recurrent) neuronal activity? To what extent do inhibitory interneurons contribute to neurovascular coupling? What is the relationship between haemodynamic responses and the frequency of induced neuronal activity? This paper does not pretend to answer these questions; rather it shows how they can be addressed using neural mass models of fMRI timeseries.

  3. Twin Signature Schemes, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäge, Sven

    In this paper, we revisit the twin signature scheme by Naccache, Pointcheval and Stern from CCS 2001 that is secure under the Strong RSA (SRSA) assumption and improve its efficiency in several ways. First, we present a new twin signature scheme that is based on the Strong Diffie-Hellman (SDH) assumption in bilinear groups and allows for very short signatures and key material. A big advantage of this scheme is that, in contrast to the original scheme, it does not require a computationally expensive function for mapping messages to primes. We prove this new scheme secure under adaptive chosen message attacks. Second, we present a modification that allows to significantly increase efficiency when signing long messages. This construction uses collision-resistant hash functions as its basis. As a result, our improvements make the signature length independent of the message size. Our construction deviates from the standard hash-and-sign approach in which the hash value of the message is signed in place of the message itself. We show that in the case of twin signatures, one can exploit the properties of the hash function as an integral part of the signature scheme. This improvement can be applied to both the SRSA based and SDH based twin signature scheme.

  4. L134N Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Pardo-Carrion, J. R.; Stepnik, B.

    2001-07-01

    L134N (also known as L183) is a very cold, starless and nearby dark cloud which has attracted much attention from the astrochemists in the past. They have been using it as an oxygen-rich reference to test their models in parallel with TMC-1, the other, but carbon-rich, reference. However, our knowledge of the cloud temperature, structure, and various species abundances has relied for a long time largely on the work by Swade (1987a, 1987b) which suffers from low signal-to-noise C18O and CS maps and limited excitation analysis. This work has been recently repeated and improved by Dickens et al. (2000) but they still lack adequate surface coverage, higher rotational lines of important species and comparison with the dust. While FIRST will probably find many new species in this cloud, it is time to revisit completely this source in order to interpret correctly the FIRST results to come. We have thus made a complete survey of several transitions of CO, 13CO, C18O, C17O, CS, C34S, SO and 34SO species with the NRAO 12-m and CSO 10-m together with maps of the dust from ISO and SCUBA to assess the fundamental properties of this cloud. Preliminary results are reported here.

  5. Revisiting caspases in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304

  6. Searle's"Dualism Revisited"

    SciTech Connect

    P., Henry

    2008-11-20

    A recent article in which John Searle claims to refute dualism is examined from a scientific perspective. John Searle begins his recent article 'Dualism Revisited' by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective. Scientific physical theories contain two kinds of descriptions: (1) Descriptions of our empirical findings, expressed in an every-day language that allows us communicate to each other our sensory experiences pertaining to what we have done and what we have learned; and (2) Descriptions of a theoretical model, expressed in a mathematical language that allows us to communicate to each other certain ideas that exist in our mathematical imaginations, and that are believed to represent, within our streams of consciousness, certain aspects of reality that we deem to exist independently of their being perceived by any human observer. These two parts of our scientific description correspond to the two aspects of our general contemporary dualistic understanding of the total reality in which we are imbedded, namely the empirical-mental aspect and the theoretical-physical aspect. The duality question is whether this general dualistic understanding of ourselves should be regarded as false in some important philosophical or scientific sense.

  7. CGL description revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2016-03-25

    Solar wind observational studies have emphasized that the solar wind plasma data is bounded by the mirror and firehose instabilities, and it is often believed that these instabilities are of a purely kinetic nature. The simplest fluid model that generalizes magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic temperatures is the Chew-Goldberger-Low model (CGL). Here we briefly revisit the CGL description and discuss its (otherwise well-documented) linear firehose and mirror instability thresholds; namely that the firehose instability threshold is identical to the one found from linear kinetic theory and that the mirror threshold contains a factor of 6 error. We consider a simple higher-order fluid model with time dependent heat flux equations and show that the mirror instability threshold is correctly reproduced. We also present fully nonlinear three-dimensional simulations of freely decaying turbulence for the Hall-CGL model with isothermal electrons. The spatial resolution of these simulations is 512{sup 3} and the formation of a spectral break in magnetic and velocity field spectra around the proton inertial length is found.

  8. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  9. Personal relative deprivation, delay discounting, and gambling.

    PubMed

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2011-11-01

    Several lines of research have provided evidence for a relation between personal relative deprivation and gambling. Despite this knowledge, little is known about possible psychological mechanisms through which personal relative deprivation exerts its influence on gambling. The authors of this research sought to examine one such mechanism: the desire for immediate rewards. Using complementary approaches to studying psychological mechanisms, they tested in four studies the general hypothesis that personal relative deprivation translates into gambling urges and behavior in part via increased desires for immediate, even if smaller, rewards. Study 1 showed that an experimental manipulation of personal relative deprivation increased participants' preferences for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards during a delay-discounting task. Studies 2 and 3 showed that a decreased willingness to delay gratification led to increased gambling behavior. Study 4 showed that preferences for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards statistically mediated the relation between self-reported personal relative deprivation and gambling urges among a community sample of gamblers. The implications and potential applications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Material deprivation and health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Bell, Ruth

    2016-08-08

    Does material deprivation affect the consequences of ill health? Answering this question requires that we move beyond the effects of income. Longitudinal data on material deprivation, longstanding illness and limiting longstanding illness enables investigations of the effects of material deprivation on risk of limiting longstanding illness. This study investigates whether a shift from affording to not affording a car predicts the probability of limiting longstanding ill (LLSI). The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of Statistics on Income, Social Inclusion and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is utilised. Longitudinal fixed effects logit models are applied, using LLSI as dependent variable. Transition from affording a car to not affording a car is used as a proxy for material deprivation. All models are controlled for whether the person becomes longstanding ill (LSI) as well as other time-variant covariates that could affect the results. The analysis shows a statistically significant increased odds ratio of LLSI when individuals no longer can afford a car, after controlling for confounders and LSI in the previous year (1.129, CI = 1.022-1.248). However, when restricting the sample to observations where respondents report longstanding illness the results are no longer significant (1.032, CI = 0.910-1.171). The results indicate an individual level effect of material deprivation on LLSI, suggesting that material resources can affect the consequences of ill health.

  11. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deterministic noiseless amplification of coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    A universal deterministic noiseless quantum amplifier has been shown to be impossible. However, probabilistic noiseless amplification of a certain set of states is physically permissible. Regarding quantum state amplification as quantum state transformation, we show that deterministic noiseless amplification of coherent states chosen from a proper set is attainable. The relation between input coherent states and gain of amplification for deterministic noiseless amplification is thus derived. Furthermore, we extend our result to more general situation and show that deterministic noiseless amplification of Gaussian states is also possible. As an example of application, we find that our amplification model can obtain better performance in homodyne detection to measure the phase of state selected from a certain set. Besides, other possible applications are also discussed.

  13. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  14. Cultural Warping of Childbirth, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education revisits Doris Haire's classic 1972 article, “The Cultural Warping of Childbirth,” and describes the birth culture of today. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  15. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  16. Benjamin Franklin and Mesmerism, revisited.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kevin M; Perry, Campbell

    2002-10-01

    The authors revisit and update their previous historiographical note (McConkey & Perry, 1985) on Benjamin Franklin's involvement with and investigation of animal magnetism or mesmerism. They incorporate more recent literature and offer additional comment about Franklin's role in and views about mesmerism. Franklin had a higher degree of personal involvement with and a more detailed opinion of mesmerism than has been previously appreciated.

  17. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.

  18. Deprivation, context, and processing of textual materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, T; Dwivedi, C B

    1993-03-01

    Levy's (1983) familiarization and proofreading paradigm was used to examine the context-processing relationship during reading of Hindi textual materials. Sixty high- and 60 low-deprived male students in Classes 11 and 12 were asked to proofread error-filled passages of easy and difficult text. Familiarity was manipulated by presenting error-free versions of the passages to some subjects but not to others for a single reading before their actual proofreading. Familiar passages were processed faster than unfamiliar passages irrespective of students' deprivation and passage difficulty. Slow processing was recorded for highly deprived subjects and for easy passages. Faster processing was associated with higher error detection and higher short-term retention scores, whereas the opposite was true for slower processing. Familiarity enhanced short-term retention, suggesting some involvement of conceptually driven process even after familiarization. Findings are discussed in light of interactive processing models of reading.

  19. Effects of arsenic deprivation in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Uthus, E O

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of arsenic deprivation in hamsters. Male weanling Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a casein-corn-based diet containing approximately 12 ng arsenic/g. Controls were fed 1 microgram arsenic/g of diet, as Na2HAsO4.7 H2O. After 6 weeks arsenic deprivation elevated heart weight/body weight ratio and the concentration of liver zinc and decreased the concentrations of the plasma amino acids alanine, glycine, phenylalanine and taurine. Although no biological role has been found for arsenic, the findings indicate that the hamster is a suitable animal for arsenic deprivation studies and support the hypothesis that arsenic may have a physiological role that influences methionine/methyl metabolism.

  20. Neighbourhood walking and regeneration in deprived communities.

    PubMed

    Mason, Phil; Kearns, Ade; Bond, Lyndal

    2011-05-01

    More frequent neighbourhood walking is a realistic goal for improving physical activity in deprived areas. We address regeneration activity by examining associations of residents' circumstances and perceptions of their local environment with frequent (5+ days/week) local walking (NW5) in 32 deprived neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK), based on interview responses from a random stratified cross-sectional sample of 5657 residents. Associations were investigated by bivariate and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. People living in low-rise flats or houses reported greater NW5 than those in multi-storey flats. Physical and social aspects of the neighbourhood were more strongly related to walking than perceptions of housing and neighbourhood, especially the neighbourhood's external reputation, and feelings of safety and belonging. Amenity use, especially of parks, play areas and general shops (mainly in the neighbourhood), was associated with more walking. Multidimensional regeneration of the physical, service, social and psychosocial environments of deprived communities therefore seems an appropriate strategy to boost walking.

  1. Nutational Damping Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. A.; Sharma, I.

    2000-10-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of complex rotational states for several asteroids and comets, as well as by the ongoing and planned spacecraft missions to such bodies, which should allow their rotational states to be accurately determined, we revisit the problem of the nutational damping of small solar system bodies. The nutational damping of asteroids has been approximately analyzed by Prendergast (1958), Burns and Safronov (1973), and Efroimsky and Lazarian (2000). Many other similar dynamical studies concern planetary wobble decay (e.g., Peale 1973; Yoder and Ward 1979), interstellar dust grain alignment (e.g., Purcell 1979; Lazarian and Efroimsky 1999) and damping of Earth's Chandler wobble (Lambeck 1980). Recall that rotational energy loss for an isolated body aligns the body's angular momentum vector with its axis of maximum inertia. Assuming anelastic dissipation, simple dimensional analysis determines a functional form of the damping timescale, on which all the above authors agree. However, the numerical coefficients of published results are claimed to differ by orders of magnitude. Differences have been ascribed to absent physics, to solutions that fail to satisfy boundary conditions perfectly, and to unphysical choices for the Q parameter. The true reasons for the discrepancy are unclear since, despite contrary claims, the full 3D problem (nutational damping of an anelastic ellipsoid) is analytically intractable so far. To move the debate forward, we compare the solution of a related 2D problem to the expressions found previously, and we present results from a finite element model. On this basis, we feel that previous rates for the decay of asteroidal tumbling (Harris 1994), derived from Burns and Safronov (1973), are likely to be accurate, at least to a factor of a few. Funded by NASA.

  2. Malnutrition and the family: deprivation in kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Goodall, J

    1979-05-01

    The background to social and emotional deprivation is discussed and applied to a study of kwashiorkor in East African children. A group of 107 children with kwashiorkor was compared with 111 controls. Age, sex and tribe were all found to have significances of their own: fifty of each group were therefore matched for these three factors. Ten other factors were found to be significant in the background of children with kwashiorkor, all of which could be associated with social or emotional deprivation or both (see Table 14). It is concluded that, in childhood, sustained personal care and affection are essential to normal growth.

  3. Response of atmospheric blocks to the Arctic Amplification in idealized model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric block is the abnormal quasi-stationary system which obstructs the weather system flow in the midlatitude. Because of its importance on extreme weather, its long-term trend in response to the Arctic amplification has been extensively examined. While several studies have documented a hint of increasing blocking frequency due to the Arctic amplification, others have shown essentially no evidence of such change. The present study re-visits this issue by performing a series of idealized model experiments. A primitive equation model is integrated using Held and Suarez (1994) temperature forcing. Specifically, the equator-to-pole temperature difference (ΔT) is systematically reduced from 100K to 60K with a 10-K interval by mimicking Arctic amplification. Blocks are then identified by applying the hybrid blocking index, which incorporates blocking anomaly and absolute gradient reversal, to 500-hPa geopotential height fields. With decreasing ΔT (e.g., Arctic-amplification-like state), westerly jet becomes weaker and moves equatorward. Likewise, both high- and low-frequency eddies get weaker and shift equatorward along the jet. Blocks, which primarily form on the poleward flank of the jet, also shift equatorward. Atmospheric block, which is quasi-stationary system, tends to occur more frequently as weather systems move slowly. However, blocked area becomes smaller, indicating that less frequent blocks tend to have a larger spatial scale. In the presence of wavenumber-1 topography, this relationship breaks down. Both number and area of blocks tend to decrease with decreasing ΔT. This result indicates that stationary wave plays an important in modulating blocks. More importantly, it supports the previous studies that documented no evidence of block change in response to the Arctic amplification.

  4. Φ-OTDR signal amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munster, Petr; Vojtech, Josef; Sysel, Petr; Sifta, Radim; Novotny, Vit; Horvath, Tomas; Sima, Stanislav; Filka, Miloslav

    2015-05-01

    Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reectometry (Φ-OTDR) seems to be the most appropriate solution for acoustic vibration along standard optical fiber detection. In general the sensing system measures phase changes of the received Rayleigh back-scattered signal in the fiber. Since the back-scattered signal intensity is decreased about tens of decibels in comparison to the forward propagating pulse power level, the received signal power level is very low. That is why the main limiting parameter of the system is the power level of the back-scattered signal, which limits maximum achievable distance. For long reach sensing it is necessary to create high power optical pulses with short time-duration. Direct pulse amplification by erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is an issue because of the pulses low repetition rate. We have designed and verified a simple method using a holding beam for amplifying of pulses with low repetition rate by standard telecommunication EDFA booster instead of deployment of an expensive optical shutter. A second CW laser with a different wavelength for EDFA stabilization is used in our setup. Because a pulse losses its energy during propagation in the fiber and with longer distances by 1st order Raman amplifier (RA). In telecommunications this amplifier is used to compensate for fiber losses. The second setup uses remote amplification by remotely pumped erbium doped fiber (EDF) placed after a few tens of kilometers of sensing fiber. A pump laser is placed in the transmitter part of the system from where EDF is pumped. In this paper, we present an overview of few techniques for Φ-ODTR signals amplification and their verification by measurement.

  5. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  6. Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

  7. Cochlear amplification: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen; Grosh, Karl; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topic of "Cochlear Amplification". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  8. Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

  9. BINOCULAR FUSION TIME IN SLEEP-DEPRIVED SUBJECTS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fatigue induced by sleep deprivation on the binocular fusion reflex. Binocular fusion times were measured morning and evening in six subjects during 86...hours of sleep deprivation and in six control subjects. The binocular fusion reflex under the experimental conditions employed appeared to be resistant to fatigue incident to sleep - deprivation . (Author)

  10. CULTURAL DEPRIVATION--IDEAS FOR ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDWARDS, THOMAS J.

    EDUCATING THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT LEARNER COULD BE IMPROVED THROUGH ACTION PROGRAMS PARALLELED BY EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH. THE IDENTIFICATION OF TRAITS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT REVERSE THE EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DEPRIVATION AND ALLOW INDIVIDUALS TO BREAK OUT FROM THEIR CULTURAL COCOONS AND THE PRESENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM TO THE CULTURALLY…

  11. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  12. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  13. Relative Deprivation, Rising Expectations, and Black Militancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Ronald P.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the role of relative deprivation (RD) and rising expectations (RE) as mediating variables between social structure and black militancy through secondary analyses of survey data of blacks living in Cleveland and Miami in the late 1960s. Alternative explanations and implications derived from the present data and the theories for the…

  14. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  15. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J.; Maule, Alexis L.; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A.; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze–target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze–target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment. PMID:27379009

  16. Loss of negative priming following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Yvonne; Espelid, Erik

    2004-04-01

    It has been argued that one night of sleep loss in young healthy adults produces changes similar to that associated with normal, healthy ageing--in particular, that young sleep-deprived adults perform similarly to 60-year-old sleep-satiated adults on some tasks of frontal lobe function. This proposition was examined using a protocol viewed by many to be a direct probe of nonvolitional attention mechanisms associated with frontal lobe function. A negative priming (NP) procedure was used to compare performance between non-sleep-deprived (NSD) and sleep-deprived (SD, 34 hr) young, healthy adults. This protocol allowed for exploration of two theories of the NP effect based on inhibitory or memorial processes. Under conditions believed to facilitate inhibitory processes a normal NP effect was found for NSD(16 ms) and SD (9 ms) participants. Under conditions believed to rely on memorial processes there was no NP effect following SD, compared with a normal NP effect for NSD participants (11 ms). Distractor interference was also greater following SD. These findings do not suggest a similar pattern of change following sleep loss in healthy young adults to that of normal, healthy, non-sleep-deprived aged groups.

  17. Play Deprivation: A Factor in Juvenile Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe; Jacobs, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the increasing number of violent crimes committed by children is a result of play deprivation. Discusses different forms of play and distinguishes between controlled and free play. Examines factors such as inadequate outdoor spaces, organized sports, and hi-tech entertainment which interfere with spontaneous play. Discusses the concept…

  18. The Cycle of Deprivation: Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welshman, John

    2008-01-01

    The year 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of the publication of Michael Rutter and Nicola Madge's Cycles of Disadvantage (1976). As such, it provides an opportunity to take stock of debates over an alleged cycle of deprivation, both in the 1970s, and more recently. This article seeks to use historical methods in order to outline some areas in…

  19. Play Deprivation: A Factor in Juvenile Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe; Jacobs, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the increasing number of violent crimes committed by children is a result of play deprivation. Discusses different forms of play and distinguishes between controlled and free play. Examines factors such as inadequate outdoor spaces, organized sports, and hi-tech entertainment which interfere with spontaneous play. Discusses the concept…

  20. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  1. Control deprivation and styles of thinking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; He, Lingnan; Yang, Qing; Lao, Junpeng; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-03-01

    Westerners habitually think in analytical ways, whereas East Asians tend to favor holistic styles of thinking. We replicated this difference but showed that it disappeared after control deprivation (Experiment 1). Brief experiences of control deprivation, which stimulate increased desire for control, caused Chinese participants to shift toward Western-style analytical thinking in multiple ways (Experiments 2-5). Western Caucasian participants also increased their use of analytical thinking after control deprivation (Experiment 6). Manipulations that required Chinese participants to think in Western, analytical ways caused their sense of personal control to increase (Experiments 7-9). Prolonged experiences of control deprivation, which past work suggested foster an attitude more akin to learned helplessness than striving for control, had the opposite effect of causing Chinese participants to shift back toward a strongly holistic style of thinking (Experiments 10-12). Taken together, the results support the reality of cultural differences in cognition but also the cross-cultural similarity of using analytical thinking when seeking to enhance personal control.

  2. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  3. Revisiting Free School Meal Eligibility as a Proxy for Pupil Socio-Economic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Sonia; Sutherland, Alex; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Whether someone has ever had free school meal (FSM) eligibility over a six-year period is the measure of socio-economic disadvantage currently used in the English school system. It is used to monitor the socio-economic gap in achievement in the education system, to identify particular children at risk of low achievement and to direct funding to…

  4. Enceladus' tidal dissipation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, Gabriel; Behounkova, Marie; Choblet, Gael; Cadek, Ondrej; Soucek, Ondrej

    2016-10-01

    A series of chemical and physical evidence indicates that the intense activity at Enceladus' South Pole is related to a subsurface salty water reservoir underneath the tectonically active ice shell. The detection of a significant libration implies that this water reservoir is global and that the average ice shell thickness is about 20-25km (Thomas et al. 2016). The interpretation of gravity and topography data further predicts large variations in ice shell thickness, resulting in a shell potentially thinner than 5 km in the South Polar Terrain (SPT) (Cadek et al. 2016). Such an ice shell structure requires a very strong heat source in the interior, with a focusing mechanism at the SPT. Thermal diffusion through the ice shell implies that at least 25-30 GW is lost into space by passive diffusion, implying a very efficient dissipation mechanism in Enceladus' interior to maintain such an ocean/ice configuration thermally stable.In order to determine in which conditions such a large dissipation power may be generated, we model the tidal response of Enceladus including variable ice shell thickness. For the rock core, we consider a wide range of rheological parameters representative of water-saturated porous rock materials. We demonstrate that the thinning toward the South Pole leads to a strong increase in heat production in the ice shell, with a optimal thickness obtained between 1.5 and 3 km, depending on the assumed ice viscosity. Our results imply that the heat production in the ice shell within the SPT may be sufficient to counterbalance the heat loss by diffusion and to power eruption activity. However, outside the SPT, a strong dissipation in the porous core is required to counterbalance the diffusive heat loss. We show that about 20 GW can be generated in the core, for an effective viscosity of 1012 Pa.s, which is comparable to the effective viscosity estimated in water-saturated glacial tills on Earth. We will discuss the implications of this revisited tidal

  5. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  6. Trophic amplification of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Richard R; Beaugrand, Gregory

    2009-12-07

    Ecosystems can alternate suddenly between contrasting persistent states due to internal processes or external drivers. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which these shifts occur, especially in exploited ecosystems. There have been several abrupt marine ecosystem shifts attributed either to fishing, recent climate change or a combination of these two drivers. We show that temperature has been an important driver of the trophodynamics of the North Sea, a heavily fished marine ecosystem, for nearly 50 years and that a recent pronounced change in temperature established a new ecosystem dynamic regime through a series of internal mechanisms. Using an end-to-end ecosystem approach that included primary producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, and detritivores, we found that temperature modified the relationships among species through nonlinearities in the ecosystem involving ecological thresholds and trophic amplifications. Trophic amplification provides an alternative mechanism to positive feedback to drive an ecosystem towards a new dynamic regime, which in this case favours jellyfish in the plankton and decapods and detritivores in the benthos. Although overfishing is often held responsible for marine ecosystem degeneration, temperature can clearly bring about similar effects. Our results are relevant to ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), seen as the way forward to manage exploited marine ecosystems.

  7. Trophic amplification of climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Richard R.; Beaugrand, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems can alternate suddenly between contrasting persistent states due to internal processes or external drivers. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which these shifts occur, especially in exploited ecosystems. There have been several abrupt marine ecosystem shifts attributed either to fishing, recent climate change or a combination of these two drivers. We show that temperature has been an important driver of the trophodynamics of the North Sea, a heavily fished marine ecosystem, for nearly 50 years and that a recent pronounced change in temperature established a new ecosystem dynamic regime through a series of internal mechanisms. Using an end-to-end ecosystem approach that included primary producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, and detritivores, we found that temperature modified the relationships among species through nonlinearities in the ecosystem involving ecological thresholds and trophic amplifications. Trophic amplification provides an alternative mechanism to positive feedback to drive an ecosystem towards a new dynamic regime, which in this case favours jellyfish in the plankton and decapods and detritivores in the benthos. Although overfishing is often held responsible for marine ecosystem degeneration, temperature can clearly bring about similar effects. Our results are relevant to ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), seen as the way forward to manage exploited marine ecosystems. PMID:19740882

  8. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-10-01

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  9. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  10. An evaluation of direct PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Daniel E.; Roy, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Aim To generate complete DNA profiles from blood and saliva samples deposited on FTA® and non-FTA® paper substrates following a direct amplification protocol. Methods Saliva samples from living donors and blood samples from deceased individuals were deposited on ten different FTA® and non-FTA® substrates. These ten paper substrates containing body fluids were kept at room temperature for varying lengths of time ranging from one day to approximately one year. For all assays in this research, 1.2 mm punches were collected from each substrate containing one type of body fluid and amplified with reagents provided in the nine commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification kits. The substrates were not subjected to purification reagent or extraction buffer prior to amplification. Results Success rates were calculated for all nine amplification kits and all ten substrates based on their ability to yield complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol. Six out of the nine amplification kits, and four out of the ten paper substrates had the highest success rates overall. Conclusion The data show that it is possible to generate complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol using both standard (non-direct) and direct PCR amplification kits. The generation of complete DNA profiles appears to depend more on the success of the amplification kit rather than the than the FTA®- or non-FTA®-based substrates. PMID:25559837

  11. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  12. First Grade Writers Revisit Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jane A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on first grade readers and writers who revisit their work and describes what first-graders do when they revisit their writing about science and literature and review collections of their work. The first-graders discussed here are in Elaine O'Connor's classroom at Clark Elementary School in Charlottesville. In a…

  13. Monocular visual deprivation in Macaque monkeys: A profile in the gene expression of lateral geniculate nucleus by laser capture microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Henry J.; Gong, Bendi; Zhou, Lan; Hatala, Denise; Howell, Scott J.; Zhou, Xiaohua; Mustari, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. Early detection of amblyopia and subsequent intervention are vital in preventing visual loss. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of amblyopia would greatly facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. An animal model of amblyopia induced by monocular vision deprivation has been extensively studied in terms of anatomic and physiologic alterations that affect visual pathways. However, the molecular events underlying these changes are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize changes of gene expression profiles in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) associated with amblyopia induced by monocular visual deprivation. Methods Monocular vision deprivation was generated by either opaque dark contact lens or tarsorrhaphy of newborn rhesus monkeys. LGN was harvested at two or four months following induction of vision deprivation. Laser capture microdissection was used to obtain individual LGN layers for total RNA isolation. Linear T7-based in vitro RNA amplification was used to obtain sufficient RNA to conduct DNA microarray studies. The resulting Affymetrix GeneChip Expression data were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization were used to further analyze expression of selected genes. Results Using 52,699 microarray probe sets from a Rhesus array, we identified 116 transcripts differentially expressed between deprived and nondeprived parvocellular layers: 45 genes were downregulated and 71 genes were upregulated in deprived parvocellular layers. We also observed substantial changes in deprived magnocellular laminae: 74 transcripts exhibited altered expression, 42 genes were downregulated, and 32 genes were upregulated. The genes identified in this study are involved in many diverse processes, including binding (calcium ion binding, nucleic acid binding, and nucleotide binding

  14. The Battle of Britain Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    In any European war, it is likely that the United Kingdom would be a lucrative target for the WP air forces. A considerable proportion of NATO...Winston. The Second World War. Vols I and II, Cassell, London, 1948. 2. Collier, Basil. The Defence of the United Kingdom . HMSO London, 1952. 3...DTIC tiLE COPY,0 AIR WAS COLLEGEL I4 RESEARCH REPORT Lfl THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN REVISITED GROUP CAPTAIN JOHN H. SPENCER ROYAL AIR FORCE DTIC

  15. Asymptotic structure of electrodynamics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    We point out that recently published analyses of null and timelike infinity and long-range structures in electrodynamics to large extent rediscover results present in the literature. At the same time, some of the conclusions these recent works put forward may prove controversial. In view of these facts, we find it desirable to revisit the analysis taken up more than two decades ago, starting from earlier works on null infinity by other authors.

  16. The role of thyroid hormone in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep.

  17. The influence of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes in pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Usman; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Chapman, Dawn; Stephens, Michael R; Asderakis, Argiris

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is an important factor in determining poor health and is associated with a higher prevalence of many chronic diseases including diabetes and renal failure, with poorer outcomes of their treatments. The influence of deprivation on outcomes following pancreas transplantation has not previously been reported. The Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation was used to assess the influence of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes for 119 consecutive pancreas transplant recipients from a single center in the United Kingdom, transplanted between 2004 and 2013. Outcomes measured were rate of acute rejection and graft survival. Thirty-five (29.4%) patients experienced at least one episode of acute rejection following their transplant. Rejection rates in least deprived were 37% and most deprived 24% (p = 0.29). Within the individual domains, rejection rate was higher for the "physical environment" domain (least deprived 40% vs. most deprived 17% (p = 0.053). Five-year graft survival for least and most deprived groups was 75% and 88%, respectively (log-rank test p-value 0.24). This study has not demonstrated any significant differences in outcomes following pancreas transplantation in Wales in relation to socioeconomic deprivation with the exception possibly of the "physical environment" domain. Further studies with larger patient population or concentrating on physical environment deprivation would be of interest.

  18. Relative deprivation in black and white youth: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, G; Smith, P

    1984-06-01

    A model of relative deprivation is proposed drawing on the writings of Gurr (1970) and Runciman (1966) and is discussed in relation to existing studies. Those aspects of the model concerning the intensity of affective reaction to relative deprivation are subjected to empirical test using samples of employed and unemployed black and white youth. The prediction that the degree of relative deprivation is negatively associated with attitudes to the perceived cause of deprivation receives only limited support. Various indices of relative deprivation are compared and it is concluded that present relative deprivation is the most appropriate operational measure. It is concluded that in understanding the attitudes of black and white youth to societal institutions other social characteristics are more important then relative deprivation.

  19. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  20. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  1. Optical sound generation and amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Henry E.; Shields, F. D.

    1987-02-01

    This research has concentrated on sound propagation through a gas with a nonequilibrium distribution of internal states and the generation of sound following excitation of a fluid by a laser. When a sound wave propagates through a gas which has an overpopulation of vibrationally excited states, the wave can increase in amplitude while propagating. In simple terms, this represents a reversal of the absorption typically associated with vibrational relaxation. Amplification of a propagating wave has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed for a gas undergoing chemical reaction and following an electrical discharge through a non-reacting mixture. Optoacoustic measurements have been completed in gaseous CO2 and SF6 and preliminary results are reported for several liquids. Following laser excitation of SF6 at low pressure, the gas actually cooled. A theoretical model for this behavior consistent with known energy transfer mechanisms has been developed and shown to be consistent with experiment measurements.

  2. Radiolytic Cryovolcanism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Wesenberg, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Active geysers of water vapor and ice grains from the south pole of Enceladus are not yet definitively explained in terms of energy sources and processes. Other instances of hot (Io) and cold (Mars, Triton) volcanism beyond Earth are known if not fully understood. We revisit, in comparison to other models, the 'Old Faithful' theory of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism first proposed by Cooper et al. [Plan. Sp. Sci. 2009]. In the energetic electron irradiation environment of Enceladus within Saturn's magnetosphere, a 10-percent duty cycle could be maintained for current geyser activity driven by gases from oxidation of ammonia to N2 and methane to CO2 in the thermal margins of a south polar sea. Much shorter duty cycles down to 0.01 percent would be required to account for thermal power output up to 16 GW, Steady accumulation of oxidant energy over four billion years could have powered all Enceladus emissions over the past four hundred thousand to four hundred million years. There could be separate energy sources driving mass flow and thermal emission over vastly different time scales. Since episodic tidal dissipation on 10 Myr time scales at 0.1 - 1 Gyr intervals [O'Neill and Nimmo, Nature 2010], and thus duty cycles 1 - 10 percent, could heat the polar sea to the current level, the radiolytic energy source could easily power and modulate the geyser mass flow on million-year time scales. Maximum thermal emission temperature 223 K [Abramov and Spencer, Icarus 2009] hints at thermal buffering in the basal and vent wall layers by a 1:1 H2O:H2O2 radiolytic eutectic, assuming deep ice crust saturation with H2O2 from long cumulative surface irradiation and downward ice convection. Due to density stratification the peroxide eutectic and salt water layers could separate, so that the denser peroxide layer (1.2 g/cc) descends to the polar sea while the lighter salt water (1.05 g/cc) rises along separate channels. Methane reservoirs could be found dissolved into the polar

  3. Amplification, Technology, and Cochlear Implants for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Arlie J.

    1993-01-01

    Early amplification is crucial to efficient habilitation and development of oral communication skills in hearing-impaired infants. Initial evaluation and fitting of amplification is a joint effort by the audiologist, therapist, and parents, whether the child uses traditional hearing aids or cochlear implants, and should be supplemented by a…

  4. Third Sound Amplification and Detailed Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Eddinger, J. D.; Ellis, F. M.

    2006-09-07

    Condensation of atoms from the vapor into a third sound resonance is expected to be capable of acoustic amplification. This results from normal to superfluid conversion that coherently accommodates atoms into the third sound velocity field. Consideration of third sound in light of the equilibrium detailed balance between vapor particles and the superfluid film provides further evidence that acoustic amplification is attainable.

  5. Classroom Amplification Technology: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandell, Carl C.; Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews some relevant events in the development of acoustical standards for classrooms, describes classroom challenges to providing clear acoustical signals to children in classrooms, and outlines amplification solutions to some of those classroom challenges. Solutions include personal amplification devices and use of signal-to-noise…

  6. Relative deprivation between neighbouring wards is predictive of coronary heart disease mortality after adjustment for absolute deprivation of wards.

    PubMed

    Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; Keegan, Thomas; Rayner, Mike

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether deprivation inequality at small area level in England is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates and to assess whether this provides evidence of an association between area-level and individual-level risk. Mortality rates for all wards in England were calculated using all CHD deaths between 2001 and 2006. Ward-level deprivation was measured using the Carstairs Index. Deprivation inequality within local authorities (LAs) was measured by the IQR of deprivation for wards within the LA. Relative deprivation for wards was measured as the modulus of the difference between deprivation for the ward and average deprivation for all neighbouring wards. Deprivation inequality within LAs was positively associated with CHD mortality rates per 100000 (eg, all men β; 95% CI=2.7; 1.1 to 4.3) after adjustment for absolute deprivation (p<0.001 for all models). Relative deprivation for wards was positively associated with CHD mortality rates per 100000 (eg, all men 1.4; 0.7 to 2.1) after adjustment for absolute deprivation (p<0.001 for all models). Subgroup analyses showed that relative deprivation was independently associated with CHD mortality rates in both affluent and deprived wards. Rich wards surrounded by poor areas have higher CHD mortality rates than rich wards surrounded by rich areas, and poor wards surrounded by rich areas have worse CHD mortality rates than poor wards surrounded by poor areas. Local deprivation inequality has a similar adverse impact on both rich and poor areas, supporting the hypothesis that income inequality of an area has an impact on individual-level health outcomes.

  7. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  8. Results of zinc deprivation in daphnid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, P.B.; Keating, K.I.

    1997-03-01

    Daphnia pulex Leydig (Cladocera), reared in circumstances of strictly controlled trace element exposure, were deprived of zinc. When zinc was withheld from both their liquid medium and solid (algal) food, D. pulex survived for more than 20 consecutive generations before the line ceased reproduction entirely. Through these generations zinc deprivation resulted in a somewhat irregular, but continuing, shortening of life span, a decrease in fecundity (both progeny per brood and number of broods were affected), and a loss of cuticle integrity. A distinct pattern of response was observed during the gradual, multigenerational decline of the animal line. The decline can be separated into three stages: initial (first five), minimal, but steady, increase in overt damage; intermediate (6th through 19th), varying degrees of damage with apparent severity showing a distinct alternation from generation to generation; and final (last three generations), limited reproduction with ultimate elimination of the animal line by a total absence of reproduction in generation 23.

  9. Food after deprivation rewards the earlier eating.

    PubMed

    Booth, David A; Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise

    2012-12-01

    Food intake can be increased by learning to anticipate the omission of subsequent meals. We present here a new theory that such anticipatory eating depends on an associative process of instrumental reinforcement by the nutritional repletion that occurs when access to food is restored. Our evidence over the last decade from a smooth-brained omnivore has been that food after deprivation rewards intake even when those reinforced ingestive responses occur long before the physiological signals from renewed assimilation. Effects of food consumed after self-deprivation might therefore reward extra eating in human beings, through brain mechanisms that could operate outside awareness. That would have implications for efforts to reduce body weight. This food reward mechanism could be contributing to the failure of the dietary component of interventions on obesity within controlled trials of the management or prevention of disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2016-11-23

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts).

  11. Experimental investigation of pulse generation with one-pump fiber optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Vedadi, Armand A; Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2012-11-19

    In a recent study, the theory of pulse generation with fiber optical parametric amplification using sinusoidal (clock) intensity modulated pump was revisited. This work showed that the pulses generated through such parametric interaction exhibit a shape which depends on the signal detuning with respect to the pump position (i.e. linear phase mismatch). A near Gaussian shape can only be achieved over a small region of the gain spectrum, close to the maximum gain location. Towards the extremities of the gain spectrum, the generated pulses take a near Sinc shape which can have many potential applications such as for all-optical Nyquist limited transmitters and/or receivers. In this paper we experimentally verify the theory at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. We also discuss the impact of noise, pump saturation and walk-off on the generated pulses.

  12. Sleep Deprivation in Humans And Transient Immunodepression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-21

    Kripke DF, Gruen W, Mullaney DJ, and Gillin CJ (1992). Automatic sleep /wake identification from wrist activity . Sleep , 15(5), 461-469. Dinges DF...of results to each other. Second, we acquired several repeated performance and subjective measures hourly across a single night of sleep ... Measures Body Temperature. Oral temperature was taken hourly during the night of sleep deprivation to estimate circadian rhythm in body

  13. Field Studies of Exercise and Food Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Field studies of exercise and food deprivation Reed W. Hoyt and Karl E. FriedlPurpose of review The increase in obesity in developed societies...limit to fat reserves in physically active underfed young adult men, and in response to exercise and underfeeding, women used more fat mass and less fat...Similar findings are evident in obese patients on a very low calorie diet [31]. Other metabolic changes, such as a progressive increase in total

  14. Annualized earthquake loss estimates for California and their sensitivity to site amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Rui; Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, D; Seligson, H; Wills, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Input datasets for annualized earthquake loss (AEL) estimation for California were updated recently by the scientific community, and include the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM), site‐response model, and estimates of shear‐wave velocity. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s loss estimation tool, Hazus, was updated to include the most recent census and economic exposure data. These enhancements necessitated a revisit to our previous AEL estimates and a study of the sensitivity of AEL estimates subjected to alternate inputs for site amplification. The NSHM ground motions for a uniform site condition are modified to account for the effect of local near‐surface geology. The site conditions are approximated in three ways: (1) by VS30 (time‐averaged shear‐wave velocity in the upper 30 m) value obtained from a geology‐ and topography‐based map consisting of 15 VS30 groups, (2) by site classes categorized according to National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification, and (3) by a uniform NEHRP site class D. In case 1, ground motions are amplified using the Seyhan and Stewart (2014) semiempirical nonlinear amplification model. In cases 2 and 3, ground motions are amplified using the 2014 version of the NEHRP site amplification factors, which are also based on the Seyhan and Stewart model but are approximated to facilitate their use for building code applications. Estimated AELs are presented at multiple resolutions, starting with the state level assessment and followed by detailed assessments for counties, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), and cities. AEL estimate at the state level is ∼$3.7  billion, 70% of which is contributed from Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, and Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario MSAs. The statewide AEL estimate is insensitive to alternate assumptions of site amplification. However, we note significant differences in AEL estimates

  15. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  16. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P < 0.050). These findings reiterate the importance of adequate sleep in optimal cognitive functioning, reveal the vulnerability of adolescents' memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Does somatosensory amplification decrease with antidepressant treatment?

    PubMed

    Sayar, Kemal; Barsky, Arthur J; Gulec, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Somatosensory amplification refers to a tendency to experience somatic and visceral sensations as unusually intense, noxious, and disturbing. The authors wanted to determine whether somatosensory amplification is a stable construct or whether it might change with antidepressant therapy. Fifteen patients with fibromyalgia and 17 patients with major depressive disorder received antidepressant treatment and were assessed after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Amplification scores responded to antidepressant treatment in patients with major depression but not in patients with fibromyalgia, despite a decrease in the levels of depression in both groups. When change in depression and anxiety scores was partialled out from change in somatosensory amplification scores, the amplification scores did not change significantly in either the depressed or the fibromyalgia groups. Given the small numbers and the marginal significance of the results, the authors are unable to say definitely just how independent of depression somatosensory amplification is. Whether somatosensory amplification is a measure of depression per se should be tested in a more definitive and larger future study.

  18. Multiple Deprivation, Severity and Latent Sub-Groups: Advantages of Factor Mixture Modelling for Analysing Material Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Najera Catalan, Hector E

    2017-01-01

    Material deprivation is represented in different forms and manifestations. Two individuals with the same deprivation score (i.e. number of deprivations), for instance, are likely to be unable to afford or access entirely or partially different sets of goods and services, while one individual may fail to purchase clothes and consumer durables and another one may lack access to healthcare and be deprived of adequate housing . As such, the number of possible patterns or combinations of multiple deprivation become increasingly complex for a higher number of indicators. Given this difficulty, there is interest in poverty research in understanding multiple deprivation, as this analysis might lead to the identification of meaningful population sub-groups that could be the subjects of specific policies. This article applies a factor mixture model (FMM) to a real dataset and discusses its conceptual and empirical advantages and disadvantages with respect to other methods that have been used in poverty research . The exercise suggests that FMM is based on more sensible assumptions (i.e. deprivation covary within each class), provides valuable information with which to understand multiple deprivation and is useful to understand severity of deprivation and the additive properties of deprivation indicators.

  19. Involvement of intracellular calcium stores during oxygen/glucose deprivation in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

    PubMed

    Pisani, A; Bonsi, P; Centonze, D; Giacomini, P; Calabresi, P

    2000-05-01

    Striatal large aspiny interneurons were recorded from a slice preparation using a combined electrophysiologic and microfluorometric approach. The role of intracellular Ca2+ stores was analyzed during combined oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Before addressing the role of the stores during energy deprivation, the authors investigated their function under physiologic conditions. Trains of depolarizing current pulses caused bursts of action potentials coupled to transient increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (30 micromol/L), a selective inhibitor of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, or when ryanodine receptors were directly blocked with ryanodine (20 [micromol/L), the [Ca2+]i transients were progressively smaller in amplitude, suggesting that [Ca2+]i released from intracellular stores helps to maintain a critical level of [Ca2+]i during physiologic firing activity. As the authors have recently reported, brief exposure to combined OGD induced a membrane hyperpolarization coupled to an increase in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid or ryanodine, the hyperpolarization and the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by OGD were consistently reduced. These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ pools is involved not only in the potentiation of the Ca2+ signals resulting from cell depolarization, but also in the amplification of the [Ca2+]i rise and of the concurrent membrane hyperpolarization observed in course of OGD in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

  20. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  1. Flurbiprofen Ameliorates Glucose Deprivation-Induced Leptin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Toru; Suyama, Yuka; Kayano, Takaaki; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Leptin resistance is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity. The present study showed that glucose deprivation inhibited leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in neuronal cells. Flurbiprofen reversed glucose deprivation-mediated attenuation of STAT3, but not STAT5 activation, in leptin-treated cells. Glucose deprivation increased C/EBP-homologous protein and glucose regulated protein 78 induction, indicating the activation of unfolded protein responses (UPR). Flurbiprofen did not affect the glucose deprivation-induced activation of UPR, but did attenuate the glucose deprivation-mediated induction of AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Flurbiprofen may ameliorate glucose deprivation-induced leptin resistance in neuronal cells. PMID:27746736

  2. Increased voluntary alcohol drinking concurrent with REM-sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1984-01-01

    The alcohol intake of twenty adult Long-Evans male rats was recorded before, during and after rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation produced with the flowerpot technique modified by using a cuff pedestal and an electrified grid floor instead of water. The alcohol intake reached a steady level of 2.8 g/kg/day in the 3 weeks before REM deprivation. During seven REM-sleep deprivation days the alcohol intake was significantly elevated, finally increasing to 3.7 g/kg/day. A rebound decrease in alcohol drinking was then observed during the "REM-rebound" phase immediately after the termination of REM-sleep deprivation. The results suggest a possible vicious circle of REM-sleep deprivation increasing alcohol drinking and alcohol intake causing REM-sleep deprivation.

  3. Revisiting large neutrino magnetic moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir; Welter, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Current experimental sensitivity on neutrino magnetic moments is many orders of magnitude above the Standard Model prediction. A potential measurement of next-generation experiments would therefore strongly request new physics beyond the Standard Model. However, large neutrino magnetic moments generically tend to induce large corrections to the neutrino masses and lead to fine-tuning. We show that in a model where neutrino masses are proportional to neutrino magnetic moments. We revisit, discuss and propose mechanisms that still provide theoretical consistent explanations for a potential measurement of large neutrino magnetic moments. We find only two viable mechanisms to realize large transition magnetic moments for Majorana neutrinos only.

  4. Lithium in the Pleiades Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. R.; Hobbs, L. M.; Schuler, S. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

    2003-12-01

    New Li abundances have been derived for some 15-20 Pleiades dwarfs using new high-resolution and high S/N spectroscopy from HET/HRS. Previous studies suggested that our objects, all modest (projected) rotators, evinced considerable scatter in their Li abundances. We revisit the question of this scatter and its origin. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST 00-86576 and 02-39518, a South Carolina Space Grant Scholarship award, a generous donation from the Curry Foundation of Seneca, SC, and the NOAO Public Access Program.

  5. Toughness amplification in natural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza

    2011-04-01

    Natural structural materials such as bone and seashells are made of relatively weak building blocks, yet they exhibit remarkable combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness. This performance can be largely explained by their "staggered microstructure": stiff inclusions of high aspect ratio are laid parallel to each other with some overlap, and bonded by a softer matrix. While stiffness and strength are now well understood for staggered composites, the mechanisms involved in fracture are still largely unknown. This is a significant lack since the amplification of toughness with respect to their components is by far the most impressive feature in natural staggered composites such as nacre or bone. Here a model capturing the salient mechanisms involved in the cracking of a staggered structure is presented. We show that the pullout of inclusions and large process zones lead to tremendous toughness by far exceeding that of individual components. The model also suggests that a material like nacre cannot reach steady state cracking, with the implication that the toughness increases indefinitely with crack advance. These findings agree well with existing fracture data, and for the first time relate microstructural parameters with overall toughness. These insights will prove useful in the design of biomimetic materials, and provide clues on how bone fractures at the nano and microscales.

  6. Preferential Amplification of Pathogenic Sequences.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fang; Parker, Jayme; Chul Choi, Sang; Layer, Mark; Ross, Katherine; Jilly, Bernard; Chen, Jack

    2015-06-11

    The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology in the diagnosis of human pathogens is hindered by the fact that pathogenic sequences, especially viral, are often scarce in human clinical specimens. This known disproportion leads to the requirement of subsequent deep sequencing and extensive bioinformatics analysis. Here we report a method we called "Preferential Amplification of Pathogenic Sequences (PATHseq)" that can be used to greatly enrich pathogenic sequences. Using a computer program, we developed 8-, 9-, and 10-mer oligonucleotides called "non-human primers" that do not match the most abundant human transcripts, but instead selectively match transcripts of human pathogens. Instead of using random primers in the construction of cDNA libraries, the PATHseq method recruits these short non-human primers, which in turn, preferentially amplifies non-human, presumably pathogenic sequences. Using this method, we were able to enrich pathogenic sequences up to 200-fold in the final sequencing library. This method does not require prior knowledge of the pathogen or assumption of the infection; therefore, it provides a fast and sequence-independent approach for detection and identification of human viruses and other pathogens. The PATHseq method, coupled with NGS technology, can be broadly used in identification of known human pathogens and discovery of new pathogens.

  7. Advanced backward Raman amplification seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2010-11-01

    Next generations of ultrapowerful laser pulses, reaching exawatt and zetawatt powers within reasonably compact facilities, might be based on the backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasmas. Amplified pulse intensities hundreds times higher than the pump intensity are already observed experimentally. More advanced BRA stages should produce even higher intensities. The largest nonfocused intensity, limited primarily by instabilities associated with the relativistic electron nonlinearity of the amplified laser pulse, is, roughly speaking, 0.1 of the fully relativistic value. It corresponds to the amplified pulse final (and shortest) duration be about the electron plasma wave period. The needed seed pulse should be at least that short then to stay ahead of the amplified pulse, rather than be shadowed by it (which would much reduce the seeding efficiency). However, at earlier BRA stages, when the amplified pulse is longer, the optimal duration of the seed pulse is also longer. This work proposes the use of self-contracting seed pulses for further optimizing the advanced BRA.

  8. Characterizing Mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0161 TITLE: Characterizing Mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...Characterizing mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0161 5c. PROGRAM...leading cause of cancer death among men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) constitutes the main therapeutic option for patients with advanced PC

  9. Gene Networks Underlying Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-15

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed the...Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila Report Title Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have...stressed flies , the involvement of axonogenesis as a process regulated by these stressors. This goes beyond the current hypothesis of sleep as functioning

  10. SLIM--An Early Work Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    An early, but at the time illuminating, piece of work on how to deal with a general, linearly coupled accelerator lattice is revisited. This work is based on the SLIM formalism developed in 1979-1981.

  11. McLean's second variation formula revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lê, Hông Vân; Vanžura, Jiří

    2017-03-01

    We revisit McLean's second variation formulas for calibrated submanifolds in exceptional geometries, and correct his formulas concerning associative submanifolds and Cayley submanifolds, using a unified treatment based on the (relative) calibration method and Harvey-Lawson's identities.

  12. The premack principle, response deprivation, and establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Kevin P.; Morris, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes response deprivation as an establishing operation. In this context, we review the concept of establishing operation, in particular, its reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects; we place response deprivation in the literature on the reinforcing effects of behavioral activity, wherein response deprivation subsumes the Premack principle; we describe the reinforcer-altering and evocative effects of response deprivation; and we address a methodological concern about the evocative effect. In closing, we discuss some conceptual and empirical implications of the foregoing analyses. PMID:22478362

  13. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  14. Spatial analysis of ocular dominance patterns in monocularly deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin E; Stephan, Michael; Singer, Wolf; Löwel, Siegrid

    2002-08-01

    Monocular deprivation during a critical period in postnatal development leads to a shift in functional and anatomical ocular dominance at the expense of the deprived eye. We analyzed the complete two-dimensional pattern of [(3)H]proline-labeled afferents in primary visual cortex (area 17) of cats monocularly deprived of vision at eye opening. Substantial shrinkage of deprived eye territory in favor of the normal eye extended into optic disc and monocular segment representations. However, small domains of deprived eye afferents were distributed evenly over the entire visual field representation. Interestingly, normal and deprived eye afferents overlapped extensively in the ipsilateral and in the peripheral contralateral visual field representation of the deprived eye, so that ipsi- and contralateral ocular dominance patterns are not at all complementary. We suggest that this could be the result of both an earlier maturation of crossed versus uncrossed visual pathways and of a maturational gradient within area 17 leading to a lower vulnerability of the central visual field representation to monocular deprivation. Quantitative analysis, using a triangulation algorithm which confirmed previously described larger spacing of adjacent ocular dominance columns in strabismic cats, revealed no difference in spacing of ocular dominance domains in area 17 between monocularly deprived and normals cats. In addition, column spacing was very similar in the same animal and in littermates, indicating that the genetic influence on columnar layout is stronger than previously assumed.

  15. Distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blane, David N; McLean, Gary; Watt, Graham

    2015-11-01

    General practice in the UK is widely reported to be in crisis, with particular concerns about recruitment and retention of family doctors. This study assessed the distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation, using routinely available data. We found that there are more GPs (and fewer patients per GP) in the least deprived deciles than there are in the most deprived deciles. Furthermore, there are a higher proportion of older GPs in the most deprived deciles. There are also important gender differences in the distribution of GPs. We discuss the implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners.

  16. Functional connectivity during rested wakefulness predicts vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, B T Thomas; Tandi, Jesisca; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    Significant inter-individual differences in vigilance decline following sleep deprivation exist. We characterized functional connectivity in 68 healthy young adult participants in rested wakefulness and following a night of total sleep deprivation. After whole brain signal regression, functionally connected cortical networks during the well-rested state exhibited reduced correlation following sleep deprivation, suggesting that highly integrated brain regions become less integrated during sleep deprivation. In contrast, anti-correlations in the well-rested state became less so following sleep deprivation, suggesting that highly segregated networks become less segregated during sleep deprivation. Subjects more resilient to vigilance decline following sleep deprivation showed stronger anti-correlations among several networks. The weaker anti-correlations overlapped with connectivity alterations following sleep deprivation. Resilient individuals thus evidence clearer separation of highly segregated cortical networks in the well-rested state. In contrast to corticocortical connectivity, subcortical-cortical connectivity was comparable across resilient and vulnerable groups despite prominent state-related changes in both groups. Because sleep deprivation results in a significant elevation of whole brain signal amplitude, the aforesaid signal changes and group contrasts may be masked in analyses omitting their regression, suggesting possible value in regressing whole brain signal in certain experimental contexts.

  17. Nurses need a standard definition of a deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The House of Commons health committee has called for an urgent review of the implementation of the deprivation of liberty safeguards. They are particularly concerned that nurses, as gatekeepers of the safeguards, often do not know when a deprivation of liberty occurs in practice. In this article the author argues that given the lack of a standard definition of what amounts to a deprivation of liberty and the introduction by the courts of often contradictory factors that nurses are required to consider when determining if a patient is being deprived of their liberty it is little wonder that confusion is common place.

  18. Prevention and treatment of sleep deprivation among emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    Emergency physicians commonly experience sleep deprivation because of the need to work shifts during evening and late night hours. The negative effects of this problem are compounded by job stress and traditional methods of scheduling work shifts. Sleep deprivation may be reduced by schedules designed to lessen interference with normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms. Pharmacological treatments for sleep deprivation exist in the form of alertness-enhancing agents, caffeine and modafinil. Sleep-promoting agents may also help treat the problem by helping physicians to sleep during daytime hours. Minimizing sleep deprivation may help prevent job burnout and prolong the length of an emergency physician's career.

  19. Coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification and translation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cell-free system for polynucleotide amplification and translation is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for using the system and a composition which allows the various components of the system to function under a common set of reaction conditions.

  20. Earthquake ground motion amplification for surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Daniel C.; Tsai, Victor C.

    2017-01-01

    Surface waves from earthquakes are known to cause strong damage, especially for larger structures such as skyscrapers and bridges. However, common practice in characterizing seismic hazard at a specific site considers the effect of near-surface geology on only vertically propagating body waves. Here we show that surface waves have a unique and different frequency-dependent response to known geologic structure and that this amplification can be analytically calculated in a manner similar to current hazard practices. Applying this framework to amplification in the Los Angeles Basin, we find that peak ground accelerations for certain large regional earthquakes are underpredicted if surface waves are not properly accounted for and that the frequency of strongest ground motion amplification can be significantly different. Including surface-wave amplification in hazards calculations is therefore essential for accurate predictions of strong ground motion for future San Andreas Fault ruptures.

  1. The spatial pattern of cochlear amplification.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C; Hudspeth, A J

    2012-12-06

    Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces.

  2. The Spatial Pattern of Cochlear Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan A.N.; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C.; Hudspeth, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces. PMID:23217746

  3. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  4. Coupled amplification and sequencing of genomic DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, G; Kidd, K K

    1991-01-01

    Addition of dideoxyribonucleotides during the exponential phase of the PCR should result in the synthesis of two complementary sequence ladders. We have explored this hypothesis to develop coupled amplification and sequencing of genomic DNA. Coupled amplification and sequencing is a biphasic method for sequencing both strands of template as they are amplified. Stage I selects and amplifies a single target from the genomic DNA sample. Stage II accomplishes the sequencing as well as additional amplification of the target using aliquots from the stage I reaction mixed with end-labeled primer and dideoxynucleotides. We have successfully applied coupled amplification and sequencing to a 300-base-pair fragment 4 kilobases upstream from HOX2B directly from human whole genomic DNA. Images PMID:1672768

  5. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  6. A Simple Structure for Signal Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wan-Xiang; Gu, Chang-Gui; Liang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-02-01

    It has been found that a triple-node feed-forward motif has a function of signal amplification, where two input nodes receive the external weak signal and jointly modulate the response of the third output node [Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 88 (2013) 012910]. We here show that the signal amplification can be further enhanced by adding a link between the two input nodes in the feed-forward motif. We further reveal that the coupling strength of the link regulates the enhancement of signal amplification in the modified feed-forward motif. We finally analyze the mechanism of signal amplification of such simple structure. Supported by the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning under Grant No. QD2015016, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11505114 and 11305078

  7. Experiments with classroom FM amplification.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, A; Iglehart, F

    1998-06-01

    1) To quantify the benefits of FM amplification for persons with severe and profound hearing loss; 2) to compare a body-worn and a behind-the-ear FM system; 3) to measure the effects of reducing FM microphone sensitivity relative to hearing aid sensitivity. Recognition of phonemes in lists of consonant-vowel-consonant words was measured in 13 teenage students with severe and profound hearing loss. Presentation was by live voice at 10 feet from the listeners and 12 inches from the FM microphone/transmitter. Students listened: a) via a body-worn and a behind-the-ear system; b) with the FM microphone/transmitter on and off; c) in noise and in quiet. Systems were adjusted so that sinusoidal inputs of 65 dB SPL gave equal gains via the FM and hearing aid microphones. In a follow-up study, the gain via the FM microphone was reduced so that a sinusoidal input of 65 dB SPL into the hearing aid microphone produced the same output as a sinusoidal input of 80 dB into the FM microphone (as recommended in American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1994). 1) Addition of the FM microphone signal to that available from the hearing aid microphone was equivalent, on average, to doubling the number of independent channels of information available to the listeners. 2) FM benefit was present in both quiet and noise but was somewhat greater in noise. 3) Contrary to prediction, however, noise interfered with phoneme recognition even under the aid+FM condition. 4) Differences between the body-worn and behind-the-ear systems were small, but there was a measurable advantage for the body-worn system under the aid+FM condition. 5) Reducing FM microphone sensitivity by 15 dB virtually eliminated the FM benefit. 6) Forty-four percent of the variance in phoneme recognition (averaged across listening conditions) could be explained by better-ear, three-frequency average pure-tone threshold. 7) Vowels were recognized more easily than consonants, and initial consonants were recognized more easily

  8. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Tucker, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  9. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Elkin, Chris

    2006-05-09

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  10. Theory of Parametric Amplification in Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyart, Timo; Shorokhov, Alexey V.; Alekseev, Kirill N.

    2007-06-01

    We consider a high-frequency response of electrons in a single miniband of superlattice subject to dc and ac electric fields. We show that Bragg reflections in miniband result in a parametric resonance which is detectable using ac probe field. We establish theoretical feasibility of phase-sensitive THz amplification at the resonance. The parametric amplification does not require operation in conditions of negative differential conductance. This prevents a formation of destructive domains of high electric field inside the superlattice.

  11. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  12. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  13. Early Adolescent Outcomes for Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. I: Disinhibited Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Colvert, Emma; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disinhibited attachment is an important sequel of an institutional rearing, but questions remain regarding its measurement, its persistence, the specificity of the association with institutional rearing and on whether or not it constitutes a meaningful disorder. Method: Children initially reared in profoundly depriving institutions in…

  14. Amplification uncertainty relation for probabilistic amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, quantum amplification limit refers to the property of inevitable noise addition on canonical variables when the field amplitude of an unknown state is linearly transformed through a quantum channel. Recent theoretical studies have determined amplification limits for cases of probabilistic quantum channels or general quantum operations by specifying a set of input states or a state ensemble. However, it remains open how much excess noise on canonical variables is unavoidable and whether there exists a fundamental trade-off relation between the canonical pair in a general amplification process. In this paper we present an uncertainty-product form of amplification limits for general quantum operations by assuming an input ensemble of Gaussian-distributed coherent states. It can be derived as a straightforward consequence of canonical uncertainty relations and retrieves basic properties of the traditional amplification limit. In addition, our amplification limit turns out to give a physical limitation on probabilistic reduction of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen uncertainty. In this regard, we find a condition that probabilistic amplifiers can be regarded as local filtering operations to distill entanglement. This condition establishes a clear benchmark to verify an advantage of non-Gaussian operations beyond Gaussian operations with a feasible input set of coherent states and standard homodyne measurements.

  15. Advances in Chemical Amplification Resist Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    1992-12-01

    The chemical amplification concept proposed in 1982 to boost resist sensitivities is now well accepted by the lithography community, which stems not only from high sensitivities that chemical amplification resist systems can offer but also from additional benefits of high contrasts and unexpectedly high resolution capabilities. The design flexibility and versatility that the use of acid as a catalytic species offers are another attractive feature of chemical amplification, giving rise to a birth of an entire family of advanced resist systems. Manufacture and prototype fabrication of DRAM’s by deep UV lithography have been accomplished with use of chemical amplification resists. However, some process problems uniquely associated with chemical amplification resists have surfaced recently, which include their latent image instability due to their sensitivity toward minute amounts of air-borne contaminants. This paper reviews recent advances made in our laboratory in the field of chemical amplification resist systems and discusses 1) influence of residual casting solvent on absorption of NMP by polymer films, 2) effects of polymer end groups on resist sensitivity, and 3) new imaging mechanisms based on acid-catalyzed dehydration.

  16. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  17. Androgen deprivation therapy-associated vasomotor symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason M; Kohli, Manish; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used as standard therapy in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. While efficacious, ADT is associated with multiple side effects, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, diabetes, loss of muscle tone and altered body composition, osteoporosis, lipid changes, memory loss, gynecomastia and hot flashes. The breadth of literature for the treatment of hot flashes is much smaller in men than that in women. While hormonal therapy of hot flashes has been shown to be effective, multiple non-hormonal medications and treatment methods have also been developed. This article reviews current options for the treatment of hot flashes in patients taking ADT. PMID:22286861

  18. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Sleep Deprivation of Rats: The Hyperphagic Response Is Real

    PubMed Central

    Koban, Michael; Sita, Luciane V.; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep deprivation of rats causes hyperphagia without body weight gain. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia is prompted by changes in pathways governing food intake; hyperphagia may be adaptive to sleep deprivation hypermetabolism. A recent paper suggested that sleep deprivation might inhibit ability of rats to increase food intake and that hyperphagia may be an artifact of uncorrected chow spillage. To resolve this, a palatable liquid diet (Ensure) was used where spillage is insignificant. Design: Sleep deprivation of male Sprague Dawley rats was enforced for 10 days by the flowerpot/platform paradigm. Daily food intake and body weight were measured. On day 10, rats were transcardially perfused for analysis of hypothalamic mRNA expression of the orexigen, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Setting: Morgan State University, sleep deprivation and transcardial perfusion; University of Maryland, NPY in situ hybridization and analysis. Measurements and Results: Using a liquid diet for accurate daily measurements, there was no change in food intake in the first 5 days of sleep deprivation. Importantly, from days 6–10 it increased significantly, peaking at 29% above baseline. Control rats steadily gained weight but sleep-deprived rats did not. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were positively correlated to stimulation of food intake and negatively correlated with changes in body weight. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation hyperphagia may not be apparent over the short term (i.e., ≤5 days), but when extended beyond 6 days, it is readily observed. The timing of changes in body weight and food intake suggests that the negative energy balance induced by sleep deprivation prompts the neural changes that evoke hyperphagia. Citation: Koban M; Sita LV; Le WW; Hoffman GE. Sleep deprivation of rats: the hyperphagic response is real. SLEEP 2008;31(7):927-933. PMID:18652088

  20. Metabolic Complications of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Philip J.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Androgen deprivation therapy has a variety of well recognized adverse effects including vasomotor flushing, loss of libido, fatigue, gynecomastia, anemia and osteoporosis. This review focuses on the more recently described metabolic complications of androgen deprivation therapy including obesity, insulin resistance and lipid alterations as well as the association of androgen deprivation therapy with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical literature using the PubMed® search terms prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, obesity, insulin resistance, lipids, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction. We provide a focused review and our perspective on the relevant literature. Results Androgen deprivation therapy decreases lean mass and increases fat mass. It also decreases insulin sensitivity while increasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Consistent with these adverse metabolic effects, androgen deprivation therapy may be associated with a greater incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some of these androgen deprivation therapy related metabolic changes (obesity, insulin resistance and increased triglycerides) overlap with features of the metabolic syndrome. However, in contrast to the metabolic syndrome, androgen deprivation therapy increases subcutaneous fat and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Androgen deprivation therapy increases obesity, decreases insulin sensitivity and adversely alters lipid profiles. It may be associated with a greater incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The benefits of androgen deprivation therapy should be weighed against these and other potential harms. Little is known about the optimal strategy to mitigate the adverse metabolic effects of androgen deprivation therapy. Thus, we recommend an emphasis on existing strategies

  1. Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

  2. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  3. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25–40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans. PMID:21059762

  4. Ambient magnetic field amplification in shock fronts of relativistic jets: an application to GRB afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha da Silva, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Strong downstream magnetic fields of the order of ˜1 G, with large correlation lengths, are believed to cause the large synchrotron emission at the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Despite the recent theoretical efforts, models have failed to fully explain the amplification of the magnetic field, particularly in a matter-dominated scenario. We revisit the problem by considering the synchrotron emission to occur at the expanding shock front of a weakly magnetized relativistic jet over a magnetized surrounding medium. Analytical estimates and a number of high-resolution 2D relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (RMHD) simulations are provided. Jet opening angles of θ = 0°-20°, and ambient to jet density ratios of 10-4-102 were considered. We found that most of the amplification is due to compression of the ambient magnetic field at the contact discontinuity between the reverse and forward shocks at the jet head, with substantial pile-up of the magnetic field lines as the jet propagates sweeping the ambient field lines. The pile-up is maximum for θ → 0, decreasing with θ, but larger than in the spherical blast problem. Values obtained for certain models are able to explain the observed intensities. The maximum correlation lengths found for such strong fields is of lcorr ≤ 1014 cm, 2-6 orders of magnitude larger than the found in previous works.

  5. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  6. NOX4 regulates autophagy during energy deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a cellular enzyme devoted to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX4 and NOX2 are the main isoforms of NADPH oxidase in the cardiovascular system. In our recent study, we demonstrated that NOX4, but not NOX2, is a critical mediator of the cardiomyocyte adaptive response to energy stress. NOX4 activity and protein levels are increased in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes during the early phase of energy deprivation. NOX4-derived production of ROS in the ER is a critical event that activates autophagy through stimulation of the EIF2AK3/PERK-EIF2S1/eIF-2α-ATF4 pathway. NOX4-dependent autophagy is an important mechanism to preserve cellular energy and limit cell death in energy-deprived cardiomyocytes. Aside from elucidating a crucial physiological function of NOX4 during cellular energy stress, our study dissects a novel signaling mechanism that regulates autophagy under this condition. PMID:24492492

  7. NOX4 regulates autophagy during energy deprivation.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-04-01

    NADPH oxidase is a cellular enzyme devoted to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX4 and NOX2 are the main isoforms of NADPH oxidase in the cardiovascular system. In our recent study, we demonstrated that NOX4, but not NOX2, is a critical mediator of the cardiomyocyte adaptive response to energy stress. NOX4 activity and protein levels are increased in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes during the early phase of energy deprivation. NOX4-derived production of ROS in the ER is a critical event that activates autophagy through stimulation of the EIF2AK3/PERK-EIF2S1/eIF-2α-ATF4 pathway. NOX4-dependent autophagy is an important mechanism to preserve cellular energy and limit cell death in energy-deprived cardiomyocytes. Aside from elucidating a crucial physiological function of NOX4 during cellular energy stress, our study dissects a novel signaling mechanism that regulates autophagy under this condition.

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  9. Superior numerical abilities following early visual deprivation.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, Julie; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2013-05-01

    In numerical cognition vision has been assumed to play a predominant role in the elaboration of the numerical representations and skills. However, this view has been recently challenged by the discovery that people with early visual deprivation not only have a semantic numerical representation that shares the same spatial properties with that in sighted people, but also have better numerical estimation skills. Here, we show that blind people's superior numerical abilities can be found in different numerical contexts, whether they are familiar or more general. In particular, we found that blind participants demonstrated better numerical estimation abilities than sighted participants in both an ecologic footstep and an unfamiliar oral verbal production task. Blind participants also tend to show greater working memory skills compared to sighted participants. These findings support the notion that vision is not necessary in the development of numerical cognition and indicate that early visual deprivation may even lead to a general enhancement in numerical estimation abilities. Moreover, they further suggest that blind people's greater numerical skills might be accounted by enhanced high-level cognitive processes, such as working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neighborhood crime, deprivation, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Savitz, David A; Laraia, Barbara A

    2006-06-01

    Significant racial disparity in preterm birth (PTB; birth at <37 weeks' gestation) exists, poorly explained by Individual-level factors. This research explores whether neighborhood crime contributes to the racial disparity in PTB. Geocoded Wake County, NC, birth records and crime-report data for 1999 to 2001 were merged with US Census data (2000). Race-stratified logistic and multilevel logistic models produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for block-group violent, theft, property, and vice crime rates and singleton PTB. A total of 13,960 women resided in a 114-block-group crime area. Non-Hispanic black women were more likely than non-Hispanic white women to deliver preterm (12.8% versus 6.7%), live in economically deprived block groups (42.2% versus 19.3% in the highest deprivation quartile), and experience more crime (32.0% versus 3.8% in the highest violent-crime-rate quartile). Quartiles of violent, theft, property, and vice crimes were associated with PTB in unadjusted models. Living in very high violent-crime-rate block-group quartiles was suggestive of increased odds of PTB for white and black non-Hispanic women (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.6; and OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1, respectively) in adjusted models. Other crime effects were attenuated after adjustment. Differential neighborhood exposures may contribute to racial disparity in PTB.

  11. Recovery sleep and performance following sleep deprivation with dextroamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J L; Caldwell, J A

    1997-06-01

    Twelve subjects were studied to determine the after-effects of using three 10-mg doses of dextroamphetamine to sustain alertness during sleep deprivation. Sleep architecture during recovery sleep was evaluated by comparing post-deprivation sleep after placebo. Performance and mood recovery were assessed by comparing volunteers who received dextroamphetamine first (during sleep deprivation) to those who received placebo first. Stages 1 and 2 sleep, movement time, REM latency, and sleep latency increased on the night after sleep deprivation with dextroamphetamine vs. placebo. Stage 4 was unaffected. Comparisons to baseline revealed more stage 1 during baseline than during either post-deprivation sleep period and more stage 2 during baseline than during sleep following placebo. Stage 4 sleep was lower during baseline and after dextroamphetamine than after placebo. Sleep onset was slowest on the baseline night. Next-day performance and mood were not different as a function of whether subjects received dextroamphetamine or placebo during deprivation. These data suggest dextroamphetamine alters post-deprivation sleep architecture when used to sustain alertness during acute sleep loss, but next-day performance and subjective mood ratings are not substantially affected. A recovery sleep period of only 8 h appears to be adequate to regain baseline performance levels after short-term sleep deprivation.

  12. Project Teacher Excellence for Economically Deprived and Culturally Differentiated Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Lady of the Lake Coll., San Antonio, TX.

    Project Teacher Excellence for Economically Deprived and Culturally Differentiated Americans provides for the search for Mexican-Americans living in economically deprived areas of the Southwest who have potential ability but who would not go to college without financial aid. Those identified and selected for aid are admitted to Our Lady of the…

  13. Serving Not the Culturally Deprived, but the Culturally Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietjen, Mildred C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the proceedings of a five-day institute held at Georgia Southwestern College, August 6-10, 1973 among whose purposes were, to inspire school librarians to assist the youth within Georgia's culturally deprived areas, and to make available for examination types of media that would attract the interest of the culturally deprived student.…

  14. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    PubMed Central

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Results: Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye. PMID:26425316

  15. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    PubMed

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  16. Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation for Contextual Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Laurel A.; Heller, Elizabeth A.; Pack, Allan I.; Abel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performance, as measured by time to reach the hidden platform is influenced by not only spatial learning but also procedural learning. To determine if sleep is important for the consolidation of a single-trial, hippocampus-dependent task, we sleep deprived animals for 0–5 and 5–10 h after training for contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that sleep deprivation from 0–5 h after training for this task impaired memory consolidation for contextual fear conditioning whereas sleep deprivation from 5–10 h after training had no effect. Sleep deprivation at either time point had no effect on cued fear conditioning, a hippocampus-independent task. Previous studies have determined that memory consolidation for fear conditioning is impaired when protein kinase A and protein synthesis inhibitors are administered at the same time as when sleep deprivation is effective, suggesting that sleep deprivation may act by modifying these molecular mechanisms of memory storage. PMID:12773581

  17. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  18. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative Deprivation and Perception of Financial Adequacy among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jersey; Fairchild, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework that incorporates the notion of relative deprivation to explain the perceived financial adequacy among the elderly. Financial satisfaction is directly related to relative deprivation while income only indirectly affects one's sense of financial well-being. (Author)

  20. Contingent Employment in Academic Careers: Relative Deprivation among Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Turnley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article utilizes relative deprivation theory to examine the careers of non-tenure-track instructors and research associates. Demographic status, motivations for accepting contingent employment, and standards of comparison used to assess the quality of the job were all related to the degree of relative deprivation experienced by adjunct…

  1. Deprivation and Deservingness: Distributive Justice at Home and at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Faye

    An exploration of interpersonal justice suggests some connections among relative deprivation theory, justice theory, and depression research. Distinctions between home life and work life are necessary in thinking about fairness, deservingness, and deprivation. A survey of over 400 adults explored the extent to which men and women feel deprived…

  2. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any...

  3. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  4. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  5. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  6. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  7. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (P<0.05), while tempol treatment prevented such effect. Furthermore, tempol normalized chronic sleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (P<0.05). Tempol also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG in chronically sleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (P<0.05). In conclusion chronic sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with tempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus.

  8. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  9. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked?

    PubMed

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank p<0.0001). Our findings support the International League Against Epilepsy recommendation that seizures occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked.

  10. Play Deprivation: Is It Happening In Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    High-stakes testing combined with the notion that indoor and outdoor spontaneous play are a "waste of time" have contributed to the condition known as "play deprivation". This paper defines the term play deprivation and explores its negative effects on children and adults. Negative effects resulting from play deprivation…

  11. Violent Crime, Sociopathy and Love Deprivation among Adolescent Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…

  12. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  14. Sleep deprivation in pigeons and rats using motion detection.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sarah M; Paletz, Elliott M; Obermeyer, William H; Benca, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the results were compared with each other and with published reports. The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats.

  15. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  16. Violent Crime, Sociopathy and Love Deprivation among Adolescent Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…

  17. Sleep deprivation and the effect on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    VanHelder, T; Radomski, M W

    1989-04-01

    Sleep deprivation or partial sleep loss are common in work conditions as rotating shifts and prolonged work hours, in sustained military operations and in athletes competing in events after crossing several time zones or engaged in ultramarathon or triathlon events. Although it is well established that sleep loss has negative effects on mental performance, its effects on physical performance are equivocal. This review examines the latter question in light of recent studies published on this problem. Sleep deprivation of 30 to 72 hours does not affect cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise of varying intensity, or the aerobic and anaerobic performance capability of individuals. Muscle strength and electromechanical responses are also not affected. Time to exhaustion, however, is decreased by sleep deprivation. Although ratings of perceived exertion always increased during exercise in sleep-deprived (30 to 60 hours) subjects compared with normal sleep, this is not a reliable assessment of a subject's ability to perform physical work as the ratings of perceived exertion are dissociated from any cardiovascular changes in sleep deprivation. Examination of the various hormonal and metabolic parameters which have been measured in the studies reviewed reveals that the major metabolic perturbations accompanying sleep deprivation in humans are an increase in insulin resistance and a decrease in glucose tolerance. This may explain the reduction in observed time to exhaustion in sleep-deprived subjects. The role of growth hormone in mediating altered carbohydrate metabolism may be of particular relevance as to how sleep deprivation alters the supply of energy substrate to the muscle.

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Dissociated Components of Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Whitney, Paul; Belenky, Gregory; Hinson, John M.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Design: Subjects were randomized to a total sleep deprivation condition or a control condition. Performance on the executive functions task battery was assessed at baseline, after 51 h of total sleep deprivation (or no sleep deprivation in the control group), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep, at fixed time of day (11:00). Performance was also measured repeatedly throughout the experiment on a control task battery, for which the effects of total sleep deprivation had been documented in previously published studies. Setting: Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Participants: Twenty-three healthy adults (age range 22–38 y; 11 women). Twelve subjects were randomized to the sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Results: Performance on the control task battery was considerably degraded during sleep deprivation. Overall performance on the modified Sternberg task also showed impairment during sleep deprivation, as compared to baseline and recovery and compared to controls. However, two dissociated components of executive functioning on this task—working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference—were maintained at levels equivalent to baseline. On the probed recall task, resistance to proactive interference was also preserved. Executive aspects of performance on the phonemic verbal fluency task showed improvement during sleep deprivation, as did overall performance on this task. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation affected distinct components of cognitive processing differentially. Dissociated non

  19. Emotional expressiveness in sleep-deprived healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Minkel, Jared; Htaik, Oo; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sleep deprivation on emotional expression and subjective emotional experience in a highly controlled, laboratory setting. Twenty-three healthy adult participants watched positive (amusing) and negative (sad) film clips before and after they were randomly assigned to a night of sleep deprivation or a normal sleep control condition. The intensity of their facial expressiveness while viewing the films was coded by human judges and compared to their subjective emotional responses. Relative to the control group, sleep-deprived participants demonstrated less expressiveness, especially in response to positive stimuli. Subjective responses were not significantly different between the sleep-deprived and control groups. These preliminary results suggest that sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated emotional expressiveness in healthy adults.

  20. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  1. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    PubMed

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  2. Orthopaedic service lines-revisited.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article revisits the application of orthopaedic service lines from early introduction and growth of this organizational approach in the 1980s, through the 1990s, and into the current decade. The author has experienced and worked in various service-line structures through these three decades, as well as the preservice-line era of 1970s orthopaedics. Past lessons learned during earlier phases and then current trends and analysis by industry experts are summarized briefly, with indication given of the future for service lines. Variation versus consistency of certain elements in service-line definitions and in operational models is discussed. Main components of service-line structures and typical processes are described briefly, along with a more detailed section on the service-line director/manager role. Current knowledge contained here will help guide the reader to more "out-of-the-box" thinking toward comprehensive orthopaedic centers of excellence.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury: Controversies Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kenneth; Dogra, Gursharan; Boudville, Neil; Pinder, Mary; Lim, Wai

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the epidemiology of AKI specifically in relation to recent changes in AKI classification and revisits the controversies regarding the timing of initiation of dialysis and the use of peritoneal dialysis as a renal replacement therapy for AKI. In summary, the new RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI have facilitated more uniform diagnosis of AKI and clinically significant risk stratification. Regardless, the issue of timing of dialysis initiation still remains unanswered and warrants further examination. Furthermore, peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality for AKI remains underutilised in spite of potential beneficial effects. Future research should be directed at identifying early reliable biomarkers of AKI, which in conjunction with RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI could facilitate well-designed large randomised controlled trials of early versus late initiation of dialysis in AKI. In addition, further studies of peritoneal dialysis in AKI addressing dialysis dose and associated complications are required for this therapy to be accepted more widely by clinicians. PMID:21660314

  4. Neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism: a nationwide study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism, after accounting for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. An open cohort of all children aged 2-11 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighborhood deprivation (an index of low education, low income, unemployment, and receipt of welfare assistance). Data were analyzed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighborhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 643,456 children, 1699 (0.3%) were diagnosed with childhood autism. Age-standardized cumulative incidence, defined as first registration for childhood autism during the study period, increased with increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. In the study population, 2.2 per 1000 and 3.6 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighborhoods, respectively, were diagnosed with childhood autism. Incidence of childhood autism increased with increasing neighborhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level sociodemographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for childhood autism for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods was 1.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.88). High neighborhood deprivation remained significantly associated with odds of childhood autism after adjustment for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.53, P = 0.007). This study is the largest so far on potential neighborhood influences on childhood autism. Our results show that neighborhood deprivation is associated with childhood autism, independently of family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  6. Choline deprivation induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed low methionine diets.

    PubMed

    Setoue, Minoru; Ohuchi, Seiya; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2008-12-01

    To clarify the relationship between dietary choline level and plasma homocysteine concentration, the effects of choline deprivation on plasma homocysteine concentration and related variables were investigated in rats fed a standard (25%) casein (25C) diet or standard soybean protein (25S) diet. Using the 25S diet, the time-dependent effect of choline deprivation and the comparative effects of three kinds of lipotropes were also investigated. Feeding rats with the choline-deprived 25S diet for 10 d significantly increased plasma total homocysteine concentration to a level 2.68-times higher than that of the control group, whereas choline deprivation had no effect in rats fed the 25C diet. Increases in hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine concentrations, decreases in hepatic betaine concentration and the activity of cystathionine beta-synthase, but not betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, and fatty liver also occurred in rats fed the choline-deprived 25S diet. Plasma homocysteine concentration increased when rats were fed the choline-deprived 25S diet for only 3 d, and the increase persisted up to 20 d. The hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deprivation was effectively suppressed by betaine or methionine supplementation. Choline deprivation caused hyperhomocysteinemia also in rats fed a choline-deprived low (10%) casein diet. The results indicate that choline deprivation can easily induce prominent hyperhomocysteinemia when rats are fed relatively low methionine diets such as a standard soybean protein diet and low casein diet, possibly through the suppression of homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation. This hyperhomocysteinemia might be a useful model for investigating the role of betaine in the regulation of plasma homocysteine concentration.

  7. Sleep deprivation of rats: the hyperphagic response is real.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Sita, Luciane V; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E

    2008-07-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation of rats causes hyperphagia without body weight gain. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia is prompted by changes in pathways governing food intake; hyperphagia may be adaptive to sleep deprivation hypermetabolism. A recent paper suggested that sleep deprivation might inhibit ability of rats to increase food intake and that hyperphagia may be an artifact of uncorrected chow spillage. To resolve this, a palatable liquid diet (Ensure) was used where spillage is insignificant. Sleep deprivation of male Sprague Dawley rats was enforced for 10 days by the flowerpot/platform paradigm. Daily food intake and body weight were measured. On day 10, rats were transcardially perfused for analysis of hypothalamic mRNA expression of the orexigen, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Morgan State University, sleep deprivation and transcardial perfusion; University of Maryland, NPY in situ hybridization and analysis. Using a liquid diet for accurate daily measurements, there was no change in food intake in the first 5 days of sleep deprivation. Importantly, from days 6-10 it increased significantly, peaking at 29% above baseline. Control rats steadily gained weight but sleep-deprived rats did not. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were positively correlated to stimulation of food intake and negatively correlated with changes in body weight. Sleep deprivation hyperphagia may not be apparent over the short term (i.e., < or = 5 days), but when extended beyond 6 days, it is readily observed. The timing of changes in body weight and food intake suggests that the negative energy balance induced by sleep deprivation prompts the neural changes that evoke hyperphagia.

  8. Nicotine and Food Deprivation Decrease the Ability to Resist Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; White, Marney A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Attempts to simultaneously control food intake and smoking may lead to smoking cessation failure. We sought to model this relationship using a human laboratory paradigm of smoking lapse behavior. Objectives We examined the combined effect of food and nicotine deprivation, compared to nicotine deprivation alone, on the ability to resist smoking and on subsequent ad libitum smoking. Methods In a between-subjects design, daily smokers (N = 30) were all deprived of nicotine for 18 hours and were either food deprived (12 hrs) or not during a laboratory session. Following exposure to individualized food cues, participants had the option of initiating tobacco self-administration or delaying up to 50 minutes in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Subsequently, the tobacco self-administration period consisted of one-hour in which participants could choose to smoke or receive monetary reinforcement for cigarettes not smoked. Results Smokers who had been deprived of food and nicotine smoked their first cigarette sooner and were more likely to smoke at some point during the laboratory session, compared to those who were only nicotine deprived. Those who were food and nicotine deprived smoked slightly more cigarettes than those who were nicotine deprived only, although this difference was not statistically significant. There were no sex differences in outcomes. Hunger and food craving ratings while trying to resist smoking were greater in the food + nicotine deprived group. Tobacco craving was predictive of outcome in both conditions. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that food deprivation can undermine a smoker’s ability to resist smoking. PMID:20585761

  9. The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Methods Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and ‘not good health’. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being ‘Mature Oaks’ and the least being ‘Urban Challenge’. Results Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of ‘not good health’ (β=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (β=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself (‘not good health’—ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI—ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for ‘not good health’, P2 segments ‘Mature Oaks’—β=0.638; ‘Rooted Households’—β=0.555). Conclusions Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A

  10. The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Cook, Penny A; Lisboa, Paulo J; Jarman, Ian H; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-01-29

    Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and 'not good health'. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being 'Mature Oaks' and the least being 'Urban Challenge'. Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of 'not good health' (β=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (β=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself ('not good health'-ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI-ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for 'not good health', P2 segments 'Mature Oaks'-β=0.638; 'Rooted Households'-β=0.555). Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that negative social comparisons

  11. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures to target socioeconomically deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica; Mitchell, Richard; Pell, Jill

    2013-05-01

    Area deprivation measures provide a pragmatic tool for targeting public health interventions at socioeconomically deprived individuals. Ethnic minority groups in the UK experience higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation and certain associated diseases than the White population. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures as a tool for targeting socioeconomically deprived individuals. We carried out a cross-sectional study using the Health Survey for England 2004. 7208 participants aged 16-64 years from the four largest ethnic groups in England (White, Indian, Pakistani and Black Caribbean) were included. The main outcome measures were percentage agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of area deprivation, measured using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004, in relation to individual socioeconomic position (measured by education, occupation, income, housing tenure and car access). We found that levels of both area and individual deprivation were higher in the Pakistani and Black Caribbean groups compared to the White group. Across all measures, agreement was lower in the Pakistani (50.9-63.4%) and Black Caribbean (61.0-70.1%) groups than the White (67.2-82.4%) group. However, sensitivity was higher in the Pakistani (0.56-0.64) and Black Caribbean (0.59-0.66) groups compared to the White group (0.24-0.38) and PPV was at least as high. The results for the Indian group were intermediate. We conclude that, in spite of lower agreement, area deprivation is better at identifying individual deprivation in ethnic minority groups. There was no evidence that area based targeting of public health interventions will disadvantage ethnic minority groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-04-01

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

  14. Amplification, redundancy, and quantum Chernoff information.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2014-04-11

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

  15. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  16. Sexual deprivation increases ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shohat-Ophir, G; Kaun, K R; Azanchi, R; Mohammed, H; Heberlein, U

    2012-03-16

    The brain's reward systems reinforce behaviors required for species survival, including sex, food consumption, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse co-opt these neural pathways, which can lead to addiction. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the relationship between natural and drug rewards. In males, mating increased, whereas sexual deprivation reduced, neuropeptide F (NPF) levels. Activation or inhibition of the NPF system in turn reduced or enhanced ethanol preference. These results thus link sexual experience, NPF system activity, and ethanol consumption. Artificial activation of NPF neurons was in itself rewarding and precluded the ability of ethanol to act as a reward. We propose that activity of the NPF-NPF receptor axis represents the state of the fly reward system and modifies behavior accordingly.

  17. Interventions for Stimulus Deprivation Amblyopia [Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Powell, Christine; Vedula, Satyanarayana S

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the clear passage of light, preventing clear formation of an image on the retina for example, cataract, ptosis (droopy eyelid). It is particularly severe and can be resistant to treatment and the visual prognosis is often poor. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia is rare and precise estimates of prevalence difficult to come by; it probably constitutes less than 3% of all cases of amblyopia. In developed countries most patients present under the age of one; in less developed parts of the world presentation is likely to be significantly later than this. The mainstay of treatment is patching of the better-seeing eye but regimes vary, treatment is difficult to execute and results are often disappointing. Objectives The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion treatment for SDA, determine the optimum treatment regime and factors that may affect outcome. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials - CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) on The Cochrane Library (2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1996 to April 2006), EMBASE (1980 to April 2006) and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) (to November 2004). There were no date or language restrictions. Selection criteria We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of subjects with unilateral SDA defined as worse than 0.2 LogMAR or equivalent. There were no restrictions with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, co-morbidities, medication use, and the number of participants. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed study abstracts identified by the electronic searches. Main results No trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions It is not possible to conclude how effective treatment for SDA is or which treatment regime produces the best results

  18. Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, R.; Leonetti, M.; Froufe-Perez, L. S.; Galisteo-Lopez, J. F.; Lopez, C.; Conti, C.

    2011-02-15

    Improving and controlling the efficiency of a gain medium is one of the most challenging problems of laser research. By measuring the gain length in an opal-based photonic crystal doped with laser dye, we demonstrate that optical amplification is more than twenty-fold enhanced along the {Gamma}-K symmetry directions of the face-centered-cubic photonic crystal. These results are theoretically explained by directional variations of the density of states, providing a quantitative connection between density of the states and light amplification.

  19. Perceived deprivation in active duty military nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Julie A; Fallacaro, Michael D; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2009-02-01

    There is a shortage of military Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). Relative deprivation is a perception of unfairness due to discrepancies between what one has and what one could or should have that is dependent on feelings (subjective data) and facts (objective data). Feelings of relative deprivation could contribute to the military CRNA shortage. The purposes of this study were to measure relative deprivation in active-duty military CRNAs and explore variables that correlate with relative deprivation. The descriptive, correlational study was conducted using a self-administered survey sent to 435 active-duty Army, Navy, and Air Force CRNAs. Surveys were distributed to subjects by mail and could be answered by mail or by secured website. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of the data revealed a calculated response rate of 57.7%. There was no significant correlation (P < .05) between years as a CRNA, military pay, promotion opportunity, or scope of practice/autonomy and relative deprivation. Correlations of the psychological factors "wanting" and "deserving" with relative deprivation were significant (P < .001). Further research is indicated to identify definitive factors that can be modified to improve feelings of deprivation as they relate to retention and recruitment of military CRNAs.

  20. Can inattention/overactivity be an institutional deprivation syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kreppner, J M; O'Connor, T G; Rutter, M

    2001-12-01

    Elevated rates of attention deficit and overactivity have been noted previously in samples of institution-reared children. This study examined the hypothesis that inattention/overactivity(I/O) might constitute a specific deprivation syndrome. One hundred and sixty five children adopted at varying ages (e.g., 0-42 months of age) into the UK following severe early deprivation were compared with 52 within-UK adoptees who did not suffer deprivation. The children were rated by teachers and parents on levels of I/O, conduct difficulties, and emotional difficulties using the Revised Rutter Scales. Data were collected at age 6 for the entire sample and at age 4 for the UK adoptees and for the subsample of Romanian children who entered the UK before the age of 2 years. Mean level analyses suggested a significant effect of duration of deprivation on I/O, but not on conduct or emotional difficulties. The effects of duration of deprivation were specific to I/O and were not accounted for by low birth weight, malnutrition, or cognitive impairment. Levels of I/O correlated with attachment disturbances. Furthermore, the effects of duration of deprivation on I/O did not attenuate over time. We conclude that I/O may well constitute an institutional deprivation syndrome, but that the type of attention deficit and overactivity exhibited by these children may present a different clinical picture from that of "ordinary" varieties of attention deficit disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome.

  1. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  2. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Kramer, Michiel; Post, Ger; Eggels, Leslie; Wuite, Mark; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-04-21

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing.

  3. A dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA methyltransferase activity based on strand displacement amplification and DNAzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wanling; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-03-15

    DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in many biological processes and has been regarded as a predictive cancer biomarker and a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential for early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Here, we developed a dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity based on strand displacement amplification (SDA) and DNAzyme amplification. A trifunctional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe was designed including a methylation site for DNA MTase recognition, a complementary sequence of 8-17 DNAzyme for synthesizing DNAzyme, and a nicking site for nicking enzyme cleavage. Firstly, the trifunctional dsDNA probe was methylated by DNA MTase to form the methylated dsDNA. Subsequently, HpaII restriction endonuclease specifically cleaved the residue of unmethylated dsDNA. Next, under the action of polymerase and nicking enzyme, the methylared dsDNA initiated SDA, releasing numbers of 8-17 DNAzymes. Finally, the released 8-17 DNAzymes triggered DNAzyme amplification reaction to induce a significant fluorescence enhancement. This strategy could detect DNA MTase activity as low as 0.0082U/mL. Additionally, the strategy was successfully applied for evaluating the inhibitions of DNA MTase using two anticancer drugs, 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The results indicate the proposed strategy has a potential application in early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  4. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  5. Sleep Deprivation in Pigeons and Rats Using Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sarah M.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Obermeyer, William H.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. Design and Intervention: A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the were compared with each other and with published reports. Measurements and Results: The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Conclusion: Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats. Citation: Newman SM; Paletz EM; Obermeyer WH; Benca RM. Sleep Deprivation In Pigeons And Rats Using Motion Detection. SLEEP 2009;32(10):1299-1312. PMID:19848359

  6. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Milcíades

    2014-03-29

    To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p=0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p=0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts.

  7. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs.

    PubMed

    Gross, Brooks A; Vanderheyden, William M; Urpa, Lea M; Davis, Devon E; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R

    2015-08-15

    Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4h during the 12-h light cycle on baseline, 8h of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8h of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (∼90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-h period. Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

  9. [The correction of arterial hypertension by oxygen deprivation].

    PubMed

    Berezovs'kyï, V Ia; Levashov, M I

    2000-01-01

    Curative effect of oxygen deprivation has been examined in 147 patients with initial studies of hypertonic disease. It was used the intermittent model of the oxygen deprivation. The oxygen partial pressure in the breathing gaseous mixtures was 90-110 mm Hg. The positive effect was achieved in 79% of patients. Arterial pressure decreasing at the expense of different hemodynamic mechanisms depending on the type of blood circulation. It is proposing to use the oxygen deprivation as the correction method for the initial studies of the arterial hypertension.

  10. Impact of deprivation on occurrence, outcomes and health care costs of people with multiple morbidity.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Judith; Rudisill, Caroline; Bhattarai, Nawaraj; Gulliford, Martin

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of deprivation on the occurrence, health outcomes and health care costs of people with multiple morbidity in England. Cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using deprivation quintile (IMD2010) at individual postcode level. Incidence and mortality from diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke and colorectal cancer, and prevalence of depression, were used to define multidisease states. Costs of health care use were estimated for each state from a two-part model. Data were analysed for 141,535 men and 141,352 women aged ≥30 years, with 33,862 disease incidence events, and 13,933 deaths. Among incidences of single conditions, 22% were in the most deprived quintile and 19% in the least deprived; dual conditions, most deprived 26%, least deprived 16% and triple conditions, most deprived 29%, least deprived 14%. Deaths in participants without disease were distributed most deprived 22%, least deprived 19%; in participants with single conditions, most deprived 24%, least deprived 18%; dual conditions, most deprived 27%, least deprived 15%, and triple conditions, most deprived 33%, least deprived 17%. The relative rate of depression in most deprived participants with triple conditions, compared with least deprived and no disease, was 2.48 (1.74 to 3.54). Costs of health care use were associated with increasing deprivation and level of morbidity. The higher incidence of disease, associated with deprivation, channels deprived populations into categories of multiple morbidity with a greater prevalence of depression, higher mortality and higher costs. This has implications for the way that resources are allocated in England's National Health Service.

  11. Sleep Deprived and Sweating It Out: The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Skin Conductance Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jean C.J.; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A.A.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Design: Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Interventions: Sleep deprivation and feedback. Measurements and Results: Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. Citation: Liu JC, Verhulst S, Massar SA, Chee MW. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress. SLEEP 2015;38(1):155–159. PMID:25325448

  12. Detection of Cochlear Amplification and Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    The operation of the mammalian cochlea relies on a mechanical traveling wave that is actively boosted by electromechanical forces in sensory outer hair cells (OHCs). This active cochlear amplifier produces the impressive sensitivity and frequency resolution of mammalian hearing. The cochlear amplifier has inspired scientists since its discovery in the 1970s, and is still not well understood. To explore cochlear electromechanics at the sensory cell/tissue interface, sound-evoked intracochlear pressure and extracellular voltage were measured using a recently developed dual-sensor with a microelectrode attached to a micro-pressure sensor. The resulting coincident in vivo observations of OHC electrical activity, pressure at the basilar membrane and basilar membrane displacement gave direct evidence for power amplification in the cochlea. Moreover, the results showed a phase shift of voltage relative to mechanical responses at frequencies slightly below the peak, near the onset of amplification. Based on the voltage-force relationship of isolated OHCs, the shift would give rise to effective OHC pumping forces within the traveling wave peak. Thus, the shift activates the cochlear amplifier, serving to localize and thus sharpen the frequency region of amplification. These results are the most concrete evidence for cochlear power amplification to date and support OHC somatic forces as its source. PMID:23972858

  13. Topographic amplification across a taiwanese ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rault, Claire; Meunier, Patrick; Burtin, Arnaud; Marc, Odin; Weian Chao, Vvn; Wu, Yih-Min; Hovius, Niels

    2016-04-01

    A line of 6 broadband seismometers have been deployed across a ridge in the Hualien County (Eastern Taiwan) in order to study topographic amplification. Since March 2015, the network has been continuously recording waves incoming from the Taiwanese regional seismicity. The hill is well approximated by a triangular topography of 3600m in length by 900m in height. We present a preliminary analysis performed over a dozen of earthquakes selected from the Seismic Taiwanese catalog (CWBSN). We show that most of the Uphill records exhibit a systematic amplification of seismic waves (peak to peak of particle velocity) in the relevant frequency band [0.5-2Hz]. By contrast, energy within the larger frequency band [6-20Hz] reflects local site effects induced by the soil layer. We report amplification ratios ranging from ranging from 1.2 to 3 and from 1.8 to 4 for P and S waves respectively. We show that amplification processes at the top strongly depend on the parameter α defined as the angle between the azimuth of incoming wave and the azimuth of the ridge divide.

  14. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  15. Novel DNA Polymer for Amplification Pretargeting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, different from conventional pretargeting, an additional novel DNA polymer with multiple copies of a target was first designed to be administrated between the antitumor antibody, and the labeled effector served as an amplification pretargeting strategy. Two phosphorothioate DNA strands, a bridging and a target strand, were hybridized to form a polymer. Polymer size, as a function of molar ratios, was then monitored by size exclusion HPLC and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, binding efficiency of polymers with the radiolabeled effector and polymer size after hybridization were measured by HPLC as well. As the polymer was expected to produce more binding sites that would be targeted by effectors, amplification pretargeting can greatly improve accumulation of effectors in tumor. This novel proof-of-concept was then well demonstrated by the in vitro test of signal amplification in antibody-binding protein L coated plate and LS174T cells. Compared to conventional pretargeting, significantly increasing radioactive signal was observed in this designed amplification pretargeting, which would serve as a useful paradigm of the potential of oligomer polymers to improve pretargeting and other related approaches. PMID:26396682

  16. Detection of cochlear amplification and its activation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-20

    The operation of the mammalian cochlea relies on a mechanical traveling wave that is actively boosted by electromechanical forces in sensory outer hair cells (OHCs). This active cochlear amplifier produces the impressive sensitivity and frequency resolution of mammalian hearing. The cochlear amplifier has inspired scientists since its discovery in the 1970s, and is still not well understood. To explore cochlear electromechanics at the sensory cell/tissue interface, sound-evoked intracochlear pressure and extracellular voltage were measured using a recently developed dual-sensor with a microelectrode attached to a micro-pressure sensor. The resulting coincident in vivo observations of OHC electrical activity, pressure at the basilar membrane and basilar membrane displacement gave direct evidence for power amplification in the cochlea. Moreover, the results showed a phase shift of voltage relative to mechanical responses at frequencies slightly below the peak, near the onset of amplification. Based on the voltage-force relationship of isolated OHCs, the shift would give rise to effective OHC pumping forces within the traveling wave peak. Thus, the shift activates the cochlear amplifier, serving to localize and thus sharpen the frequency region of amplification. These results are the most concrete evidence for cochlear power amplification to date and support OHC somatic forces as its source.

  17. Nondeterministic Noiseless Linear Amplification of Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, T. C.; Lund, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    We introduce the concept of non-deterministic noiseless linear amplification. We propose a linear optical realization of this transformation that could be built with current technology. We discuss the application of the device to distillation of continuous variable entanglement. We demonstrate that highly pure entanglement can be distilled from transmission over a lossy channel.

  18. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  19. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-19

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  20. Site amplifications for generic rock sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Seismic shear-wave velocity as a function of depth for generic rock sites has been estimated from borehole data and studies of crustal velocities, and these velocities have been used to compute frequency-dependent amplifications for zero attenuation for use in simulations of strong ground motion. We define a generic rock site as one whose velocity at shallow depths equals the average of those from the rock sites sampled by the borehole data. Most of the boreholes are in populated areas; for that reason, the rock sites sampled are of particular engineering significance. We consider two generic rock sites: rock, corresponding to the bulk of the borehole data, and very hard rock, such as is found in glaciated regions in large areas of eastern North America or in portions of western North America. The amplifications on rock sites can be in excess of 3.5 at high frequencies, in contrast to the amplifications of less than 1.2 on very hard rock sites. The consideration of unattenuated amplification alone is computationally convenient, but what matters for ground-motion estimation is the combined effect of amplification and attenuation. For reasonable values of the attenuation parameter K0, the combined effect of attenuation and amplification for rock sites peaks between about 2 and 5 Hz with a maximum level of less than 1.8. The combined effect is about a factor of 1.5 at 1 Hz and is less than unity for frequencies in the range of 10 to 20 Hz (depending on K0). Using these amplifications, we find provisional values of about ???? = 70 bars and K0 = 0.035 sec for rock sites in western North America by fitting our empirically determined response spectra for an M 6.5 event to simulated values. The borehole data yield shear velocities (V??30) of 618 and 306 m/sec for "rock" and "soil" sites, respectively, when averaged over the upper 30 m. From this, we recommend that V??30 equals 620 and 310 m/sec for applications requiring the average velocity for rock and soil sites in

  1. The psychotomimetic effects of short-term sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Oliver J; Brady, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    People experiencing sensory deprivation often report perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, especially over extended periods of time. However, there is little evidence concerning short-term sensory deprivation and whether its effects differ depending on the individual concerned, and in particular their proneness to psychosis. This study explored whether perceptual disturbances could be elicited by a brief period of complete isolation from sound and vision in both highly hallucination prone and nonhallucination prone groups. Greater psychotomimetic experiences taking the form of perceptual disturbances, paranoia, and anhedonia were found across both groups when under sensory deprivation. In addition, hallucination-prone individuals experienced more perceptual disturbances when placed in short-term sensory deprivation than nonprone individuals. This result is discussed in terms of difficulties in source monitoring as a possible mechanism involved in proneness to hallucinations.

  2. Toward a Self Deprivation Model of Human Relating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatten, Roger G.

    1971-01-01

    Man needs a variety of sensory experiences for normal functioning. The theory explored attempts to demonstrate that conditions exist in which the symptoms of sensory deprivation may occur during times when sensory stimuli are optimal. (Author)

  3. Sensory Development: Brief Visual Deprivation Alters Audiovisual Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lomber, Stephen G; Butler, Blake E

    2016-11-21

    Two recent studies have independently demonstrated that short periods of visual deprivation early in human development can have long-term functional consequences on sensory perception and on the balance between auditory and visual attention.

  4. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from ... be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a night may be ...

  5. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  6. Neural Sensitivity to Odorants in Deprived and Normal Olfactory Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Francisco B.; Huerta, Ramón; Aylwin, Maria de la Luz

    2013-01-01

    Early olfactory deprivation in rodents is accompanied by an homeostatic regulation of the synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb (OB). However, its consequences in the neural sensitivity and discrimination have not been elucidated. We compared the odorant sensitivity and discrimination in early sensory deprived and normal OBs in anesthetized rats. We show that the deprived OB exhibits an increased sensitivity to different odorants when compared to the normal OB. Our results indicate that early olfactory stimulation enhances discriminability of the olfactory stimuli. We found that deprived olfactory bulbs adjusts the overall excitatory and inhibitory mitral cells (MCs) responses to odorants but the receptive fields become wider than in the normal olfactory bulbs. Taken together, these results suggest that an early natural sensory stimulation sharpens the receptor fields resulting in a larger discrimination capability. These results are consistent with previous evidence that a varied experience with odorants modulates the OB's synaptic connections and increases MCs selectivity. PMID:23580211

  7. The foundations of development and deprivation in the visual system

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Nigel W

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering work of Torsten Wiesel and David Hubel on the development and deprivation of the visual system will be summarised, together with some comments on their influence, and some personal reminiscences by the author. PMID:19221122

  8. Effects of Environmental Deprivation on Basic Psychological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Cynthia P.

    1969-01-01

    Part 4 of a series on Art Education for the Disadvantaged Child. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, February 1965), and also appears in "Studies in Deprivation, July 1968.

  9. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  10. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  11. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    PARK, YOUNG-SOOK; CHUNG, SOOK-HEE; LEE, SEONG-KYU; KIM, JA-HYUN; KIM, JUN-BONG; KIM, TAE-KYUN; KIM, DONG-SHIN; BAIK, HAING-WOON

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n=24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  12. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Sook; Chung, Sook-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Bong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Shin; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n = 24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  13. Pharmacy school survey standards revisited.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Károly; Barnett, Mitchell J; Lenth, Russell V; Knapp, Katherine K

    2013-02-12

    In a series of 3 papers on survey practices published from 2008 to 2009, the editors of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education presented guidelines for reporting survey research, and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal's Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools. In addition, observations are offered about surveying of small "universes" like that comprised of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. The reason for revisiting this issue is the authors' concern that, despite the best of intentions, overly constraining publication standards might discourage research on US colleges and schools of pharmacy at a time when the interest in the growth of colleges and schools, curricular content, clinical education, competence at graduation, and other areas is historically high. In the best traditions of academia, the authors share these observations with the community of pharmacy educators in the hope that the publication standards for survey research about US pharmacy schools will encourage investigators to collect and disseminate valuable information.

  14. Revisiting Bohr's semiclassical quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2006-10-12

    Bohr's atomic theory is widely viewed as remarkable, both for its accuracy in predicting the observed optical transitions of one-electron atoms and for its failure to fully correspond with current electronic structure theory. What is not generally appreciated is that Bohr's original semiclassical conception differed significantly from the Bohr-Sommerfeld theory and offers an alternative semiclassical approximation scheme with remarkable attributes. More specifically, Bohr's original method did not impose action quantization constraints but rather obtained these as predictions by simply matching photon and classical orbital frequencies. In other words, the hydrogen atom was treated entirely classically and orbital quantized emerged directly from the Planck-Einstein photon quantization condition, E = h nu. Here, we revisit this early history of quantum theory and demonstrate the application of Bohr's original strategy to the three quintessential quantum systems: an electron in a box, an electron in a ring, and a dipolar harmonic oscillator. The usual energy-level spectra, and optical selection rules, emerge by solving an algebraic (quadratic) equation, rather than a Bohr-Sommerfeld integral (or Schroedinger) equation. However, the new predictions include a frozen (zero-kinetic-energy) state which in some (but not all) cases lies below the usual zero-point energy. In addition to raising provocative questions concerning the origin of quantum-chemical phenomena, the results may prove to be of pedagogical value in introducing students to quantum mechanics.

  15. Pharmacy School Survey Standards Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Mitchell J.; Lenth, Russell V.; Knapp, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of 3 papers on survey practices published from 2008 to 2009, the editors of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education presented guidelines for reporting survey research, and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal’s Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools. In addition, observations are offered about surveying of small "universes" like that comprised of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. The reason for revisiting this issue is the authors’ concern that, despite the best of intentions, overly constraining publication standards might discourage research on US colleges and schools of pharmacy at a time when the interest in the growth of colleges and schools, curricular content, clinical education, competence at graduation, and other areas is historically high. In the best traditions of academia, the authors share these observations with the community of pharmacy educators in the hope that the publication standards for survey research about US pharmacy schools will encourage investigators to collect and disseminate valuable information. PMID:23459404

  16. Revisiting intracellular calcium signaling semantics.

    PubMed

    Haiech, Jacques; Audran, Emilie; Fève, Marie; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Cells use intracellular free calcium concentration changes for signaling. Signal encoding occurs through both spatial and temporal modulation of the free calcium concentration. The encoded message is detected by an ensemble of intracellular sensors forming the family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) which must faithfully translate the message using a new syntax that is recognized by the cell. The cell is home to a significant although limited number of genes coding for proteins involved in the signal encoding and decoding processes. In a cell, only a subset of this ensemble of genes is expressed, leading to a genetic regulation of the calcium signal pathways. Calmodulin (CaM), the most ubiquitous expressed intracellular calcium-binding protein, plays a major role in calcium signal translation. Similar to a hub, it is central to a large and finely tuned network, receiving information, integrating it and dispatching the cognate response. In this review, we examine the different steps starting with an external stimulus up to a cellular response, with special emphasis on CaM and the mechanism by which it decodes calcium signals and translates it into exquisitely coordinated cellular events. By this means, we will revisit the calcium signaling semantics, hoping that we will ease communication between scientists dealing with calcium signals in different biological systems and different domains.

  17. Revisiting the safety of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2017-09-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends. Data on the safe aspartame dosage are controversial, and the literature suggests there are potential side effects associated with aspartame consumption. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise, the safety of this sweetener should be revisited. Most of the literature available on the safety of aspartame is included in this review. Safety studies are based primarily on animal models, as data from human studies are limited. The existing animal studies and the limited human studies suggest that aspartame and its metabolites, whether consumed in quantities significantly higher than the recommended safe dosage or within recommended safe levels, may disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance, induce oxidative stress, and damage cell membrane integrity, potentially affecting a variety of cells and tissues and causing a deregulation of cellular function, ultimately leading to systemic inflammation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gravity current jump conditions, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius; Hogg, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Consider the flow of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current of density ρc in an ambient fluid of density ρa in a horizontal channel z ∈ [ 0 , H ] , with gravity in - z direction. The motion is often modeled by a two-layer formulation which displays jumps (shocks) in the height of the interface, in particular at the leading front of the dense layer. Various theoretical models have been advanced to predict the dimensionless speed of the jump, Fr = U /√{g' h } ; g' , h are reduced gravity and jump height. We revisit this problem and using the Navier-Stokes equations, integrated over a control volume embedding the jump, derive balances of mass and momentum fluxes. We focus on understanding the closures needed to complete this model and we show the vital need to understand the pressure head losses over the jump, which we show can be related to the vorticity fluxes at the boundaries of the control volume. Our formulation leads to two governing equations for three dimensionless quantities. Closure requires one further assumption, depending on which we demonstrate that previous models for gravity current fronts and internal bores can be recovered. This analysis yield new insights into existing results, and also provides constraints for potential new formulae.

  19. Vascular Compliance Limits during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Derrick J.; Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Design: Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Setting: Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Patients or Participants: Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma. Citation: Phillips DJ; Schei JL; Rector DM. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1459-1470. PMID:24082305

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Design: Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Settings: Laboratory. Participants: Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). Interventions: 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. Citation: Esposito MJ, Occhionero M, Cicogna P. Sleep deprivation and time-based prospective memory. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1823–1826. PMID:26085303

  1. Sleep deprivation and obesity in shift workers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2014-11-01

    The objective of our study was to explore the association between sleep deprivation and obesity among shift workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Time of sleep was categorized as: >5 h of continuous sleep/d; ≤5 h of continuous sleep/d with some additional rest (sleep deprivation level I); and ≤5 h of continuous sleep/d without any additional rest (sleep deprivation level II). Sociodemographic, parental and behavioural variables were evaluated by means of a standardized pre-tested questionnaire. Potential confounding factors were controlled for in the multivariable model. A poultry-processing plant in southern Brazil. Nine hundred and five shift workers (63 % female). Obesity was more prevalent in the participants who were female, aged 40 years and older, who had less schooling and reported excess weight in both parents. Sleep deprivation levels I and II were associated with increased income, number of meals consumed throughout the day and nightshift work. All of the workers who exhibited a degree of sleep deprivation worked the night shift. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the prevalence ratios of obesity were 1·4 (95 % CI 0·8, 2·2) and 4·4 (95 % CI 2·4, 8·0) in the workers with sleep deprivation levels I and II, respectively, compared with the reference group. These results show a strong association between sleep deprivation and obesity in shift workers and that sleep deprivation may be a direct consequence of working at night.

  2. Effects of oxygen deprivation on incubated rat soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Julie M.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated soleus muscle deprived of oxygen produces more lactate and alanine than oxygen-supplied muscle. Oxygenated muscle synthesized glutamine, while anoxic muscle used this amino acid. Oxygen deprivation decreased adenine nucleotides leading to the efflux of nucleosides. Protein synthesis and degradation responded differently to anoxia. Synthesis almost completely ceased, while proteolysis increased. Therefore, protein degradation in soleus muscle is enhanced when energy supplies and oxygen tension are low.

  3. Oculomotor responses during partial and total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Laura M; Thomas, Maria L; Thorne, David R; Sing, Helen C; Krichmar, Jeffrey L; Davis, H Quigg; Balwinski, Sharon M; Peters, Robert D; Kloeppel-Wagner, Esther; Redmond, Daniel P; Alicandri, Elizabeth; Belenky, Gregory

    2005-07-01

    Oculomotor responses related to the pupil light reflex (PLR) and saccadic velocity may be sensitive to the effects of sleepiness and therefore could be used to evaluate an individual's fitness for duty. There were 12 normal subjects who completed an 8-d study. They were allowed 8 h in bed on the first three nights, 4 h in bed on the fourth night, and then were sleep deprived for the following 64 h. Approximately every 3 h, subjects performed a battery of tests which included a 45-s automated oculomotor test and a 40-min PC-based driving simulator task. Sleepiness was evaluated with a self-assessment instrument. Subjects were allowed 10 h of recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. Oculomotor results for nine subjects showed a significant increase in latency to pupil constriction and a significant decrease in saccadic velocity with total, but not partial, sleep deprivation. The most robust changes during sleep deprivation occurred for saccadic velocity. A night of recovery sleep reversed the effects of total sleep deprivation on latency to pupil constriction and saccadic velocity. Subjective sleepiness and off-road accidents were found to significantly increase over the sleep deprivation period. A significant positive correlation between increasing latency to pupil constriction and increasing sleepiness and driving accidents, and a significant negative correlation between decreasing saccadic velocity and increasing sleepiness and driving accidents during sleep deprivation were found. These findings suggest that oculomotor functions, particularly saccadic velocity, are feasible for assessing neurophysiological changes associated with and predictive of sleep deprivation-induced operational performance degradation.

  4. Effects of oxygen deprivation on incubated rat soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Julie M.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated soleus muscle deprived of oxygen produces more lactate and alanine than oxygen-supplied muscle. Oxygenated muscle synthesized glutamine, while anoxic muscle used this amino acid. Oxygen deprivation decreased adenine nucleotides leading to the efflux of nucleosides. Protein synthesis and degradation responded differently to anoxia. Synthesis almost completely ceased, while proteolysis increased. Therefore, protein degradation in soleus muscle is enhanced when energy supplies and oxygen tension are low.

  5. [Metabolic and endocrine effects of water and/or food deprivation in rats].

    PubMed

    Kasdallah, Abir Grissa; Mornagui, Bessem; Gharbi, Najoua; Machghoul, Salem; El-Fazâa, Saloua

    2005-05-01

    Metabolic and endocrine effects of water and/or food deprivation in rats. We aim at studying the effect of water deprivation, food deprivation and their combination for three days on adrenal cortex, pituitary-thyroid axis and vasopressinergic system activity in rats. Corticosterone level was determined by fluorimetric method. The levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by immunoenzymatic assay and vasopressin (AVP) level was determined by radio-immunoassay. In all three groups, basal levels of plasma corticosterone were increased. A thyroid dysfunction was shown after water deprivation, food deprivation and their combination reflected by a significant decrease in FT4 levels. Paradoxically, a significant decrease in TSH level was observed in food-deprived rats and in rats subjected to simultaneous food and water deprivation, while a slight and not significant decrease in TSH level was shown in water-deprived rats. A significant increase in plasma AVP level was observed after water deprivation and simultaneous water and food deprivation, while no change was found after food deprivation. The data indicated that water deprivation, food deprivation and their combination stimulated the adrenal cortex, thereby suggesting a stress state. On the other hand, it seems that nutritional stress modifies the pituitary-thyroid axis through mechanisms different from those of osmotic stress. Moreover, it seems that food deprivation partially prevented the stimulatory effect of water deprivation on vasopressinergic system.

  6. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  7. Sleep deprivation in adolescents and adults: changes in affect.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Lisa S; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Kaplan, Katherine A; Dahl, Ronald E; Harvey, Allison G

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the impact of sleep deprivation on several aspects of affective functioning in healthy participants selected from three different developmental periods: early adolescence (ages 10-13), midadolescence (ages 13-16), and adulthood (ages 30-60). Participants completed an affective functioning battery under conditions of sleep deprivation (a maximum of 6.5 hours total sleep time on the first night followed by a maximum of 2 hours total sleep time on the second night) and rest (approximately 7-8 hours total sleep time each night for two consecutive nights). Less positive affect was observed in the sleep-deprived, compared to rested, condition. This effect held for 9 of the 12 positive affect items on the PANAS-C. Participants also reported a greater increase in anxiety during a catastrophizing task and rated the likelihood of potential catastrophes as higher when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. Early adolescents appraised their main worry as more threatening when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. These results support and extend previous research underscoring the adverse affective consequences of sleep deprivation.

  8. Relative deprivation and child health in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lhila, Aparna; Simon, Kosali I

    2010-08-01

    Some recent papers have suggested that relative deprivation could be negatively related to health through psychosocial stress and related behaviors. While there is a large literature on the association between absolute deprivation, i.e., income, and child health, little is known about the association between relative deprivation and child health. This paper asks: controlling for a measure of absolute deprivation, is a mother's relative deprivation related to infant health and maternal health behavior? There are many limitations regarding our measures and methods, and we interpret our results only as associations. Using US 2001 Natality Detail data, we find that pregnant women of lower socioeconomic status relative to other expectant mothers in their Metropolitan Statistical Area give birth to very slightly lighter babies and are more likely to smoke. A back-of-the envelope calculation shows the magnitude of the association we observe between relative deprivation and birthweight is close to what medical studies would predict if the probability of prenatal tobacco use were to increase by the amount we estimate. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P < 0.01). Distribution of optometry practices is relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability.

  10. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated. PMID:26678391

  11. The Prospective Association between Sleep Deprivation and Depression among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Duong, Hao T.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. Design: A community-based two-wave cohort study. Setting: A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. Participants: 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Measurements: Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Results: Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. Conclusion: These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep. Citation: Roberts RE; Duong HT. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. SLEEP 2014;37(2):239-244. PMID:24497652

  12. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  13. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047

  14. [Sleep deprivation and pain: a review of the newest literature].

    PubMed

    Karmann, A J; Kundermann, B; Lautenbacher, S

    2014-04-01

    It has now been established that sleep deprivation or fragmentation causes hyperalgesia which cannot be explained by a general change in somatosensory perception. However, it has not yet been clarified which of the sleep stages are most relevant for this effect. The seemingly paradoxical effects of sleep deprivation on pain-evoked brain potentials on the one hand and the subjective pain report on the other hand suggest complex changes in gating mechanisms. As the effects on pain and affect can be dissociated a common mechanism of action seems unlikely. Data from animal studies suggest that hyperalgesia due to sleep deprivation might be particularly strong under preexisting neuropathic conditions. Together with results from animal research the finding that endogenous pain modulation (CPM) is impaired by sleep deprivation suggests that the serotoninergic system mediates the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. However, other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators still have to be considered. The clinically relevant question arises why sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia more easily in certain individuals than in others and why this effect then has a longer duration?

  15. The sleep-deprived electroencephalogram: evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Glick, Thomas H

    2002-08-01

    Sleep deprivation for the initial electroencephalogram for suspected seizures is a widespread but inconsistent practice not informed by balanced evidence. Daily practice suggests that nonneurologists are confused by the meaning and value of, and indications for, "sleep" (tracing) vs "sleep deprivation" (and other alternatives). They need specific, informed guidance from general neurologists on best practices. To document illustratively the variability of neurologists' practices, the level of relevant information among nonneurologists, and the current state of published evidence; and to stimulate formulation of consensus advisories. I surveyed knowledge and practices of (1) nonneurologists in a community teaching hospital; (2) local and national neurologists and epileptologists; (3) electroencephalogram laboratory protocols; and (4) textbook accounts and recommendations and the relevant journal literature. National professional organizations were contacted for advisories or guidelines. Most nonneurologists surveyed misunderstood "sleep" vs "sleep-deprived" electroencephalograms and their actual protocols. They are unaware of evidence on benefits vs burdens. Neurologists' practices are inconsistent. Experts generally agree that sleep deprivation produces substantial activation of interictal epileptiform discharges beyond the activation of sleep per se. However, most published recommendations and interviewed epileptologists do not suggest sleep deprivation for the initial electroencephalogram because of "inconvenience" (burdens) for the patient. Evidence-based or reasoned guidance is minimal, and professional societies have not issued advisories. Confusion over sleep deprivation, disparities between evidence and recommendations, and inconsistent practices create a need for expert consensus for guidance, as well as comparative research on alternative methods of increasing diagnostic yield.

  16. Behavior Problems in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems were investigated in 342 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not consistent, responsive caregiving. Results indicated that attention and externalizing problems were the most prevalent types of behavior problems in the sample as a whole. Behavior problem rates increased with age at adoption, such that children adopted at 18 months or older had higher rates than never-institutionalized children but younger-adopted children did not. There was a stronger association between age at adoption and behavior problems during adolescence than at younger ages at assessment. Children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions had lower behavior problem rates than children adopted from severely depriving Romanian institutions in the 1990s. The implications of these results are that early psychosocial deprivation is associated with behavior problems, children exposed to prolonged early deprivation may be especially vulnerable to the developmental stresses of adolescence, and severe institutional deprivation is associated with a higher percentage of behavior problems after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:20084451

  17. Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-03-15

    Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility.

  18. Bioanalytical applications of isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

  19. Revisiting the Regenerative Possibilities of Ortiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duques, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article revisits Simon Ortiz's poem, "From Sand Creek," in which the latter can in so few words convey both the horrific tragedy of conquest and colonization, while at the same time find a space for possibility, a means for recovery that is never about forgetting but always occurs as a kind of recuperative remembering. Ortiz…

  20. The Rotating Morse-Pekeris Oscillator Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Morse-Pekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibration-rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules is revisited. This model is based on the realization of a second-order exponential expansion of the centrifugal term about the minimum of the vibrational Morse oscillator and the subsequent analytical resolution of the resulting…

  1. Revisiting Basic Counseling Skills with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Counseling with children can be challenging for counselors whose training focused on adult clients. The purpose of this article is to offer information to counselors seeking to improve their skills with children, revisiting a topic discussed in an earlier Journal of Counseling & Development article by P. Erdman and R. Lampe (1996). Examples of…

  2. The Rotating Morse-Pekeris Oscillator Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Morse-Pekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibration-rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules is revisited. This model is based on the realization of a second-order exponential expansion of the centrifugal term about the minimum of the vibrational Morse oscillator and the subsequent analytical resolution of the resulting…

  3. The Future of Engineering Education--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the landmark CEE series, "The Future of Engineering Education," published in 2000 (available free in the CEE archives on the internet) to examine the predictions made in the original paper as well as the tools and approaches documented. Most of the advice offered in the original series remains current. Despite new…

  4. Topological string theory revisited I: The stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bei

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we reformulate topological string theory using supermanifolds and supermoduli spaces, following the approach worked out by Witten (Superstring perturbation theory revisited, arXiv:1209.5461). We intend to make the construction geometrical in nature, by using supergeometry techniques extensively. The goal is to establish the foundation of studying topological string amplitudes in terms of integration over appropriate supermoduli spaces.

  5. Revisiting separation properties of convex fuzzy sets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separation of convex sets by hyperplanes has been extensively studied on crisp sets. In a seminal paper separability and convexity are investigated, however there is a flaw on the definition of degree of separation. We revisited separation on convex fuzzy sets that have level-wise (crisp) disjointne...

  6. The Future of Engineering Education--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the landmark CEE series, "The Future of Engineering Education," published in 2000 (available free in the CEE archives on the internet) to examine the predictions made in the original paper as well as the tools and approaches documented. Most of the advice offered in the original series remains current. Despite new…

  7. Revisiting the Paradigms of Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy

    This paper revisits a previously published analysis of paradigm shifts within research on instructional technology (IT). Following Kuhn, the author uses the term "paradigm" to denote an actual scientific achievement. Used in this way, a particular experiment or research study must meet two criteria to qualify as a paradigm: it must be…

  8. "Student Personnel: All Hail and Farewell!" Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    Revisits Crookston's (1976) article advocating to expunge term "student personnel," arguing that it is inappropriate and no longer descriptive of student affairs. Presents background of term to determine whether it continues to be used to identify chief student affairs officers and graduate programs that prepare sstudent affairs practitioners or…

  9. Revisiting Basic Counseling Skills with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Counseling with children can be challenging for counselors whose training focused on adult clients. The purpose of this article is to offer information to counselors seeking to improve their skills with children, revisiting a topic discussed in an earlier Journal of Counseling & Development article by P. Erdman and R. Lampe (1996). Examples of…

  10. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-22

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  11. Hematological changes during androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Mathis; Zajac, Jeffrey D

    2012-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with a plethora of adverse effects, consistent with the androgen dependency of multiple reproductive and somatic tissues. One such tissue is the hemopoietic system, and one of the most predictable consequences of ADT is the development of anemia. Although anemia caused by ADT is rarely severe, ADT is often given to frail, elderly men with increased susceptibility to anemia due to multiple other causes. ADT-associated anemia may contribute to fatigue and reduced quality of life (QoL) in such men, although this requires further study. While anemia is an independent risk factor of mortality in men with prostate cancer, it is not known whether treatment of ADT-associated anemia alters clinically important outcomes, or whether treatment affects mortality. Awareness of the phenomenon of ADT-induced anemia should avoid unnecessary work-up in mild cases of normocytic normochromic anemia. However, assessment and treatment of more severe anemia may be required. This should be determined on an individual basis. In contrast to the well-described actions of ADT on erythropoiesis, its effect on other hemopoietic lineages has been less well elucidated. While preclinical studies have found roles for androgens in maturation and differentiated function of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets, the implications of these findings for men with prostate cancer receiving ADT require further studies.

  12. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  13. [Comparison of the individual deprivation index of the French Health Examination Centres and the administrative definition of deprivation].

    PubMed

    Sass, C; Guéguen, R; Moulin, J J; Abric, L; Dauphinot, V; Dupré, C; Giordanella, J P; Girard, F; Guenot, C; Labbe, E; La Rosa, E; Magnier, P; Martin, E; Royer, B; Rubirola, M; Gerbaud, L

    2006-12-01

    In French Health Examination Centres, populations in deprived situation were usually defined by administrative criteria The aim of the study was to investigate whether EPICES, a new individual index of deprivation, was more strongly related to health status than an administrative classification. The EPICES score was calculated on the basis of 11 weighted questions related to material and social deprivation. Participants were 197, 389 men and women, aged over 18, encountered in 2002 in French Health Examination Centres. Relationships between health status, health-related behaviours, access to health care, EPICES and the administrative classification of deprivation were analyzed by logistic regression. The associations between EPICES and the study variables were stronger than those observed for the administrative definition. The comparison also showed socially disadvantaged people with poor health identified by the EPICES score who were not by the administrative classification. These results showed that the EPICES score can be a useful tool to improve the identification of deprived people having health problems associated to deprivation.

  14. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. The data came from Waves 1-3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, "In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  15. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    PubMed

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  16. Weak-value amplification: state of play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, George C.; Combes, Joshua; Ferrie, Christopher; Gauger, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    Weak values arise in quantum theory when the result of a weak measurement is conditioned on a subsequent strong measurement. The majority of the trials are discarded, leaving only very few successful events. Intriguingly those can display a substantial signal amplification. This raises the question of whether weak values carry potential to improve the performance of quantum sensors, and indeed a number of impressive experimental results suggested this may be the case. By contrast, recent theoretical studies have found the opposite: using weak-values to obtain an amplification generally worsens metrological performance. This survey summarises the implications of those studies, which call for a reappraisal of weak values' utility and for further work to reconcile theory and experiment.

  17. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Beatriz; Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Águas, Hugo; Igreja, Rui; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-06-25

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  18. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Águas, Hugo; Igreja, Rui; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2017-01-01

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings. PMID:28672827

  19. Tyramide Signal Amplification for Immunofluorescent Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Faget, Lauren; Hnasko, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked signal amplification is a key technique used to enhance the immunohistochemical detection of protein, mRNA, and other molecular species. Tyramide signal amplification (TSA) is based on a catalytic reporter deposit in close vicinity to the epitope of interest. The advantages of this technique are its simplicity, enhanced sensitivity, high specificity, and compatibility with modern multi-label fluorescent microscopy. Here, we describe the use of a TSA kit to increase the signal of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expressed under the control of Slc17a6 regulatory elements in the brain of a transgenic mouse. The labeling procedure consists of 6 basic steps: (1) tissue preparation, (2) blocking of nonspecific epitopes, (3) binding with primary antibody, (4) binding with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody, (5) reacting with fluorescent tyramide substrate, and (6) imaging of the signal. The procedures described herein detail these steps and provide additional guidance and background to assist novice users.

  20. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; McGuire, L. A.; Rengers, F. K.; Smith, J. B.; Staley, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  1. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, Jason W.; Mcguire, Luke; Rengers, Francis; Smith, Joel B.; Staley, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  2. X-ray amplification by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Mikhailova, Julia M.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-based parametric amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering offers a route to coherent x-ray pulses orders of magnitude more intense than those of the brightest available sources. Brillouin amplification permits amplification of shorter wavelengths with lower pump intensities than Raman amplification, which Landau and collisional damping limit in the x-ray regime. Analytic predictions, numerical solutions of the three-wave-coupling equations, and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that Brillouin amplification in solid-density plasmas will allow compression of current x-ray free-electron laser pulses to subfemtosecond durations and unprecedented intensities.

  3. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  4. Quantum amplification effect in a horizon fluctuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Mohammad H.

    2010-05-15

    The appearance of a few unevenly spaced bright flashes of light on top of Hawking radiation is the sign of the amplification effect in black hole horizon fluctuations. Previous studies on this problem suffer from the lack of considering all emitted photons in the theoretical spectroscopy of these fluctuations. In this paper, we include all of the physical transition weights and present a consistent intensity formula. This modifies a black hole radiation pattern.

  5. Revisiting the 1761 Transatlantic Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Wronna, Martin; Miranda, Jorge Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The tsunami catalogs of the Atlantic include two transatlantic tsunamis in the 18th century the well known 1st November 1755 and the 31st March 1761. The 31st March 1761 earthquake struck Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. The earthquake occurred around noontime in Lisbon alarming the inhabitants and throwing down ruins of the past 1st November 1755 earthquake. According to several sources, the earthquake was followed by a tsunami observed as far as Cornwall (United Kingdom), Cork (Ireland) and Barbados (Caribbean). The analysis of macroseismic information and its compatibility with tsunami travel time information led to a source area close to the Ampere Seamount with an estimated epicenter circa 34.5°N 13°W. The estimated magnitude of the earthquake was 8.5. In this study, we revisit the tsunami observations, and we include a report from Cadiz not used before. We use the results of the compilation of the multi-beam bathymetric data, that covers the area between 34°N - 38°N and 12.5°W - 5.5°W and use the recent tectonic map published for the Southwest Iberian Margin to select among possible source scenarios. Finally, we use a non-linear shallow water model that includes the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme to solve the shallow water equations in the spherical or Cartesian coordinate to compute tsunami waveforms and tsunami inundation and check the results against the historical descriptions to infer the source of the event. This study received funding from project ASTARTE- Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe a collaborative project Grant 603839, FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3

  6. Non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Domingo, Gonzalo; Gerlach, Jay; Tang, Dennis; Harvey, Darrel; Talwar, Nick; Fichtenholz, Alex; van Lew, Bill; LaBarre, Paul

    2008-02-01

    We have developed components of a diagnostic disposable platform that has the dual purpose of providing molecular diagnostics at the point of care (POC) as well as stabilizing specimens for further analysis via a centralized surveillance system. This diagnostic is targeted for use in low-resource settings by minimally trained health workers. The disposable device does not require any additional instrumentation and will be almost as rapid and simple to use as a lateral flow strip test - yet will offer the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The low-cost integrated device is composed of three functional components: (1) a sample-processing subunit that generates clean and stabilized DNA from raw samples containing nucleic acids, (2) a NA amplification subunit, and (3) visual amplicon detection sub-unit. The device integrates chemical exothermic heating, temperature stabilization using phase-change materials, and isothermal nucleic acid amplification. The aim of developing this system is to provide pathogen detection with NAAT-level sensitivity in low-resource settings where there is no access to instrumentation. If a disease occurs, patients would be tested with the disposable in the field. A nucleic acid sample would be preserved within the spent disposable which could be sent to a central laboratory facility for further analysis if needed.

  7. Estimating site amplification factors from ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Gerstoft, Peter; Fehler, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    We present a methodology to obtain frequency-dependent relative site amplification factors using ambient seismic noise. We treat a seismic network or array as a forced damped harmonic oscillator system where each station responds to a forcing function obtained from frequency-wavenumber beams of the ambient noise field. A network or array beam is necessary to estimate the forcing function. Taken over long time periods, each station responds to the forcing function showing a frequency-dependent resonance peak whose amplitude and spectral width depends upon the elastic and anelastic properties of the underlying medium. Our results are encouraging in that hard rock sites show little variability and have narrower resonance peaks with reduced amplitudes relative to soft rock sites in sedimentary basins. There is much more variability observed at soft rock sites and a tendency for spectral peaks to shift to higher frequencies and become broader as the site amplification increases. This could be due to due to lower densities and/or small-strain nonlinearity at stations having high site amplification.

  8. Thermoelectric amplification of phonons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompreh, K. A.; Mensah, N. G.; Mensah, S. Y.; Fosuhene, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Amplification of acoustic in-plane phonons due to an external temperature gradient (∇T) in single-layer graphene (SLG) was studied theoretically. The threshold temperature gradient (∇ T ) 0 g and the threshold voltage (V T ) 0 g in SLG were evaluated. For T = 77 K , the calculated value for (∇ T ) 0 g = 746.8 K / cm and (V T ) 0 g = 6.6 mV . The calculation was done in the hypersound regime. Further, the dependence of the normalized amplification ( Γ / Γ 0 ) on the frequency ω q and ∇ T / T were evaluated numerically and presented graphically. The calculated threshold temperature gradient (V T ) 0 g for SLG was higher than that obtained for homogeneous semiconductors (n-InSb) (∇ T ) 0 hom ≈ 10 3 K / cm , superlattices (∇ T ) 0 S L ≈ 384 K / cm , and cylindrical quantum wire (∇ T ) 0 c q w ≈ 10 2 K / cm . This makes SLG a much better material for thermoelectric phonon amplification.

  9. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-03

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration.

  10. Nucleic acid amplification using microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jung-Hao; Mai, John D; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2013-04-07

    In the post-human-genome-project era, the development of molecular diagnostic techniques has advanced the frontiers of biomedical research. Nucleic-acid-based technology (NAT) plays an especially important role in molecular diagnosis. However, most research and clinical protocols still rely on the manual analysis of individual samples by skilled technicians which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Recently, with advances in microfluidic designs, integrated micro total-analysis-systems have emerged to overcome the limitations of traditional detection assays. These microfluidic systems have the capability to rapidly perform experiments in parallel and with a high-throughput which allows a NAT analysis to be completed in a few hours or even a few minutes. These features have a significant beneficial influence on many aspects of traditional biological or biochemical research and this new technology is promising for improving molecular diagnosis. Thus, in the foreseeable future, microfluidic systems developed for molecular diagnosis using NAT will become an important tool in clinical diagnosis. One of the critical issues for NAT is nucleic acid amplification. In this review article, recent advances in nucleic acid amplification techniques using microfluidic systems will be reviewed. Different approaches for fast amplification of nucleic acids for molecular diagnosis will be highlighted.

  11. Optimized thermal amplification in a radiative transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Prod'homme, Hugo; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Ezzahri, Younes Drevillon, Jeremie; Joulain, Karl

    2016-05-21

    The thermal performance of a far-field radiative transistor made up of a VO{sub 2} base in between a blackbody collector and a blackbody emitter is theoretically studied and optimized. This is done by using the grey approximation on the emissivity of VO{sub 2} and deriving analytical expressions for the involved heat fluxes and transistor amplification factor. It is shown that this amplification factor can be maximized by tuning the base temperature close to its critical one, which is determined by the temperature derivative of the VO{sub 2} emissivity and the equilibrium temperatures of the collector and emitter. This maximization is the result of the presence of two bi-stable temperatures appearing during the heating and cooling processes of the VO{sub 2} base and enables a thermal switching (temperature jump) characterized by a sizeable variation of the collector-to-base and base-to-emitter heat fluxes associated with a slight change of the applied power to the base. This switching effect leads to the optimization of the amplification factor and therefore it could be used for thermal modulation purposes.

  12. Optimized thermal amplification in a radiative transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, Hugo; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Ezzahri, Younes; Drevillon, Jeremie; Joulain, Karl

    2016-05-01

    The thermal performance of a far-field radiative transistor made up of a VO2 base in between a blackbody collector and a blackbody emitter is theoretically studied and optimized. This is done by using the grey approximation on the emissivity of VO2 and deriving analytical expressions for the involved heat fluxes and transistor amplification factor. It is shown that this amplification factor can be maximized by tuning the base temperature close to its critical one, which is determined by the temperature derivative of the VO2 emissivity and the equilibrium temperatures of the collector and emitter. This maximization is the result of the presence of two bi-stable temperatures appearing during the heating and cooling processes of the VO2 base and enables a thermal switching (temperature jump) characterized by a sizeable variation of the collector-to-base and base-to-emitter heat fluxes associated with a slight change of the applied power to the base. This switching effect leads to the optimization of the amplification factor and therefore it could be used for thermal modulation purposes.

  13. [Effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth and learning/memory in young rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Li, Sheng-Hui; Cui, Mao-Long; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2009-02-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on the immature brain remain unknown. Based on a computer controlled chronic sleep deprivation animal model, the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth, learning and memory in young rats were explored. Twelve weaned male Spraque-Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly divided into sleep deprivation, test control and blank control groups. Sleep deprivation was performed using computer-controlled "disc-over-water" technique at 8-11 am daily, for 14 days. The temperature and weights were measured every 7 days. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory abilities before and 7 and 14 days after sleep deprivation. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats were sacrificed for weighting their major organs. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats' temperature increased significantly. During the sleep deprivation, the rate of weight gain in the sleep deprivation group was much slower than that in the test control and blank control groups. The thymus of the rats subjected to sleep deprivation was much lighter than that of the blank control group. After 7 days of sleep deprivation, the rats showed slower acquisition of reference memory, but were capable of successfully performing the task by repeated exposure to the test. Such impairment of reference memory was not seen 14 days after sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect growth of immature rats, as well as their abilities to acquire spatial reference memory.

  14. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant’s and the addressee’s perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant’s but not from the addressee’s perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant’s and from the addressee’s perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  15. Cardiovascular effects of partial sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dettoni, Josilene L; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Drager, Luciano F; Rubira, Marcelo C; Souza, Silvia Beatriz P Cavasin de; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Mostarda, Cristiano; Borile, Suellen; Krieger, Eduardo M; Moreno, Heitor; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2012-07-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in Western societies and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of partial sleep deprivation on the cardiovascular system are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated 13 healthy male volunteers (age: 31 ± 2 yr) monitoring sleep diary and wrist actigraphy during their daily routine for 12 nights. The subjects were randomized and crossover to 5 nights of control sleep (>7 h) or 5 nights of partial sleep deprivation (<5 h), interposed by 2 nights of unrestricted sleep. At the end of control and partial sleep deprivation periods, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), serum norepinephrine, and venous endothelial function (dorsal hand vein technique) were measured at rest in a supine position. The subjects slept 8.0 ± 0.5 and 4.5 ± 0.3 h during control and partial sleep deprivation periods, respectively (P < 0.01). Compared with control, sleep deprivation caused significant increase in sympathetic activity as evidenced by increase in percent low-frequency (50 ± 15 vs. 59 ± 8) and a decrease in percent high-frequency (50 ± 10 vs. 41 ± 8) components of HRV, increase in low-frequency band of BPV, and increase in serum norepinephrine (119 ± 46 vs. 162 ± 58 ng/ml), as well as a reduction in maximum endothelial dependent venodilatation (100 ± 22 vs. 41 ± 20%; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In conclusion, 5 nights of partial sleep deprivation is sufficient to cause significant increase in sympathetic activity and venous endothelial dysfunction. These results may help to explain the association between short sleep and increased cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies.

  16. Primary care teams work harder in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, R; Avery, A J; Marsh, P

    2002-03-01

    The NHS Plan promises an equitable distribution of resources within primary care. To inform the debate on the extent to which resources should be redistributed we examined the association between primary care activity and deprivation. We used the natural experiment of the organization of primary care in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, where town centre general practices have patients from electoral wards with a range of socio-economic characteristics who are subject to the same degree of supplier-induced demand and variations in data quality. We used one year's prospective data for two practices with 20,106 patients from 15 electoral wards. We performed linear regression analysis of directly age-standardized rates for different types of primary care activity and primary care morbidity-specific contacts against Townsend and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 scores. There were 44 per cent more out-of-hours contacts in more deprived areas (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 17-70 per cent), 18 per cent more surgery consultations (95 per cent CI 8-27 per cent), and 28 per cent more same-day consultations (95 per cent CI 12-44 per cent). Routine visits by doctors and contacts by district and practice nurses did not have substantial associations with deprivation. Morbidity-specific contacts for psychological problems and respiratory problems were associated with deprivation but there was no significant association for contacts for low back pain, asthma or menopausal problems. Different types of primary care activity and contacts for different morbidities had different associations with deprivation. This makes it difficult to recommend a simple list size adjustment; however, increased activity in deprived wards needs to be recognized in resource allocation, service configuration and performance management in primary care.

  17. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  18. Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, A; Mustafa, F B; Earnest, A; Gen, L; Macary, P A

    2013-10-01

    Sleep quality is considered to be an important predictor of immunity. Lack of sleep therefore may reduce immunity, thereby increasing the susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. A previous study showed that reduced sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of the common cold. It is important to understand the role of sleep in altering immune responses to understand how sleep deprivation leads to an increased susceptibility to the common cold or other respiratory infections. We sought to examine the impact of partial sleep deprivation on various immune markers. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were partially sleep deprived for one night. We took blood samples before the sleep deprivation, immediately after, and 4 and 7 days after sleep deprivation. We measured various immune markers and used a generalized estimating equation (GEE) to examine the differences in the repeated measures. CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 all showed significant time-dependent changes, but CD3 did not. The most striking time-dependent change was observed for the mitogen proliferation assay and for HLA-DR. There was a significant decrease in the mitogen proliferation values and HLA-DR immediately after the sleep deprivation experiment, which started to rise again on day 4 and normalized by day 7. The transiently impaired mitogen proliferation, the decreased HLA-DR, the upregulated CD14, and the variations in CD4 and CD8 that we observed in temporal relationship with partial sleep deprivation could be one possible explanation for the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections reported after reduced sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Laboratory. Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. The effect of dietary pyridoxine on arsenic deprivation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Poelllot, R. )

    1991-03-15

    In experiments on As deprivation, many findings indicate that As can affect enzymes or metabolites that are also influenced by vitamin B{sub 6}. Thus, an experiment was designed to ascertain the effect of pyridoxine (pyr) on As deprivation in rats. Male, weanling rats were fed an amino acid based diet containing 0.24% methionine (M) and less than 15 ng As/g. Dietary variables were As, 0 or 1 {mu}g/g; M, 0 or 3 g/kg; and pyridoxine, 0 or 10 mg/kg. After 10 weeks, growth was reduced by As, Pyr, or M deprivation. Both endogenous ({minus}PP) and pyridoxal phosphate-stimulated (+PP) RBC aspartate aminotransferase were decreased by Pyr deficiency. The ratio of +PP/{minus}PP, known as the activation coefficient (AC), was affected by an interaction between As and Pyr. Pyr deficiency resulted in a less marked increase in AC in the As-deprived rats than in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma Fe was slightly decreased by Pyr deficiency in the As-deprived rats but increased by Pyr deficiency in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma threonine and serine were increased by As supplementation in the Pyr-deficient rats but there was no effect of As supplementation in the Pyr-supplemented rats. Plasma alanine was decreased by As or Pyr deprivation. In Pyr deficiency, As deprivation had no effect on plasma glycine (G) in the M-deficient rats but decreased G in the M-supplemented rats. In the Pyr-supplemented rats, As had no effect on G, regardless of M. The findings indicate that As and Pyr interact to affect amino acid metabolism.

  1. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Accurate Recognition of Human Emotions

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Gujar, Ninad; Walker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize the intensity of human facial emotions. Design: Randomized total sleep-deprivation or sleep-rested conditions, involving between-group and within-group repeated measures analysis. Setting: Experimental laboratory study. Participants: Thirty-seven healthy participants, (21 females) aged 18–25 y, were randomly assigned to the sleep control (SC: n = 17) or total sleep deprivation group (TSD: n = 20). Interventions: Participants performed an emotional face recognition task, in which they evaluated 3 different affective face categories: Sad, Happy, and Angry, each ranging in a gradient from neutral to increasingly emotional. In the TSD group, the task was performed once under conditions of sleep deprivation, and twice under sleep-rested conditions following different durations of sleep recovery. In the SC group, the task was performed twice under sleep-rested conditions, controlling for repeatability. Measurements and Results: In the TSD group, when sleep-deprived, there was a marked and significant blunting in the recognition of Angry and Happy affective expressions in the moderate (but not extreme) emotional intensity range; differences that were most reliable and significant in female participants. No change in the recognition of Sad expressions was observed. These recognition deficits were, however, ameliorated following one night of recovery sleep. No changes in task performance were observed in the SC group. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation selectively impairs the accurate judgment of human facial emotions, especially threat relevant (Anger) and reward relevant (Happy) categories, an effect observed most significantly in females. Such findings suggest that sleep loss impairs discrete affective neural systems, disrupting the identification of salient affective social cues. Citation: van der Helm E; Gujar N; Walker MP. Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human

  2. Sleep deprivation and cellular responses to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Anupama; Ji, Li Li; Cirelli, Chiara

    2004-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that sleep deprivation represents an oxidative challenge for the brain and that sleep may have a protective role against oxidative damage. This study was designed to test this hypothesis by measuring in rats the effects of sleep loss on markers of oxidative stress (oxidant production and antioxidant enzyme activities) as well as on markers of cellular oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation). The analyses were performed in the brain and in peripheral tissues (liver and skeletal muscle), after short-term sleep deprivation (8 hours), after long-term sleep deprivation (3-14 days), and during recovery sleep after 1 week of sleep loss. Short-term sleep deprivation was performed by gentle handling; long-term sleep deprivation was performed using the disk-over-water method. Sleep research laboratory at University of Wisconsin-Madison. Adult male Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 69) implanted for polygraphic (electroencephalogram, electromyogram) recording. Aliquots of brain, liver, or skeletal muscle homogenate were used to assess oxidant production, superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. No evidence of oxidative damage was observed at the lipid and/or at the protein level in long-term sleep-deprived animals relative to their yoked controls, nor in the cerebral cortex or in peripheral tissues. Also, no consistent change in antioxidant enzymatic activities was found after prolonged sleep deprivation, nor was any evidence of increased oxidant production in the brain or in peripheral tissues. The available data do not support the assumption that prolonged wakefulness may cause oxidative damage, nor that it can represent an oxidative stress for the brain or for peripheral tissue such as liver and skeletal muscle.

  3. Deprivations, futures and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Marquis, D

    2001-12-01

    In my essay, Why abortion is immoral, I criticised discussions of the morality of abortion in which the crucial issue is whether fetuses are human beings or whether fetuses are persons. Both argument strategies are inadequate because they rely on indefensible assumptions. Why should being a human being or being a person make a moral difference? I argued that the correct account of the morality of abortion should be based upon a defensible account of why killing children and adults is wrong. I claimed that what makes killing us wrong is that our premature deaths deprive us of our futures of value, that is, the goods of life we would have experienced had we survived. This account of the wrongness of killing explains why killing is one of the worst of crimes and how killing greatly harms the victim. It coheres with the attitudes of those with cancer or HIV facing premature death. It explains why we believe it is wrong to kill infants (as personhood theories do not). It does not entail that it wrongs a human being to end her life if she is in persistent vegetative state or if her future must consist only of unbearable physical suffering and she wants to die (as sanctity of human life theories do not). This account of the wrongness of killing implies (with some defensible additional assumptions) that abortion is immoral because we were fetuses once and we know those fetuses had futures of value. Mark Brown claims that this potential future of value account is unsound because it implies that we have welfare rights to what we need to stay alive that most people would reject. I argue that Brown is incorrect in two ways: a welfare right to what we need to stay alive is not directly implied by my account and, in addition, most of us do believe that dependent human beings have substantial welfare rights to what they need to stay alive. Brown argues that depriving us of a future of value of which we have mental representations both is a better explanation of the wrongness of

  4. Androgen deprivation therapy and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Punnen, Sanoj; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Carroll, Peter R

    2011-09-10

    The potential association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) remains controversial. This study assessed mortality outcomes in a large national registry to further elucidate the association between treatment selection and cause of mortality. A total of 7,248 men in the CaPSURE registry were analyzed. Treatment was categorized as local only, primary ADT monotherapy, local treatment plus ADT, and watchful waiting/active surveillance (WW/AS). Competing hazards survival analysis was performed for prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), CVM, and all-cause mortality. A propensity score-adjusted and a propensity-matched analysis were undertaken to adjust for imbalances in covariates among men receiving various treatments. Patients treated with ADT or WW/AS had a higher likelihood of PCSM than those treated with local therapy alone. Patients treated with primary ADT had an almost two-fold greater likelihood of CVM (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.97) than those treated with local therapy alone; however, patients treated with WW/AS had a greater than two-fold increased risk of CVM (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.95). A propensity-matching algorithm in a subset of 1,391 patients was unable to find a significant difference in CVM between those who did or did not receive ADT. Patients matched on propensity to receive ADT did not show an association between ADT and CVM. This suggests that potential unmeasured variables affecting treatment selection may confound the relationship between ADT use and cardiovascular risk. However, an association may yet exist, because the propensity score could not include all known risk factors for CVM.

  5. Effects of material deprivation on neurological functioning.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1983-01-01

    An intellectual deficit in low socio-economic strata (S-E) of underdeveloped countries is widespread. A similar phenomenon is observed in industrialized countries and is known as socio-cultural retardation (S-CR); one theory holds that it is due to psychosensory deprivation whilst another denies that there is in fact a deficit, there being only middle class-oriented testing applied to subjects whose skills lie in another direction. Whichever theory is true, in underdeveloped countries the problem is compounded by malnutrition and perennial infection so that the intellectual deficit in these societies may be qualitatively different. This paper sets out the point of view of a clinical neurologist who believes it likely that the technological Western mode of life entails an organization of the brain which is lacking in subjects in low S-E strata of less sophisticated cultures. These will therefore evince multiple mild deficiencies in specific functions of the brain. The core is thought to be incomplete maturation of neural mechanisms. Examples are given: (1) facial dyspraxia; (2) permanence of primitive reflexes; (3) poor body image and sensory integration; and (4) tactile-perceptual functioning (which in fact showed no deficiency but is given as the type of neuropsychological factor which may show delay). Middle class life in Western society is held to be more complex in absolute terms. This is an important cause of the large number of dropouts from primary education in Latin America, whose school systems are based on middle class values, themselves tailored to the technological age.

  6. Prognostic impact of HER-2 Subclonal Amplification in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Brandes, Alba A; Cucchi, Maria C; Foschini, Maria P

    2017-06-02

    The presence of a limited number of cells with HER-2 amplification (Subclonal Amplification) in breast carcinomas is occasionally encountered, but its prognostic impact is poorly known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of HER-2 Subclonal Amplification in a retrospective series of breast cancers. Accordingly, 81 consecutive breast carcinomas showing HER-2 Subclonal Amplification were obtained from the histology files (case series). These cases were subdivided into two groups: (a) those cases in which the HER-2 Subclonal Amplification was consonant to the accepted criteria for amplification, showing clusters of amplified cells, and (b) those cases with rare HER-2 Subclonal Amplification that did not reflect the accepted criteria for amplification, showing scattered amplified cells only. The incidence of metastases and late recurrences of the case series was compared with a series composed of 109 consecutive cases, being HER-2 homogeneous (comprising 14 Amplified and 95 Non-Amplified cases), matched for grade and stage (control series). It appeared that cases showing Subclonal Amplification had an incidence of metastases intermediate between the cases Amplified and Non-Amplified. Specifically, Subclonal Amplification with clustered cells had a lower incidence of metastases than Amplified cases (12.9 versus 21.4%). On the contrary, Subclonal Amplification with scattered cells showed an incidence of metastases higher than Non-Amplified cases (14 versus 9.47%). In addition, patients Subclonal Amplification with clustered cells, who were treated with the specific monoclonal antibody, had a lower incidence of metastases than patients showing Subclonal Amplification with scattered cells, who did not receive target therapy. These data, together with those recently published, indicate that Subclonal Amplification has an impact on prognosis and should be taken into consideration to correctly plan the treatment of breast cancer patients.

  7. Association of FGFR1 with ERαmaintains ligand-independent ER transcription and mediates resistance to estrogen deprivation in ER+ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Stauffer, Kimberly Mae; Young, Christian D; Bhola, Neil E; Guerrero-Zotano, Angel L; Jansen, Valerie M; Estrada, Monica M; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Schwarz, Luis J; Lu, Yao; Balko, Justin M; Deas, Olivier; Cairo, Stefano; Judde, Jean-Gabriel; Mayer, Ingrid A; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C; Bianco, Roberto; Stricker, Thomas; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-07-27

    FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~15% of ER+ human breast cancers. We investigated mechanisms by which FGFR1 amplification confers antiestrogen resistance to ER+ breast cancer.

    Experimental Design: ER+ tumors from patients treated with letrozole before surgery were subjected to Ki67 immunohistochemistry, FGFR1 FISH, and RNA-sequencing. ER+/FGFR1 amplified breast cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were treated with FGFR1 siRNA or the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor lucitanib. Endpoints were cell/xenograft growth, FGFR1/ERα association by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation, ER genomic activity by ChIP-sequencing, and gene expression by RT-PCR.

    Results: ER+/FGFR1 amplified tumors in patients treated with letrozole maintained cell proliferation (Ki67). Estrogen deprivation increased total and nuclear FGFR1 and FGF ligands expression in ER+/FGFR1-amplified primary tumors and breast cancer cells. In estrogen-free conditions, FGFR1 associated with ERα in tumor cell nuclei and regulated the transcription of ER-dependent genes. This association was inhibited by a kinase-dead FGFR1 mutant and by treatment with lucitanib. ChIP-seq analysis of estrogen-deprived ER+/FGFR1 amplified cells showed binding of FGFR1 and ERα to DNA. Treatment with fulvestrant and/or lucitanib reduced FGFR1 and ERα binding to DNA. RNA-seq data from FGFR1-amplified patients' tumors treated with letrozole showed enrichment of estrogen response and E2F target genes. Finally, growth of ER+/FGFR1-amplified cells and PDXs was more potently inhibited by fulvestrant and lucitanib combined than each drug alone.

    Conclusions: These data suggest the ERα pathway remains active in estrogen-deprived ER+/FGFR1-amplified breast cancers. Therefore, these tumors are endocrine resistant and should be candidates for treatment with combinations of ER and FGFR antagonists. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Gene amplification system based on double rolling-circle replication as a model for oncogene-type amplification.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaaki; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Gene amplification contributes to a variety of biological phenomena, including malignant progression and drug resistance. However, details of the molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we have developed a gene amplification system in yeast and mammalian cells that is based on double rolling-circle replication (DRCR). Cre-lox system is used to efficiently induce DRCR utilizing a recombinational process coupled with replication. This system shows distinctive features seen in amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes: (i) intra- and extrachromosomal amplification, (ii) intensive chromosome rearrangement and (iii) scattered-type amplification resembling those seen in cancer cells. This system can serve as a model for amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes, and improve amplification systems used for making pharmaceutical proteins in mammalian cells.

  9. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Binda, Paola; Lunghi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, "hippus," spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  10. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions.

  11. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  12. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:27413249

  13. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  14. Nutrient Deprivation Induces Property Variations in Spider Gluey Silk

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Sahni, Vasav; Dhinojwala, Ali; Blackledge, Todd A.; Tso, I-Min

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms facilitating property variability in biological adhesives may promote biomimetic innovations. Spider gluey silks such as the spiral threads in orb webs and the gumfoot threads in cobwebs, both of which comprise of an axial thread coated by glue, are biological adhesives that have variable physical and chemical properties. Studies show that the physical and chemical properties of orb web gluey threads change when spiders are deprived of food. It is, however, unknown whether gumfoot threads undergo similar property variations when under nutritional stress. Here we tested whether protein deprivation induces similar variations in spiral and gumfoot thread morphology and stickiness. We manipulated protein intake for the orb web spider Nephila clavipes and the cobweb spider Latrodectus hesperus and measured the diameter, glue droplet volume, number of droplets per mm, axial thread width, thread stickiness and adhesive energy of their gluey silks. We found that the gluey silks of both species were stickier when the spiders were deprived of protein than when the spiders were fed protein. In N. clavipes a concomitant increase in glue droplet volume was found. Load-extension curves showed that protein deprivation induced glue property variations independent of the axial thread extensions in both species. We predicted that changes in salt composition of the glues were primarily responsible for the changes in stickiness of the silks, although changes in axial thread properties might also contribute. We, additionally, showed that N. clavipes' glue changes color under protein deprivation, probably as a consequence of changes to its biochemical composition. PMID:24523902

  15. Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-06-01

    Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks.

  16. Effects of External Calcium Deprivation on Single Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Carlo; Gimenez, Maximo

    1967-01-01

    Deprivation of external calcium causes sudden potentiation of the twitch response of single muscle fibers. The potentiation was 64 ± 8%. Potentiation is simultaneous with membrane depolarization occurring after Ca++ removal. This depolarization amounted to 9 ± 2 mv. Ca++ removal also alters the action potential. 3 min after calcium withdrawal, action potential amplitude fell by 36 ± 3 mv; maximum rates of rise and fall of the spike decreased by 55 ± 5 and 63 ± 5% respectively. Changes in shape of the A. P. differ from those seen with other potentiators of the twitch response, such as Zn++. After short exposure to calcium-free media, potassium-induced contractures show potentiation of peak tension. The S-shaped curve relating potassium contracture tension to log [K]o shifts to the left after such treatment. Calcium deprivation also increased the rate of relaxation of the contractures. This effect depends on the duration of calcium deprivation, and is probably related to the effect of calcium lack on the membrane. The change in relaxation occurred immediately after calcium deprivation, and was reversed by sudden readmission of calcium. Relaxation of twitch and tetanus responses also were affected by Ca lack, but not as rapidly as potassium contractures. The results suggest that external calcium is not directly involved in the process responsible for tension development, supporting the view that this process is mediated by translocation of intracellular calcium. The relaxation process, however, appears to be rapidly affected by deprivation of external calcium. PMID:6064147

  17. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  18. Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-11-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were used as indicators of sleep. We found that the bees sleep more during the dark phase of the day compared with the light phase. Sleep phases were characterized by two distinct patterns of antennal activities: symmetrical activity, more prominent during the dark phase; and asymmetrical activity, more common during the light phase. Sleep-deprived bees showed rebound the following day, confirming effective deprivation of sleep. After appetitive conditioning of the bees to various olfactory stimuli, we observed their sleep. Bees conditioned to odor with sugar reward showed lesser sleep compared with bees that were exposed to either reward alone or air alone. Next, we asked whether sleep deprivation affects memory consolidation. While sleep deprivation had no effect on retention scores after odor acquisition, retention for extinction learning was significantly reduced, indicating that consolidation of extinction memory but not acquisition memory was affected by sleep deprivation.

  19. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  20. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity. PMID:28163935

  2. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  3. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease. PMID:27284221

  4. Thirty-Day Hospital Revisit Rates and Factors Associated With Revisits in Patients Undergoing Septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Emily; Branham, Gregory H; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Desai, Shaun C

    2016-12-01

    Estimates of the 30-day hospital revisit rate following septorhinoplasty and the risk factors associated with revisits are unknown in the current literature. Surgical 30-day readmission rates are important to establish, as they are increasingly used as a quality care metric and can incur future financial penalties from third-party payers and government agencies. To determine the rate of 30-day hospital revisits following septorhinoplasty and the risk factors associated with revisits. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 175 842 patients undergoing septorhinoplasty between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009, using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project state inpatient database, state ambulatory surgery database, and state emergency department database from California, Florida, and New York. Information on revisits for these patients was collected from the 3 databases between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2014, to May 1, 2015. Hospital revisits within 30 days after an index septorhinoplasty and the primary diagnosis at the time of the revisit were the main outcome measures. The revisit rate was calculated within subgroups of patients based on different demographic and clinical characteristics. A multivariable model was then used to determine independent risk factors for the occurrence of a hospital revisit within 30 days of the septorhinoplasty procedure. In total, 11 456 of 175 842 patients (6.5%) who underwent septorhinoplasty procedures revisited the hospital within 30 days of the procedure. Most of these revisits (6353 [55.5%]) were to the emergency department. The most common primary diagnosis was bleeding or epistaxis, occurring in 2150 patients (1.2%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that patients aged 41 to 65 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.09; 99% CI, 1.02-1.16) or older than 65 years (aOR, 1.23; 99% CI, 1.06-1.43) had an increased revisit rate, as did

  5. Thirty-Day Hospital Revisit Rates and Factors Associated With Revisits in Patients Undergoing Septorhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Spataro, Emily; Branham, Gregory H.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Desai, Shaun C.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Estimates of the 30-day hospital revisit rate following septorhinoplasty and the risk factors associated with revisits are unknown in the current literature. Surgical 30-day readmission rates are important to establish, as they are increasingly used as a quality care metric and can incur future financial penalties from third-party payers and government agencies. OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of 30-day hospital revisits following septorhinoplasty and the risk factors associated with revisits. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 175 842 patients undergoing septorhinoplasty between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009, using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project state inpatient database, state ambulatory surgery database, and state emergency department database from California, Florida, and New York. Information on revisits for these patients was collected from the 3 databases between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2014, to May 1, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hospital revisits within 30 days after an index septorhinoplasty and the primary diagnosis at the time of the revisit were the main outcome measures. The revisit rate was calculated within subgroups of patients based on different demographic and clinical characteristics. A multivariable model was then used to determine independent risk factors for the occurrence of a hospital revisit within 30 days of the septorhinoplasty procedure. RESULTS In total, 11 456 of 175 842 patients (6.5%) who underwent septorhinoplasty procedures revisited the hospital within 30 days of the procedure. Most of these revisits (6353 [55.5%]) were to the emergency department. The most common primary diagnosis was bleeding or epistaxis, occurring in 2150 patients (1.2%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that patients aged 41 to 65 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.09; 99% CI, 1.02–1.16) or

  6. Intrinsic Signal Imaging of Deprivation-Induced Contraction of Whisker Representations in Rat Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    In classical sensory cortical map plasticity, the representation of deprived or underused inputs contracts within cortical sensory maps, whereas spared inputs expand. Expansion of spared inputs occurs preferentially into nearby cortical columns representing temporally correlated spared inputs, suggesting that expansion involves correlation-based learning rules at cross-columnar synapses. It is unknown whether deprived representations contract in a similar anisotropic manner, which would implicate similar learning rules and sites of plasticity. We briefly deprived D-row whiskers in 20-day-old rats, so that each deprived whisker had deprived (D-row) and spared (C- and E-row) neighbors. Intrinsic signal optical imaging revealed that D-row deprivation weakened and contracted the functional representation of deprived D-row whiskers in L2/3 of somatosensory (S1) cortex. Spared whisker representations did not strengthen or expand, indicating that D-row deprivation selectively engages the depression component of map plasticity. Contraction of deprived whisker representations was spatially uniform, with equal withdrawal from spared and deprived neighbors. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings confirmed these results, and showed substantial weakening of responses to deprived whiskers in layer 2/3 of S1, and modest weakening in L4. The observed isotropic contraction of deprived whisker representations during D-row deprivation is consistent with plasticity at intracolumnar, rather than cross-columnar, synapses. PMID:18515797

  7. Water intake induced by water deprivation in the quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Okawara, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms inducing drinking after water deprivation, and mechanisms terminating drinking after rehydration, were investigated in the quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. 1. Water intake was induced after 4 h of water deprivation, and the amount of water drunk increased in proportion to the period of water deprivation. Drinking occurred immediately after deprivation. Drinking occurred immediately after deprived birds were given access to water, and continued for periods proportional to the period of water deprivation. 2. Plasma angiotensin II concentration increased, as did plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration, and blood volume decreased after water deprivation. The increase in plasma angiotensin II concentration and decrease in blood volume occurred soon after the start of water deprivation, whereas plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration did not increase until at least 4 h after the start of water deprivation. 3. These results indicate that extracellular dehydration and angiotensin II are responsible for the significant drinking that follows 4 h of water deprivation, and that cellular dehydration is also involved in the stimulation of drinking that occurs after longer periods of water deprivation. 4. Plasma osmolality and Na+ concentration in birds deprived of water for 48 h quickly returned to normal levels after the birds were allowed access to water. Plasma angiotensin II levels and blood volume also approached the values measured prior to water deprivation. However, the rate and degree of restoration of normal values were reduced, and normal values were not restored even after 1.5 h or rehydration when drinking terminated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans.

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J

    1975-03-01

    A probe-recognition short-term memory paradigm was used to inquire into the precise effects of sleep deprivation on human memory. It was found that recognition performance, as measured by d', was generally impaired for each subjects after 24 hr of sleep deprivation. While d' was shown to decrease exponentially as the number of items intervening between the target and the probe increased, this decay rate was not affected by sleep loss. In addition there was confirmation of a previously observed increase in the positive skewness of reaction times after wakefulness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that sleep deprivation increases the occurrence of lapses, periods of lowered reactive capacity, which prevent the encoding of items in short-term memory.

  10. Form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Howlett, Marcus H C; McFadden, Sally A

    2006-01-01

    Form deprivation (FD) was induced in 61 guinea pigs with a diffuser worn on one eye. The form-deprived eye elongated and developed myopia within 6 days in animals raised under a 12:12 h light/dark cycle, but not when reared in darkness. After 11 days of FD, the average eye was -6.6 D more myopic and 146 microm longer than its fellow eye. Initially the myopia was mostly from vitreous chamber elongation, but with longer periods of FD, corneal power increases predominated. These effects were confirmed in schematic eyes. After a delay, FD also elongated the vitreous chamber of the non-deprived eye. The myopia rapidly abated once the diffusers were removed (65% within 24 h) due to inhibition of elongation and choroidal thickening. The guinea pig provides a fast mammalian model of FD myopia and corneal curvature regulation.

  11. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived.

  12. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (p<0.001). However, this relationship was not shown with dental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  13. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Restivo, Emily

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights. Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; p<.05 across all models) relative to sleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered. Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The flow along an external corner revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denier, Jim; Jewell, Nathaniel

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the problem of the flow of an almost inviscid fluid along an external corner made from the junction of two quarter infinite plates joined at an angle 0 < α < π / 2 . The structure of the boundary layer which develops along the corner is explored using a computational approach based upon a spectral element discretisation of the steady two-dimensional boundary-layer equations. We pay particular attention to the case when the angle α is small, thus approximating the semi-infinte quarter plate problem considered by Stewartson (1961) and recently revisited by Duck & Hewitt (2012). Our results, which demonstrate a thickening of the boundary-layer near the sharp corner, will be discussed in the context of the asymptotic theory developed in the aforementioned papers.

  15. Highly Efficient Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Savtchenk, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Rohwer, Robert G.; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) provides faithful replication of mammalian prions in vitro and has numerous applications in prion research. However, the low efficiency of conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in PMCA limits the applicability of PMCA for many uses including structural studies of infectious prions. It also implies that only a small sub-fraction of PrPC may be available for conversion. Here we show that the yield, rate, and robustness of prion conversion and the sensitivity of prion detection are significantly improved by a simple modification of the PMCA format. Conducting PMCA reactions in the presence of Teflon beads (PMCAb) increased the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc from ∼10% to up to 100%. In PMCAb, a single 24-hour round consistently amplified PrPSc by 600-700-fold. Furthermore, the sensitivity of prion detection in one round (24 hours) increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Using serial PMCAb, a 1012-fold dilution of scrapie brain material could be amplified to the level detectible by Western blotting in 3 rounds (72 hours). The improvements in amplification efficiency were observed for the commonly used hamster 263K strain and for the synthetic strain SSLOW that otherwise amplifies poorly in PMCA. The increase in the amplification efficiency did not come at the expense of prion replication specificity. The current study demonstrates that poor conversion efficiencies observed previously have not been due to the scarcity of a sub-fraction of PrPC susceptible to conversion nor due to limited concentrations of essential cellular cofactors required for conversion. The new PMCAb format offers immediate practical benefits and opens new avenues for developing fast ultrasensitive assays and for producing abundant quantities of PrPSc in vitro. PMID:21347353

  16. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence of state instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, S. M.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Nathaniel Kleitman was the first to observe that sleep deprivation in humans did not eliminate the ability to perform neurobehavioral functions, but it did make it difficult to maintain stable performance for more than a few minutes. To investigate variability in performance as a function of sleep deprivation, n = 13 subjects were tested every 2 hours on a 10-minute, sustained-attention, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) throughout 88 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD condition), and compared to a control group of n = 15 subjects who were permitted a 2-hour nap every 12 hours (NAP condition) throughout the 88-hour period. PVT reaction time means and standard deviations increased markedly among subjects and within each individual subject in the TSD condition relative to the NAP condition. TSD subjects also had increasingly greater performance variability as a function of time on task after 18 hours of wakefulness. During sleep deprivation, variability in PVT performance reflected a combination of normal timely responses, errors of omission (i.e., lapses), and errors of commission (i.e., responding when no stimulus was present). Errors of omission and errors of commission were highly intercorrelated across deprivation in the TSD condition (r = 0.85, p = 0.0001), suggesting that performance instability is more likely to include compensatory effort than a lack of motivation. The marked increases in PVT performance variability as sleep loss continued supports the "state instability" hypothesis, which posits that performance during sleep deprivation is increasingly variable due to the influence of sleep initiating mechanisms on the endogenous capacity to maintain attention and alertness, thereby creating an unstable state that fluctuates within seconds and that cannot be characterized as either fully awake or asleep.

  17. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L.; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Design: Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Measurements and Results: Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. Conclusions: The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable

  18. Prolonged Eyelid Closure Episodes during Sleep Deprivation in Professional Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Pasquale K.; Jackson, Melinda L.; Berlowitz, David J.; Swann, Philip; Howard, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Real life ocular measures of drowsiness use average blink duration, amplitude and velocity of eyelid movements to reflect drowsiness in drivers. However, averaged data may conceal the variability in duration of eyelid closure episodes, and more prolonged episodes that indicate higher levels of drowsiness. The current study aimed to describe the frequency and duration of prolonged eyelid closure episodes during acute sleep deprivation. Methods: Twenty male professional drivers (mean age ± standard deviation = 41.9 ± 8.3 years) were recruited from the Transport Workers Union newsletter and newspaper advertisements in Melbourne, Australia. Each participant underwent 24 hours of sleep deprivation and completed a simulated driving task (AusEd), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Eyelid closure episodes during the driving task were recorded and analyzed manually from digital video recordings. Results: Eyelid closure episodes increased in frequency and duration with a median of zero s/h of eyelid closure after 3 h increasing to 34 s/h after 23 h awake. Eyelid closure episodes were short and infrequent from 3 to 14 h of wakefulness. After 17 h of sleep deprivation, longer and more frequent eyelid closure episodes began to occur. Episodes lasting from 7 seconds up to 18 seconds developed after 20 h of wakefulness. Length of eyelid closure episodes was moderately to highly correlated with the standard deviation of lateral lane position, braking reaction time, crashes, impaired vigilance, and subjective sleepiness. Conclusions: The frequency and duration of episodes of prolonged eyelid closure increases during acute sleep deprivation, with very prolonged episodes after 17 hours awake. Automated devices that assess drowsiness using averaged measures of eyelid closure episodes need to be able to detect prolonged eyelid closure episodes that occur during more severe sleep deprivation. Citation: Alvaro PK, Jackson ML

  19. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence of state instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, S. M.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Nathaniel Kleitman was the first to observe that sleep deprivation in humans did not eliminate the ability to perform neurobehavioral functions, but it did make it difficult to maintain stable performance for more than a few minutes. To investigate variability in performance as a function of sleep deprivation, n = 13 subjects were tested every 2 hours on a 10-minute, sustained-attention, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) throughout 88 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD condition), and compared to a control group of n = 15 subjects who were permitted a 2-hour nap every 12 hours (NAP condition) throughout the 88-hour period. PVT reaction time means and standard deviations increased markedly among subjects and within each individual subject in the TSD condition relative to the NAP condition. TSD subjects also had increasingly greater performance variability as a function of time on task after 18 hours of wakefulness. During sleep deprivation, variability in PVT performance reflected a combination of normal timely responses, errors of omission (i.e., lapses), and errors of commission (i.e., responding when no stimulus was present). Errors of omission and errors of commission were highly intercorrelated across deprivation in the TSD condition (r = 0.85, p = 0.0001), suggesting that performance instability is more likely to include compensatory effort than a lack of motivation. The marked increases in PVT performance variability as sleep loss continued supports the "state instability" hypothesis, which posits that performance during sleep deprivation is increasingly variable due to the influence of sleep initiating mechanisms on the endogenous capacity to maintain attention and alertness, thereby creating an unstable state that fluctuates within seconds and that cannot be characterized as either fully awake or asleep.

  20. Revisiting the definition of homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Tendler, Moshe D

    2002-12-01

    Research in genomics, human cloning, and transgenic technology has challenged bioethicists and scientists to rethink the definition of human beings as a species. For example, should the definition incorporate a genetic criterion and how does the capacity to genetically engineer human beings affect the definition of our species? In considering these contemporary bioethical dilemmas, we revisit an ancient source, the Talmud, and highlight how it provides specific biological, cultural, and genetic criteria to define the human species.

  1. Revisiting Cementoblastoma with a Rare Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Vijayanirmala; Narasimhan, Malathi; Ramalingam, Suganya; Anandan, Soumya; Ranganathan, Subhashini

    2017-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which is characterized by the proliferation of cellular cementum. Diagnosis of cementoblastoma is challenging because of its protracted clinical, radiographic features, and bland histological appearance; most often cementoblastoma is often confused with other cementum and bone originated lesions. The aim of this article is to overview/revisit, approach the diagnosis of cementoblastoma, and also present a unique radiographic appearance of a cementoblastoma lesion associated with an impacted tooth.

  2. Careers in paediatrics: Community paediatrics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger Sherriff

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘community paediatrics’, as enunciated by Robert Haggerty in 1968, has informed and shaped many paediatric careers. The principle tenets of inclusiveness: attention to unmet needs; addressing common health problems of children and youth; using and applying preventive and harm-reduction strategies; and securing community input and control, were part of the Haggerty model. The present article revisits Haggerty’s model and describes how the concepts have shaped contemporary paediatrics in North America. PMID:23277752

  3. Revisiting Cementoblastoma with a Rare Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Malathi; Ramalingam, Suganya; Anandan, Soumya; Ranganathan, Subhashini

    2017-01-01

    Cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which is characterized by the proliferation of cellular cementum. Diagnosis of cementoblastoma is challenging because of its protracted clinical, radiographic features, and bland histological appearance; most often cementoblastoma is often confused with other cementum and bone originated lesions. The aim of this article is to overview/revisit, approach the diagnosis of cementoblastoma, and also present a unique radiographic appearance of a cementoblastoma lesion associated with an impacted tooth. PMID:28337352

  4. Free electron laser designs for laser amplification

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, Donald; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

  5. Amplification and characterization of eukaryotic structural genes.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, T; Efstratiadis, A; Sim, G K; Kafatos, F

    1978-05-01

    An approach to the study of eukaryotic structural genes which are differentially expressed during development is described. This approach involves the isolation and amplification of mRNA sequences by in vitro conversion of mRNA to double-stranded cDNA followed by molecular cloning in bacterial plasmids. This procedure provides highly specific hybridization probes that can be used to identify genes and their contiguous DNA sequences in genomic DNA, and to detect specific RNA transcripts during development. The nature of the method allows the isolation of individual mRNA sequences from a complex population of molecules at different stages of development.

  6. Internal entanglement amplification by external interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Uri; Huang Zhen; Kais, Sabre

    2007-07-15

    We propose a scheme to control the level of entanglement between two fixed spin-1/2 systems by interaction with a third particle. For specific designs, entanglement is shown to be 'pumped' into the system from the surroundings even when the spin-spin interaction within the system is small or nonexistent. The effect of the external particle on the system is introduced by including a dynamic spinor in the Hamiltonian. Controlled amplification of the internal entanglement to its maximum value is demonstrated. The possibility of entangling noninteracting spins in a stationary state is also demonstrated by coupling each one of them to a flying qubit in a quantum wire.

  7. Amplification of curvature perturbations in cyclic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Piao, Yun-Song

    2010-12-01

    We analytically and numerically show that through the cycles with nonsingular bounce, the amplitude of curvature perturbation on a large scale will be amplified and the power spectrum will redden. In some sense, this amplification will eventually destroy the homogeneity of the background, which will lead to the ultimate end of cycles of the global universe. We argue that for the model with increasing cycles, it might be possible that a fissiparous multiverse will emerge after one or several cycles, in which the cycles will continue only at corresponding local regions.

  8. Does the Arctic Amplification peak this decade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Torge; Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures rise faster in the Arctic than on global average, a phenomenon known as Arctic Amplification. While this is well established from observations and model simulations, projections of future climate (here: RCP8.5) with models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) also indicate that the Arctic Amplification has a maximum. We show this by means of an Arctic Amplification factor (AAF), which we define as the ratio of Arctic mean to global mean surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies are referenced to the period 1960-1980 and smoothed by a 30-year running mean. For October, the multi-model ensemble-mean AAF reaches a maximum in 2017. The maximum moves however to later years as Arctic winter progresses: for the autumn mean SAT (September to November) the maximum AAF is found in 2028 and for winter (December to February) in 2060. Arctic Amplification is driven, amongst others, by the ice-albedo feedback (IAF) as part of the more general surface albedo feedback (involving clouds, snow cover, vegetation changes) and temperature effects (Planck and lapse-rate feedbacks). We note that sea ice retreat and the associated warming of the summer Arctic Ocean are not only an integral part of the IAF but are also involved in the other drivers. In the CMIP5 simulations, the timing of the AAF maximum coincides with the period of fastest ice retreat for the respective month. Presence of at least some sea ice is crucial for the IAF to be effective because of the contrast in surface albedo between ice and open water and the need to turn ocean warming into ice melt. Once large areas of the Arctic Ocean are ice-free, the IAF should be less effective. We thus hypothesize that the ice retreat significantly affects AAF variability and forces a decline of its magnitude after at least half of the Arctic Ocean is ice-free and the ice cover becomes basically seasonal.

  9. Magnetic flux amplification by Lenz lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, J.; Pirota, K. R.; Teixeira, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Tailoring magnetic flux distribution is highly desirable in a wide range of applications such as magnetic sensors and biomedicine. In this paper we study the manipulation of induced currents in passive devices in order to engineer the distribution of magnetic flux intensity in a given region. We propose two different approaches, one based on especially designed wire loops (Lenz law) and the other based on solid conductive pieces (eddy currents). The gain of such devices is mainly determined by geometry giving perspective of high amplification. We consistently modeled, simulated, and executed the proposed devices. Doubled magnetic flux intensity is demonstrated experimentally for a moderate aspect ratio.

  10. SITE AMPLIFICATION OF EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.

    1986-01-01

    When analyzing the patterns of damage in an earthquake, physical parameters of the total earthquake-site-structure system are correlated with the damage. Soil-structure interaction, the cause of damage in many earthquakes, involves the frequency-dependent response of both the soil-rock column and the structure. The response of the soil-rock column (called site amplification) is controversial because soil has strain-dependent properties that affect the way the soil column filters the input body and surface seismic waves, modifying the amplitude and phase spectra and the duration of the surface ground motion.

  11. Hormonal Involvement in Breast Cancer Gene Amplification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Sazer S. and Kelly T.J. (2001). Redundant control of rereplication in fission yeast . Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci 98: 13114-13119. Green B.M. and Li J.J...increases in MCM proteins and Cdt1 have been shown to induce DNA amplification in yeast (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2001; Nguyen et al., 2001; Green et al...replication profiles of S-phase checkpoint mutants reveal fragile sites in yeast . EMBO J. 25: 3627-3639. Shi Y-K., Yu Y.P., Zhu Z-H., Han Y-C., Rec B

  12. Raman Amplification in Plasma: Thermal Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, John; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2009-01-22

    The impact of thermal effects on Raman amplification in plasma is investigated theoretically. It is shown that damping and the shift in plasma resonance at finite temperature can alter the evolution of the amplified pulse and lead to pulse compression which is not predicted by the cold plasma model. Although thermal effects can lead to a reduction in the efficiency of the interaction, this can be ameliorated by using a chirped pump. In this case thermal effects can be beneficial and suppress the development of the train of pulses that develops behind the amplified pulse, as observed in the cold plasma model.

  13. Whole Genome Amplification from Blood Spot Samples.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Karina Meden

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome amplification is an invaluable technique when working with DNA extracted from blood spots, as the DNA obtained from this source often is too limited for extensive genetic analysis. Two techniques that amplify the entire genome are common. Here, both are described with focus on the benefits and drawbacks of each system. However, in order to obtain the best possible WGA result the quality of input DNA extracted from the blood spot is essential, but also time consumption, flexibility in format and elution volume and price of the technology are factors influencing system choice. Here, three DNA extraction techniques are described and the above aspects are compared between the systems.

  14. Amplification of signaling events in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Frederick W

    2002-05-14

    Bacteria respond to extremely shallow chemical gradients by modifying their motility in a process called chemotaxis. This chemotactic response is characterized by high sensitivity to small concentration differences, which extends over a large range of concentrations. This combination of high signal gain and large dynamic range results from both a memory of past events and the ability to amplify small differences in signal between the memory and the current environment. Dahlquist describes the signaling mechanism used by bacteria to regulate the flagellar motor and the places in this pathway where signal amplification may occur.

  15. Amplification of curvature perturbations in cyclic cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Liu Zhiguo; Piao Yunsong

    2010-12-15

    We analytically and numerically show that through the cycles with nonsingular bounce, the amplitude of curvature perturbation on a large scale will be amplified and the power spectrum will redden. In some sense, this amplification will eventually destroy the homogeneity of the background, which will lead to the ultimate end of cycles of the global universe. We argue that for the model with increasing cycles, it might be possible that a fissiparous multiverse will emerge after one or several cycles, in which the cycles will continue only at corresponding local regions.

  16. Modeling Site Amplification in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braganza, S.; Atkinson, G. M.; Ghofrani, H.; Hassani, B.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in the understanding and interpretation of earthquake ground motions is the role that site effects play. In many parts of eastern North America, the soil layers which overlie glaciated bedrock produce strong and highly variable site responses. We use horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) response spectral ratios as the indicator variable by which to characterize the salient characteristics of site response in eastern Canada. We show that site response can be modeled using two descriptive variables that are readily obtainable: (i) peak resonant frequency (fpeak), as determined from H/V or depth-to-bedrock; and (ii) overall soil type (or stiffness). We use these variables to create a model of site amplification that can be used in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and in real-time interactive ground-motion (IGM) map applications. The key to the site characterization is the relationship between fpeak and drift thickness (depth-to-bedrock), which we derive using H/V data from earthquakes in the region, combined with a detailed digital drift thickness map available online from the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS). The OGS map also provides information on soil type, which is correlated with peak amplitudes (Apeak) of response. We extend the study area to the city of Montreal using similar information from Chouinard and Rosset (2012). H/V spectral shapes may be associated with four main soil categories, which in decreasing order of stiffness are: bedrock, till, sand/clay, and organic soil/fill. The value of Apeak increases as stiffness decreases. We model site response by defining a generic site amplification curve, which is dependent only on fpeak and soil type. The generic curve enables an estimate of site amplification to be made over the entire frequency band of 0.1 to 50 Hz, knowing just the soil thickness and type. These site amplification curves can be applied in the development of regional GMPEs, and in the construction of

  17. Relationship between Statin Utilization and Socioeconomic Deprivation in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boruzs, Klára; Juhász, Attila; Nagy, Csilla; Ádány, Róza; Bíró, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The risk of premature mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is approximately three times higher in the Central Eastern European region than in high income European countries, which suggests a lack and/or ineffectiveness of preventive interventions against CVDs. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the relationship between premature CVD mortality, statin utilization as a preventive medication and socioeconomic deprivation at the district level in Hungary. As a conceptually new approach, the prescription of statins, the prescription redemption and the ratio between redemption and prescription rates were also investigated. The number of prescriptions for statins and the number of redeemed statin prescriptions were obtained from the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary for each primary healthcare practice for the entire year of 2012. The data were aggregated at the district level. To define the frequency of prescription and of redemption, the denominator was the number of the 40+-year-old population adjusted by the rates of 60+-year-old population of the district. The standardized mortality rates, frequency of statin prescriptions, redeemed statin prescriptions, and ratios for compliance in relation to the national average were mapped using the "disease mapping" option, and their association with deprivation (tertile of deprivation index as a district-based categorical covariate) was defined using the risk analysis capabilities within the Rapid Inquiry Facility. The risk analysis showed a significant positive association between deprivation and the relative risk of premature cardiovascular mortality, and a reverse J-shaped association between the relative frequency of statin prescriptions and deprivation. Districts with the highest deprivation showed a low relative frequency of statin prescriptions; however, significantly higher primary compliance (redemption) was observed in districts with the highest deprivation. Our

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005), for males (p = 0.0066), and for females (p = 0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p < 0.0001)]. These effects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p = 0.0080; females, p = 0.0143)(left: males, p = 0.0076; females: p = 0.0010). Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life. PMID:22823997

  19. Does relative deprivation predict the need for mental health services?

    PubMed

    Eibner, Christine; Sturn, Roland; Gresenz, Carole Roan

    2004-12-01

    Several studies postulate that psychological conditions may contribute to the link between low relative income and poor health, but no one has directly tested the relationship between relative deprivation and mental health disorders. In this paper, we investigate whether low income relative to a reference group is associated with a higher probability of depressive disorders or anxiety disorders. Reference groups are defined using groups of individuals with similar demographic and geographic characteristics. We hypothesize that perceptions of low social status relative to one's reference group might lead to worse health outcomes. We attempt to determine whether an individual's income status relative to a reference group affects mental health outcomes. Our contributions to the literature include (i) defining reference groups using demographic characteristics in addition to geographic area, (ii) looking at an individual's relative income status rather than low income or aggregate-level income inequality, and (iii) focusing specifically on mental-health related outcomes. Our primary data source is the national household survey component of HealthCare for Communities (HCC), funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to track the effects of the changing health care system on individuals at risk for alcohol, drug abuse, or mental health disorders. HCC is a complement to the Community Tracking Survey (CTS) and reinterviews participants of the main study. To construct relative deprivation measures, we used data from the 5% Public Use Micro Data Sample of the 2000 Census. Our measure of relative deprivation is defined using Yitzhaki's index, a term that measures the expected income difference between an individual and others in his or her reference group that are more affluent. We evaluate the relationship between relative deprivation and mental health using conditional logit models with reference group random effects. Even after controlling for an individual's absolute

  20. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between social deprivation and the incidence of adult fractures.

    PubMed

    Court-Brown, Charles M; Aitken, Stuart A; Duckworth, Andrew D; Clement, Nicholas D; McQueen, Margaret M

    2013-03-20

    Social deprivation is associated with many diseases. To our knowledge, there has been no previous investigation of its role in the epidemiology and incidence of fractures in adults. We analyzed 6872 consecutive fractures in patients fifteen years of age or older over a one-year period. Social deprivation was analyzed using the Carstairs score, which is derived from patients' postal codes and accurately defines social deprivation in our population. Social deprivation is associated with an increasing fracture incidence. The effect is not linear, and the most deprived 10% of society are affected. The odds ratios of the most deprived 10% of society having an increased incidence of fractures are 3.7 in males and 3.1 in females. Social deprivation is associated with a significant increase in the incidence of fractures in the most deprived 10% of the population. Most fracture types are affected.

  2. Beam cleaning of an incoherent laser via plasma Raman amplification

    DOE PAGES

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Qu, Kenan; Mikhailova, Julia M.; ...

    2017-09-25

    We show that backward Raman amplification in plasma can efficiently compress a temporally incoherent pump laser into an intense coherent amplified seed pulse, provided that the correlation time of the pump is longer than the inverse plasma frequency. One analytical theory for Raman amplification using pump beams with different correlation functions is developed and compared to numerical calculations and particle-in-cell simulations. Since incoherence on scales shorter than the instability growth time suppresses spontaneous noise amplification, we point out a broad regime where quasi-coherent sources may be used as efficient low-noise Raman amplification pumps. As the amplified seed is coherent, Ramanmore » amplification provides an additional a beam-cleaning mechanism for removing incoherence. At near-infrared wavelengths, finite coherence times as short as 50 fs allow amplification with only minor losses in efficiency.« less

  3. Specific replication origins promote DNA amplification in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lee; Heichinger, Christian; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg; Nurse, Paul

    2010-09-15

    To ensure equal replication of the genome in every eukaryotic cell cycle, replication origins fire only once each S phase and do not fire after passive replication. Failure in these controls can lead to local amplification, contributing to genome instability and the development of cancer. To identify features of replication origins important for such amplification, we have investigated origin firing and local genome amplification in the presence of excess helicase loaders Cdc18 and Cdt1 in fission yeast. We find that S phase controls are attenuated and coordination of origin firing is lost, resulting in local amplification. Specific origins are necessary for amplification but act only within a permissive chromosomal context. Origins associated with amplification are highly AT-rich, fire efficiently and early during mitotic S phase, and are located in large intergenic regions. We propose that these features predispose replication origins to re-fire within a single S phase, or to remain active after passive replication.

  4. Beam cleaning of an incoherent laser via plasma Raman amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Matthew R.; Qu, Kenan; Mikhailova, Julia M.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-10-01

    We show that backward Raman amplification in plasma can efficiently compress a temporally incoherent pump laser into an intense coherent amplified seed pulse, provided that the correlation time of the pump is longer than the inverse plasma frequency. An analytical theory for Raman amplification using pump beams with different correlation functions is developed and compared to numerical calculations and particle-in-cell simulations. Since incoherence on scales shorter than the instability growth time suppresses spontaneous noise amplification, we point out a broad regime where quasi-coherent sources may be used as efficient low-noise Raman amplification pumps. As the amplified seed is coherent, Raman amplification additionally provides a beam-cleaning mechanism for removing incoherence. At near-infrared wavelengths, finite coherence times as short as 50 fs allow amplification with only minor losses in efficiency.

  5. Bilateral amplification and sound localization: then and now.

    PubMed

    Simon, Helen J

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution and pros and cons of bilateral amplification. Determining whether a bilateral hearing aid fitting is superior to that of a monaural hearing aid is a long-standing question; for this reason, the trend toward bilateral amplification has been slow. However, it is now assumed that bilateral amplification has significant advantages over monaural amplification in most cases, a view that is supported by our localization results. In this article, we will address the advantages of bilateral hearing aids and reveal some new localization data that show that most listeners with bilateral amplification, when tested unaided, as well as normal-hearing listeners manifested very high degrees of symmetry in their judgments of perceived angle while listeners who routinely use monaural amplification and those with asymmetric hearing loss had relatively large asymmetries. These data show that asymmetry in localization judgments is a much more sensitive indicator of abnormal localization ability than the magnitude of localization errors.

  6. In vitro amplification of H-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy by protein misfolding cyclic amplification

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Matthew J.; Bishop, Keith; Workman, Robert G.; Maddison, Ben C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The in vitro amplification of prions by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification has been shown to detect PrPSc to levels at least as sensitive as rodent bioassay but in a fraction of the time. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a zoonotic prion disease in cattle and has been shown to occur in 3 distinct forms, classical BSE (C-BSE) and 2 atypical BSE forms (L-BSE and H-BSE). Atypical forms are usually detected in asymptomatic, older cattle and are suggested to be spontaneous forms of the disease. Here, we show the development of a serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification method for the detection of H-BSE. The assay could detect PrPSc from 3 distinct experimental isolates of H-BSE, could detect PrPSc in as little as 1×10−12 g of brain material and was highly specific. Additionally, the product of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification at all dilutions of seed analyzed could be readily distinguished from L-BSE, which did not amplify, and C-BSE, which had PrPSc with distinct protease K-resistance and protease K-resistant PrPSc molecular weights. PMID:28281929

  7. Oncogene amplification in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Kornegoor, Robert; Moelans, Cathy B; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Hogenes, Marieke C H; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Marchionni, Luigi; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Gene amplification is an important mechanism for oncogene activation, a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Compared to female breast cancer, little is known on the genetic makeup of male breast cancer, because large series are lacking. Copy number changes of 21 breast cancer related genes were studied in 110 male breast cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A ratio of >1.3 was regarded indicative for gene copy number gain and a ratio >2.0 for gene amplification. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features, prognosis and 17 genes were compared with a group of female breast cancers. Gene copy number gain of CCND1, TRAF4, CDC6 and MTDH was seen in >40 % of the male breast cancer cases, with also frequent amplification. The number of genes with copy number gain and several single genes were associated with high grade, but only CCND1 amplification was an independent predictor of adverse survival in Cox regression (p = 0.015; hazard ratio 3.0). In unsupervised hierarchical clustering a distinctive group of male breast cancer with poor prognosis (p = 0.009; hazard ratio 3.4) was identified, characterized by frequent CCND1, MTDH, CDC6, ADAM9, TRAF4 and MYC copy number gain. Compared to female breast cancers, EGFR (p = 0.005) and CCND1 (p = 0.041) copy number gain was more often seen in male breast cancer, while copy number gain of EMSY (p = 0.004) and CPD (p = 0.001) and amplification in general was less frequent. In conclusion, several female breast cancer genes also seem to be important in male breast carcinogenesis. However, there are also clear differences in copy number changes between male and female breast cancers, pointing toward differences in carcinogenesis between male and female breast cancer and emphasizing the importance of identifying biomarkers and therapeutic agents based on research in male breast cancer. In addition CCND1 amplification seems to be an independent prognosticator in male breast cancer.

  8. Explanatory model for sound amplification in a stethoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with opportunities to not only better understand the amplification mechanism of a stethoscope, but also to strengthen their understanding of sound, pressure, waves, resonance modes, etc.

  9. The extent of visual recovery from early monocular or binocular visual deprivation in kittens.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, D E

    1988-01-01

    1. The rate and extent of recovery of vision was studied in the deprived eye of kittens that had been monocularly deprived from near birth for periods that lasted from 6 weeks to 18 months. Recovery was measured in the two situations, where either both eyes were open following the initial deprivation (binocular recovery), or else the non-deprived eye was occluded so as to force the animal to employ its deprived eye (reverse occlusion). 2. Measurements were made of the visual acuity of the deprived eye for gratings at frequent intervals during recovery by means of a simple behavioural technique. 3. The acuity that the deprived eye eventually attained declined with increasing length of deprivation in a manner that could be approximated by a simple exponential decay. Only minimal visual recovery was observed in animals deprived beyond 1 year of age; only two of six animals recovered sufficient vision to enable measurement of visual acuity. In general, animals that were reverse occluded recovered better vision than did those that had both eyes open during recovery. 4. The recovery of vision in the deprived eye of monocularly deprived kittens was compared to that observed following equivalent periods of two forms of binocular deprivation, namely dark-rearing and binocular eyelid suture. 5. The recovery from the two forms of binocular deprivation was quite different. Whereas the extent of recovery from dark-rearing was considerably greater than that observed after equivalent periods of monocular deprivation, the recovery of a limited sample of cats that were binocularly deprived by eyelid suture was worse. 6. These findings suggest that some plasticity remains in the visual pathways for a longer time than indicated by experiments that examine the physiological effects of monocular deprivation on various visual cortical structures. PMID:3411490

  10. Sleep deprivation alters thyroid hormone economy in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nayana Coutinho; da Cruz, Natália Santos; de Paula Nascimento, Cristine; da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; da Silva, Alba Cenélia Matos; Olivares, Emerson Lopes; Marassi, Michelle Porto

    2015-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The relationship between the thyroid system and sleep deprivation has seldom been assessed in the literature, and mounting evidence exists that sleep disturbances influence human lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and thyroid hormone metabolism in sleep-deprived and sleep-restricted rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Central hypothyroidism and high thyroxine (T4 ) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ) activation in brown adipose tissue were observed following sleep deprivation. Sleep-restricted rats exhibited normal thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations despite increased circulating T3 . Sleep recovery for 24 h did not normalize the high T3 concentrations, suggesting that high T3 is a powerful counterregulatory mechanism activated following sleep deprivation. Modern life has shortened sleep time, and the consequences of sleep deprivation have been examined in both human subjects and animal models. As the relationship between thyroid function and sleep deprivation has not been fully investigated, the aim of this study was to assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and thyroid hormone metabolism following paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and sleep restriction (SR) in rats. The effects of a 24 h rebound period were also studied. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g, n = 10 per group) were subjected to sleep deprivation via the modified multiple platform method. Rats were assigned to the following seven groups: control, PSD for 24 or 96 h, 24 or 96 h of sleep deprivation with rebound (PSD24R and PSD96R), SR for 21 days (SR21) and SR21 with rebound (SR21R). Blood samples were collected to determine the 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), thyroxine (T4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations. Brown adipose tissue iodothyronine deiodinase type 2 (D2) activity was also evaluated. Body weight gain was dramatically reduced (by ∼50-100%) in all

  11. A PARAMETER STUDY FOR BAROCLINIC VORTEX AMPLIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Raettig, Natalie; Klahr, Hubert; Lyra, Wladimir E-mail: klahr@mpia.de

    2013-03-10

    Recent studies have shown that baroclinic vortex amplification is strongly dependent on certain factors, namely, the global entropy gradient, the efficiency of thermal diffusion and/or relaxation as well as numerical resolution. We conduct a comprehensive study of a broad range and combination of various entropy gradients, thermal diffusion and thermal relaxation timescales via local shearing sheet simulations covering the parameter space relevant for protoplanetary disks. We measure the Reynolds stresses as a function of our control parameters and see that there is angular momentum transport even for entropy gradients as low as {beta} = -dln s/dln r = 1/2. Values we expect in protoplanetary disks are between {beta} = 0.5-2.0 The amplification-rate of the perturbations, {Gamma}, appears to be proportional to {beta}{sup 2} and thus proportional to the square of the Brunt-Vaeisaelae frequency ({Gamma}{proportional_to}{beta}{sup 2}{proportional_to}N {sup 2}). The saturation level of Reynolds stresses, on the other hand, seems to be proportional to {beta}{sup 1/2}. This highlights the importance of baroclinic effects even for the low entropy gradients expected in protoplanetary disks.

  12. Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.

  13. ras gene Amplification and malignant transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Pulciani, S; Santos, E; Long, L K; Sorrentino, V; Barbacid, M

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells occurs upon transfection of these cells with large amounts (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms) of recombinant DNA molecules carrying the normal human H-ras-1 proto-oncogene. We provide experimental evidence indicating that transformation of these NIH 3T3 cells results from the combined effect of multiple copies of the H-ras-1 proto-oncogene rather than from spontaneous mutation of one of the transfected H-ras-1 clones (E. Santos, E.P. Reddy, S. Pulciani, R.J. Feldman, and M. Barbacid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:4679-4683, 1983). Levels of H-ras-1 RNA and p21 expression are highly elevated in the NIH 3T3 transformants, and in those cases examined, these levels correlate with the malignant properties of these cells. We have also investigated the presence of amplified ras genes in a variety of human carcinomas. In 75 tumor biopsies, we found amplification of the human K-ras-2 locus in one carcinoma of the lung. These results indicate that ras gene amplification is an alternative pathway by which ras genes may participate in the development of human neoplasia. Images PMID:3915535

  14. Study of optical sound generation and amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Henry E.; Shields, F. D.

    1986-11-01

    This project involves three separate tasks, i.e.: (1) generation of low frequency sound from optical pulses; (2) propagation of sound through a gas with an overpopulation of vibrationally excited states; and, (3) optoacoustic studies in liquids. The three tasks, funded by the physics division of ONR, represent a three-pronged study of the generation of sound by the absorption of light and amplification of a propagating sound wave. Generation of low frequency sound from a series of optical pulses involves optimizing the density of pulses to obtain maximum energy at low frequencies. The present effort is devoted to numerical simulation. With present modulation schemes, as much as 50% of the energy appears in the desired fundamental, but predicted harmonic distortion is unacceptable. Amplification of sound propagating through gas with an overpopulation of vibrationally excited states has now been observed in N2/H2,N2/He, and N2/CH4 mixtures. The gas is excited with an electrical discharge. Present efforts are devoted to achieving better agreement between theory and experiment. Optoacoustic pulses have been observed in several alcohols and water. The optoacoustic amplitude has been observed as a function of laser energy, distance from excitation zone to detection region, and optical absorption coefficient.

  15. Fidelity of DNA polymerases in DNA amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Keohavong, P.; Thilly, W.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to separate and isolate the products of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The strategy permitted direct enumeration and identification of point mutations created by T4, modified T7, Klenow fragment of polymerase I, and Thermus aquaticus (Tag) DNA polymerases. Incorrectly synthesized sequences were separated from the wild type by DGGE as mutant/wild-type heteroduplexes and the heteroduplex fraction was used to calculate the average error rate (mutations per base duplication). The error rate induced in the 104-base-pair low-temperature melting domain of exon 3 of the human hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene was {approx} 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} for modified T7, 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for Klenow fragment, and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for Taq polymerases after a 10{sup 6}-fold amplification. The error rate for T4 DNA polymerase was not more than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} error per base duplication. The predominant mutations were sequenced and found to be transitions of G{center dot}C to A{center dot}T for T4 and modified T7 DNA polymerases, and A{center dot}T to G{center dot}C for Taq polymerase. Klenow fragment induced both possible transitions and deletions of 2 and 4 base pairs.

  16. Optimization of noncollinear optical parametric amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, D. N.; Rothardt, J.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-02-01

    Noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) - pumped with the green light of a frequency doubled Yb-doped fiber-amplifier system 1, 2 - permit convenient generation of ultrashort pulses in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) 3. The broad bandwidth of the parametric gain via the noncollinear pump configuration allows amplification of few-cycle optical pulses when seeded with a spectrally flat, re-compressible signal. The short pulses tunable over a wide region in the visible permit transcend of frontiers in physics and lifescience. For instance, the resulting high temporal resolution is of significance for many spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, the high magnitudes of the peak-powers of the produced pulses allow research in high-field physics. To understand the demands of noncollinear optical parametric amplification using a fiber pump source, it is important to investigate this configuration in detail 4. An analysis provides not only insight into the parametric process but also determines an optimal choice of experimental parameters for the objective. Here, the intention is to design a configuration which yields the shortest possible temporal pulse. As a consequence of this analysis, the experimental setup could be optimized. A number of aspects of optical parametric amplifier performance have been treated analytically and computationally 5, but these do not fully cover the situation under consideration here.

  17. Power amplification in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Lukashkin, Andrei N; Walling, Mark N; Russell, Ian J

    2007-08-07

    It was first suggested by Gold in 1948 [1] that the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the mammalian cochlea is due to an active process referred to as the cochlear amplifier. It is thought that this process works by pumping energy to augment the otherwise damped sound-induced vibrations of the basilar membrane [2-4], a mechanism known as negative damping. The existence of the cochlear amplifier has been inferred from comparing responses of sensitive and compromised cochleae [5] and observations of acoustic emissions [6, 7] and through mathematical modeling [8, 9]. However, power amplification has yet to be demonstrated directly. Here, we prove that energy is indeed produced in the cochlea on a cycle-by-cycle basis. By using laser interferometry [10], we show that the nonlinear component of basilar-membrane responses to sound stimulation leads the forces acting on the membrane. This is possible only in active systems with negative damping [11]. Our finding provides the first direct evidence for power amplification in the mammalian cochlea. The finding also makes redundant current hypotheses of cochlear frequency sharpening and sensitization that are not based on negative damping.

  18. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  19. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  20. Direct amplification of casework bloodstains using the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 PCR amplification system.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kerryn; Crowle, Damian; Scott, Pam

    2014-09-01

    A significant number of evidence items submitted to Forensic Science Service Tasmania (FSST) are blood swabs or bloodstained items. Samples from these items routinely undergo phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol organic extraction and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) testing prior to PowerPlex(®) 21 amplification. This multi-step process has significant cost and timeframe implications in a fiscal climate of tightening government budgets, pressure towards improved operating efficiencies, and an increasing emphasis on rapid techniques better supporting intelligence-led policing. Direct amplification of blood and buccal cells on cloth and Whatman FTA™ card with PowerPlex(®) 21 has already been successfully implemented for reference samples, eliminating the requirement for sample pre-treatment. Scope for expanding this method to include less pristine casework blood swabs and samples from bloodstained items was explored in an endeavour to eliminate lengthy DNA extraction, purification and qPCR steps for a wider subset of samples. Blood was deposited onto a range of substrates including those historically found to inhibit STR amplification. Samples were collected with micro-punch, micro-swab, or both. The potential for further fiscal savings via reduced volume amplifications was assessed by amplifying all samples at full and reduced volume (25 and 13μL). Overall success rate data showed 80% of samples yielded a complete profile at reduced volume, compared to 78% at full volume. Particularly high success rates were observed for the blood on fabric/textile category with 100% of micro-punch samples yielding complete profiles at reduced volume and 85% at full volume. Following the success of this trial, direct amplification of suitable casework blood samples has been implemented at reduced volume. Significant benefits have been experienced, most noticeably where results from crucial items have been provided to police investigators prior to interview of

  1. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    PubMed

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  2. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates

    PubMed Central

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10–90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content. PMID:27271574

  3. BHQ revisited (2): Texture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2016-04-01

    appears that grains can be unfavourably oriented for glide despite their c-axis direction falling in those positions which were used in the "classical" interpretation. Additionally, it turns out that grain-scale dispersion axes can be used to describe the kinematic behaviour in a more consistent way compared to the rotations axes obtained from intragranular misorientations in the range of 2-10°. The implications derived from the experimental data set will be compared to data obtained from natural quartz mylonites which formed in a comparable recrystallization regime. This is the companion poster to "BHQ revisited (I) looking at grain size" where the development of the dynamically recrystallized grain size is addressed. Reference cited: Heilbronner, R., and J. Tullis (2006), Evolution of c axis pole figures and grain size during dynamic recrystallization: Results from experimentally sheared quartzite, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B10202, doi:10.1029/2005JB004194.

  4. The Institutionalized Geriatric Patient Considered in a Framework of Developmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erber, Joan T.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is presented of several areas of deprivation research (animal, child, young adult) and methods of conceptualizing and measuring deprivation is applied to institutionalized geriatric patients. Suggestions are made for more precise approaches to studying and treating deprivation in this population. (Author/SS)

  5. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  6. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  7. Household Poverty and Deprivation among Children: How Strong Are the Links?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodem, Anne Skevik

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the links between family income, deprivation as reported by parents and deprivation as experienced by children. Data are drawn from a survey of Norwegian families, in which low-income families are oversampled. Three areas of deprivation are explored: housing, consumption and subjective experiences. In each area, indicators…

  8. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  9. Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for Treatment of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Sleep Deprivation in Fear Conditioning and Extinction: Implications for...the mechanism underlying the most successful treatment for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure. In animal models, sleep deprivation has been shown to impair...acquisition, consolidation, and generalization of extinction memory in humans. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, sleep deprivation , fear conditioning

  10. Effects of 72-Hour Partial Sleep Deprivation on Human Behavioral and Physiological Response Measures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Ten adult males were subjected to partial sleep deprivation experiments in order to study the effects of progressive sleep deprivation on the basic...progressive loss of performance capability. Power spectral data also show changes as a function of sleep deprivation , indicating that one feature of this type of stress may be an alteration of basic human biorhythms. (Author)

  11. Cross classification of the New Zealand population by ethnicity and deprivation: trends from 1996 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martin; Bhattacharya, Aloka; White, Paul

    2008-10-01

    To describe trends in the distribution of New Zealand's major ethnic groups by small area deprivation and trends in the ethnic composition of each deprivation category. Data sources were the 1996, 2001 and 2006 New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings. Ethnicity (Māori, Pacific, Asian or European/Other) was defined using total response output. Each person was assigned a deprivation score by geocoding their usual residence (as recorded in the census) to meshblock level. For each time period (1996, 2001 and 2006) the deprivation score for each meshblock was calculated by principal components analysis from nine socio-economic variables included in the corresponding census (the New Zealand Index of Deprivation). Throughout the observation period, Māori and Pacific ethnic groups were over-represented at the more deprived and under-represented at the less deprived end of the deprivation spectrum. The European ethnic group displayed less-marked skewing, and in the opposite direction, while the Asian ethnic group showed close to the expected uniform distribution. Neither the deprivation distribution of any ethnic group, nor the ethnic composition of any deprivation decile, showed any statistically significant change over the 10-year observation period. Monitoring trends in the relative deprivation distributions of the ethnic groups helps assess progress towards social justice. Similarly, monitoring trends in the ethnic compositions of the different deprivation deciles is important in the formulation of social policy. Little change was found in either of these distributions over the relatively short observation period.

  12. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Boland, Elaine M; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F; Smith, Rachel V; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A; Basner, Mathias; Sheline, Yvette I; Thase, Michael E; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-09-19

    To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation). Data extracted included percentage of responders, type of sample (eg, bipolar, unipolar), type of sleep deprivation (eg, total, partial), demographics, medication use, type of outcome measure used, and definition of response (eg, 30% reduction in depression ratings). Data were analyzed with meta-analysis of proportions and a Poisson mixed-effects regression model. The overall response rate to sleep deprivation was 45% among studies that utilized a randomized control group and 50% among studies that did not. The response to sleep deprivation was not affected significantly by the type of sleep deprivation performed, the nature of the clinical sample, medication status, the definition of response used, or age and gender of the sample. These findings support a significant effect of sleep deprivation and suggest the need for future studies on the phenotypic nature of the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation, on the neurobiological mechanisms of action, and on moderators of the sleep deprivation treatment response in depression.

  14. Current Issues in Maternal and Paternal Deprivation. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    An overview of some major current issues in maternal and paternal deprivation is presented. Parts I and II focus on (1) single parents and issues in paternal deprivation and (2) sex stereotyping and issues in maternal deprivation, respectively. More particularly, Part I discusses the effects of divorce and death on children and the problem of…

  15. Exonuclease III-Assisted Target Recycling Amplification Coupled with Liposome-Assisted Amplification: One-Step and Dual-Amplification Strategy for Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fulin; Li, Baoxin

    2015-07-21

    Detection of ultralow concentration of specific DNA sequence is a central challenge in the early diagnosis of gene-related disease and biodefense application. Herein, we report a dual-amplification strategy for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA. In this proposed strategy, a dumbbell-shaped DNA probe is designed to integrate target binding, magnetic separation, and signal response. In the presence of specific DNA target, the multifunctional dumbbell probe can initiate exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided target recycling amplification, and, in the meantime, generate a large number of fluorescein (FAM)-encapsulated liposomes. The developed method offers very high sensitivity due to primary amplification via numerous FAM from a liposome and secondary amplification via target recycling amplification. The detection limit of the proposed method can reach 4 aM, which is much lower than that of the Exo III-aided target recycling technique applied for DNA quantification without FAM-encapsulated liposomes amplification. Moreover, the dual-signal amplification process can be completed one-step in this system. Therefore, this method provides a simple, isothermal, and low-cost approach for sensitive detection of DNA and holds a great potential for early diagnosis in gene-related diseases.

  16. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  17. Response deprivation and reinforcement in applied settings: A preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Konarski, Edward A.; Johnson, Moses R.; Crowell, Charles R.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    1980-01-01

    First-grade children engaged in seatwork behaviors under reinforcement schedules established according to the Premack Principle and the Response Deprivation Hypothesis. Across two experiments, schedules were presented to the children in a counter-balanced fashion which fulfilled the conditions of one, both, or neither of the hypotheses. Duration of on-task math and coloring in Experiment 1 and on-task math and reading in Experiment 2 were the dependent variables. A modified ABA-type withdrawal design, including a condition to control for the noncontingent effects of a schedule, indicated an increase of on-task instrumental responding only in those schedules where the condition of response deprivation was present but not where it was absent, regardless of the probability differential between the instrumental and contingent responses. These results were consistent with laboratory findings supporting the necessity of response deprivation for producing the reinforcement effect in single response, instrumental schedules. However, the results of the control procedure were equivocal so the contribution of the contingent relationship between the responses to the increases in instrumental behavior could not be determined. Nevertheless, these results provided tentative support for the Response Deprivation Hypothesis as a new approach to establishing reinforcement schedules while indicating the need for further research in this area. The possible advantages of this technique for applied use were identified and discussed. PMID:16795635

  18. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  19. Income Satisfaction and Relative Deprivation: An Empirical Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Frick, Joachim R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of "happiness," i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income, and "relative deprivation," i.e. the gaps between the individual's income and the incomes of all individuals richer than him. Operationalizing both concepts…

  20. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…