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Sample records for depth charges

  1. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  2. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  3. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  4. Depth-charge static and time-dependence perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code block for both static and time-dependence perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Labortary. The DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analysis of realistic multidimensional reactor models.

  5. Effect of electric current on the depth of penetration of shaped-charge jets into targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, G. A.; Matrosov, A. D.; Stankevich, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies of the behavior of metallic shaped-charge jets (SCJs) through which electric current flows. The possibility of decreasing and increasing the depth of penetration of SCJs into targets is considered. The concepts are introduced of the critical current density and the ideal shape of the current pulse at which necking magnetohydrodynamic instability develops in the jet, accompanied by volume explosion of the SCJ elements at their exit from the interelectrode gap. The development of necking magnetohydrodynamic instability in the SCJ and subsequent volume explosion of the jet material lead to a reduction in the jet length and density, and as a consequence, to a decrease in the depth of SCJ penetration into the target. It has been shown that this process can be controlled by changing the electric pulse parameters. The possibility of increasing the depth of SCJ penetration into targets under conditions where the electric current flowing through the SCJ is less than the critical value is analyzed. The process of heating of SCJs of different materials (Cu, Fe, Mo, Ta, W, etc.) by the electric current flowing through them is considered. It is shown that the use of electric current to heat SCJs may be a promising approach to increase the depth of penetration of SCJs into targets.

  6. Degradation mechanism of over-charged LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads battery during shallow depth of discharge cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingling; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Cui, Yingzhi; Guan, Ting; Gao, Yunzhi; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    LiCoO2/mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) batteries are over-charged to different voltage (4.4 V, 4.5 V, 4.6 V, and 4.7 V, respectively) for ten times, and then are cycled 1000 times for shallow depth of discharge. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of the electrode materials were studied in detail in order to identify the capacity fading mechanism of over-charged battery after long-term cycling. The cycling performances of LiCoO2/MCMB batteries are gradually aggravated with the increase of over-charging voltage and the degradation mechanism is diverse upon the degree of over-charging. The capacity fading after long-term cycling of battery over-charged to 4.6 V or 4.7 V is mainly attributed to the cathodes. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) demonstrates that the lower valence state of cobalt exists on the surface of the LiCoO2 after serious over-charging (4.6 V or 4.7 V), and cobalt is dissolved then deposited on the anode according to the result of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). However, after shallow over-charging (4.4 V or 4.5 V), the capacity deterioration is proposed as the loss of active lithium, presented by the generation of the SEI film on the anode, which is verified by water washed tests.

  7. Noncontacting laser photocarrier radiometric depth profilometry of harmonically modulated band bending in the space-charge layer at doped SiO{sub 2}-Si interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Gibkes, Juergen; Pawlak, Michael; Pelzl, Josef

    2005-04-15

    Laser infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) was used with a harmonically modulated low-power laser pump and a superposed dc superband-gap optical bias (a secondary laser beam) to control and monitor the space-charge-layer (SCL) width in oxidized p-Si-SiO{sub 2} and n-Si-SiO{sub 2} interfaces (wafers) exhibiting charged interface-state related band bending. Applying the theory of PCR-SCL dynamics [A. Mandelis, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083508 (2005)] to the experiments yielded various transport parameters of the samples as well as depth profiles of the SCL exhibiting complete ( p-type Si) or partial (n-type Si) band flattening, to a degree controlled by widely different minority-carrier capture cross section at each interface. The uncompensated charge density at the interface was also calculated from the theory.

  8. Temperature Dependence of the Magnetic Penetration Depth in the Case of the Coexistence of Charge Density Waves and Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, M. V.; Sunyaev, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    An analytical expression for the temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the regime of the coexistence of charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity has been derived beyond the effective mass approximation. In contrast to the previous research on this subject, possible dispersions of both order parameters have been taken into account. In particular, it was found that when the CDW gap parameter depends on the wave vector, London's type current is nonzero even above T_c , i.e., in the interval T_c

  9. Skin-depth lattice strain, core-level trap depression and valence charge polarization of Al surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Bo, Maolin; Liu, Yonghui; Guo, Yongling; Wang, Haibin; Yue, Jian; Huang, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Clarifying the origin for surface core-level shift (SCLS) and gaining quantitative information regarding the coordination-resolved local strain, binding energy (BE) shift and cohesive energy change have been a challenge. Here, we show that a combination of the bond order-length-strength (BOLS) premise, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations of aluminum (Al) 2p3/2 energy shift of Al surfaces has enabled us to derive such information, namely, (i) the 2p3/2 energy of an isolated Al atom (72.146 ± 0.003eV) and its bulk shift (0.499 eV); (ii) the skin lattice contracts by up to 12.5% and the BE density increases by 70%; and (iii) the cohesive energy drops up to 38%. It is affirmed that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms provide a perturbation to the Hamiltonian and hence lead to the local strain, quantum entrapment and valence charge polarization. Findings should help in understanding the phenomena of surface pre-melting and skin-high elasticity, in general.

  10. Heterogeneous Charge Carrier Dynamics in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials: Nanoscale Lateral and Depth-Dependent Variation of Recombination Rates in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Bischak, Connor G; Sanehira, Erin M; Precht, Jake T; Luther, Joseph M; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-07-01

    We reveal substantial luminescence yield heterogeneity among individual subdiffraction grains of high-performing methylammonium lead halide perovskite films by using high-resolution cathodoluminescence microscopy. Using considerably lower accelerating voltages than is conventional in scanning electron microscopy, we image the electron beam-induced luminescence of the films and statistically characterize the depth-dependent role of defects that promote nonradiative recombination losses. The highest variability in the luminescence intensity is observed at the exposed grain surfaces, which we attribute to surface defects. By probing deeper into the film, it appears that bulk defects are more homogeneously distributed. By identifying the origin and variability of a surface-specific loss mechanism that deleteriously impacts device efficiency, we suggest that producing films homogeneously composed of the highest-luminescence grains found in this study could result in a dramatic improvement of overall device efficiency. We also show that although cathodoluminescence microscopy is generally used only to image inorganic materials it can be a powerful tool to investigate radiative and nonradiative charge carrier recombination on the nanoscale in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

  11. Folded structure and insertion depth of the frog-skin antimicrobial Peptide esculentin-1b(1-18) in the presence of differently charged membrane-mimicking micelles.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Giorgia; Casu, Mariano; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Montaldo, Nicola P; Luganini, Anna; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Scorciapino, Mariano A

    2014-11-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of the innate immunity of most organisms. Their role in the defense against pathogen attack and their high selectivity for bacterial cells make them attractive for the development of a new class of antimicrobial drugs. The N-terminal fragment of the frog-skin peptide esculentin-1b (Esc(1-18)) has shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Similarly to most cationic AMPs, it is supposed to act by binding to and damaging the negatively charged plasma membrane of bacteria. Differently from many other AMPs, Esc(1-18) activity is preserved in biological fluids such as serum. In this work, a structural investigation was performed through NMR spectroscopy. The 3D structure was obtained in the presence of either zwitterionic or negatively charged micelles as membrane models for eukaryotic and prokaryotic membranes, respectively. Esc(1-18) showed a higher affinity for and deeper insertion into the latter and adopted an amphipathic helical structure characterized by a kink at the residue G8. These findings were confirmed by measuring penetration into lipid monolayers. The presence of negatively charged lipids in the bilayer appears to be necessary for Esc(1-18) to bind, to fold in the right three-dimensional structure, and, ultimately, to exert its biological role as an AMP.

  12. Apparent Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, Antonio B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

  13. Oxygen depth profiling with subnanometre depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmata, Marcel; Munnik, Frans; Hanf, Daniel; Grötzschel, Rainer; Crocoll, Sonja; Möller, Wolfhard

    2014-10-01

    A High-depth Resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (HR-ERD) set-up using a magnetic spectrometer has been taken into operation at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the first time. This instrument allows the investigation of light elements in ultra-thin layers and their interfaces with a depth resolution of less than 1 nm near the surface. As the depth resolution is highly influenced by the experimental measurement parameters, sophisticated optimisation procedures have been implemented. Effects of surface roughness and sample damage caused by high fluences need to be quantified for each kind of material. Also corrections are essential for non-equilibrium charge state distributions that exist very close to the surface. Using the example of a high-k multilayer SiO2/Si3N4Ox/SiO2/Si it is demonstrated that oxygen in ultra-thin films of a few nanometres thickness can be investigated by HR-ERD.

  14. Stereoscopic depth constancy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269596

  15. Stereoscopic depth constancy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Phillip; Banks, Martin S

    2016-06-19

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  16. Capacity fading of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode for lithium-ion batteries during accelerated calendar and cycle life tests (effect of depth of discharge in charge-discharge cycling on the suppression of the micro-crack generation of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 particle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shoichiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Takashi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Nakura, Kensuke

    2014-08-01

    Cycle performance of a LiAl0.10Ni0.76Co0.14O2 (NCA) cathode/graphite cell closely depended on the range of depth of discharge in charge-discharge processes (ΔDOD). When ΔDOD was 10-70%, cycle performance at 25 °C was maintained even at 60 °C. Deterioration phenomena were analyzed by electrochemical method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and micro-cracks in NCA particles were analyzed with cross-sectional views by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many micro-cracks were observed only after a 0-100% DOD region cycle test. Cycle tests in several restricted ΔDOD conditions showed that the deterioration was closely related to not the upper and lower limits of DOD or operation voltage but the width of ΔDOD.

  17. Motivation with Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an illusional arena by offering experience in optical illusions in which students must apply critical analysis to their innate information gathering systems. Introduces different types of depth illusions for students to experience. (ASK)

  18. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  19. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  20. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  1. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  2. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  3. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  4. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  5. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  6. Variable depth core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates to a sampling means, more particularly to a device to sample hard surfaces at varying depths. Often it is desirable to take samples of a hard surface wherein the samples are of the same diameter but of varying depths. Current practice requires that a full top-to-bottom sample of the material be taken, using a hole saw, and boring a hole from one end of the material to the other. The sample thus taken is removed from the hole saw and the middle of said sample is then subjected to further investigation. This paper describes a variable depth core sampler comprimising a circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapse to form a point and capture a sample, and a second saw member residing inside the first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of the first member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside the the first hole saw member.

  7. Spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging on spacecraft materials are studied. Spacecraft charging interactions seem to couple environment to system performance through materials. Technology is still developing concerning both environment-driven and operating system-driven interactions. The meeting addressed environment but lacked specific mission requirements, as a result system definition are needed to prioritize interactions.

  8. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  9. Efficient multiview depth video coding using depth synthesis prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheon; Choi, Byeongho; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-07-01

    The view synthesis prediction (VSP) method utilizes interview correlations between views by generating an additional reference frame in the multiview video coding. This paper describes a multiview depth video coding scheme that incorporates depth view synthesis and additional prediction modes. In the proposed scheme, we exploit the reconstructed neighboring depth frame to generate an additional reference depth image for the current viewpoint to be coded using the depth image-based-rendering technique. In order to generate high-quality reference depth images, we used pre-processing on depth, depth image warping, and two types of hole filling methods depending on the number of available reference views. After synthesizing the additional depth image, we encode the depth video using the proposed additional prediction modes named VSP modes; those additional modes refer to the synthesized depth image. In particular, the VSP_SKIP mode refers to the co-located block of the synthesized frame without the coding motion vectors and residual data, which gives most of the coding gains. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed depth view synthesis method provides high-quality depth images for the current view and the proposed VSP modes provide high coding gains, especially on the anchor frames.

  10. Natural fracturing, by depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, John; Laubach, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Natural opening-mode fractures commonly fall upon a spectrum whose end-members are veins, which have wide ranges of sizes and are mostly or thoroughly cemented, and joints, which have little opening displacement and little or no cement. The vein end-member is common in metamorphic rocks, whose high temperature and pressure of formation place them outside typical reservoir settings; conversely, many uncemented joints likely form near the surface and so too have limited relevance to subsurface exploration. Sampling of cores retrieved from tight-gas sandstone reservoirs suggest that it is intermediate fractures, not true joints or veins, that provide natural porosity and permeability. Such fractures have abundant pore space among fracture-bridging cements, which may hold fractures open despite varying states of stress through time. Thus the more sophisticated our understanding of the processes that form veins and joints, i.e., how natural fracturing varies by depth, the better our ability to predict intermediate fractures. Systematic differences between veins and joints, in terms of size-scaling and lateral and stratigraphic spatial arrangement, have been explained in the literature by the mechanical effects of sedimentary layering, which likely exert more control over fracture patterns at shallower depths. Thus stratabound joints commonly have narrow size ranges and regular spacing; non-stratabound veins have a wide range of sizes and spacings. However, new fieldwork and careful literature review suggest that the effects of mechanical layering are only half the story. Although atypical, veins may be highly stratabound and yet spatially clustered; non-stratabound fractures may nonetheless feature narrow size ranges. These anomalous fracture arrangements are better explained by the presence of precipitating cements during fracture opening than by mechanical layering. Cement is thought to be highly important for fracture permeability, but potential effects of

  11. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  12. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  13. Repulsion between Oppositely Charged Planar Macroions

    PubMed Central

    Jho, YongSeok; Brown, Frank L. H.; Kim, MahnWon; Pincus, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water) and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons. PMID:23940518

  14. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  15. Stereo depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Vonsydow, Marika

    1988-01-01

    In teleoperation, a typical application of stereo vision is to view a work space located short distances (1 to 3m) in front of the cameras. The work presented here treats converged camera placement and studies the effects of intercamera distance, camera-to-object viewing distance, and focal length of the camera lenses on both stereo depth resolution and stereo depth distortion. While viewing the fronto-parallel plane 1.4 m in front of the cameras, depth errors are measured on the order of 2cm. A geometric analysis was made of the distortion of the fronto-parallel plane of divergence for stereo TV viewing. The results of the analysis were then verified experimentally. The objective was to determine the optimal camera configuration which gave high stereo depth resolution while minimizing stereo depth distortion. It is found that for converged cameras at a fixed camera-to-object viewing distance, larger intercamera distances allow higher depth resolutions, but cause greater depth distortions. Thus with larger intercamera distances, operators will make greater depth errors (because of the greater distortions), but will be more certain that they are not errors (because of the higher resolution).

  16. Perception of relative depth interval: systematic biases in perceived depth.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie M; Chopin, Adrien; Zeiner, Katharina; Hibbard, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    Given an estimate of the binocular disparity between a pair of points and an estimate of the viewing distance, or knowledge of eye position, it should be possible to obtain an estimate of their depth separation. Here we show that, when points are arranged in different vertical geometric configurations across two intervals, many observers find this task difficult. Those who can do the task tend to perceive the depth interval in one configuration as very different from depth in the other configuration. We explore two plausible explanations for this effect. The first is the tilt of the empirical vertical horopter: Points perceived along an apparently vertical line correspond to a physical line of points tilted backwards in space. Second, the eyes can rotate in response to a particular stimulus. Without compensation for this rotation, biases in depth perception would result. We measured cyclovergence indirectly, using a standard psychophysical task, while observers viewed our depth configuration. Biases predicted from error due either to cyclovergence or to the tilted vertical horopter were not consistent with the depth configuration results. Our data suggest that, even for the simplest scenes, we do not have ready access to metric depth from binocular disparity.

  17. Multistep joint bilateral depth upsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemens, A. K.; Gangwal, O. P.; Barenbrug, B.; Berretty, R.-P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Depth maps are used in many applications, e.g. 3D television, stereo matching, segmentation, etc. Often, depth maps are available at a lower resolution compared to the corresponding image data. For these applications, depth maps must be upsampled to the image resolution. Recently, joint bilateral filters are proposed to upsample depth maps in a single step. In this solution, a high-resolution output depth is computed as a weighted average of surrounding low-resolution depth values, where the weight calculation depends on spatial distance function and intensity range function on the related image data. Compared to that, we present two novel ideas. Firstly, we apply anti-alias prefiltering on the high-resolution image to derive an image at the same low resolution as the input depth map. The upsample filter uses samples from both the high-resolution and the low-resolution images in the range term of the bilateral filter. Secondly, we propose to perform the upsampling in multiple stages, refining the resolution by a factor of 2×2 at each stage. We show experimental results on the consequences of the aliasing issue, and we apply our method to two use cases: a high quality ground-truth depth map and a real-time generated depth map of lower quality. For the first use case a relatively small filter footprint is applied; the second use case benefits from a substantially larger footprint. These experiments show that the dual image resolution range function alleviates the aliasing artifacts and therefore improves the temporal stability of the output depth map. On both use cases, we achieved comparable or better image quality with respect to upsampling with the joint bilateral filter in a single step. On the former use case, we feature a reduction of a factor of 5 in computational cost, whereas on the latter use case, the cost saving is a factor of 50.

  18. Charged membranes.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This Teaching Resource provides three animated lessons that describe the storage and utilization of energy across plasma membranes. The "Na,K ATPase" animation explains how these pumps establish the electrochemical gradient that stores energy across plasma membranes. The "ATP synthesizing complexes" animation shows how these complexes transfer energy from the inner mitochondrial membrane to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The "action potential" lesson explains how charged membranes are used to propagate signals along the axons of neurons. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might employ them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

  19. Development and Applications of Time of Flight Neutron Depth Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham Cady; Kenan Unlu

    2005-03-17

    The depth profiles of intentional or intrinsic constituents of a sample provide valuable information for the characterization of materials. For example, the subtle differences in spatial distribution and composition of many chemical species in the near surface region and across interfacial boundaries can significantly alter the electronic and optical properties of materials. A number of analytical techniques for depth profiling have been developed during the last two decades. neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is one of the leading analytical techniques. The NDP is a nondestructive near surface technique that utilizes thermal/cold neutron beam to measure the concentration of specific light elements versus their depth in materials. The depth is obtained from the energy loss of protons, alphas or recoil atoms in substrate materials. Since the charged particle energy determination using surface barrier detector is used for NDP, the depth resolution is highly dependent on the detectors an d detection instruments. The depth resolutions of a few tens of nm are achieved with available NDP facilities in the world. However, the performance of NDP needs to be improved in order to obtain a few A depth resolutions.

  20. On evaluation of depth accuracy in consumer depth sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azim Zaliha; Wei, Hong; Ferryman, James

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of different depth sensors. The aim is to answer the question, whether these sensors give accurate data for general depth image analysis. The study examines the depth accuracy between three popularly used depth sensors; ASUS Xtion Prolive, Kinect Xbox 360 and Kinect for Windows v2. The main attention is to study on the stability of pixels in the depth image captured at several different sensor-object distances by measuring the depth returned by the sensors within specified time intervals. The experimental results show that the fluctuation (mm) of the random selected pixels within the target area, increases with increasing distance to the sensor, especially on the Kinect for Xbox 360 and the Asus Xtion Prolive. Both of these sensors provide pixels fluctuation between 20mm and 30mm at a sensor-object distance beyond 1500mm. However, the pixel's stability of the Kinect for Windows v2 not affected much with the distance between the sensor and the object. The maximum fluctuation for all the selected pixels of Kinect for Windows v2 is approximately 5mm at sensor-object distance of between 800mm and 3000mm. Therefore, in the optimal distance, the best stability achieved.

  1. Medium-depth chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Monheit, G D

    2001-07-01

    The combination medium-depth chemical peel (Jessner's solution +35% TCA) has been accepted as a safe, reliable, and effective method for the treatment of moderate photoaging skin. This article discusses the procedure in detail, including postoperative considerations. PMID:11599398

  2. Teaching Depth of Field Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Frederick C.; Smith, Rodney J.

    1978-01-01

    This activity utilizes an overhead projector, a wax pencil, and a petri-dish to demonstrate the depth of field concept to students learning the use of the microscope. Illustrations and directions are included. (MA)

  3. Depth perception of illusory surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Naoki; Drożdżewska, Anna; Zaenen, Peter; Alp, Nihan; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-03-01

    The perception of an illusory surface, a subjectively perceived surface that is not given in the image, is one of the most intriguing phenomena in vision. It strongly influences the perception of some fundamental properties, namely, depth, lightness and contours. Recently, we suggested (1) that the context-sensitive mechanism of depth computation plays a key role in creating the illusion, (2) that the illusory lightness perception can be explained by an influence of depth perception on the lightness computation, and (3) that the perception of variations of the Kanizsa figure can be well-reproduced by implementing these principles in a model (Kogo, Strecha, et al., 2010). However, depth perception, lightness perception, contour perception, and their interactions can be influenced by various factors. It is essential to measure the differences between the variation figures in these aspects separately to further understand the mechanisms. As a first step, we report here the results of a new experimental paradigm to compare the depth perception of the Kanizsa figure and its variations. One of the illusory figures was presented side-by-side with a non-illusory variation whose stereo disparities were varied. Participants had to decide in which of these two figures the central region appeared closer. The results indicate that the depth perception of the illusory surface was indeed different in the variation figures. Furthermore, there was a non-linear interaction between the occlusion cues and stereo disparity cues. Implications of the results for the neuro-computational mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Monitoring the Depth of Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Musizza, Bojan; Ribaric, Samo

    2010-01-01

    One of the current challenges in medicine is monitoring the patients’ depth of general anaesthesia (DGA). Accurate assessment of the depth of anaesthesia contributes to tailoring drug administration to the individual patient, thus preventing awareness or excessive anaesthetic depth and improving patients’ outcomes. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of studies on the development, comparison and validation of commercial devices that estimate the DGA by analyzing electrical activity of the brain (i.e., evoked potentials or brain waves). In this paper we review the most frequently used sensors and mathematical methods for monitoring the DGA, their validation in clinical practice and discuss the central question of whether these approaches can, compared to other conventional methods, reduce the risk of patient awareness during surgical procedures. PMID:22163504

  5. Flexible depth of field photography.

    PubMed

    Kuthirummal, Sujit; Nagahara, Hajime; Zhou, Changyin; Nayar, Shree K

    2011-01-01

    The range of scene depths that appear focused in an image is known as the depth of field (DOF). Conventional cameras are limited by a fundamental trade-off between depth of field and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a dark scene, the aperture of the lens must be opened up to maintain SNR, which causes the DOF to reduce. Also, today's cameras have DOFs that correspond to a single slab that is perpendicular to the optical axis. In this paper, we present an imaging system that enables one to control the DOF in new and powerful ways. Our approach is to vary the position and/or orientation of the image detector during the integration time of a single photograph. Even when the detector motion is very small (tens of microns), a large range of scene depths (several meters) is captured, both in and out of focus. Our prototype camera uses a micro-actuator to translate the detector along the optical axis during image integration. Using this device, we demonstrate four applications of flexible DOF. First, we describe extended DOF where a large depth range is captured with a very wide aperture (low noise) but with nearly depth-independent defocus blur. Deconvolving a captured image with a single blur kernel gives an image with extended DOF and high SNR. Next, we show the capture of images with discontinuous DOFs. For instance, near and far objects can be imaged with sharpness, while objects in between are severely blurred. Third, we show that our camera can capture images with tilted DOFs (Scheimpflug imaging) without tilting the image detector. Finally, we demonstrate how our camera can be used to realize nonplanar DOFs. We believe flexible DOF imaging can open a new creative dimension in photography and lead to new capabilities in scientific imaging, vision, and graphics. PMID:21088319

  6. Sampling Depths, Depth Shifts, and Depth Resolutions for Bi(n)(+) Ion Analysis in Argon Gas Cluster Depth Profiles.

    PubMed

    Havelund, R; Seah, M P; Gilmore, I S

    2016-03-10

    Gas cluster sputter depth profiling is increasingly used for the spatially resolved chemical analysis and imaging of organic materials. Here, a study is reported of the sampling depth in secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. It is shown that effects of the sampling depth leads to apparent shifts in depth profiles of Irganox 3114 delta layers in Irganox 1010 sputtered, in the dual beam mode, using 5 keV Ar₂₀₀₀⁺ ions and analyzed with Bi(q+), Bi₃(q+) and Bi₅(q+) ions (q = 1 or 2) with energies between 13 and 50 keV. The profiles show sharp delta layers, broadened from their intrinsic 1 nm thickness to full widths at half-maxima (fwhm's) of 8-12 nm. For different secondary ions, the centroids of the measured delta layers are shifted deeper or shallower by up to 3 nm from the position measured for the large, 564.36 Da (C₃₃H₄₆N₃O₅⁻) characteristic ion for Irganox 3114 used to define a reference position. The shifts are linear with the Bi(n)(q+) beam energy and are greatest for Bi₃(q+), slightly less for Bi₅(q+) with its wider or less deep craters, and significantly less for Bi(q+) where the sputtering yield is very low and the primary ion penetrates more deeply. The shifts increase the fwhm’s of the delta layers in a manner consistent with a linearly falling generation and escape depth distribution function (GEDDF) for the emitted secondary ions, relevant for a paraboloid shaped crater. The total depth of this GEDDF is 3.7 times the delta layer shifts. The greatest effect is for the peaks with the greatest shifts, i.e. Bi₃(q+) at the highest energy, and for the smaller fragments. It is recommended that low energies be used for the analysis beam and that carefully selected, large, secondary ion fragments are used for measuring depth distributions, or that the analysis be made in the single beam mode using the sputtering Ar cluster ions also for analysis. PMID:26883085

  7. Subpixel Resolution In Depth Perceived Via 3-D Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika; Fender, Derek H.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiment in which two black vertical bars on featureless white background placed near intersection of optical axes of two charge-coupled-device video cameras positioned to give stereoscopic views. Trained human observers found to perceive depths at subpixel resolutions in stereoscopic television images. This finding significant for remote stereoscopic monitoring, expecially during precise maneuvers of remotely controlled manipulators. Also significant for research in processing of visual information by human brain.

  8. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  9. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Steeper, Timothy J.

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  10. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing.

  11. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  12. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing. PMID:27271807

  13. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  14. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  15. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  16. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  17. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOEpatents

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  18. Selenographic distribution of apparent crater depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    If apparent crater depth is a function of crater diameter, then the frequencies of crater depth and diameter should be similar and the distribution of apparent depths of craters on the lunar surface should be random. Apparent depths of complex craters, which range from 0.2 to 4.3 km on the moon, exhibit little correlation with crater diameters. Crater frequency decreases at increasing diameters, but apparent crater depth displays a Gaussian distribution. The average crater depth for all young craters is 1.8 km. The mean depth of craters on the maria is 1.3 km, and the mean depth of craters on the highlands is 2.1 km. A contour map of apparent crater depths exhibits sufficient organization to suggest that the apparent crater depth is correlated to major lunar provinces. In general, regions of shallow craters are associated with basin interiors. Greater apparent depths are associated with highland terrains.

  19. Electrostatic attraction of charged drops of water inside dropwise cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlov, A. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2013-08-15

    Based on the analytical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we demonstrate that inside the electrically neutral system of charges an electrostatic attraction can occur between the like-charged particles, where charge Z ≫ 1 (in terms of elementary charge) and radius R > 0, whereas according to the literature, only repulsion is possible inside non-electrically neutral systems. We calculate the free energy of the charged particles of water inside a cluster and demonstrate that its minimum is when the interdroplet distance equals several Debye radii defined based on the light plasma component. The deepest minimum depth is in a cluster with close spatial packing of drops by type, in a face-centered cubic lattice, if almost all the electric charge of one sign is concentrated on the drops and that of the other sign is concentrated on the light compensation carriers of charge, where the charge moved by equilibrium carriers is rather small.

  20. Measurements of Shaped Charge Jet Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongfa

    2013-06-01

    Penetration depth is an important requirement in oil/gas well perforating jobs. The depth determines how far the wellbore can directly communicate with reservoir fluids. Deep perforation charges are widely used in oilfield industry and most of those are powder metal liner charge for no carrot-like slug left as solid liner does. Comprehensive measurements for the powder metal liner shaped charge jet characteristics, namely, the jet density and velocity, are needed to predict the shaped charge performance and to plan the perforating job. This paper focuses on an experimental work of jet velocity measurements. A medium size of powder metal liner charges (27 grams HMX) is used in the tests. The powder jet shoots through a stack of limestone blocks with shorting switch set in between. Half inch air-gap between two blocks is design to provide space for jet traveling in air to record free fly velocity, meanwhile the jet penetration velocity in the limestone is measured. Aluminum foil switches are used to record the jet Time of Arrival (TOA). The charged switch shorted by the metal jet when it arrives. The shorting signal is recorded. The two velocities can be used to estimate the jet penetration effectiveness. A series of TOA tests show that jet velocity along its length linearly decreases from jet tip to tail until the stagnation points referring to which jet material moves in opposite direction.

  1. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  2. Lunar Far Side Regolith Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    The lunar far side contains the South Pole Aitken Basin, which is the largest known impact basin in the solar system, and is enhanced in titanium and iron compared to the rest of the lunar highlands. Although we have known of this enigmatic basin since the 60's, most lunar photography and science covered the equatorial near side where the Apollo spacecraft landed. With NASA's renewed interest in the Moon, the South Pole Aitken Basin is a likely target for future exploration. The regolith depth is a crucial measurement for understanding the source of the surface material in the Basin. On the southern far side of the Moon (20 S, 180 W), near the north edge of the Basin, we determined the regolith depth by examining 11 flat-floored craters about 200 m in diameter. We measured the ratio of the diameter of the flat floor to the diameter of the crater, and used it to calculate the regolith thickness using the method of Quaide and Oberbeck (1968). We used Apollo 15 panoramic images --- still the highest resolution images available for this region of the Moon. We found the regolith depth at that location to be about 40 m. This value is significantly greater than values for the lunar near side: 3 m (Oceanus Procellarum), 16 m (Hipparchus), and 1-10 m at the Surveyor landing sites. The thicker value obtained for the far side regolith is consistent with the older age of the far side. It also suggests that samples returned from the far side may have originated from deeper beneath the surface than their near side counterparts.

  3. Static stereo vision depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. B.; Von Sydow, M.

    1988-01-01

    A major problem in high-precision teleoperation is the high-resolution presentation of depth information. Stereo television has so far proved to be only a partial solution, due to an inherent trade-off among depth resolution, depth distortion and the alignment of the stereo image pair. Converged cameras can guarantee image alignment but suffer significant depth distortion when configured for high depth resolution. Moving the stereo camera rig to scan the work space further distorts depth. The 'dynamic' (camera-motion induced) depth distortion problem was solved by Diner and Von Sydow (1987), who have quantified the 'static' (camera-configuration induced) depth distortion. In this paper, a stereo image presentation technique which yields aligned images, high depth resolution and low depth distortion is demonstrated, thus solving the trade-off problem.

  4. Foundation Depth for Bridge Piers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerappadevaru, G.; Gangadharaiah, T.; Jagadeesh, T. R.

    2013-09-01

    The safety of bridge piers built in rivers having the bed is one of the prime aspects in the study of scouring process around bridge piers. The stability of bridge piers depends on the depth of foundation provided below maximum scour level. The stability analysis of bridge piers is carried based on moment of forces acting on the caisson pier when the pier slides and tilts slightly in downstream from its position. The experiments are conducted for three pier shapes on two sediment beds and for different flow conditions. The curves indicating the stability limits are compared with Lacey's recommendations which are used in present day practice in India. The analysis presented here indicates that the Lacey's recommendation for railway bridges is safe and for some cases of the road bridges depends on grip length, angle of tilt and weight of caisson.

  5. Aeration equipment for small depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  6. Improving outpatient charge capture.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Daniel; Sanderson, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Hospitals can identify opportunities to enhance revenue collection by closely analyzing outpatient charge-capture data. A hospital can bolster its charge-capture analysis by performing a charge-capture process walk-through and scrutinizing subsystem links, third-party payer contracts, and electronic health record structures. The hospital then can integrate charge-integrity functions into clinical departments as needed by developing charge-reconciliation tools and reports and monitoring their utilization, and incorporating charge-reconciliation responsibilities into clinical department managers' job descriptions and goals. PMID:25647902

  7. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  8. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  9. Charge Exchange with Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Jeremy; Ferri, Kevin; Schmitt, Jaclyn; Hanson, Joshua; Marler, Joan

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of the physics of highly charged ions (HCIs) is critical for a deep understanding of observed phenomena resulting from interactions of HCIs with neutral atoms in astrophysical and fusion environments. Specifically the charge transfer rates and spectroscopy of the subsequent decay fluorescence are of great interest to these communities. Results from a laboratory based investigation of these rates will be presented. The experiment takes advantage of an energy and charge state selected beam of HCIs from the recently on-line Clemson University EBIT (CUEBIT). Progress towards an experimental apparatus for retrapping HCIs towards precision spectroscopy of HCIs will also be presented.

  10. Mapping the Ice Depth of Europa with Ultrahigh Energy Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Wolf, A.; Naudet, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    There has been recent interest in applying radio emission of ultra-high energy neutrinos interacting in the ice of Europa. The idea was first described by Gorham (2004)[1] in the context of ultra-high energy particle detection. Shoji, Kurita, and Tanaka (2011)[2] proposed a technique for measuring ice depth using the radio intensity distribution of radio impulses emitted by interactions deep in the Europan ice. Miller, Schaefer, and Sequeira (2012)[3] follow up this study with a simulation of a radio detector mission to constrain the ice depth of Europa. The radio signal results from an effect proposed by Askar'yan (1962)[4] where the particle shower induced by the neutrino interaction accumulates a charge excess traveling faster than the speed of light in the medium and produces a coherent Cherenkov pulse at radio frequencies. We evaluate the feasibility of such a mission given the current state of knowledge of ultra-high energy particle detection and radio pulse production. References [1] Gorham (2004), Planet-sized Detectors for Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos & Cosmic Rays, NASA Advanced Planning Office's Capability Roadmap Public Workshop, Nov. 30, 2004, astro-ph/0411510 [2] Shoji, Kurita, and Tanaka (2011), Constraint of Europan ice thickness by measuring electromagnetic emissions induced by neutrino interaction, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L08202 [3] Miller, Shaefer, Sequeira, PRIDE (Passive Radio [frequency] Ice Depth Experiment): An instrument to passively measure ice depth from a Europan orbiter using neutrinos, Icarus 220 877-888 [4] Askar'yan (1962), Excess negative charge of an electron photon shower and its coherent radiation originating from it. Radio recording of showers under the ground and on the Moon, Sov. Phys. JETP, 14, 441-443.

  11. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  12. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  13. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  14. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOEpatents

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  15. Depth enhanced and content aware video stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, A.; Atanassov, K.; Goma, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a system that uses depth information for video stabilization. The system uses 2D-homographies as frame pair transforms that are estimated with keypoints at the depth of interest. This makes the estimation more robust as the points lie on a plane. The depth of interest can be determined automatically from the depth histogram, inferred from user input such as tap-to-focus, or selected by the user; i.e., tap-to-stabilize. The proposed system can stabilize videos on the fly in a single pass and is especially suited for mobile phones with multiple cameras that can compute depth maps automatically during image acquisition.

  16. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    PubMed

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. PMID:24491386

  17. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Young, Bruce K. F.

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  18. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Young, Bruce K. F.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  19. Fast charging nickel-metal hydride traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao Guang; Liaw, Bor Yann

    This paper describes the fast charge ability, or "fast rechargeability", of nominal 85 Ah Ni-MH modules under various fast charge conditions, including constant current (CC); typically 1-3C, and constant power (CP) regimes. Our tests revealed that there is no apparent difference between CC and CP fast charge regimes with respect to charge efficiency and time. Following the USABC Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual (Revision 2, 1996), we demonstrated that we were able to return 40% state of charge (SOC) from 60% depth of discharge (DOD) to 20% DOD within 15 min. Most importantly, we found that the internal pressure of the cell is the most critical parameter in the control of the fast charge process and the safe operation of the modules.

  20. Mechanisms and depths of atlantic transform earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Wiens, D. A.; Stein, S.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms and depths of 40 earthquakes on major transforms along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are studied in order to identify events that deviate from the transform-parallel strike-slip motion. Long and short period waves and Rayleigh wave spectral amplitudes are used to analyze focal mechanisms, depths, source time functions, and seismic moments of earthquakes. The relationship between centroid depths and transform thermal structures is examined. The data reveal that transform earthquake centroid depths occur above the predicted 400 C isotherms and the oceanic intraplate depths extend to the 750 C isotherm. Slip rates inferred from seismic moment releases are compared to those predicted by plate motions and good correlation is detected. The difference in the centroid depths of transform and interplate seismicity indicates transforms are either weaker or higher temperatures than expected.

  1. Learning the missing values in depth maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Qingmin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the task of hole filling in depth maps, with the help of an associated color image. We take a supervised learning approach to solve this problem. The model is learnt from the training set, which contain pixels that have depth values. Then we apply supervised learning to predict the depth values in the holes. Our model uses a regional Markov Random Field (MRF) that incorporates multiscale absolute and relative features (computed from the color image), and models depths not only at individual points but also between adjacent points. The experiments show that the proposed approach is able to recover fairly accurate depth values and achieve a high quality depth map.

  2. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  3. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  4. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  5. Development of cold neutron depth profiling system at HANARO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. G.; Sun, G. M.; Choi, H. D.

    2014-07-01

    A neutron depth profiling (NDP) system has been designed and developed at HANARO, a 30 MW research reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The KAERI-NDP system utilizes cold neutrons that are transported along the CG1 neutron guide from the cold neutron source and it consists of a neutron beam collimator, a target chamber, a beam stopper, and charged particle detectors along with NIM-standard modules for charged particle pulse-height analysis. A 60 cm in diameter stainless steel target chamber was designed to control the positions of the sample and detector. The energy distribution of the cold neutron beam at the end of the neutron guide was calculated by using the Monte Carlo simulation code McStas, and a neutron flux of 1.8×108 n/cm2 s was determined by using the gold foil activation method at the sample position. The performance of the charged particle detection of the KAERI-NDP system was tested by using Standard Reference Materials. The energy loss spectra of alpha particles and Li ions emitted from 10B, which was irradiated by cold neutrons, were measured. The measured peak concentration and the areal density of 10B in the Standard Reference Material are consistent with the reference values within 1% and 3.4%, respectively.

  6. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition. PMID:27271993

  7. Pictorial depth probed through relative sizes

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    In the physical environment familiar size is an effective depth cue because the distance from the eye to an object equals the ratio of its physical size to its angular extent in the visual field. Such simple geometrical relations do not apply to pictorial space, since the eye itself is not in pictorial space, and consequently the notion “distance from the eye” is meaningless. Nevertheless, relative size in the picture plane is often used by visual artists to suggest depth differences. The depth domain has no natural origin, nor a natural unit; thus only ratios of depth differences could have an invariant significance. We investigate whether the pictorial relative size cue yields coherent depth structures in pictorial spaces. Specifically, we measure the depth differences for all pairs of points in a 20-point configuration in pictorial space, and we account for these observations through 19 independent parameters (the depths of the points modulo an arbitrary offset), with no meaningful residuals. We discuss a simple formal framework that allows one to handle individual differences. We also compare the depth scale obtained by way of this method with depth scales obtained in totally different ways, finding generally good agreement. PMID:23145258

  8. Clutter depth discrimination using the wavenumber spectrum.

    PubMed

    Benjamin Reeder, D

    2014-01-01

    Clutter depth is a key parameter in mid-frequency active sonar systems to discriminate between sources of clutter and targets of interest. A method is needed to remotely discriminate clutter depth by information contained in the backscattered signal-without a priori knowledge of that depth. Presented here is an efficient approach for clutter depth estimation using the structure in the wavenumber spectrum. Based on numerical simulations for a simple test case in a shallow water waveguide, this technique demonstrates the potential capability to discriminate between a clutter source in the water column vs one on the seabed.

  9. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  10. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  11. Effect of LEO cycling at shallow depths of discharge on MANTECH IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery is being considered as an alternate for a nickel-cadmium battery on the Hubble Space Telescope. The space telescope battery will primarily be operating at a shallow depth of discharge (10 percent DOD) with an occasional 40 percent DOD. This shallow DOD raises several issues: (1) What is the cycle life. It is projected to be acceptable; however, there is no reported real time data base for validation. (2) The state of charge of the nickel electrode at the beginning of charge is 90 percent. Will this cause an acceleration of divergence in the battery individual cell voltages. (3) After prolonged cycling at 10 percent DOD, will there be enough capacity remaining to support the 40 percent DOD. (4) Is the state of charge really 90 percent during cycling. There is no reported real time data base at shallow depths of discharge. A data base to address the above issues was initiated.

  12. Experimental investigation of penetration performance of shaped charge into concrete targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Ma, Tianbao; Ning, Jianguo

    2008-06-01

    In order to develop a tandem warhead that can effectively destroy concrete targets, this paper explores the penetration performance of shaped charges with different cone angles and liner materials into concrete targets by means of experiments. The penetration process and the destruction mechanism of concrete targets by shaped charges and kinetic energy projectiles are analyzed and compared. Experimental results suggest that both kinetic energetic projectile and shaped charge are capable of destroying concrete targets, but the magnitudes of damage are different. Compared with a kinetic energy projectile, a shaped charge has more significant effect of penetration into the target, and causes very large spalling area. Hence, a shaped charge is quite suitable for first-stage charge of tandem warhead. It is also found that, with the increase of shaped charge liner cone angle, the depth of penetration decreases gradually while the hole diameter becomes larger. Penetration depth with copper liner is larger than of aluminum liner but hole diameter is relatively smaller, and the shaped charge with steel liner is between the above two cases. The shaped charge with a cone angle of 100° can form a jet projectile charge (JPC). With JPC, a hole with optimum depth and diameter on concrete targets can be formed, which guarantees that the second-stage warhead smoothly penetrates into the hole and explodes at the optimum depth to achieve the desired level of destruction in concrete targets.

  13. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  14. Space charge stopband correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2005-09-01

    It is speculated that the space charge effect cause beam emittance growth through the resonant envelope oscillation. Based on this theory, we propose an approach, called space charge stopband correction, to reduce such emittance growth by compensation of the half-integer stopband width of the resonant oscillation. It is illustrated with the Fermilab Booster model.

  15. Charged particle radiography.

    PubMed

    Morris, C L; King, N S P; Kwiatkowski, K; Mariam, F G; Merrill, F E; Saunders, A

    2013-04-01

    New applications of charged particle radiography have been developed over the past two decades that extend the range of radiographic techniques providing high-speed sequences of radiographs of thicker objects with higher effective dose than can be obtained with conventional radiographic techniques. In this paper, we review the motivation and the development of flash radiography and in particular, charged particle radiography. PMID:23481477

  16. Charged particle radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Saunders, A.

    2013-04-01

    New applications of charged particle radiography have been developed over the past two decades that extend the range of radiographic techniques providing high-speed sequences of radiographs of thicker objects with higher effective dose than can be obtained with conventional radiographic techniques. In this paper, we review the motivation and the development of flash radiography and in particular, charged particle radiography.

  17. Charge depletion meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J. F.

    1984-11-01

    This invention relates to a charge depletion meter apparatus having a current to frequency converter to sense and convert the current drain of a battery source to a digital signal which is divided and then accumulated in a counter. An LCD display unit displays the accumulated charge which is received from the counter.

  18. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle), muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle). Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle) and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle) was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain. PMID:21696603

  19. "Depth" Matters in High School Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a recent study that examines one of the most enduring debates in science instruction--whether "depth" or "breadth" of knowledge is most important. Its authors come down on the side of depth. The study found that high school students who focus more intensely on core topics within their biology, chemistry, and…

  20. Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette

    2013-01-01

    Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.

  1. Contextualizing Range and Depth in Indian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Examines the range and depth of English in India and argues that these Kachruvian notions go a long way towards explaining how the language is used, exploited, extended, and recreated in the sub-continent. Data, both written and spoken, are presented, and it is suggested that in-depth analyses of such data are a prerequisite to any real…

  2. Differential Cognitive Cues in Pictorial Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omari, Issa M.; Cook, Harold

    The experiment described in this report investigates the effects of various cognitive cues in questions asked regarding the relationship of elements in pictorial depth perception. The subjects of this study are 40 third grade Black and Puerto Rican children. They are confronted with four pictures from the Hudson Depth Perception Tests and asked to…

  3. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  4. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  5. Charged topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-05-01

    A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.

  6. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  7. Contour detection combined with depth information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Many challenging computer vision problems have been proven to benefit from the incorporation of depth information, to name a few, semantic labellings, pose estimations and even contour detection. Different objects have different depths from a single monocular image. The depth information of one object is coherent and the depth information of different objects may vary discontinuously. Meanwhile, there exists a broad non-classical receptive field (NCRF) outside the classical receptive field (CRF). The response of the central neuron is affected not only by the stimulus inside the CRF, but also modulated by the stimulus surrounding it. The contextual modulation is mediated by horizontal connections across the visual cortex. Based on the findings and researches, a biological-inspired contour detection model which combined with depth information is proposed in this paper.

  8. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  9. Depth perception through circular movements of dots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Elements that move with velocity gradients have been shown to give the impression of depth. In this study, it was found that dots in circular motion around a line of sight give a depth impression corresponding to the gradients of the angular velocities of circular motion on a screen. The results of two experiments show that depth perception through circular motion is as effective as that through expansion or spiral motion, but less effective than that through lateral motion parallax when the local speed distributions on the screen are matched. The present depth effect shows that expansion-contraction, spiral, and circular motions are a continuum in terms of producing depth effects; they differ from lateral motion parallax.

  10. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  11. Helium-3 and boron-10 concentration and depth measurements in alloys and semiconductors using NDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Kenan; Saglam, Mehmet; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1999-02-01

    Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is a nondestructive near surface technique that is used to measure concentration versus absolute depth of several isotopes of light mass elements in various substrates. NDP is based on absorption reaction of thermal neutrons with the isotope of interest. Charged particles and recoil atoms are generated in the reaction. The depth profiles are determined by measuring the residual energy of the charged particles or the recoil atoms. The NDP technique has became an increasingly important method to measure depth profiles of 3He and 10B in alloys and semiconductor materials. A permanent NDP facility has been installed on the tangential beam port of the University of Texas (UT) TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. One of the standard applications of the UT-NDP facility involves the determination of boron profiles of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) samples. NDP is also being used in combination with electron microscopy measurements to determine radiation damage and microstructural changes in stainless steel samples. This is done to study the long-term effects of high-dose alpha irradiation for weapons grade plutonium encapsulation. Measurements of implanted boron-10 concentration and depth profiles of semiconductor materials in order to calibrate commercial implanters is another application at the UT-NDP facility. The concentration and depth profiles measured with NDP and SIMS are compared with reported data given by various vendors or different implanters in order to verify implant quality of semiconductor wafers. The results of the measurements and other possible applications of NDP are presented.

  12. Depth Analogy: Data-Driven Approach for Single Image Depth Estimation Using Gradient Samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghwan; Min, Dongbo; Ham, Bumsub; Kim, Youngjung; Oh, Changjae; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-12-01

    Inferring scene depth from a single monocular image is a highly ill-posed problem in computer vision. This paper presents a new gradient-domain approach, called depth analogy, that makes use of analogy as a means for synthesizing a target depth field, when a collection of RGB-D image pairs is given as training data. Specifically, the proposed method employs a non-parametric learning process that creates an analogous depth field by sampling reliable depth gradients using visual correspondence established on training image pairs. Unlike existing data-driven approaches that directly select depth values from training data, our framework transfers depth gradients as reconstruction cues, which are then integrated by the Poisson reconstruction. The performance of most conventional approaches relies heavily on the training RGB-D data used in the process, and such a dependency severely degenerates the quality of reconstructed depth maps when the desired depth distribution of an input image is quite different from that of the training data, e.g., outdoor versus indoor scenes. Our key observation is that using depth gradients in the reconstruction is less sensitive to scene characteristics, providing better cues for depth recovery. Thus, our gradient-domain approach can support a great variety of training range datasets that involve substantial appearance and geometric variations. The experimental results demonstrate that our (depth) gradient-domain approach outperforms existing data-driven approaches directly working on depth domain, even when only uncorrelated training datasets are available. PMID:26529766

  13. Seismic depth conversion vs. structural validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totake, Yukitsugu; Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation based on seismic reflection data is inherently an uncertain product based on imperfect datasets, with limits in data resolution and spatial extent. This has boosted geologists to use structural validation techniques to verify their seismic interpretations for many years. Structural validation of seismic interpretations should be ideally completed on depth sections, which are converted from time domain using velocities derived from well checkshot survey, seismic velocity analysis, or even estimates. Choices of velocity model critically control the final depth image and hence structural geometry of interpretations that are used as initial datasets for structural validations. However, the depth conversion is never perfectly accurate because of absence of depth constraint. Now, how robust are structural validation techniques to depth conversion uncertainty? Here we explore how structural validation techniques respond to different versions of depth interpretations converted by different velocities. We use a seismic time-based image of a fold-thrust structure in the deepwater Niger Delta to interpret, and convert to depth using three different velocity models: constant velocity (VM1); a single layer having initial velocity v0 at layer top with vertical velocity gradient k (VM2); and three layers having each v0-k set (VM3) below seabed. Forward modelling, automated trishear modelling algorithm called 'inverse trishear modelling' and Groshong's area-depth-strain (ADS) methods are applied to test the structural geometry of the depth-converted interpretations. We find forward modelling and inverse trishear modelling reasonably 'fit' all versions of interpretation, regardless of the velocity model used for depth conversion, with multiple sets of model parameters. On the other hand, only velocity model VM3 'passes' the ADS validation method, with the detachment level interpreted concordant with the depth estimated from excess area analysis, based on interpreted

  14. Folding without charges

    PubMed Central

    Kurnik, Martin; Hedberg, Linda; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Surface charges of proteins have in several cases been found to function as “structural gatekeepers,” which avoid unwanted interactions by negative design, for example, in the control of protein aggregation and binding. The question is then if side-chain charges, due to their desolvation penalties, play a corresponding role in protein folding by avoiding competing, misfolded traps? To find out, we removed all 32 side-chain charges from the 101-residue protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus. The results show that the charge-depleted S6 variant not only retains its native structure and cooperative folding transition, but folds also faster than the wild-type protein. In addition, charge removal unleashes pronounced aggregation on longer timescales. S6 provides thus an example where the bias toward native contacts of a naturally evolved protein sequence is independent of charges, and point at a fundamental difference in the codes for folding and intermolecular interaction: specificity in folding is governed primarily by hydrophobic packing and hydrogen bonding, whereas solubility and binding relies critically on the interplay of side-chain charges. PMID:22454493

  15. Remotely Measuring Snow Depth in Inaccessible Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, D.; Boon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In watershed-scale studies of snow accumulation, high alpine areas are typically important accumulation areas. While snow depth measurements may not be collected in these regions due to avalanche danger, failing to include them in basin-wide estimates of snow accumulation may lead to large underestimates of basin-scale water yield. We present a new method to measure spatially distributed point snow depths remotely. Previously described methods using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems, and hand-held laser distance meters have several limitations related to cost, data processing, and accuracy, thus reducing their applicability. The use of a modern robotic total station attempts to resolve these limitations. Total stations have much greater measurement accuracy than laser distance meters, and are significantly less expensive then TLS and LiDAR systems. Data can be output in common data formats, simplifying data processing and management. Measurement points can also be resampled repeatedly throughout the season with high accuracy and precision. Simple trigonometry is used to convert total station measurements into estimates of snow depth perpendicular to the slope. We present results of remote snow depth measurements using a Leica Geosystems TCRP 1201+ robotic total station. Snow depth estimates from the station are validated against measured depths in a field trial. The method is then applied in a basin-scale study to collect and calculate high elevation snow depth, in combination with traditional snow surveys at lower elevations.

  16. Boundary Depth Information Using Hopfield Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Ruisheng

    2016-06-01

    Depth information is widely used for representation, reconstruction and modeling of 3D scene. Generally two kinds of methods can obtain the depth information. One is to use the distance cues from the depth camera, but the results heavily depend on the device, and the accuracy is degraded greatly when the distance from the object is increased. The other one uses the binocular cues from the matching to obtain the depth information. It is more and more mature and convenient to collect the depth information of different scenes by stereo matching methods. In the objective function, the data term is to ensure that the difference between the matched pixels is small, and the smoothness term is to smooth the neighbors with different disparities. Nonetheless, the smoothness term blurs the boundary depth information of the object which becomes the bottleneck of the stereo matching. This paper proposes a novel energy function for the boundary to keep the discontinuities and uses the Hopfield neural network to solve the optimization. We first extract the region of interest areas which are the boundary pixels in original images. Then, we develop the boundary energy function to calculate the matching cost. At last, we solve the optimization globally by the Hopfield neural network. The Middlebury stereo benchmark is used to test the proposed method, and results show that our boundary depth information is more accurate than other state-of-the-art methods and can be used to optimize the results of other stereo matching methods.

  17. Improved tilt-depth method for fast estimation of top and bottom depths of magnetic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Jin; Ge, Kun-Peng; Chen, Xiao; Nie, Feng-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The tilt-depth method can be used to make fast estimation of the top depth of magnetic bodies. However, it is unable to estimate bottom depths and its every inversion point only has a single solution. In order to resolve such weaknesses, this paper presents an improved tilt-depth method based on the magnetic anomaly expression of vertical contact with a finite depth extent, which can simultaneously estimate top and bottom depths of magnetic bodies. In addition, multiple characteristic points are selected on the tilt angle map for joint computation to improve reliability of inversion solutions. Two- and threedimensional model tests show that this improved tilt-depth method is effective in inverting buried depths of top and bottom bodies, and has a higher inversion precision for top depths than the conventional method. The improved method is then used to process aeromagnetic data over the Changling Fault Depression in the Songliao Basin, and inversion results of top depths are found to be more accurate for actual top depths of volcanic rocks in two nearby drilled wells than those using the conventional tilt-depth method.

  18. Exploratory depth-of-burst experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1991-12-12

    This report describes the first small-scale explosion experiments with aerated grout (i.e., YTONG). Apart from data referring to crater depth and volume versus depth of burst (DOB), isobaric DOB curves in the range of 1.5 psi {le} p {le} 15 psi were established. The comparison with previous HOB values shows that the ground range to a given overpressure is considerably reduced with increasing depth of burst. The authors plan to continue the airblast investigations with different types of soil materials.

  19. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOEpatents

    Melgaard, David K.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Damkroger, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  20. Can Water Store Charge?

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikova, Kate; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has demonstrated large pH gradients in water. Established by passing current between immersed electrodes, pH gradients between electrodes were found to disappear slowly, persisting for tens of minutes after the current had been turned off. We find here that these pH gradients reflect a genuine separation of charge: at times well after disconnection of the power supply, current could be drawn through a resistor placed between the charging electrodes or between pairs of electrodes positioned on either side of the midline between original electrodes. In some experiments, it was possible to recover the majority of charge that had been imparted to the water. It appears, then, that water has the capacity to store and release substantial amounts of charge. PMID:19053655

  1. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  2. Generating charge from diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kraus, Per

    2006-12-01

    We unravel some subtleties involving the definition of sphere angular momentum charges in AdSq × Sp spacetimes, or equivalently, R-symmetry charges in the dual boundary CFT. In the AdS3 context, it is known that charges can be generated by coordinate transformations, even though the underlying theory is diffeomorphism invariant. This is the bulk version of spectral flow in the boundary CFT. We trace this behavior back to special properties of the p-form field strength supporting the solution, and derive the explicit formulas for angular momentum charges. This analysis also reveals the higher dimensional origin of three dimensional Chern-Simons terms and of chiral anomalies in the boundary theory.

  3. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth. PMID:26684420

  4. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  5. Apparent extended body motions in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that observers perceived curved paths in depth. Although the magnitude of perceived trajectory curvature often fell short of that required for rotational motions in depth (3-D circularity), judgments of the slant of the virtual plane on which apparent motions occurred were quite close to the predictions of a model that proposes circular paths in depth.

  6. Water depth estimation with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced 9.5 inch ERTS-1 images were produced for an investigation on ocean water color. Such images lend themselves to water depth estimation by photographic and electronic density contouring. MSS-4 and -5 images of the Great Bahama Bank were density sliced by both methods. Correlation was found between the MSS-4 image and a hydrographic chart at 1:467,000 scale, in a number of areas corresponding to water depth of less than 2 meters, 5 to 10 meters and 10 to about 20 meters. The MSS-5 image was restricted to depths of about 2 meters. Where reflective bottom and clear water are found, ERTS-1 MSS-4 images can be used with density contouring by electronic or photographic methods for estimating depths to 5 meters within about one meter.

  7. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  8. Particle-Charge Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen; Wilson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly measuring the electric charges and sizes (from approximately 1 to approximately 100 micrometers) of airborne particles is undergoing development. Conceived for monitoring atmospheric dust particles on Mars, instruments like this one could also be used on Earth to monitor natural and artificial aerosols in diverse indoor and outdoor settings for example, volcanic regions, clean rooms, powder-processing machinery, and spray-coating facilities. The instrument incorporates a commercially available, low-noise, ultrasensitive charge-sensing preamplifier circuit. The input terminal of this circuit--the gate of a field-effect transistor--is connected to a Faraday-cage cylindrical electrode. The charged particles of interest are suspended in air or other suitable gas that is made to flow along the axis of the cylindrical electrode without touching the electrode. The flow can be channeled and generated by any of several alternative means; in the prototype of this instrument, the gas is drawn along a glass capillary tube (see upper part of figure) coaxial with the electrode. The size of a particle affects its rate of acceleration in the flow and thus affects the timing and shape of the corresponding signal peak generated by the charge-sensing amplifier. The charge affects the magnitude (and thus also the shape) of the signal peak. Thus, the signal peak (see figure) conveys information on both the size and electric charge of a sensed particle. In experiments thus far, the instrument has been found to be capable of measuring individual aerosol particle charges of magnitude greater than 350 e (where e is the fundamental unit of electric charge) with a precision of +/- 150 e. The instrument can sample particles at a rate as high as several thousand per second.

  9. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  10. Depth-Charge in the Archive: The Documentation of Performance Revisited in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The debate surrounding the documentation of performance is principally concerned with the ephemerality of the live event, set against the stasis and "death" that the archive is conventionally believed to represent. The advent of digital technology in live performance has complexified this still further, by altering the architecture, space and…

  11. Reference surfaces for bridge scour depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Depth of scour is measured as the vertical distance between scoured channel geometry and a measurement reference surface. A scour depth measurement can have a wide range depending on the method used to establish the reference surface. A consistent method to establish reference surfaces for bridge scour measurements is needed to facilitate transferability of scour data an scour analyses. This paper describes and evaluates techniques for establishing reference surfaces from which local and contraction scour are measured.

  12. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  13. RGB-D depth-map restoration using smooth depth neighborhood supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Xue, Haoyang; Yu, Zhongjie; Wu, Qiang; Yang, Jie

    2015-05-01

    A method to restore the depth map of an RGB-D image using smooth depth neighborhood (SDN) supports is presented. The SDN supports are computed based on the corresponding color image of the depth map. Compared with the most widely used square supports, the proposed SDN supports can well-capture the local structure of the object. Only pixels with similar depth values are allowed to be included in the support. We combine our SDN supports with the joint bilateral filter (JBF) to form the SDN-JBF and use it to restore depth maps. Experimental results show that our SDN-JBF can not only rectify the misaligned depth pixels but also preserve sharp depth discontinuities.

  14. Depth-aware image seam carving.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianbing; Wang, Dapeng; Li, Xuelong

    2013-10-01

    Image seam carving algorithm should preserve important and salient objects as much as possible when changing the image size, while not removing the secondary objects in the scene. However, it is still difficult to determine the important and salient objects that avoid the distortion of these objects after resizing the input image. In this paper, we develop a novel depth-aware single image seam carving approach by taking advantage of the modern depth cameras such as the Kinect sensor, which captures the RGB color image and its corresponding depth map simultaneously. By considering both the depth information and the just noticeable difference (JND) model, we develop an efficient JND-based significant computation approach using the multiscale graph cut based energy optimization. Our method achieves the better seam carving performance by cutting the near objects less seams while removing distant objects more seams. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first work to use the true depth map captured by Kinect depth camera for single image seam carving. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach produces better seam carving results than previous content-aware seam carving methods. PMID:23893762

  15. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.

    2015-05-01

    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  16. Molecular depth profiling by wedged crater beveling.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dan; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas; Wucher, Andreas

    2011-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by a 40-keV C(60)(+) cluster ion beam on an organic film of Irganox 1010 doped with Irganox 3114 delta layers. From an examination of the resulting surface, the information about depth resolution, topography, and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth for every depth in a single experiment. It is shown that when measurements are performed at liquid nitrogen temperature, a constant erosion rate and reduced bombardment induced surface roughness is observed. At room temperature, however, the erosion rate drops by ∼(1)/(3) during the removal of the 400 nm Irganox film and the roughness gradually increased to from 1 nm to ∼4 nm. From SIMS lateral images of the beveled crater and AFM topography results, depth resolution was further improved by employing glancing angles of incidence and lower primary ion beam energy. Sub-10 nm depth resolution was observed under the optimized conditions on a routine basis. In general, we show that the wedge-crater beveling is an important tool for elucidating the factors that are important for molecular depth profiling experiments.

  17. Performance of scalable coding in depth domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, Mårten; Karlsson, Linda S.

    2010-02-01

    Common autostereoscopic 3D displays are based on multi-view projection. The diversity of resolutions and number of views of such displays implies a necessary flexibility of 3D content formats in order to make broadcasting efficient. Furthermore, distribution of content over a heterogeneous network should adapt to an available network capacity. Present scalable video coding provides the ability to adapt to network conditions; it allows for quality, temporal and spatial scaling of 2D video. Scalability for 3D data extends this list to the depth and the view domains. We have introduced scalability with respect to depth information. Our proposed scheme is based on the multi-view-plus-depth format where the center view data are preserved, and side views are extracted in enhancement layers depending on depth values. We investigate the performance of various layer assignment strategies: number of layers, and distribution of layers in depth, either based on equal number of pixels or histogram characteristics. We further consider the consequences to variable distortion due to encoder parameters. The results are evaluated considering their overall distortion verses bit rate, distortion per enhancement layer, as well as visual quality appearance. Scalability with respect to depth (and views) allows for an increased number of quality steps; the cost is a slight increase of required capacity for the whole sequence. The main advantage is, however, an improved quality for objects close to the viewer, even if overall quality is worse.

  18. Depth dependence of vascular fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mitchell A.; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo surface imaging of fluorescently labeled vasculature has become a widely used tool for functional brain imaging studies. Techniques such as phosphorescence quenching for oxygen tension measurements and indocyanine green fluorescence for vessel perfusion monitoring rely on surface measurements of vascular fluorescence. However, the depth dependence of the measured fluorescence signals has not been modeled in great detail. In this paper, we investigate the depth dependence of the measured signals using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model combined with high resolution vascular anatomy. We found that a bulk-vascularization assumption to modeling the depth dependence of the signal does not provide an accurate picture of penetration depth of the collected fluorescence signal in most cases. Instead the physical distribution of microvasculature, the degree of absorption difference between extravascular and intravascular space, and the overall difference in absorption at the excitation and emission wavelengths must be taken into account to determine the depth penetration of the fluorescence signal. Additionally, we found that using targeted illumination can provide for superior surface vessel sensitivity over wide-field illumination, with small area detection offering an even greater amount of sensitivity to surface vasculature. Depth sensitivity can be enhanced by either increasing the detector area or increasing the illumination area. Finally, we see that excitation wavelength and vessel size can affect intra-vessel sampling distribution, as well as the amount of signal that originates from inside the vessel under targeted illumination conditions. PMID:22162824

  19. Motion parallax thresholds for unambiguous depth perception.

    PubMed

    Holmin, Jessica; Nawrot, Mark

    2015-10-01

    The perception of unambiguous depth from motion parallax arises from the neural integration of retinal image motion and extra-retinal eye movement signals. It is only recently that these parameters have been articulated in the form of the motion/pursuit ratio. In the current study, we explored the lower limits of the parameter space in which observers could accurately perform near/far relative depth-sign discriminations for a translating random-dot stimulus. Stationary observers pursued a translating random dot stimulus containing relative image motion. Their task was to indicate the location of the peak in an approximate square-wave stimulus. We measured thresholds for depth from motion parallax, quantified as motion/pursuit ratios, as well as lower motion thresholds and pursuit accuracy. Depth thresholds were relatively stable at pursuit velocities 5-20 deg/s, and increased at lower and higher velocities. The pattern of results indicates that minimum motion/pursuit ratios are limited by motion and pursuit signals, both independently and in combination with each other. At low and high pursuit velocities, depth thresholds were limited by inaccurate pursuit signals. At moderate pursuit velocities, depth thresholds were limited by motion signals.

  20. Handheld White Light Interferometer for Measuring Defect Depth in Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Simmons, Stephen; Cox, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accurate quantification of defects (scratches and impacts) is vital to the certification of flight hardware and other critical components. The amount of damage to a particular component contributes to the performance, reliability, and safety of a system, which ultimately affects the success or failure of a mission or test. The launch-commit criteria on a Space Shuttle Orbiter window are governed by the depth of the defects that are identified by a visual inspection. This measurement of a defect is not easy to obtain given the environment, size of the defect, and location of the window(s). The determination of depth has typically been performed by taking a mold impression and measuring the impression with an optical profiling instrument. Another method of obtaining an estimate of the depth is by using a refocus microscope. To use a refocus microscope, the surface of the glass and bottom of the defect are, in turn, brought into focus by the operator. The amount of movement between the two points corresponds to the depth of the defect. The refocus microscope requires a skilled operator and has been proven to be unreliable when used on Orbiter windows. White light interferometry was chosen as a candidate to replace the refocus microscope. The White Light Interferometer (WLI) was developed to replace the refocus microscope as the instrument used for measuring the depth of defects in Orbiter windows. The WLI consists of a broadband illumination source, interferometer, detector, motion control, displacement sensor, mechanical housing, and support electronics. The illumination source for the WLI is typically a visible light emitting diode (LED) or a near-infrared superluminescent diode (SLD) with power levels of less than a milliwatt. The interferometer is a Michelson configuration consisting of a 1-in. (2.5-cm) cube beam splitter, a 0.5-in. (1.3-cm) optical window as a movable leg (used to closely match the return intensity of the fixed leg from the window), and a

  1. Physical Mechanisms for Earthquakes at Intermediate Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. W.; Green, H. W.

    2001-12-01

    Conventional brittle shear failure it is strongly inhibited by pressure because it relies on local tensile failure. In contrast, plastic flow processes are thermally activated, making them sensitive functions of temperature, but their pressure dependence is only moderate. As a consequence, in Earth, faulting by unassisted brittle failure is probably restricted to depths less than ~ 30 km because the rocks flow at lower stresses than they fracture. To enable faulting at greater depths, mineral reactions must occur that generate a fluid or fluid-like solid that is much weaker than the parent assemblage. Although a variety of plastic instabilities have been and continue to be proposed to explain earthquakes at depth, dehydration embrittlement remains the only experimentally verified faulting mechanism consistent with the pressures and compositions existing at depths of 50-300km within subducting lithosphere. However, low pressure hydrous phases potentially abundant in subducting lithosphere (e.g. chlorite and antigorite) exhibit a temperature maximum in their stability, implying that the bulk volume change at depths of more than 70-100 km. becomes negative, thereby raising questions about mechanical instability upon dehydration. Further, it is now well-accepted that intermediate-depth earthquakes occur within the descending slab (double seismic zones present in several slabs dramatically demonstrate this fact), in conflict with the maximum depth of 10-12 km accepted for hydration of the lithosphere at oceanic spreading centers. Thus, on the one hand these earthquakes may be evidence that hydrous phases exist deep within subducting slabs but on the other hand, a mechanism for hydration to such depths is not known. One possibility is that large earthquakes outboard of trenches break the surface and allow hydration of the fault zone that can later dehydrate to yield earthquakes at depth, but no mechanism is known for pumping H2O into such fault zones to depths of tens of

  2. Backside Charging of Ccds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Venkatraman

    1997-10-01

    Backside illuminated thinned CCDs have the highest response in the UV and blue spectral region. Their use in detectors is limited due to the instability of the CCD. A low temperature oxide nearly 30 A thick is grown on the acid thinned backside to tie up dangling bonds. The oxide carries fixed positive charges that attract and trap photogenerated electrons. A permanent and stable backside charging procedure is necessary to create a negative bias that will drive electrons to the frontside collection wells. We have shown chemisorption charging to be a novel method to permanently charge CCDs. The catalytic nature of certain metals are exploited to chemisorb oxygen as negative atomic species at the metal/oxide interface. Charging is shown to occur by depositing a thin film 10 A of platinum on the backside. No tunneling occurs because of the thick oxide. The Passivated Platinum Film (PPtF) which utilizes a hafnium oxide antireflection coating to passivate the platinum is an effective process, but it is sensitive to the environment and discharges quickly upon hydrogen exposure. A silver catalytic coating is shown to be far superior to other charging techniques. Silver irreversibly chemisorbs oxygen and hydrogen is not dissociatively adsorbed except at temperatures <100oK. High quantum efficiencies have been recorded for the UV-blue ranges. A slight drop is seen at cold temperatures due to interaction of water with oxygen to form hydroxyl ions. No change in QE is seen upon exposure to hydrogen or during outgassing. Silver is also one of the most transparent metals and easily deposited by evaporation. We therefore have developed a charging process which is nearly ideal for CCD imaging.

  3. Real-time structured light depth extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy D.

    2000-03-01

    Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

  4. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  5. Charge Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

  6. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  7. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  8. Binocular coordination: reading stereoscopic sentences in depth.

    PubMed

    Schotter, Elizabeth R; Blythe, Hazel I; Kirkby, Julie A; Rayner, Keith; Holliman, Nicolas S; Liversedge, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    The present study employs a stereoscopic manipulation to present sentences in three dimensions to subjects as they read for comprehension. Subjects read sentences with (a) no depth cues, (b) a monocular depth cue that implied the sentence loomed out of the screen (i.e., increasing retinal size), (c) congruent monocular and binocular (retinal disparity) depth cues (i.e., both implied the sentence loomed out of the screen) and (d) incongruent monocular and binocular depth cues (i.e., the monocular cue implied the sentence loomed out of the screen and the binocular cue implied it receded behind the screen). Reading efficiency was mostly unaffected, suggesting that reading in three dimensions is similar to reading in two dimensions. Importantly, fixation disparity was driven by retinal disparity; fixations were significantly more crossed as readers progressed through the sentence in the congruent condition and significantly more uncrossed in the incongruent condition. We conclude that disparity depth cues are used on-line to drive binocular coordination during reading.

  9. Nanoparticle coagulation in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, Shota; Kondo, Michio; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yukio

    2008-08-15

    The kinetics of nanoparticle coagulation has been studied in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas. The coagulation occurs when the mutual collision frequency among nanoparticles exceeds their charging and decharging/neutralization frequency. Interestingly, the coagulation is suppressed while a fraction (several percent) of nanoparticles are negatively charged in a plasma, in which stochastic charging plays an important role. A model is developed to predict a phase diagram of the coagulation and its suppression.

  10. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  11. Eye movements in depth to visual illusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismeijer, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye

  12. Depth profile characterization with noncollinear beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Shaun L. E-mail: jeong.na@wyle.com; Na, Jeong K. E-mail: jeong.na@wyle.com

    2015-03-31

    Noncollinear beam mixing is an ultrasonic approach to quantify elastic nonlinearity within a subsurface volume of material. The technique requires interaction between two beams of specific frequency, angle, and vibration mode to generate a third beam propagating from the intersection volume. The subsurface depth to interaction zone is controlled by changing the separation distance between the two input transducers, and the amplitude of the third generated beam is proportional to the elastic nonlinearity within the interaction zone. Therefore, depth profiling is possible if a suitable parameter is established to normalize the detected signal independent of propagation distances and input amplitudes. This foundational effort has been conducted toward developing such a parameter for depth profile measurements in homogeneous aluminum that includes corrective terms for attenuation, beam overlap noise, beam spread, and input amplitudes. Experimental and analytical results are provided, and suggested applications and improvements are discussed toward characterizing subsurface material property profiles.

  13. Depth-optimized reversible circuit synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabzadeh, Mona; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi; Saeedi, Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, simultaneous reduction of circuit depth and synthesis cost of reversible circuits in quantum technologies with limited interaction is addressed. We developed a cycle-based synthesis algorithm which uses negative controls and limited distance between gate lines. To improve circuit depth, a new parallel structure is introduced in which before synthesis a set of disjoint cycles are extracted from the input specification and distributed into some subsets. The cycles of each subset are synthesized independently on different sets of ancillae. Accordingly, each disjoint set can be synthesized by different synthesis methods. Our analysis shows that the best worst-case synthesis cost of reversible circuits in the linear nearest neighbor architecture is improved by the proposed approach. Our experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed approach to reduce cost and circuit depth for several benchmarks.

  14. Depth-size tradeoffs for neural computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Kai-Yeung; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.; Kailath, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The tradeoffs between the depth (i.e., the time for parallel computation) and the size (i.e., the number of threshold gates) in neural networks are studied. The authors focus the study on the neural computations of symmetric Boolean functions and some arithmetic functions. It is shown that a significant reduction in the size is possible for symmetric functions and some arithmetic functions, at the expense of a small constant increase in depth. In the process, several neural networks which have the minimum size among all the known constructions have been developed. Results on implementing symmetric functions can be used to improve results about arbitrary Boolean functions. In particular, It is shown that any Boolean function can be computed in a depth-3 neural network with O(2n/2) threshold gates; it is also proven that a minimum number of threshold gates are required.

  15. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. Binocular disparity magnitude affects perceived depth magnitude despite inversion of depth order.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Harold; Hill, Harold; Palmisano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The hollow-face illusion involves a misperception of depth order: our perception follows our top-down knowledge that faces are convex, even though bottom-up depth information reflects the actual concave surface structure. While pictorial cues can be ambiguous, stereopsis should unambiguously indicate the actual depth order. We used computer-generated stereo images to investigate how, if at all, the sign and magnitude of binocular disparities affect the perceived depth of the illusory convex face. In experiment 1 participants adjusted the disparity of a convex comparison face until it matched a reference face. The reference face was either convex or hollow and had binocular disparities consistent with an average face or had disparities exaggerated, consistent with a face stretched in depth. We observed that apparent depth increased with disparity magnitude, even when the hollow faces were seen as convex (ie when perceived depth order was inconsistent with disparity sign). As expected, concave faces appeared flatter than convex faces, suggesting that disparity sign also affects perceived depth. In experiment 2, participants were presented with pairs of real and illusory convex faces. In each case, their task was to judge which of the two stimuli appeared to have the greater depth. Hollow faces with exaggerated disparities were again perceived as deeper. PMID:22132512

  17. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  18. HIV charge dropped.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    Guilford County Superior Court Judge James Webb ruled there was not enough evidence to convict HIV-positive [name removed] on charges of attempted murder and assault with a deadly weapon in connection with the rape of a 12-year-old girl. Prosecutors argued [name removed] knew he was HIV-positive when the rape occurred and defense attorney Randy Jones argued that there was no medical proof of [name removed]'s HIV status at the time of the attack. The judge dismissed the two charges against [name removed]. A jury later convicted [name removed] of statutory rape and taking indecent liberties with a minor. PMID:11364510

  19. Moho depth and age in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower

  20. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  1. Magnetic depth profiles by neutron reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Felcher, G.P.; Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Brodsky, M.B.

    1985-09-01

    Fresnel reflection of polarized neutrons was used to measure the dependence of magnetic induction B in materials as a function of depth from the surface. The penetration depth of a magnetic field is superconductors was investigated, as well as the remnant superconducting surface sheath when the applied field exceeded the critical value (H/sub c2/ < H < H/sub c3/ in type II superconductors). In addition ferromagnets in bulk and in thin layers were examined. The prototype instrument with which the measurements were made was described. 19 refs., 5 figs. (WRF)

  2. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  3. Depth estimation using a lightfield camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Carissa

    The latest innovation to camera design has come in the form of the lightfield, or plenoptic, camera that captures 4-D radiance data rather than just the 2-D scene image via microlens arrays. With the spatial and angular light ray data now recorded on the camera sensor, it is feasible to construct algorithms that can estimate depth of field in different portions of a given scene. There are limitations to the precision due to hardware structure and the sheer number of scene variations that can occur. In this thesis, the potential of digital image analysis and spatial filtering to extract depth information is tested on the commercially available plenoptic camera.

  4. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (CHARGE CUPS)

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.W.

    1959-04-21

    The problems of confining a charge material in a calutron and uniformly distributing heat to the charge is described. The charge is held in a cup of thermally conductive material removably disposed within the charge chamber of the ion source block. A central thermally conducting stem is incorporated within the cup for conducting heat to the central portion of the charge contained within the cup.

  5. Fluctuations of development maximum depth and nuclear composition of primary cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, M. N.; Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, D. D.; Kolosov, V. A.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Struchkov, G. G.; Pavlov, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers (EAS) cascade curves from the Cerenkov light lateral distribution measurements are recovered and the maximum depth fluctuations of the shower development theta x sub m both on the Cerenkov and charged EAS components are defined. At E sub 0 approximates 10 to the 18th power eV the mean content of protons is greater than 85%, and p-air cross section theta sub 0 p-air 750mb.

  6. Who's in Charge Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Even though most decisions are made before they reach the superintendent's desk, and even though these are times of "litigious paranoia," the superintendent is still in charge of the public schools. Some of the responsibilities of the superintendent are outlined. (MLW)

  7. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  8. Adult antarctic krill feeding at abyssal depths.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Tyler, Paul A

    2008-02-26

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a large euphausiid, widely distributed within the Southern Ocean [1], and a key species in the Antarctic food web [2]. The Discovery Investigations in the early 20(th) century, coupled with subsequent work with both nets and echosounders, indicated that the bulk of the population of postlarval krill is typically confined to the top 150 m of the water column [1, 3, 4]. Here, we report for the first time the existence of significant numbers of Antarctic krill feeding actively at abyssal depths in the Southern Ocean. Biological observations from the deep-water remotely operated vehicle Isis in the austral summer of 2006/07 have revealed the presence of adult krill (Euphausia superba Dana), including gravid females, at unprecedented depths in Marguerite Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula. Adult krill were found close to the seabed at all depths but were absent from fjords close inshore. At all locations where krill were detected they were seen to be actively feeding, and at many locations there were exuviae (cast molts). These observations revise significantly our understanding of the depth distribution and ecology of Antarctic krill, a central organism in the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  9. How Item Writers Understand Depth of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Viger, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of test development is ensuring alignment between test forms and content standards. One common way of measuring alignment is the Webb (1997, 2007) alignment procedure. This article investigates (a) how well item writers understand components of the definition of Depth of Knowledge (DOK) from the Webb alignment procedure and (b)…

  10. Microwave interferometer controls cutting depth of plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.

    1969-01-01

    Microwave interferometer system controls the cutting of plastic materials to a prescribed depth. The interferometer is mounted on a carriage with a spindle and cutting tool. A cross slide, mounted on the carriage, allows the interferometer and cutter to move toward or away from the plastic workpiece.

  11. Modified algesimeter provides accurate depth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Algesimeter which incorporates a standard sensory needle with a sensitive micrometer, measures needle point depth penetration in pain tolerance research. This algesimeter provides an inexpensive, precise instrument with assured validity of recordings in those biomedical areas with a requirement for repeated pain detection or ascertaining pain sensitivity.

  12. "Learning in Depth" in Teaching Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The "Learning in Depth" program is a simple but radical innovation, which was first implemented in Canada in 2008/2009 and is now being used in a dozen countries with many thousand students. The aim of the program is to ensure that every student becomes an expert on something during schooling. The unusualness of the program and the fact…

  13. 21 CFR 882.1330 - Depth electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Depth electrode. 882.1330 Section 882.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... signals at, subsurface levels of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. 21 CFR 882.1330 - Depth electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Depth electrode. 882.1330 Section 882.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... signals at, subsurface levels of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  15. 21 CFR 882.1330 - Depth electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Depth electrode. 882.1330 Section 882.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... signals at, subsurface levels of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. Sensitivity to Binocular Depth Information in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, F. Robert; Yonas, Albert

    1976-01-01

    In order to study infants' sensitivity to binocular information for depth, 11 infants, 20 to 26 weeks of age, were presented with real and stereoscopically projected virtual objects at three distances, and the infants' reaching behavior was videotaped. (Author/SB)

  17. Depth-sounding lidar: performance and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.; Lejdebrink, Ulf; Winell, Johan; Nilsson, Magnus; Ellsen, Rutger; Gjellan, Einar

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes the depth surrounding activities in Sweden. These include the development of a helicopter borne lidar called FLASH as well as instrumentation for in situ measurement of the optical water parameters. The FLASH system has been further developed into two operational systems called Hawk Eye with Saab Dynamics as the main contractor and Optech Inc. as the main subcontractor. Data collection and evaluation from Hawk Eye will be discussed. The Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA) is member of the Hawk Eye project team together with the National Maritime Administration, the Royal Swedish Navy and the Defence Material Administration. Together with the Swedish Maritime Administration, FOA has been engaged in analysis of lidar data to determine system performance and possible ways to optimize that in relation to lidar parameters and anticipated bottom depth and topography. Examples from that analysis will be presented. The test analysis so far strongly supports the depth sounding lidar technology as being a rapid and accurate sounder fulfilling the requirement by International Hydrographic Office on depth accuracy.

  18. Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  19. Lunar Regolith Depths from LROC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Nickerson, R.; Lawder, M.

    2010-10-01

    Since the 1960's, most lunar photography and science covered the equatorial near side where the Apollo spacecraft landed. As a result, our understanding of lunar regolith depth was also limited to that region. Oberbeck and Quaide (JGR 1968) found regolith depths for the lunar near side: 3 m (Oceanus Procellarum), 16 m (Hipparchus), and 1-10 m at the Surveyor landing sites. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera recently released high resolution images that sample regions all around the lunar globe. We examined a selection of these images across the lunar globe and determined a regolith depth for each area. To do this, we measured the ratio of the diameter of the flat floor to the diameter of the crater, and used it to calculate the regolith thickness using the method of Quaide and Oberbeck (JGR 1968). Analysis of the global distribution of lunar regolith depths will provide new insights into the evolution of the lunar surface and the frequency, distribution, and effect of impacts.

  20. Effect of local crosstalk on depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Penczek, John; Boynton, Paul A.

    2014-03-01

    Interocular crosstalk has a significant undesirable effect on the quality of 3D displays that utilize horizontal disparity. This study investigates observer sensitivity when judging the depth order of two horizontally aligned dots on a 3D display and assesses 3D display uniformity by obtaining this index for various locations on the display. Visual stimulus is two horizontally disparate dots, with nine steps of horizontal disparity. A dot pair is presented at five screen locations. An observer wearing polarized glasses sits 57 cm from a display, observes it through a slit, and judges the depth order of two dots. Each of the 20 observers responds 16 times per disparate dot pair, and we calculate the rate at which observers judge the dot on the right to be nearer in 16 trials for each display, screen location, and disparity. We then plot the rate as a function of the left-right dot disparity and fit a psychometric function to the plot. A curve slope at a response probability of 50% is used to gauge the sensitivity of depth order judgment. Results show the depth sensitivity variation across the display surface depends on interocular-crosstalk variation across the display thus its uniformity of the display.

  1. 21 CFR 882.1330 - Depth electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depth electrode. 882.1330 Section 882.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... signals at, subsurface levels of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  2. 21 CFR 882.1330 - Depth electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depth electrode. 882.1330 Section 882.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... signals at, subsurface levels of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  3. Determining concentration depth profiles of thin foam films with neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridings, Christiaan; Andersson, Gunther G.

    2010-11-01

    Equipment is developed to measure the concentration depth profiles in foam films with the vacuum based technique neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy. Thin foam films have not previously been investigated using vacuum based techniques, hence specialized methods and equipment have been developed for generating and equilibrating of foam films under vacuum. A specialized film holder has been developed that encloses the foam film in a pressure cell. The pressure cell is air-tight except for apertures that allow for the entrance and exit of the ion beam to facilitate the analysis with the ion scattering technique. The cell is supplied with a reservoir of solvent which evaporates upon evacuating the main chamber. This causes the cell to be maintained at the vapor pressure of the solvent, thus minimizing further evaporation from the films. In order to investigate the effect of varying the pressure over the films, a hydrostatic pressure is applied to the foam films. Concentration depth profiles of the elements in a thin foam film made from a solution of glycerol and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) were measured. The measured concentration depth profiles are used to compare the charge distribution in foam films with the charge distribution at the surface of a bulk solution. A greater charge separation was observed at the films' surface compared to the bulk surface, which implies a greater electrostatic force contribution to the stabilization of thin foam films.

  4. When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

  5. Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei

    This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.

  6. Sedimentation of a charged colloidal sphere in a charged cavity.

    PubMed

    Keh, Huan J; Cheng, Tsung F

    2011-12-01

    An analytical study is presented for the quasisteady sedimentation of a charged spherical particle located at the center of a charged spherical cavity. The overlap of the electric double layers is allowed, and the polarization (relaxation) effect in the double layers is considered. The electrokinetic equations that govern the ionic concentration distributions, electric potential profile, and fluid flow field in the electrolyte solution are linearized assuming that the system is only slightly distorted from equilibrium. Using a perturbation method, these linearized equations are solved for a symmetric electrolyte with the surface charge densities of the particle and cavity as the small perturbation parameters. An analytical expression for the settling velocity of the charged sphere is obtained from a balance among the gravitational, electrostatic, and hydrodynamic forces acting on it. Our results indicate that the presence of the particle charge reduces the magnitude of the sedimentation velocity of the particle in an uncharged cavity and the presence of the fixed charge at the cavity surface increases the magnitude of the sedimentation velocity of an uncharged particle in a charged cavity. For the case of a charged sphere settling in a charged cavity with equivalent surface charge densities, the net effect of the fixed charges will increase the sedimentation velocity of the particle. For the case of a charged sphere settling in a charged cavity with their surface charge densities in opposite signs, the net effect of the fixed charges in general reduces/increases the sedimentation velocity of the particle if the surface charge density of the particle has a greater/smaller magnitude than that of the cavity. The effect of the surface charge at the cavity wall on the sedimentation of a colloidal particle is found to increase with a decrease in the particle-to-cavity size ratio and can be significant in appropriate situations.

  7. Sedimentation of a charged colloidal sphere in a charged cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keh, Huan J.; Cheng, Tsung F.

    2011-12-01

    An analytical study is presented for the quasisteady sedimentation of a charged spherical particle located at the center of a charged spherical cavity. The overlap of the electric double layers is allowed, and the polarization (relaxation) effect in the double layers is considered. The electrokinetic equations that govern the ionic concentration distributions, electric potential profile, and fluid flow field in the electrolyte solution are linearized assuming that the system is only slightly distorted from equilibrium. Using a perturbation method, these linearized equations are solved for a symmetric electrolyte with the surface charge densities of the particle and cavity as the small perturbation parameters. An analytical expression for the settling velocity of the charged sphere is obtained from a balance among the gravitational, electrostatic, and hydrodynamic forces acting on it. Our results indicate that the presence of the particle charge reduces the magnitude of the sedimentation velocity of the particle in an uncharged cavity and the presence of the fixed charge at the cavity surface increases the magnitude of the sedimentation velocity of an uncharged particle in a charged cavity. For the case of a charged sphere settling in a charged cavity with equivalent surface charge densities, the net effect of the fixed charges will increase the sedimentation velocity of the particle. For the case of a charged sphere settling in a charged cavity with their surface charge densities in opposite signs, the net effect of the fixed charges in general reduces/increases the sedimentation velocity of the particle if the surface charge density of the particle has a greater/smaller magnitude than that of the cavity. The effect of the surface charge at the cavity wall on the sedimentation of a colloidal particle is found to increase with a decrease in the particle-to-cavity size ratio and can be significant in appropriate situations.

  8. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values.

  9. Focal Depth of the WenChuan Earthquake Aftershocks from modeling of Seismic Depth Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.

    2008-12-01

    After the 05/12/2008 great WenChuan earthquake in Sichuan Province of China, tens of thousands earthquakes occurred with hundreds of them stronger than M4. Those aftershocks provide valuable information about seismotectonics and rupture processes for the mainshock, particularly accurate spatial distribution of aftershocks is very informational for determining rupture fault planes. However focal depth can not be well resolved just with first arrivals recorded by relatively sparse network in Sichuan Province, therefore 3D seismicity distribution is difficult to obtain though horizontal location can be located with accuracy of 5km. Instead local/regional depth phases such as sPmP, sPn, sPL and teleseismic pP,sP are very sensitive to depth, and be readily modeled to determine depth with accuracy of 2km. With reference 1D velocity structure resolved from receiver functions and seismic refraction studies, local/regional depth phases such as sPmP, sPn and sPL are identified by comparing observed waveform with synthetic seismograms by generalized ray theory and reflectivity methods. For teleseismic depth phases well observed for M5.5 and stronger events, we developed an algorithm in inverting both depth and focal mechanism from P and SH waveforms. Also we employed the Cut and Paste (CAP) method developed by Zhao and Helmberger in modeling mechanism and depth with local waveforms, which constrains depth by fitting Pnl waveforms and the relative weight between surface wave and Pnl. After modeling all the depth phases for hundreds of events , we find that most of the M4 earthquakes occur between 2-18km depth, with aftershocks depth ranging 4-12km in the southern half of Longmenshan fault while aftershocks in the northern half featuring large depth range up to 18km. Therefore seismogenic zone in the northern segment is deeper as compared to the southern segment. All the aftershocks occur in upper crust, given that the Moho is deeper than 40km, or even 60km west of the

  10. Line10 Charge Injection Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia

    2012-10-01

    Radiation damage on-orbit, in the form of charge traps, gradually reduces the charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of CCDs over time. In WFC3, one option for mitigating CTE losses is charge injection i.e. electronically inserting charge every Nth row. The benefit of this method is the significantly lower noise penalty, much less than the traditional Poissonian noise imparted by a pre- or post-flash of the same charge level. This program acquires the calibration data necessary to support science observations using charge injection.

  11. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  12. Aerosol Optical Depth Determinations for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Guzman, R. P.; Ried, D.; Lobitz, B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Automated tracking sun photometers were deployed by NASA/Ames Research Center aboard the NASA C-130 aircraft and at a ground site for all three Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in central Saskatchewan, Canada during the summer of 1994. The sun photometer data were used to derive aerosol optical depths for the total atmospheric column above each instrument. The airborne tracking sun photometer obtained data in both the southern and northern study areas at the surface prior to takeoff, along low altitude runs near the ground tracking sun photometer, during ascents to 6-8 km msl, along remote sensing flightlines at altitude, during descents to the surface, and at the surface after landing. The ground sun photometer obtained data from the shore of Candle Lake in the southern area for all cloud-free times. During the first IFC in May-June ascents and descents of the airborne tracking sun photometer indicated the aerosol optical depths decreased steadily from the surface to 3.5 kni where they leveled out at approximately 0.05 (at 525 nm), well below levels caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. On a very clear day, May 31st, surface optical depths measured by either the airborne or ground sun photometers approached those levels (0.06-0.08 at 525 nm), but surface optical depths were often several times higher. On June 4th they increased from 0.12 in the morning to 0.20 in the afternoon with some evidence of brief episodes of pollen bursts. During the second IFC surface aerosol optical depths were variable in the extreme due to smoke from western forest fires. On July 20th the aerosol optical depth at 525 nm decreased from 0.5 in the morning to 0.2 in the afternoon; they decreased still further the next day to 0.05 and remained consistently low throughout the day to provide excellent conditions for several remote sensing missions flown that day. Smoke was heavy for the early morning of July 24th but cleared partially by 10

  13. 23. 175 TON CAPACITY CHARGING LADLE ON THE CHARGING AISLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. 175 TON CAPACITY CHARGING LADLE ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. HISTORIAN FOR SCALE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies. PMID:25327168

  15. Reliable Fusion of Stereo Matching and Depth Sensor for High Quality Dense Depth Maps

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Li, Chunpeng; Fan, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Depth estimation is a classical problem in computer vision, which typically relies on either a depth sensor or stereo matching alone. The depth sensor provides real-time estimates in repetitive and textureless regions where stereo matching is not effective. However, stereo matching can obtain more accurate results in rich texture regions and object boundaries where the depth sensor often fails. We fuse stereo matching and the depth sensor using their complementary characteristics to improve the depth estimation. Here, texture information is incorporated as a constraint to restrict the pixel’s scope of potential disparities and to reduce noise in repetitive and textureless regions. Furthermore, a novel pseudo-two-layer model is used to represent the relationship between disparities in different pixels and segments. It is more robust to luminance variation by treating information obtained from a depth sensor as prior knowledge. Segmentation is viewed as a soft constraint to reduce ambiguities caused by under- or over-segmentation. Compared to the average error rate 3.27% of the previous state-of-the-art methods, our method provides an average error rate of 2.61% on the Middlebury datasets, which shows that our method performs almost 20% better than other “fused” algorithms in the aspect of precision. PMID:26308003

  16. Higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception: MT+ plays a significant role in monocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2014-10-20

    Today, we human beings are facing with high-quality virtual world of a completely new nature. For example, we have a digital display consisting of a high enough resolution that we cannot distinguish from the real world. However, little is known how such high-quality representation contributes to the sense of realness, especially to depth perception. What is the neural mechanism of processing such fine but virtual representation? Here, we psychophysically and physiologically examined the relationship between stimulus resolution and depth perception, with using luminance-contrast (shading) as a monocular depth cue. As a result, we found that a higher resolution stimulus facilitates depth perception even when the stimulus resolution difference is undetectable. This finding is against the traditional cognitive hierarchy of visual information processing that visual input is processed continuously in a bottom-up cascade of cortical regions that analyze increasingly complex information such as depth information. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results reveal that the human middle temporal (MT+) plays a significant role in monocular depth perception. These results might provide us with not only the new insight of our neural mechanism of depth perception but also the future progress of our neural system accompanied by state-of- the-art technologies.

  17. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  18. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  19. Modeling of depth-induced wave breaking under finite depth wave growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Westhuysen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the spectral wind wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) underestimates wave heights and periods in situations of finite depth wave growth. In this study, this inaccuracy is addressed through a rescaling of the Battjes and Janssen (1978) bore-based model for depth-induced breaking, considering both sloping bed surf zone situations and finite depth wave growth conditions. It is found that the variation of the model error with the breaker index γBJ in this formulation differs significantly between the two types of conditions. For surf zones, clear optimal values are found for the breaker index. By contrast, under finite depth wave growth conditions, model errors asymptotically decrease with increasing values of the breaker index (weaker dissipation). Under both the surf zone and finite depth wave growth conditions, optimal calibration settings of γBJ were found to correlate with the dimensionless depth kpd (where kp is the spectral peak wave number and d is the water depth) and the local mean wave steepness. Subsequently, a new breaker index, based on the local shallow water nonlinearity, expressed in terms of the biphase of the self-interactions of the spectral peak, is proposed. Implemented in the bore-based breaker model of Thornton and Guza (1983), this breaker index accurately predicts the large difference in dissipation magnitudes found between surf zone conditions and finite depth growth situations. Hence, the proposed expression yields a significant improvement in model accuracy over the default Battjes and Janssen (1978) model for finite depth growth situations, while retaining good performance for sloping bed surf zones.

  20. Electromagnetic charges in aggregation phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Claude; Slobodrian, R. J.

    Introduction The mechanism of fine particles aggregation is of great importance in many areas of research, in particular environment sciences where the state of aggregation defines the removal speed of dust from the atmosphere. The study of this mechanism is also important to understand the first stage of planet formation from the solar nebula. The aggregates formed are generally fractals and, as mentioned in the literature [1], the fractal dimensions and the site growth probability measures of the resulting fractal structures strongly depend on the properties of the forces that cause the aggregation. Theory and experimental apparatus We began this study by the aggregation between two charged particles and we are now consid-ering the aggregation between two magnetized particles. The aggregations are produced in a gas at a pressure between 10 and 1000 mbar and by using the applicable simplifications; we find that the distance (r) between the particles as a function of time (t) is given by the following equations: r=Ce(tf -t)1/3 for the electrical attraction r=Cm(tf -t)1/5 for the magnetic dipoles aligned in an external magnetic field. The apparatus built for these measurements consists of an experimental cell from which two perpendicular views are combined via an optical system in one image recorded by a video camera. From the video, we can then measure the distance between the particles as a function of time and reconstruct the trajectories in 3-D. The horizontal and vertical resolutions are respectively 0.86 and 0.92 microns per pixel. With a depth of field of 250 microns, the usable volume for 3-D observation in then 250 microns x 250 microns x 443 microns. Results and discussion A first version of the apparatus was tested on an electrical force aggregation and the results [2] show that the corresponding equation is a good representation of the phenomenon. Preliminary results, from an experiment using iron particles, show that the magnetic force can be seen in

  1. Coding depth perception from image defocus.

    PubMed

    Supèr, Hans; Romeo, August

    2014-12-01

    As a result of the spider experiments in Nagata et al. (2012), it was hypothesized that the depth perception mechanisms of these animals should be based on how much images are defocused. In the present paper, assuming that relative chromatic aberrations or blur radii values are known, we develop a formulation relating the values of these cues to the actual depth distance. Taking into account the form of the resulting signals, we propose the use of latency coding from a spiking neuron obeying Izhikevich's 'simple model'. If spider jumps can be viewed as approximately parabolic, some estimates allow for a sensory-motor relation between the time to the first spike and the magnitude of the initial velocity of the jump.

  2. DNA Brick Crystals with Prescribed Depth

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Sun, Wei; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general framework for constructing two-dimensional crystals with prescribed depth and sophisticated three-dimensional features. These crystals may serve as scaffolds for the precise spatial arrangements of functional materials for diverse applications. The crystals are self-assembled from single-stranded DNA components called DNA bricks. We demonstrate the experimental construction of DNA brick crystals that can grow to micron-size in the lateral dimensions with precisely controlled depth up to 80 nanometers. They can be designed to display user-specified sophisticated three-dimensional nanoscale features, such as continuous or discontinuous cavities and channels, and to pack DNA helices at parallel and perpendicular angles relative to the plane of the crystals. PMID:25343605

  3. The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M.; Dissado, Leonard A.; Fu, Mingli; Nilsson, Ulf H.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm-1 and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  4. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: Surface patches and charge modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  5. Charging and Discharging Characteristic on PI Films Irradiated by Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Ryo; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takada, Tatuo

    We evaluate the dielectric characteristic of polymeric materials for MLI (Multi Layer Insulator, a kind of thermal insulation material) for spacecraft under high energy proton irradiation using results of space charge distribution. Spacecrafts have a serious damage due to the electro-static discharge accident. The electric charges are accumulated in the polymeric materials due to radioactive rays, especially electrons and protons. The charge accumulation is the origin of aging and discharging phenomena, furthermore those become trigger for spacecraft operation anomaly. Therefore, we need to obtain the space charge distribution in the bulks. In this study, we especially focused polyimide films for MLI irradiated by high energy proton. We measured the space charge distribution in the bulks during and after proton beam irradiation. From the results, it is found that positive charges accumulate in the bulk at the position of proton penetration depth. We also obtained same tendency from the results of conductivity measurement treated by ASTM method. From the above reason, we have studied the dielectric characteristics of MLI materials irradiated by radioactive rays, especially we focused the condition of proton irradiation. In this paper, we discuss the dielectric phenomena and the relationship between conductivity and charge accumulation in bulks.

  6. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  7. Device for determining frost depth and density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneidi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A hand held device having a forward open window portion adapted to be pushed downwardly into the frost on a surface, and a rear container portion adapted to receive the frost removed from the window area are described. A graph on a side of the container enables an observer to determine the density of the frost from certain measurements noted. The depth of the frost is noted from calibrated lines on the sides of the open window portion.

  8. Depth perception deficits in glaucoma suspects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, N; Krishnadev, N; Hamstra, S J; Yücel, Y H

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate depth perception in glaucoma suspects compared to glaucoma patients and controls. Methods Glaucoma suspects (n = 16), patients (n = 18), and normal age matched controls (n = 19) aged 40–65 years were prospectively evaluated for depth perception deficits using the Frisby test. Stereoacuity was measured by stereothreshold in seconds of arc for each group. Results Glaucoma suspects showed significantly increased mean stereothreshold compared to age matched normals (144.1 (SE 35.2) v 26.6 (3.7) seconds of arc; p = 0.0004). The mean stereothreshold in glaucoma patients was also increased compared to age matched normals 148.1 (33.8) v 26.6 (3.7) seconds of arc; p = 0.0004). Conclusions Glaucoma suspects show depth perception deficits. The impaired stereovision in glaucoma suspects suggests that binocular interactions can be disrupted in the presence of normal visual fields by standard achromatic automated perimetry. PMID:16672326

  9. Depth constraint of electric submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarizes the various factors that limit electric submersible pump (ESP) operation at increasing depth. It explores in detail two parametrically related constraints, pump-shaft horsepower capacity and thrust-bearing load capacity. The former limits the product of head and rate; the latter limits head. Optimum shaft diameter for standard-configuration pumps is shown to be a compromise between these two factors. Head and rate limits resulting from these constraints are mathematically defined and graphically displayed, and means for expanding deep pumping capabilities are discussed. This paper also analyzes the effect of increased pumping depth on motor cooling. It shows that the temperature increase of fluid traversing a motor is proportional to head, independent of rate, and very sensitive to pump and motor efficiencies. This work also demonstrates the effect of elevated fluid temperatures associated with increasing depth on motor heat transfer coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to help resolve a perceived dilemma. Pump manufacturers do not develop pumps with ultradeep capability because there is no market for them. Oil producers might abandon ultradeep discovery wells with low reservoir pressure because there is no way to pump them. This paper is intended to promote the interest of both groups in potential deep pumping capabilities.

  10. Automatic dynamic depth focusing for NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Jorge; Cruza, Jorge F.; Fritsch, Carlos; Moreno, José M.

    2014-02-01

    Automatic Dynamic Depth Focusing (ADDF) is a function currently not available in state of the art phased array NDT instruments. However, it would be a valuable tool to inspect arbitrarily shaped parts or when the part-array geometry is not accurately known. ADDF will avoid the burden of computing and programming focal laws, the complications of CAD-based geometry descriptions and is an effective tool to adapt to changes in the probe-part geometry during the inspection. Furthermore, the dynamic depth focusing feature will yield the best possible image quality with phased array technology. This work proposes an ADDF technique based on a procedure that automatically obtains the array-part geometry and sets up all the required focusing parameters. The array-part geometry is estimated from the first echo time of arrival using a few trigger shots. A virtual array that operates in the second medium only allows computing the initial values for a real-time dynamic depth focusing hardware. This technique is well adapted to inspect parts of unknown or variable geometry, or when the distance and/or the alignment of the array probe with the part changes during the inspection. The overall procedure is relatively fast (about 2 seconds using standard computers), even faster than currently available geometry-based focal law calculators.

  11. Fast planar segmentation of depth images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javan Hemmat, Hani; Pourtaherian, Arash; Bondarev, Egor; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges for applications dealing with the 3D concept is the real-time execution of the algorithms. Besides this, for the indoor environments, perceiving the geometry of surrounding structures plays a prominent role in terms of application performance. Since indoor structures mainly consist of planar surfaces, fast and accurate detection of such features has a crucial impact on quality and functionality of the 3D applications, e.g. decreasing model size (decimation), enhancing localization, mapping, and semantic reconstruction. The available planar-segmentation algorithms are mostly developed using surface normals and/or curvatures. Therefore, they are computationally expensive and challenging for real-time performance. In this paper, we introduce a fast planar-segmentation method for depth images avoiding surface normal calculations. Firstly, the proposed method searches for 3D edges in a depth image and finds the lines between identified edges. Secondly, it merges all the points on each pair of intersecting lines into a plane. Finally, various enhancements (e.g. filtering) are applied to improve the segmentation quality. The proposed algorithm is capable of handling VGA-resolution depth images at a 6 FPS frame-rate with a single-thread implementation. Furthermore, due to the multi-threaded design of the algorithm, we achieve a factor of 10 speedup by deploying a GPU implementation.

  12. Diurnal variations in optical depth at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, D. S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Viking lander camera images of the Sun were used to compute atmospheric optical depth at two sites over a period of 1 to 1/3 martian years. The complete set of 1044 optical depth determinations is presented in graphical and tabular form. Error estimates are presented in detail. Otpical depths in the morning (AM) are generally larger than in the afternoon (PM). The AM-PM differences are ascribed to condensation of water vapor into atmospheric ice aerosols at night and their evaporation in midday. A smoothed time series of these differences shows several seasonal peaks. These are simulated using a one-dimensional radiative convective model which predicts martial atmospheric temperature profiles. A calculation combinig these profiles with water vapor measurements from the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector is used to predict when the diurnal variations of water condensation should occur. The model reproduces a majority of the observed peaks and shows the factors influencing the process. Diurnal variation of condensation is shown to peak when the latitude and season combine to warm the atmosphere to the optimum temperature, cool enough to condense vapor at night and warm enough to cause evaporation at midday.

  13. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  14. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  15. Depth-integrated and depth-resolved models of Kara Sea primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A. B.; Mosharov, S. A.; Artemyev, V. A.; Stupnikova, A. N.; Simakova, U. V.; Vazyulya, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Primary production (PP) models of the Kara Sea are developed based on data collected on fall expeditions (September-October 1993, 2007, and 2011) and their precision assessment utilizes the dataset collected in September 2013. The algorithms for different model types (depth-integrated and depth-resolved) are compared. The depth-resolved model performs slightly better than the depth-integrated one (the rootmean- square-difference (RMSD) are 0.29 and 0.31, respectively). These algorithms utilize the daily assimilation number (DAN) and photosynthetic efficiency (ψ) as the model coefficients, and surface chlorophyll a (chl a) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as input variables. These algorithms perform better than the models that use chl a alone. Our results suggest that an increase in the performance of the Kara Sea PP models depends on the input of the photophysiological characteristics of phytoplankton (DAN and ψ) and PAR. To a lesser extent, this concerns the advantages of the depth-resolved model over the depth-integrated one. The constructed region-specific Kara Sea PP models combined with satellite-derived chl a and PAR can be used to estimate annual values and long-term variation of PP in hydrologically and hydrochemically similar waters of the Arctic Ocean.

  16. The equivalent depth of burst for impact cratering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of modeling an impact cratering event with an explosive event with the explosive buried at some equivalent depth of burst (d.o.b.) is discussed. Various and different ways to define this equivalent d.o.b. are identified. Recent experimental results for a dense quartz sand are used to determine the equivalent d.o.b. for various conditions of charge type, event size, and impact conditions. The results show a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing energy for fixed impact velocity and a decrease in equivalent d.o.b. with increasing velocity for fixed energy. The values for an iron projectile are on the order of 2-3 projectile radii for energy equal to one ton of TNT, decreasing to about 1.5 radii at a megaton of TNT. The dependence on projectile and target mass density matches that included in common jet-penetration formulas for projectile densities greater than target densities and for the higher energies.

  17. High resolution printing of charge

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  18. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  19. Droplet charging for wet scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Michael J; Lukas, John C

    2004-01-01

    Water droplet charge/mass of wet scrubbers was measured over the direct charging applied potential range of 0-20 kV, 30-70 pounds per square inch gauge (206.8-482.6 kPa) water pressure, and with spiral, impingement, and whirl nozzles. The measured charge/mass ranged from -0.0005 to 0.2 microcoulomb/gm and was directly related to the applied voltage. The water charge/mass was a function of the spray nozzle, with the smaller orifice lower-flow nozzles having the higher charge/mass.

  20. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Kinect Fusion improvement using depth camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliari, D.; Menna, F.; Roncella, R.; Remondino, F.; Pinto, L.

    2014-06-01

    Scene's 3D modelling, gesture recognition and motion tracking are fields in rapid and continuous development which have caused growing demand on interactivity in video-game and e-entertainment market. Starting from the idea of creating a sensor that allows users to play without having to hold any remote controller, the Microsoft Kinect device was created. The Kinect has always attract researchers in different fields, from robotics to Computer Vision (CV) and biomedical engineering as well as third-party communities that have released several Software Development Kit (SDK) versions for Kinect in order to use it not only as a game device but as measurement system. Microsoft Kinect Fusion control libraries (firstly released in March 2013) allow using the device as a 3D scanning and produce meshed polygonal of a static scene just moving the Kinect around. A drawback of this sensor is the geometric quality of the delivered data and the low repeatability. For this reason the authors carried out some investigation in order to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the depth measured delivered by the Kinect. The paper will present a throughout calibration analysis of the Kinect imaging sensor, with the aim of establishing the accuracy and precision of the delivered information: a straightforward calibration of the depth sensor in presented and then the 3D data are correct accordingly. Integrating the depth correction algorithm and correcting the IR camera interior and exterior orientation parameters, the Fusion Libraries are corrected and a new reconstruction software is created to produce more accurate models.

  2. THEMIS Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft entered into Martian orbit in October 2001 and after successful aerobraking began mapping in February 2002 (approximately Ls=330 deg.). Images taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on-board the Odyssey spacecraft allow the quantitative retrieval of atmospheric dust and water-ice aerosol optical depth. Atmospheric quantities retrieved from THEMIS build upon existing datasets returned by Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Data from THEMIS complements the concurrent MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data by offering a later local time (approx. 2:00 for TES vs. approx. 4:00 - 5:30 for THEMIS) and much higher spatial resolution.

  3. What Controls Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.; Turner, D.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the controls on cirrus cloud optical depth distributions [P(σ)] is critical for calculating cirrus cloud radiative impacts. Using an adiabatic parcel model with binned ice microphysics, we assess the influence of microphysical (nucleation, growth and fallout) and dynamical (constant updraft, idealized waves) processes on P(σ). For various sets of model initial conditions, we find P(σ) shape depends primarily on the ice crystal fallout timescale. At small updraft velocities, short fallout timescales allow ice crystals to fall out before depleting the ice super-saturation (Si). Thus, regardless of the ice nuclei (IN) concentration, high Si persists and multiple homogeneous nucleation events occur. In this fallout-dominated regime, P(σ) has a monotonically decreasing shape. In contrast, at large updraft velocities, long fallout timescales resulting from large homogeneous nucleation rates allow complete depletion of the Si and limited ice crystal fallout. In this limited-fallout regime, P(σ) has a skewed peak at high optical depth values. When glaciated IN are added to the limited-fallout regime evolution, they do not inhibit homogeneous nucleation, but they can reduce the maximum Si and number concentration of ice crystals. The limited-fallout P(σ) with glaciated IN has an additional monotonically decreasing tail at low optical depth values. Superimposed oscillations in vertical velocity can broaden P(σ) for limited-fallout regime cirrus. With large temperature displacements, vertical velocity waves can also generate the high Si required for new homogeneous nucleation events that influence P(σ). To complement our parcel model results, we calculate cirrus timescales, thicknesses, and P(σ) using 4000+ hours of raman lidar depolarization and optical depth observations from Lamont, OK (USA). Preliminary results indicate modeled P(σ) resemble P(σ) observations, suggesting P(σ) shapes can be explained in terms of microphysical and dynamical

  4. Spectral entropy in monitoring anesthetic depth.

    PubMed

    Escontrela Rodríguez, B; Gago Martínez, A; Merino Julián, I; Martínez Ruiz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the brain response to hypnotics in general anesthesia, with the nociceptive and hemodynamic stimulus interaction, has been a subject of intense investigation for many years. Nowadays, monitors of depth of anesthesia are based in processed electroencephalogram by different algorithms, some of them unknown, to obtain a simplified numeric parameter approximate to brain activity state in each moment. In this review we evaluate if spectral entropy suitably reflects the brain electric behavior in response to hypnotics and the different intensity nociceptive stimulus effect during a surgical procedure.

  5. Nonclassical depth of a quantum state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching Tsung

    1992-01-01

    A measure is defined for how nonclassical a quantum state is, with values ranging from 0 to 1. When it is applied to the photon-number states, the calculated value is 1, the maximum possible. For squeezed states, it is a monotonically increasing function of the squeeze parameter with values varying from 0 to 1/2. The physical meaning of the nonclassical depth is found to be just the number of thermal photons necessary to ruin the nonclassical nature of the quantum state.

  6. 42 CFR 405.506 - Charges higher than customary or prevailing charges or lowest charge levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges higher than customary or prevailing charges or lowest charge levels. 405.506 Section 405.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE...

  7. Effect of surface charge on colloidal charge reversal.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, A; Rodríguez-Beas, C; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R; Quesada-Pérez, M

    2009-05-14

    The objective of this research work is to understand the effect of the surface charge density on the charge reversal phenomenon. To this end, we use experimental results and computer simulations. In particular, we measure the electrophoretic mobility of latex particles (macroions) in the presence of a multivalent electrolyte. We have focused on the electrolyte concentration range at which a reversal in the electrophoretic mobility is expected to happen. In particular, the role of the surface charge on the charge reversal process is looked into from several latexes with the same functional group but different surface charge densities. Although the mechanism responsible for the colloidal charge reversal is still a controversial issue, it is proved that ionic correlations are behind the appearance of such phenomenon (especially near the macroion surface). This conclusion can be inferred from a great variety of theoretical models. According to them, one of the factors that determine the charge reversal is the surface charge density of the macroions. However, this feature has been rarely analyzed in experiments. Our results appear therefore as a demanded survey to test the validity of the theoretical predictions. Moreover, we have also performed Monte Carlo simulations that take the ion size into account. The correlation found between experiments and simulations is fairly good. The combination of these techniques provides new insight into the colloidal charge reversal phenomena showing the effect of surface charge. PMID:19385634

  8. Charged Galileon black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  9. Like Charges Attract?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianshan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2016-07-21

    Using multiscale first-principles calculations, we show that two interacting negatively charged B12I9(-) monoanions not only attract, in defiance of the Coulomb's law, but also the energy barrier at 400 K is small enough that these two moieties combine to form a stable B24I18(2-) moiety. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations further confirm its stability up to 1500 K. Studies of other B12X9(-) (X = Br, Cl, F, H, Au, CN) show that while all of these B24X18(2-) moieties are stable against dissociation, the energy barrier, with the exception of B24Au18(2-), is large so as to hinder their experimental observation. Our results explain the recent experimental observation of the "spontaneous" formation of B24I18(2-) in an ion trap. A simple model based upon electrostatics shows that this unusual behavior is due to competition between the attractive dipole-dipole interaction caused by the aspherical shape of the particle and the repulsive interaction between the like charges. PMID:27351125

  10. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE PAGES

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  11. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  12. Charge disproportionation, everywhere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Hiraki, K.; Moroto, S.; Tajima, N.; Takano, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Satsukawa, H.; Chiba, R.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Naito, T.

    2005-12-01

    Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a θ -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However, a spin-singlet ground state without CD is suggested in this salt at low temperatures. It is shown that α -(BETS){2}I{3} exhibits CD at low temperatures, as in α -(BET-TTF){2}I{3}. Recently, an abnormal line broadening has been observed in 13C-NMR of (TMTSF){2}FSO{3} under pressure as well as in 77Se-NMR of λ-(BETS){2}FeCl{4} in a high field. We expect that both are very likely caused by a large CD among the organic molecular sites. The current investigation is a part of a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas of Molecular Conductors (No. 15073221) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and the “Japan-Korea Joint Research Project” from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (03-01-8) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (F01-2003-000-20023-0).

  13. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  14. Contour completion through depth interferes with stereoacuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreven, Dawn; McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Local disparity signals must interact in visual cortex to represent boundaries and surfaces of three-dimensional (3D) objects. We investigated how disparity signals interact in 3D contours and in 3D surfaces generated from the contours. We compared flat (single disparity) stimuli with curved (multi-disparity) stimuli. We found no consistent differences in sensitivity to contours vs. surfaces; for equivalent amounts of disparity, however, observers were more sensitive to flat stimuli than curved stimuli. Poor depth sensitivity for curved stimuli cannot be explained by the larger range of disparities present in the curved surface, nor by disparity averaging, nor by poor sensitivity to the largest disparity in the stimulus. Surprisingly, sensitivity to surfaces curved in depth was improved by removing portions of the surface and thus removing disparity information. Stimulus configuration had a profound effect on stereo thresholds that cannot be accounted for by disparity-energy models of V1 processing. We suggest that higher-level 3D contour or 3D shape mechanisms are involved.

  15. Estimating burn depth from thermal measurements.

    PubMed

    Alkhwaji, Abdusalam; Vick, Brian; Diller, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A new thermal perfusion probe operates by imposing a thermal event on the tissue surface and directly measuring the temperature and heat flux response of the tissue with a small sensor. The thermal event is created by convectively cooling the surface with a small group of impinging jets using room temperature air. The hypothesis of this research is that this sensor can be used to provide practical burn characterization of depth and severity by determining the thickness of non-perfused tissue. The measurement system was tested with a phantom tissue that simulates the blood perfusion of tissue. Different thicknesses of plastic were used at the surface to mimic layers of dead tissue. The sensor uses a parameter estimation procedure with analytical solutions of the Pennes bio-heat equation to determine effective values of blood perfusion, core temperature, and thermal contact resistance. Twelve different thicknesses of plastic were used along with three different flow rates of perfusate to simulate burned skin in the phantom perfusion system. The resulting values of thermal contact resistance for the complete set of measurements correlate well with the layer thickness. The values are also nearly independent of the flow rate of the perfusate, which shows that the parameter estimation can successfully separate these parameters. These results with simulated burns show the value of this minimally invasive technique to predict the burn depth in tissue.

  16. Depth Estimation Using a Sliding Camera.

    PubMed

    Ge, Kailin; Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Image-based 3D reconstruction technology is widely used in different fields. The conventional algorithms are mainly based on stereo matching between two or more fixed cameras, and high accuracy can only be achieved using a large camera array, which is very expensive and inconvenient in many applications. Another popular choice is utilizing structure-from-motion methods for arbitrarily placed camera(s). However, due to too many degrees of freedom, its computational cost is heavy and its accuracy is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation algorithm using a sliding camera system. By analyzing the geometric properties of the camera system, we design a camera pose initialization algorithm that can work satisfyingly with only a small number of feature points and is robust to noise. For pixels corresponding to different depths, an adaptive iterative algorithm is proposed to choose optimal frames for stereo matching, which can take advantage of continuously pose-changing imaging and save the time consumption amazingly too. The proposed algorithm can also be easily extended to handle less constrained situations (such as using a camera mounted on a moving robot or vehicle). Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26685238

  17. 3D astigmatic depth sensing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Tyo, J. Scott; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional displays have become increasingly present in consumer markets. However, the ability to capture threedimensional images inexpensively and without major modifications to current cameras is uncommon. Our goal is to create a modification to a common commercial camera that allows a three dimensional reconstruction. We desire such an imaging system to be inexpensive and easy to use. Furthermore, we require that any three-dimensional modification to a camera does not reduce its resolution. Here we present a possible solution to this problem. A commercial digital camera is used with a projector system with astigmatic focus to capture images of a scene. By using an astigmatic projected pattern we can create two different focus depths for horizontal and vertical features of the projected pattern, thereby encoding depth. This projector could be integrated into the flash unit of the camera. By carefully choosing a pattern we are able to exploit this differential focus in image processing. Wavelet transforms are performed on the image that pick out the projected pattern. By taking ratios of certain wavelet coefficients we are able to correlate the distance an object at a particular transverse position is from the camera to the contrast ratios. We present our information regarding construction, calibration, and images produced by this system. The nature of linking a projected pattern design and image processing algorithms will be discussed.

  18. Depth Estimation Using a Sliding Camera.

    PubMed

    Ge, Kailin; Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Image-based 3D reconstruction technology is widely used in different fields. The conventional algorithms are mainly based on stereo matching between two or more fixed cameras, and high accuracy can only be achieved using a large camera array, which is very expensive and inconvenient in many applications. Another popular choice is utilizing structure-from-motion methods for arbitrarily placed camera(s). However, due to too many degrees of freedom, its computational cost is heavy and its accuracy is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation algorithm using a sliding camera system. By analyzing the geometric properties of the camera system, we design a camera pose initialization algorithm that can work satisfyingly with only a small number of feature points and is robust to noise. For pixels corresponding to different depths, an adaptive iterative algorithm is proposed to choose optimal frames for stereo matching, which can take advantage of continuously pose-changing imaging and save the time consumption amazingly too. The proposed algorithm can also be easily extended to handle less constrained situations (such as using a camera mounted on a moving robot or vehicle). Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. The experimental investigation of concrete carbonation depth

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-F. . E-mail: s83808@yahoo.com.tw; Chen, J.-W.

    2006-09-15

    Phenolphthalein indicator has traditionally been used to determine the depth of carbonation in concrete. This investigation uses the thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA) method, which tests the concentration distribution of Ca(OH){sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}, while the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA) tests the intensity distribution of Ca(OH){sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. The Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) test method detects the presence of C-O in concrete samples as a basis for determining the presence of CaCO{sub 3}. Concrete specimens were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation under conditions of 23 deg. C temperature, 70% RH and 20% concentration of CO{sub 2}. The test results of TGA and XRDA indicate that there exist a sharp carbonation front. Three zones of carbonation were identified according to the degree of carbonation and pH in the pore solutions. The TGA, XRDA and FTIR results showed the depth of carbonation front is twice of that determined from phenolphthalein indicator.

  20. Oxygen depth profiling by nuclear resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G. T.; Sheu, W. J.; Glass, G. A.; Wang, Y. Q.

    1999-06-10

    Nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O at 3.045 MeV ({gamma}=10 keV) has been used for oxygen depth profiling in various thin oxide films. There are two ways by which the oxygen concentration versus depth profile can be obtained from the experimental data: energy spectrum simulation or yield distribution analysis. Energy spectrum simulation is done using the standard RBS software/Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program (RUMP) where only one spectrum is usually needed from the measurement. Yield distribution analysis is accomplished by using a custom developed software/Resonance Analysis Program (RAP) and involves a series of spectra obtained by stepping up the beam energy above the resonance energy. This article aims at comparing the fundamentals of both methods and also discussing their advantages and disadvantages in terms of the data acquisition and the post data analysis. A thermally grown thick SiO{sub 2} film and a thin titanium oxide film grown by corona point discharge were examined.

  1. Oxygen depth profiling by nuclear resonant scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G.T.; Sheu, W.J.; Glass, G.A. Wang, Y.Q.

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O at 3.045 MeV ({Gamma}=10&hthinsp;keV) has been used for oxygen depth profiling in various thin oxide films. There are two ways by which the oxygen concentration versus depth profile can be obtained from the experimental data: energy spectrum simulation or yield distribution analysis. Energy spectrum simulation is done using the standard RBS software/Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program (RUMP) where only one spectrum is usually needed from the measurement. Yield distribution analysis is accomplished by using a custom developed software/Resonance Analysis Program (RAP) and involves a series of spectra obtained by stepping up the beam energy above the resonance energy. This article aims at comparing the fundamentals of both methods and also discussing their advantages and disadvantages in terms of the data acquisition and the post data analysis. A thermally grown thick SiO{sub 2} film and a thin titanium oxide film grown by corona point discharge were examined. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Task 1: Water Depth Management, 1388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972, of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS-1 frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  3. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  4. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, Erik B.

    2005-12-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5.4 kiloton (5.2 kt steel plus 0.2 kt scintillator plus aluminum skin) magnetized tracking calorimeter located 710 meters underground in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. MINOS is the first large, deep underground detector with a magnetic field and thus capable of making measurements of the momentum and charge of cosmic ray muons. Despite encountering unexpected anomalies in distributions of the charge ratio (N{sub μ+/Nμ-) of cosmic muons, a method of canceling systematic errors is proposed and demonstrated. The result is Reff = 1.346 ± 0.002 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) for the averaged charge ratio, and a result for a rising fit to slant depth of R(X) = 1.300 ± 0.008 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) + (1.8 ± 0.3) x 10-5 x X, valid over the range of slant depths from 2000 < X < 6000 MWE. This slant depth range corresponds to minimum surface muon energies between 750 GeV and 5 TeV.

  5. Semiconductor nanocrystals in photoconductive polymers: Charge generation and charge transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Herron, Norman; Suna, A.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of photoconductive polymer composites, based on semiconductor nanocrystals (clusters) and carder-transporting polymers, have been developed. These materials are interesting for their potentials in laser printing, imaging, and photorefractives. We will describe material synthesis, charge transport and charge generation mechanisms. In particular, a model of field-dependent charge generation and separation in nonpolar media (e.g. polymers) will be discussed.

  6. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  7. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  8. Understanding the Linkage between Charging Network Coverage and Charging Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Lin, Zhenhong; Kontou, Eleftheria; Wu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Using GPS-based travel survey data, this paper estimates the relationship between public charging network coverage and charging opportunity, defined as the probability of being able to access public charging for a driver at one of his/her stops or at one travel day. Understanding this relationship is of important interests to the electric vehicle industry and government in determining appropriate charging infrastructure deployment level and estimating the impact of public charging on market adoption of electric vehicles. The analysis finds that drivers trip destinations concentrate on a few popular places. If top 1% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, on average, drivers will be able to access public charging at 20% of all their stops and 1/3 of their travel days; If 20% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, drivers will be able to access public charging at 89% of all their stops and 94% of their travel days. These findings are encouraging, implying charging network can be efficiently designed by concentrating at a few popular places while still providing a high level of charging opportunity.

  9. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged Ion emissionmicroscope

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-04-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed.

  10. Depth-encoded synthetic aperture optical coherence tomography of biological tissues with extended focal depth.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-02-23

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be able to provide three-dimensional (3D) volumetric images of scattering biological tissues for in vivo medical diagnostics. Unlike conventional optical microscopy, its depth-resolving ability (axial resolution) is exclusively determined by the laser source and therefore invariant over the full imaging depth. In contrast, its transverse resolution is determined by the objective's numerical aperture and the wavelength which is only approximately maintained over twice the Rayleigh range. However, the prevailing laser sources for OCT allow image depths of more than 5 mm which is considerably longer than the Rayleigh range. This limits high transverse resolution imaging with OCT. Previously, we reported a novel method to extend the depth-of-focus (DOF) of OCT imaging in Mo et al.Opt. Express 21, 10048 (2013)]. The approach is to create three different optical apertures via pupil segmentation with an annular phase plate. These three optical apertures produce three OCT images from the same sample, which are encoded to different depth positions in a single OCT B-scan. This allows for correcting the defocus-induced curvature of wave front in the pupil so as to improve the focus. As a consequence, the three images originating from those three optical apertures can be used to reconstruct a new image with an extended DOF. In this study, we successfully applied this method for the first time to both an artificial phantom and biological tissues over a four times larger depth range. The results demonstrate a significant DOF improvement, paving the way for 3D high resolution OCT imaging beyond the conventional Rayleigh range. PMID:25836528

  11. Highly charged ion beam applied to lithography technique.

    PubMed

    Momota, Sadao; Nojiri, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Jun; Miyamoto, Iwao; Morita, Noboru; Kawasegi, Noritaka

    2008-02-01

    In various fields of nanotechnology, the importance of nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) structures is increasing. In order to develop an efficient process to fabricate nanoscale 3D structures, we have applied highly charged ion (HCI) beams to the ion-beam lithography (IBL) technique. Ar-ion beams with various charge states (1+ to 9+) were applied to fabricate spin on glass (SOG) and Si by means of the IBL technique. The Ar ions were prepared by a facility built at Kochi University of Technology, which includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (NANOGAN, 10 GHz). IBL fabrication was performed as a function of not only the charge state but also the energy and the dose of Ar ions. The present results show that the application of an Ar(9+) beam reduces the etching time for SOG and enhances the etching depth compared with those observed with Ar ions in lower charged states. Considering the high-energy deposition of HCI at a surface, the former phenomena can be understood consistently. Also, the latter phenomena can be understood based on anomalously deep structural changes, which are remarkable for glasses. Furthermore, it has also been shown that the etching depth can be easily controlled with the kinetic energy of the Ar ions. These results show the possibilities of the IBL technique with HCI beams in the field of nanoscale 3D fabrication. PMID:18315242

  12. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  13. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  14. Stable Charged Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  15. Stable charged cosmic strings.

    PubMed

    Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18)  m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786

  16. Seeing double and depth with Wheatstone's stereograms.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiroshi; Lillakas, Linda; Wade, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    Charles Wheatstone, in his classic paper on the invention of the stereoscope, concluded "... objects whose pictures do not fall on corresponding points of the two retinae may still appear single" (1838 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 128 384). Soon after, Ernst Brücke, Alexandre Prévost, David Brewster, Joseph Towne, and Joseph LeConte all published disagreements with this conclusion. LeConte's objections were most frequent and most prolonged. To understand the basis of the disagreements, we conducted three experiments using Wheatstone's original stereograms and found that most stereograms produced depth perception with diplopia, which partially explains the consistency among his critics' conclusions. Most of the criticism at variance with Wheatstone's conclusion was based on research conducted outside Germany. We argue that LeConte's lack of knowledge of the German literature on vision research prevented him from considering investigating Wheatstone's experiment with a stereogram having a smaller disparity.

  17. Tritium Depth Profiles in 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Murata, Daiju; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen uptake and release by 316 stainless steel (SS316), as-received and finely polished stainless steel specimens were exposed at 573 K to tritium gas diluted with hydrogen. Then tritium concentration in the exposed specimens was measured as a function of depth using a chemical etching method. All the tritium concentration profiles showed a sharp drop in the range of 10 μm from the top surface up to the bulk. The amount of tritium absorbed into the polished specimens was three times larger than that into the as-received specimen. However, the polishing effects disappeared by exposing to the air for a long time.

  18. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  19. Darkness and depth in early Renaissance painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Contrast has always been appreciated as a significant factor in image quality, but it is less widely recognized that it is a key factor in the representation of depth, solidity and three-dimensionality in images in general, and in paintings in particular. This aspect of contrast was a key factor in the introduction of oil paint as a painting medium at the beginning of the fifteenth century, as a practical means of contrast enhancement. However, recent conservatorship efforts have established that the first oil paintings were not, as commonly supposed, by van Eyck in Flanders in the 1430s, but by Masolino da Panicale in Italy in the 1420s. These developments led to the use of chiaroscuro technique in various forms, all of which are techniques for enhanced shadowing.

  20. The neural mechanism of binocular depth discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, H. B.; Blakemore, C.; Pettigrew, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven units were investigated in the cat's primary visual cortex. 2. It was found that a stimulus located correctly in the visual fields of both eyes was more effective in driving the units than a monocular stimulus, and much more effective than a binocular stimulus which was correctly positioned in only one eye: the response to the correctly located image in one eye is vetoed if the image is incorrectly located in the other eye. 3. The vertical and horizontal disparities of the paired retinal images that yielded the maximum response were measured in 87 units from seven cats: the range of horizontal disparities was 6·6°, of vertical disparities 2·2°. 4. With fixed convergence, different units will be optimally excited by objects lying at different distances. This may be the basic mechanism underlying depth discrimination in the cat. PMID:6065881

  1. Depth Echolocation Learnt by Novice Sighted People.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Alessia; Brayda, Luca; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Some blind people have developed a unique technique, called echolocation, to orient themselves in unknown environments. More specifically, by self-generating a clicking noise with the tongue, echolocators gain knowledge about the external environment by perceiving more detailed object features. It is not clear to date whether sighted individuals can also develop such an extremely useful technique. To investigate this, here we test the ability of novice sighted participants to perform a depth echolocation task. Moreover, in order to evaluate whether the type of room (anechoic or reverberant) and the type of clicking sound (with the tongue or with the hands) influences the learning of this technique, we divided the entire sample into four groups. Half of the participants produced the clicking sound with their tongue, the other half with their hands. Half of the participants performed the task in an anechoic chamber, the other half in a reverberant room. Subjects stood in front of five bars, each of a different size, and at five different distances from the subject. The dimension of the bars ensured a constant subtended angle for the five distances considered. The task was to identify the correct distance of the bar. We found that, even by the second session, the participants were able to judge the correct depth of the bar at a rate greater than chance. Improvements in both precision and accuracy were observed in all experimental sessions. More interestingly, we found significantly better performance in the reverberant room than in the anechoic chamber. The type of clicking did not modulate our results. This suggests that the echolocation technique can also be learned by sighted individuals and that room reverberation can influence this learning process. More generally, this study shows that total loss of sight is not a prerequisite for echolocation skills this suggests important potential implications on rehabilitation settings for persons with residual vision. PMID

  2. Depth Echolocation Learnt by Novice Sighted People

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Alessia; Brayda, Luca; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Some blind people have developed a unique technique, called echolocation, to orient themselves in unknown environments. More specifically, by self-generating a clicking noise with the tongue, echolocators gain knowledge about the external environment by perceiving more detailed object features. It is not clear to date whether sighted individuals can also develop such an extremely useful technique. To investigate this, here we test the ability of novice sighted participants to perform a depth echolocation task. Moreover, in order to evaluate whether the type of room (anechoic or reverberant) and the type of clicking sound (with the tongue or with the hands) influences the learning of this technique, we divided the entire sample into four groups. Half of the participants produced the clicking sound with their tongue, the other half with their hands. Half of the participants performed the task in an anechoic chamber, the other half in a reverberant room. Subjects stood in front of five bars, each of a different size, and at five different distances from the subject. The dimension of the bars ensured a constant subtended angle for the five distances considered. The task was to identify the correct distance of the bar. We found that, even by the second session, the participants were able to judge the correct depth of the bar at a rate greater than chance. Improvements in both precision and accuracy were observed in all experimental sessions. More interestingly, we found significantly better performance in the reverberant room than in the anechoic chamber. The type of clicking did not modulate our results. This suggests that the echolocation technique can also be learned by sighted individuals and that room reverberation can influence this learning process. More generally, this study shows that total loss of sight is not a prerequisite for echolocation skills this suggests important potential implications on rehabilitation settings for persons with residual vision. PMID

  3. High dynamic range charge measurements

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  4. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  5. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is... transaction. (1) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by...

  6. Charge contribution to patch-charged microparticle adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallabh, Chaitanya Krishna Prasad; Vahdat, Armin Saeedi; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2014-11-01

    Microparticle adhesion influenced by electrostatic charge has been a significant research interest for over past three decades or so in a wide spectrum of areas of interest from manufacturing (electrophotography, powder technology, metallurgy, and semi-conductor manufacturing) to natural phenomena (desert sandstorms and northern lights (auroras)). However, over the years, as a result of the strong discrepancies between the experimental adhesion measurements data and theoretical predictions, some key issues regarding the contributors of adhesion forces in charged microparticles and the nature of surface charge distribution still remain unresolved. In the current work, a non-contact ultrasonic approach is presented and employed for understanding the nature of charge distribution on a single microparticle and determining the effect of electrostatic charge on its adhesion in a non-invasive manner. From the vibrational spectra of the charged particle response to the ultrasonic substrate oscillations under various electrostatic loading conditions, three distinct shifting patterns of vibrational (rocking) resonance frequencies are observed for each level of applied substrate surface voltage, implying an un-symmetric force field on the particle, thus depicting non-uniform non-symmetric surface charge distribution on its surface. Also, a simple mathematical model was presented and employed for predicting the equivalent bulk charge on a single microparticle (toner) from resonance frequency shifts. In summary, it is found that the charge levels reported here are consistent with the previously published data, and it is demonstrated that, in a non-invasive manner, non-uniform charge distribution on a single microparticle can be observed and its total charge can be predicted.

  7. Clinical characteristics of CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B S; Oh, S Y

    1998-12-01

    CHARGE syndrome, first described by Pagon, was named for its six major clinical features. They are: coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development including CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia and/or urinary tract anomalies, and ear anomalies and/or hearing loss. We experienced three cases of CHARGE syndrome who displayed ocular coloboma, heart defects, retarded growth and development, and external ear anomalies, and we also review the previously reported literature concerning CHARGE syndrome. PMID:10188375

  8. Photoelectric Charging of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sickafoose, A.; Colwell, J.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.; Walch, B.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the photoelectric charging of dust particles which are either isolated or adjacent to a surface that is also a photoemitter. We find that zinc dust charges to a positive potential of a few volts when isolated in vacuum and that it charges to a negative potential of a few volts when passed by a photoemitting surface. The illumination is an arc lamp emitting wavelengths longer than 200 nm and the emitting surface is a zirconium foil.

  9. The surface charge of trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2002-12-01

    The surface charge of trypanosomatids was evaluated by means of the binding of cationic particles, as visualized by electron microscopy and by direct measurements of the electrophoretic mobility of cells. The results obtained indicate that most of the trypanosomatids exhibit a negatively charged surface whose value is species specific and varies according to the developmental stages. Sialic acids associated with glycoproteins, glycolipids and phosphate groups are the major components responsible for the net negative surface charge of the trypanosomatids.

  10. Technique for estimating depth of floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of flood depths are needed for design of roadways across flood plains and for other types of construction along streams. Equations for estimating flood depths in Tennessee were derived using data for 150 gaging stations. The equations are based on drainage basin size and can be used to estimate depths of the 10-year and 100-year floods for four hydrologic areas. A method also was developed for estimating depth of floods having recurrence intervals between 10 and 100 years. Standard errors range from 22 to 30 percent for the 10-year depth equations and from 23 to 30 percent for the 100-year depth equations. (USGS)

  11. Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Verda, R. D.; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

  12. Low-charge-state linac

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  13. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  14. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  15. Charged doubly spinning black ring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskisson, James

    2009-05-15

    This paper devises a procedure for adding fundamental and momentum charges to a neutral 5d solution of Einstein's vacuum equations, when the solution has three Killing vectors. This procedure uses the standard method of boosting and T-dualising a generic metric to give a new two-charge 5d solution to Einstein's vacuum equations. The physical properties of the charged solution are derived and their implications for the solution are then examined, with the two-charge dual spinning black ring being used as an example.

  16. Charge and Strain Control of Interface Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Dumesnil, K.; Jaouen, N.; Maroutian, T.; Agnus, G.; Tonnerre, J.-M.; Kirby, B.; Fohtung, E.; Holladay, B.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O.; Sinha, S. K.; Wang, Q.; Chen, A.; Jia, Q. X.

    2015-03-01

    We studied the influence of an electric field applied to an La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) layer in a LSMO/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8) O3 (PZT)/Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructure by measuring its magnetization depth profile using resonant x-ray magnetic reflectivity. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetically-ordered LSMO was not affected by the direction of the polarization of the PZT. However, the ferromagnetic thickness and magnetization of the LSMO film at remanence were reduced for hole-charge accumulation at the LSMO/PZT interface. To understand the independent roles of strain and hole-doping, we performed neutron scattering experiments of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films grown on Nb-doped STO in which bending strain (via 4-point bending jig) or electric field (via parallel plate capacitor) was applied to the films. We observed that bending strain affects the saturation magnetization of the LSMO film, whereas electric field affects the remanent magnetization of the film. These observations suggest strain may be a more effective means to control magnetism than charge. This work has benefited from use of CINT(LANL), NIST Center for Neutron Research and the Synchrotron SOLEIL and funding from LANL/LDRD program, DOE-BES (UCSD) and DOD (NMSU).

  17. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    PubMed

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm. PMID:26415171

  18. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  19. Chemical depth profiles of the GaAs/native oxide interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The final-state oxidation products and their distribution in thin native oxides (30-40 A) on GaAs have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with chemical depth profiling. Extended room-temperature-oxidation conditions have been chosen to allow the native oxide to attain its equilibrium composition and structure. The work emphasizes the use of chemical depth-profiling methods which make it possible to examine the variation in chemical reactivity of the oxide structure. A minimum of two distinct regions of Ga2O3 with differing chemical reactivity is observed. Chemical shift data indicate the presence of As2O3 in the oxide together with an elemental As overlayer at the interface. A change in relative charge transfer between oxygen and both arsenic and gallium-oxide species is observed in the region of the interface.

  20. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2014-11-01

    Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

  1. Improved virus removal in ceramic depth filters modified with MgO.

    PubMed

    Michen, Benjamin; Fritsch, Johannes; Aneziris, Christos; Graule, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Ceramic filters, working on the depth filtration principle, are known to improve drinking water quality by removing human pathogenic microorganisms from contaminated water. However, these microfilters show no sufficient barrier for viruses having diameters down to 20 nm. Recently, it was shown that the addition of positively charged materials, for example, iron oxyhydroxide, can improve virus removal by adsorption mechanisms. In this work, we modified a common ceramic filter based on diatomaceous earth by introducing a novel virus adsorbent material, magnesium oxyhydroxide, into the filter matrix. Such filters showed an improved removal of about 4-log in regard to bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174. This is explained with the electrostatic enhanced adsorption approach that is the favorable adsorption of negatively charged viruses onto positively charged patches in an otherwise negatively charged filter matrix. Furthermore, we provide theoretical evidence applying calculations according to Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory to strengthen our experimental results. However, modified filters showed a significant variance in virus removal efficiency over the course of long-term filtration experiments with virus removal increasing with filter operation time (or filter aging). This is explained by transformational changes of MgO in the filter upon contact with water. It also demonstrates that filter history is of great concern when filters working on the adsorption principles are evaluated in regard to their retention performance as their surface characteristics may alter with use.

  2. High contrast, depth-resolved thermoreflectance imaging using a Nipkow disk confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Summers, J A; Yang, T; Tuominen, M T; Hudgings, J A

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a depth-resolved confocal thermal imaging technique that is capable of measuring the temperature distribution of an encapsulated or semi-obstructed device. The technique employs lock-in charge coupled device-based thermoreflectance imaging via a Nipkow disk confocal microscope, which is used to eliminate extraneous reflections from above or below the imaging plane. We use the confocal microscope to predict the decrease in contrast and dynamic range due to an obstruction for widefield thermoreflectance, and we demonstrate the ability of confocal thermoreflectance to maintain a high contrast and thermal sensitivity in the presence of large reflecting obstructions in the optical path.

  3. Color and depth priors in natural images.

    PubMed

    Su, Che-Chun; Cormack, Lawrence K; Bovik, Alan C

    2013-06-01

    Natural scene statistics have played an increasingly important role in both our understanding of the function and evolution of the human vision system, and in the development of modern image processing applications. Because range (egocentric distance) is arguably the most important thing a visual system must compute (from an evolutionary perspective), the joint statistics between image information (color and luminance) and range information are of particular interest. It seems obvious that where there is a depth discontinuity, there must be a higher probability of a brightness or color discontinuity too. This is true, but the more interesting case is in the other direction--because image information is much more easily computed than range information, the key conditional probabilities are those of finding a range discontinuity given an image discontinuity. Here, the intuition is much weaker; the plethora of shadows and textures in the natural environment imply that many image discontinuities must exist without corresponding changes in range. In this paper, we extend previous work in two ways--we use as our starting point a very high quality data set of coregistered color and range values collected specifically for this purpose, and we evaluate the statistics of perceptually relevant chromatic information in addition to luminance, range, and binocular disparity information. The most fundamental finding is that the probabilities of finding range changes do in fact depend in a useful and systematic way on color and luminance changes; larger range changes are associated with larger image changes. Second, we are able to parametrically model the prior marginal and conditional distributions of luminance, color, range, and (computed) binocular disparity. Finally, we provide a proof of principle that this information is useful by showing that our distribution models improve the performance of a Bayesian stereo algorithm on an independent set of input images. To summarize

  4. Depth Perception in Space (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's concept shows how astronomers use the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax to determine the distance of dark planets, black holes and failed stars that lurk invisibly among us. These objects do not produce light, and are too faint to detect from Earth. However, astronomers can deduce their presence from the way they affect the light from background objects. When such a dark body passes in front of a bright star, its gravity warps the path of the star's light and causes it to brighten -- this process is called gravitational microlensing.

    By comparing the 'peak brightness' of the microlensing event from two perspectives -- Earth and Spitzer -- scientists can determine how far away the dark object is. Peak brightness is the moment when the observer, the dark object and background star are most closely aligned.

    Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance -- this is commonly referred to as depth perception. In the case of humans, each eye sees the position of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective, and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is. In space, astronomers can use the same trick to determine the distance of an invisible dark object.

    In this illustration, the dark object is the moving black ball between Earth, Spitzer and our neighboring galaxy the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC; bottom right).

    To determine the object's distance, astronomers observe the microlensing event at its 'peak brightness' from Earth when the dark object crosses our line-of-sight (dashed line) to a given star in the SMC. This represents one perspective, like looking at an object with only your left eye.

    To get the other 'right eye' perspective, astronomers also observe the peak brightness with Spitzer when the object later moves through its line-of-sight. Because astronomers know the exact distance between Earth and Spitzer, they can determine the

  5. Charge transfer in multicomponent oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohan, A. F.; Ceder, G.

    1998-02-01

    The transfer of charge between different ions in an oxide plays an essential role in the stability of these compounds. Since small variations in charge can introduce large changes in the total energy, a correct description of this phenomenon is critical. In this work, we show that the ionic charge in oxides can strongly depend on its atomic environment. A model to assign point charges to atoms as a function of their atomic environment has recently been proposed for binary alloys [C. Wolverton, A. Zunger, S. Froyen, and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 54, 7843 (1996)] and proven to be very successful in screened solids such as semiconductors and metals. Here, we extend this formalism to multicomponent oxides and we assess its applicability. The simple point-charge model predicts a linear relation between the charge on an atom and the number of unlike neighbors, and between the net value of the charge and the Coulomb field at a given site. The applicability of this approach is tested in a large-supercell self-consistent tight-binding calculation for a random Zr-Ca-O alloy. The observed fluctuations of the ionic charge about the average linear behavior (as a function of the number of unlike neighbors) was larger than 0.25 electrons even when many shells of atomic neighbors were considered in the fit. This variation is significant since it can introduce large errors in the electrostatic energy. On the other hand, for small absolute values of the charge, the ionic charge varied linearly with the Coulomb field, in agreement with previous findings. However, for large Coulomb fields, this function saturates at the formal chemical charge.

  6. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  7. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  8. Depth of Processing and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Pakzadian, Sarah Sadat

    2016-10-01

    The present article is aimed to investigate whether there are any differences between youngsters and adults in their working and long-term memory functioning. The theory of Depth of Processing (Craik and Lockhart in J Verbal Learning Verbal Behav 11:671-684, 1972) discusses the varying degrees of strengths of memory traces as the result of differential levels of processing on the retrieved input. Additionally, they claim that there are three levels of visual, auditory and semantic processes applied on the stimuli in the short-term memory leading to discrepancy in the durability of the memory traces and the later ease of recall and retrieval. In the present article, it is tried to demonstrate if there are evidences of more durable memory traces formed after semantic, visual and auditory processions of the incoming language data in two groups of (a) children in their language learning critical age and (b) youngsters who have passed the critical age period. The comparisons of the results made using two-way ANOVAs revealed the superiority of semantic processing for both age groups in recall, retention and consequently recognition of the new English vocabularies by EFL learners.

  9. Shallow depth subsurface imaging with microwave holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Andrei; Ivashov, Sergey; Razevig, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Igor; Bechtel, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, microwave holography is considered as a tool to obtain high resolution images of shallowly buried objects. Signal acquisition is performed at multiple frequencies on a grid using a two-dimensional mechanical scanner moving a single transceiver over an area of interest in close proximity to the surface. The described FFT-based reconstruction technique is used to obtain a stack of plan view images each using only one selected frequency from the operating waveband of the radar. The extent of a synthetically-formed aperture and the signal wavelength define the plan view resolution, which at sounding frequencies near 7 GHz amounts to 2 cm. The system has a short depth of focus which allows easy selection of proper focusing plane. The small distance from the buried objects to the antenna does not prevent recording of clean images due to multiple reflections (as happens with impulse radars). The description of the system hardware and signal processing technique is illustrated using experiments conducted in dry sand. The microwave images of inert anti-personnel mines are demonstrated as examples. The images allow target discrimination based on the same visually-discernible small features that a human observer would employ. The demonstrated technology shows promise for modification to meet the specific practical needs required for humanitarian demining or in multi-sensor survey systems.

  10. The Dizzying Depths of the Cylindrical Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.; Hill, S. Eric

    2005-02-01

    A typical introduction to geometrical optics treats plane and spherical mirrors. At first glance, it may be surprising that texts seldom mention the cylindrical mirror, except for the occasional reference to use in fun houses and to viewing anamorphic art.1,2 However, even a cursory treatment reveals its complexity. Holzberlein used an extended object to qualitatively illustrate that images are produced both before and behind a concave cylindrical mirror.3 He also speculated on how this extreme astigmatism results in an observer's dizziness. By considering a simple point object, we make a more detailed analysis of the cylindrical mirror and the dizziness it induces. First, we illustrate how rays from a point object reflect to form not one point image but two line images. Next, we describe how an observer perceives a likeness of the object. Finally, we suggest how confusing depth cues induce dizziness. Although we focus on the concave cylindrical mirror, the discussion is easy to generalize to the convex cylindrical mirror.

  11. Incorporation of Xenon in magmas at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Sanloup, C.; Bureau, H.; Schmidt, B.; Konopkova, Z.; Raepsaet, C.

    2014-12-01

    Incorporation of volatile elements in magmas is enhanced at high pressure. The dissolved volatiles affect in turn the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts. Understanding volatiles incorporation in magmas and their effect on the melt's structure can be approached by in situ characterizations such as X-ray diffraction or Raman spectroscopy.Here, we focus on Xenon (Xe) in order to constrain its past and modern geochemical cycles. Indeed the 129I/129Xe extinct isotopic system is used to constrain planetary and atmosphere formation models. Moreover, some studies propose that Xe is currently recycled from the atmosphere to the mantle.To study the solubility of Xe in silicate melts, we have performed in situ X-ray diffraction experiments on the synchrotron beam line P02 in PetraIII (DESY, Hamburg). Experiments were carried out using resistive heating diamond-anvil cells up to 7 GPa and 1300°C. Two compositions have been studied: a hydrous haplogranite (HPG) reference and a hydrous HPG doped with Xe. This composition is a magma analogue that is extremely well documented by petrological studies. Xenon can be identified on the radial distribution functions obtained by processing the x-ray diffraction data. Solubility mechanisms of Xe in silicate melts at depth will be discussed.

  12. Depth of Processing and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Pakzadian, Sarah Sadat

    2016-10-01

    The present article is aimed to investigate whether there are any differences between youngsters and adults in their working and long-term memory functioning. The theory of Depth of Processing (Craik and Lockhart in J Verbal Learning Verbal Behav 11:671-684, 1972) discusses the varying degrees of strengths of memory traces as the result of differential levels of processing on the retrieved input. Additionally, they claim that there are three levels of visual, auditory and semantic processes applied on the stimuli in the short-term memory leading to discrepancy in the durability of the memory traces and the later ease of recall and retrieval. In the present article, it is tried to demonstrate if there are evidences of more durable memory traces formed after semantic, visual and auditory processions of the incoming language data in two groups of (a) children in their language learning critical age and (b) youngsters who have passed the critical age period. The comparisons of the results made using two-way ANOVAs revealed the superiority of semantic processing for both age groups in recall, retention and consequently recognition of the new English vocabularies by EFL learners. PMID:26396084

  13. Heat diffusion: Thermodynamic depth complexity of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolano, Francisco; Hancock, Edwin R.; Lozano, Miguel A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we use the Birkhoff-von Neumann decomposition of the diffusion kernel to compute a polytopal measure of graph complexity. We decompose the diffusion kernel into a series of weighted Birkhoff combinations and compute the entropy associated with the weighting proportions (polytopal complexity). The maximum entropy Birkhoff combination can be expressed in terms of matrix permanents. This allows us to introduce a phase-transition principle that links our definition of polytopal complexity to the heat flowing through the network at a given diffusion time. The result is an efficiently computed complexity measure, which we refer to as flow complexity. Moreover, the flow complexity measure allows us to analyze graphs and networks in terms of the thermodynamic depth. We compare our method with three alternative methods described in the literature (Estrada's heterogeneity index, the Laplacian energy, and the von Neumann entropy). Our study is based on 217 protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks including histidine kinases from several species of bacteria. We find a correlation between structural complexity and phylogeny (more evolved species have statistically more complex PPIs). Although our methods outperform the alternatives, we find similarities with Estrada's heterogeneity index in terms of network size independence and predictive power.

  14. Factors controlling depth of continental rift zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Artemieva, I.; Thybo, H.

    2012-04-01

    Subsidence of continental rift basins is caused by thinning of the crust and lithospheric mantle together with isostatic compensation for the extra load of sediments and thermal relaxation. It is generally believed that the final depth of rift basins is primarily controlled by the amount of stretching and that other processes, such as rheology and sedimentation, only have secondary influence. However, we show that the relative rheological strength of faults inside and outside rift zones exerts substantial control on the volume of the final rift basin (by more than a factor of 3) even for the same amount of extension (total or inside the rift zone). This surprising result is mainly caused by irreversible deepening of the rift graben during stretching due to lower crustal flow when the faults in the rift zone are weak, whereas the effect is negligible for strong faults. Relatively strong faults inside the rift zone lead to substantial stretching of adjacent crust, and we find that long term stretching outside the main rift zone may explain the formation of wide continental margins, which are now below sea level. We also demonstrate that fast syn-rift erosion/sedimentation rates can increase the final volume of rift basins by up to a factor of 1.7 for weak crustal faults, whereas this effect is insignificant for strong faults inside the rift zone. These findings have significant implications for estimation of stretching factors, tectonic forces, and geodynamic evolution of sedimentary basins around failed rift zones.

  15. Estimated depth to water, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  16. Feature Profile Simulations and Finite Penetration Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul; Moroz, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    In plasma materials processing, energetic ions, neutrals and UV photons typically penetrate deep inside solid materials breaking atomic bonds and displacing atoms on their paths. These important phenomena are rarely taken into consideration in processing simulation software, primarily because the proper penetration depths and the corresponding energy depositions, breaking bonds, and atom displacements are difficult and computationally expensive to compute. The FPS-3D feature profile simulator [1-2] is doing that computationally efficiently by utilizing tabulated results obtained with other methods. We discuss, compare, and present results of such simulations made with different methods, one of which is the molecular dynamics analysis. In general, molecular dynamics could be used for simulating materials processing, etching and deposition, but it is extremely computationally expensive to be used for large groups of atoms. In practice, molecular dynamics methods are too slow to be used for feature profile simulations. However, they could help in defining proper chemical reactions and corresponding rates to be used in an advanced feature profile simulator such as FPS-3D. We present results of FPS-3D simulations for Si and SiO2 etching in Ar/Cl2 and Ar/C4F6/O2 plasmas. [4pt] [1] P. Moroz, ``General Feature Profile Simulator FPS-3D,'' ECS Transactions, 35, 25 (2011). [0pt] [2] P. Moroz, ``Numerical Simulation of Feature Profile Evolution using FPS-3D,'' IEEE Transactions of Plasma Science, 39, 2804 (2011).

  17. Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, David; Clarke, John P.; Fielding, Julia R.; TaylorII, Russell M.

    2006-01-01

    Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and requires no pre-segmentation of the data set. VDP was developed as an improvement for virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of shoulder-joint trauma, and has been generalized for use in other simple and complex joints, and to enable non-invasive urology studies. In virtual arthroscopy, the surfaces in the joints often occlude each other, allowing limited viewpoints from which to evaluate these surfaces. In urology studies, the physician would like to position the virtual camera outside the kidney collecting system and see inside it. By rendering invisible all voxels between the observer's point of view and objects of interest, VDP enables viewing from unconstrained positions. In essence, VDP can be viewed as a technique for automatically defining an optimal data- and task-dependent clipping surface. Radiologists using VDP display have been able to perform evaluations of pathologies more easily and more rapidly than with clinical arthroscopy, standard volume rendering, or standard MRI/CT slice viewing.

  18. Charge coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. W.; Hornbeck, L. J.; Stubbs, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a program to design, fabricate, and test CCD arrays suitable for operation in an electron-bombarded mode. These intensified charge coupled devices have potential application to astronomy as photon-counting arrays. The objectives of this program were to deliver arrays of 250 lines of 400 pixels each and some associated electronics. Some arrays were delivered on tube-compatible headers and some were delivered after incorporation in vacuum tubes. Delivery of these devices required considerable improvements to be made in the processing associated with intensified operation. These improvements resulted in a high yield in the thinning process, reproducible results in the accumulation process, elimination of a dark current source in the accumulation process, solution of a number of header related problems, and the identification of a remaining major source of dark current. Two systematic failure modes were identified and protective measures established. The effects of tube processing on the arrays in the delivered ICCDs were determined and are reported along with the characterization data on the arrays.

  19. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  20. Graphene-based charge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, C.; Volk, C.; Engels, S.; Stampfer, C.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss graphene nanoribbon-based charge sensors and focus on their functionality in the presence of external magnetic fields and high frequency pulses applied to a nearby gate electrode. The charge detectors work well with in-plane magnetic fields of up to 7 T and pulse frequencies of up to 20 MHz. By analyzing the step height in the charge detector’s current at individual charging events in a nearby quantum dot, we determine the ideal operation conditions with respect to the applied charge detector bias. Average charge sensitivities of 1.3 × 10-3e Hz-1/2 can be achieved. Additionally, we investigate the back action of the charge detector current on the quantum transport through a nearby quantum dot. By varying the charge detector bias from 0 to 4.5 mV, we can increase the Coulomb peak currents measured at the quantum dot by a factor of around 400. Furthermore, we can completely lift the Coulomb blockade in the quantum dot.

  1. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  2. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  3. Quantification of AES depth profiles by the MRI model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, Janez; Zalar, Anton; Praček, Borut

    2003-02-01

    The main physical effects that contribute to interface broadening in the sputter depth profiles of polycrystalline metallic multilayer structures were studied by comparison of measured and simulated AES depth profiles. An algorithm based on the so-called mixing-roughness-information depth (MRI) model was used to simulate AES depth profiles of Ni/Cr multilayer structures with different roughnesses of the initial surfaces. The simulated depth profiles were compared with measurements performed at two different depth profiling parameters on the Ni/Cr and Al/Ni/Cr multilayer structures with an initial surface roughness of about 1.0 and 21.5 nm, respectively. The comparison of simulated and measured depth profiles enabled us to separate and estimate different contributions to the interface broadening, as well as their dependence on the sputter depth. We found that roughness was the dominant factor related to depth resolution with respect to the information depth and atomic mixing contribution. The values of roughness introduced into the simulation algorithm coincided well with the values measured by AFM at the initial surface and after depth profiling. The results showed the capability of the simulation procedure based on the MRI model to separate and evaluate different contributions to the depth resolution.

  4. Fork truck battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Ducharme, R.L.; Taylor, R.

    1983-11-01

    A battery charging system includes a highrise storage rack system for holding a plurality of battery chargers and defining a plurality of battery locations. Each battery to be charged is placed on a pallet which has a connection block with a cable connectable to the battery and a male connector. A load carrier carries the pallet and the battery to a selected battery location in the rack and deposits it thereat in a charging position, thereby connecting the male connector to a female connector on the rack connected to one of the chargers. The load carrier also retrieves charged batteries on their pallets from the rack, the retrieval motion effecting disconnection of the pallet from the charger. Each pallet has a fluid receiving trough provided with a drain which cooperates with fluid inlets of a fluid collection system on the rack for collecting fluids emitted during the charging process.

  5. Gravitational duality, branes and charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, C. M.

    1998-03-01

    D = 10 type II strings and M-theory in D = 11 have D - 5 branes and 9-branes that are not standard p-branes coupled to anti-symmetric tensors. The global charges in a D-dimensional theory of gravity consist of a momentum PM and a dual D - 5 form charge KM1… MD-5 , which is related to the NUT charge. On dimensional reduction, P gives the electric charge and K the magnetic charge of the graviphoton. Supersymmetry and U-duality imply that the type IIB theory has ( p, q) 9-branes. Orientifolding with 32 (0,1) 9-branes gives the type I string, while modding out by a related discrete symmetry with 32 (1,0) 9-branes gives the SO(32) heterotic string. Some of this material appeared in Nuclear Physics B509 (1997) 252, hep-th/9705162.

  6. Static Gas-Charging Plug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Indoe, William

    2012-01-01

    A gas-charging plug can be easily analyzed for random vibration. The design features two steeped O-rings in a radial configuration at two different diameters, with a 0.050-in. (.1.3-mm) diameter through-hole between the two O-rings. In the charging state, the top O-ring is engaged and sealing. The bottom O-ring outer diameter is not squeezed, and allows air to flow by it into the tank. The inner diameter is stretched to plug the gland diameter, and is restrained by the O-ring groove. The charging port bushing provides mechanical stop to restrain the plug during gas charge removal. It also prevents the plug from becoming a projectile when removing gas charge from the accumulator. The plug can easily be verified after installation to ensure leakage requirements are met.

  7. State-of-charge coulometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A coulometer for accurately measuring the state-of-charge of an open-cell battery utilizing an aqueous electrolyte, includes a current meter for measuring the battery/discharge current and a flow meter for measuring the rate at which the battery produces gas during charge and discharge. Coupled to the flow meter is gas analyzer which measures the oxygen fraction of the battery gas. The outputs of the current meter, flow meter, and gas analyzer are coupled to a programmed microcomputer which includes a CPU and program and data memories. The microcomputer calculates that fraction of charge and discharge current consumed in the generation of gas so that the actual state-of-charge can be determined. The state-of-charge is then shown on a visual display.

  8. EBIS charge breeder for CARIBU.

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, S; Barcikowski, A; Dickerson, C; Fischer, R; Ostroumov, P N; Vondrasek, R; Pikin, A

    2014-02-01

    A high-efficiency charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is being developed by the ANL Physics Division to increase the intensity and improve the purity of accelerated radioactive ion beams. A wide variety of low-energy neutron-rich ion beams are produced by the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). These beams will be charge-bred by an EBIS charge breeder to a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ≥ 1/7 and accelerated by ATLAS to energies of about 10 MeV/u. The assembly of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder except the injection/extraction beam lines has been completed. This summer we started electron beam commissioning of the EBIS. The first results on electron beam extraction, transport from the electron gun to a high power electron collector are presented and discussed. PMID:24593606

  9. EBIS charge breeder for CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Fischer, R.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2014-02-01

    A high-efficiency charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is being developed by the ANL Physics Division to increase the intensity and improve the purity of accelerated radioactive ion beams. A wide variety of low-energy neutron-rich ion beams are produced by the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). These beams will be charge-bred by an EBIS charge breeder to a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ≥ 1/7 and accelerated by ATLAS to energies of about 10 MeV/u. The assembly of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder except the injection/extraction beam lines has been completed. This summer we started electron beam commissioning of the EBIS. The first results on electron beam extraction, transport from the electron gun to a high power electron collector are presented and discussed.

  10. Space charges and defect concentration profiles at complex oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, Felix; Waser, Rainer; Ramadan, Amr H. H.; De Souza, Roger A.; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-06-01

    We discuss electronic and ionic defect concentration profiles at the conducting interface between the two wide-band-gap insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (STO). The profiles are deduced from a thermodynamic model considering a local space charge layer (SCL) originating from charge transfer to the interface region, thus combining electronic and ionic reconstruction mechanisms. We show that the electrical potential confining the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface modifies the equilibrium defect concentrations in the SCL. For the n -conducting interface, positively charged oxygen vacancies are depleted within the SCL, while negatively charged strontium vacancies accumulate. Charge compensation within the SCL is achieved by a mixed ionic-electronic interface reconstruction, while the competition between 2DEG and localized ionic defects is controlled by ambient p O2 . The concentration of strontium vacancies increases drastically in oxidizing conditions and exhibits a steep depth profile towards the interface. Accounting for the low cation diffusivity in STO, we also discuss kinetic limitations of cation defect formation and the effect of a partial equilibration of the cation sublattice. We discuss the resulting implications for low temperature transport.

  11. Effect of fundamental depth resolution and cardboard effect to perceived depth resolution on multi-view display.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hyun; Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Jisoo; Hong, Keehoon; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2011-10-10

    In three-dimensional television (3D TV) broadcasting, we find the effect of fundamental depth resolution and the cardboard effect to the perceived depth resolution on multi-view display is important. The observer distance and the specification of multi-view display quantize the expressible depth range, which affect the perception of depth resolution of the observer. In addition, the multi-view 3D TV needs the view synthesis process using depth image-based rendering which induces the cardboard effect from the relation among the stereo pickup, the multi-view synthesis and the multi-view display. In this paper, we analyze the fundamental depth resolution and the cardboard effect from the synthesis process in the multi-view 3D TV broadcasting. After the analysis, the numerical comparison and subjective tests with 20 participants are performed to find the effect of fundamental depth resolution and the cardboard effect to the perceived depth resolution. PMID:21997055

  12. Investigation of interdiffusion and depth resolution in Cu/Ni multilayers by means of AES depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. L.; Liu, Y.; Swart, H. C.; Wang, J. Y.; Terblans, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    The interdiffusion upon annealing Cu/Ni multilayers structures at 325 °C, 350 °C and 375 °C for 30 min were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling. The Cu/Ni multilayers structures were deposited on a SiO2 substrate by means of electron beam evaporation in a high vacuum. The measured AES depth profiles of the as-deposited and annealed samples were quantitatively fitted by the Mixing-Roughness-Information depth model assuming that the roughness parameter has linearly increased with the sputtered depth. The roughness values extracted from the depth profiling data fits agreed well with those measured by atomic force microscopy. The depth-dependent interdiffusion coefficients of the annealed samples and depth resolution upon depth profiling of the as-deposited sample were quantitatively evaluated accordingly.

  13. Using the stereokinetic effect to convey depth - Computationally efficient depth-from-motion displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in microelectronics have encouraged the use of 3D data bases to create compelling volumetric renderings of graphical objects. However, even with the computational capabilities of current-generation graphical systems, real-time displays of such objects are difficult, particularly when dynamic spatial transformations are involved. In this paper we discuss a type of visual stimulus (the stereokinetic effect display) that is computationally far less complex than a true three-dimensional transformation but yields an equally compelling depth impression, often perceptually indiscriminable from the true spatial transformation. Several possible applications for this technique are discussed (e.g., animating contour maps and air traffic control displays so as to evoke accurate depth percepts).

  14. Spatially continuous interpolation of water stage and water depths using the Everglades depth estimation network (EDEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstine, Leonard; Higer, Aaron; Palaseanu, Monica; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present), online water-stage and water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. Continuous daily spatial interpolations of the EDEN network stage data are presented on a 400-square-meter grid spacing. EDEN offers a consistent and documented dataset that can be used by scientists and managers to (1) guide large-scale field operations, (2) integrate hydrologic and ecological responses, and (3) support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem responses to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The target users are biologists and ecologists examining trophic level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.

  15. Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals

  16. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped.

  17. Factors controlling depth of continental rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

    2011-12-01

    Rifting is a fundamental plate tectonic process, which forms elongated, narrow tectonic depressions in the Earth's surface and, eventually, may break continental plates to form new oceanic lithosphere. Subsidence of rift basins is caused by thinning of the crust and lithospheric mantle together with isostatic compensation for the extra load of sediments and thermal relaxation. It is generally believed that the final depth of rift basins is primarily controlled by the amount of stretching and that other processes only have secondary influence. However, we show that the relative rheological strength of faults inside and outside rift zones exerts substantial control on the volume of the final rift basin (by more than a factor of 3) even for the same amount of extension (total or inside the rift zone). This surprising result is mainly caused by irreversible deepening of the rift graben during stretching due to lower crustal flow when the faults in the rift zone are weak, whereas the effect is negligible for strong faults. Relatively strong faults inside the rift zone lead to substantial stretching of adjacent crust, and we find that long term stretching outside the main rift zone may explain the formation of wide continental margins, which are now below sea level. We also demonstrate that fast syn-rift erosion/sedimentation rates can increase the final volume of rift basins by up to a factor of 1.7 for weak crustal faults, whereas this effect is insignificant for strong faults inside the rift zone. These findings have significant implications for estimation of stretching factors, tectonic forces, and geodynamic evolution of sedimentary basins around failed rift zones.

  18. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped. PMID:22422039

  19. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  20. Technique for estimating depths of 100-year floods in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, Herbert N., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are developed for estimating 100-year flood depths in natural channels of unregulated Pennsylvania streams that drain less than 2,200 square miles. Equations and graphs are presented relating the depth of the 100-year flood above median stage and drainage area in five defined hydrologic areas in the State. Another graph defines the relation between drainage area and median depth of flow over the low point of riffles. Thus 100-year depths on riffles can be estimated by summing depth values derived from two simple relations.

  1. An energy spread correction for ERDA hydrogen depth profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Verda, R. D.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,

    2002-01-01

    A technique for hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis called the channel-depth conversion was introduced by Verda, et al.' However, the energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, which causes a broadening in the energy range and leads to errors in depth profiling, was not addressed by this technique. Here we introduce a technique to addresses this problem, called the energy spread correction. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion techniques comprise the depth profiling method presented in this work.

  2. Coherence times of precise depth controlled NV centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhang, Jian; You, Jie; Li, Yan; Guo, Guoping; Feng, Fupan; Song, Xuerui; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the depth dependence of coherence times of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers through precise depth control using oxidative etching at 580 °C in air. By successive nanoscale etching, NV centers could be brought close to the diamond surface step by step, which enabled us to track the evolution of the number of NV centers remaining in the chip and to study the depth dependence of coherence times of NV centers with diamond etching. Our results showed that the coherence times of NV centers declined rapidly with the depth reduction in the last about 22 nm before they finally disappeared, which revealed a critical depth for the influence of a rapid fluctuating surface spin bath. Moreover, by using the slow etching method combined with low-energy nitrogen implantation, NV centers with depths shallower than the initially implanted depths can be generated, which are preferred for detecting external spins with higher sensitivity.

  3. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  4. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  5. Electron-beam-charged dielectrics: Internal charge distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of an electron transport model of the charging of dielectrics due to electron bombardment are compared to measurements of internal charge distributions. The emphasis is on the distribution of Teflon. The position of the charge centroid as a function of time is not monotonic. It first moves deeper into the material and then moves back near to the surface. In most time regimes of interest, the charge distribution is not unimodal, but instead has two peaks. The location of the centroid near saturation is a function of the incident current density. While the qualitative comparison of theory and experiment are reasonable, quantitative comparison shows discrepancies of as much as a factor of two.

  6. Predictive coding of depth images across multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morvan, Yannick; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2007-02-01

    A 3D video stream is typically obtained from a set of synchronized cameras, which are simultaneously capturing the same scene (multiview video). This technology enables applications such as free-viewpoint video which allows the viewer to select his preferred viewpoint, or 3D TV where the depth of the scene can be perceived using a special display. Because the user-selected view does not always correspond to a camera position, it may be necessary to synthesize a virtual camera view. To synthesize such a virtual view, we have adopted a depth image-based rendering technique that employs one depth map for each camera. Consequently, a remote rendering of the 3D video requires a compression technique for texture and depth data. This paper presents a predictivecoding algorithm for the compression of depth images across multiple views. The presented algorithm provides (a) an improved coding efficiency for depth images over block-based motion-compensation encoders (H.264), and (b), a random access to different views for fast rendering. The proposed depth-prediction technique works by synthesizing/computing the depth of 3D points based on the reference depth image. The attractiveness of the depth-prediction algorithm is that the prediction of depth data avoids an independent transmission of depth for each view, while simplifying the view interpolation by synthesizing depth images for arbitrary view points. We present experimental results for several multiview depth sequences, that result in a quality improvement of up to 1.8 dB as compared to H.264 compression.

  7. Fog dispersion. [charged particle technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of using the charged particle technique to disperse warm fog at airports is investigated and compared with other techniques. The charged particle technique shows potential for warm fog dispersal, but experimental verification of several significant parameters, such as particle mobility and charge density, is needed. Seeding and helicopter downwash techniques are also effective for warm fog disperals, but presently are not believed to be viable techniques for routine airport operations. Thermal systems are currently used at a few overseas airports; however, they are expensive and pose potential environmental problems.

  8. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2016-05-01

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  9. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  10. Matched-field depth estimation for active sonar.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Granger; Krolik, Jeffrey L

    2004-02-01

    This work concerns the problem of estimating the depth of a submerged scatterer in a shallow-water ocean by using an active sonar and a horizontal receiver array. As in passive matched-field processing (MFP) techniques, numerical modeling of multipath propagation is used to facilitate localization. However, unlike passive MFP methods where estimation of source range is critically dependent on relative modal phase modeling, in active sonar source range is approximately known from travel-time measurements. Thus the proposed matched-field depth estimation (MFDE) method does not require knowledge of the complex relative multipath amplitudes which also depend on the unknown scatterer characteristics. Depth localization is achieved by modeling depth-dependent relative delays and elevation angle spreads between multipaths. A maximum likelihood depth estimate is derived under the assumption that returns from a sequence of pings are uncorrelated and the scatterer is at constant depth. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on depth estimation mean-square-error is computed and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results for a typical range-dependent, shallow-water Mediterranean environment. Depth estimation performance to within 10% of the water column depth is predicted at signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 10 dB. Real data results are reported for depth estimation of an echo repeater to within 10-m accuracy in this same shallow water environment.

  11. Millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbati, R.; Liu, J.; Murray, A. S.; Jain, M.; Pederson, J. L.; Guralnik, B.; Egholm, D. L.; Gupta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a well-established Quaternary dating method that is conventionally used to determine the time when sedimentary grains were last exposed to daylight. Recently, a very different approach to this concept has helped develop a new technique to estimate the length of time a rock surface was exposed to daylight. When a rock surface is first exposed to daylight the charge population (and so the latent luminescence signal) trapped in its constituent minerals (e.g. quartz and feldspar) starts to decrease. This charge had accumulated due to previous exposure to natural ionizing radiation. As the surface is exposed to light for longer periods, the latent luminescence signal is reduced farther into the rock. In a rock surface which has been exposed to light for a prolonged period (decades to millennia), the remaining luminescence will be zero (fully bleached) at the surface and then increase, initially exponentially, before approaching saturation at a depth where charge detrapping due to light penetration is negligible compared to the rate of charge trapping due to the environmental dose rate. By modelling the characteristic shape of luminescence resetting with depth into rock surfaces, Sohbati et al. (2012) proposed a new surface-exposure dating technique based on OSL. Here we further develop the current model to include the effect of erosion rate on luminescence-depth profiles. By fitting the model to local known-age calibration samples, we first determine the site-specific resetting rates of the luminescence signal at rock surfaces. We then use the calibration values in a numerical model to derive the steady-state erosion rate for rocks of different mineralogy and different geological settings. The preliminary erosion rates obtained from glacial and landslide granite boulders from the Chinese Pamir Plateau are ~1 mm.ka-1, whereas active streambeds of Permian sandstone in the Grabens district of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, are

  12. Search for fractionally charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Zweig, G.

    1982-01-01

    Quarks, the constituents of hadrons and fermion fields of quantum chromodynamics, have fractional charges -1/3e and 2/3e. All charges are integral multiples of 1/3e and not e, as was previously believed. Therefore it is natural to ask if isolated particles of fractional charge exist, either as an intrinsic part of matter, or as particles that can be produced at high energy accelerators. This question can only be answered by experiment, and remains interesting even if quantum chromodynamics turns out to be an absolutely confining theory of quarks. For example, small deviations from the standard version of quantum chromodynamics, or the incorporation of quantum chromodynamics into a more comprehensive theory, could require the existence of free fractionally charged particles.

  13. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Anup K.; Neyer, David W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Garguilo, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  14. Quantum tunneling with global charge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. )

    1994-10-15

    We investigate quantum tunneling in the theory of a complex scalar field with a global U(1) symmetry when the charge density of the initial configuration does not vanish. We discuss the possible final configurations and set up the Euclidean path integral formalism to find the bubble nucleation and to study the bubble evolution. For the stationary path, or the bounce solution, in the Euclidean time, the phase variable becomes pure imaginary so that the charge density remains real. We apply this formalism to examples when the initial charge density is small. While the phase transition considered here occurs in zero temperature, the bubble dynamics is richly complicated, involving conserved charge, the sound wave, and the supersonic bubble wall.

  15. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbauer, J. L.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  16. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  17. Smokeless charging with most charge in a new type of charging car

    SciTech Connect

    Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Semisalov, L.P.; Kuropyatnik, G.N.; Shchelkunov, F.S.; Azimov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following scientific considerations formed the basis of our development work on smokeless charging and the new charging car. Over the charging cycle the composition and evolution rate of the charging gases vary quite substantially. Consequently, when the charging gases are extracted completely (and hence smokelessly) through an autonomous extraction and cleaning system mounted on the charging car, it is impossible to prevent drawing in some air; under certain conditions, the air volume is sufficient to form a combustible mixture. It is further obvious that ignition from extraneous sources cannot be excluded under coke-oven charging conditions. These factors make it essential to humidify the charging gases, for example by irrigation with water. Partial evaporation of this water significantly lowers the temperature and raises the humidity of the gas mixture. It has been established that heavy irrigation with water lowers the risk of forming and igniting combustible mixtures, but that on the other hand it causes much coal-tar vapor to condense out. Our investigations have shown that the radical solution to the problem of safeguarding the performance of the autonomous gas extraction and cleaning system on the charging car is to burn the gases out (flame decontamination) as they enter the extraction system, and subsequently cool the combustion products by the evaporative technique. Since the flame decontamination prevents deposit formation in the gas extraction system it becomes possible to use the venturi-tube coagulator to separate the solids. This is the most efficient type of cleaner, especially for single-stage gas cooling and cleaning systems. Since the combustion products are safe from the explosion viewpoint, the extraction system need no longer be made absolutely leakproof.

  18. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  19. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  20. Superradiance from a charged dilation black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, K. )

    1992-12-07

    In this paper, the authors study the behavior of the wave function of charged Klein-Gordon field around a charge dilaton black hole. The rate of spontaneous charge loss is estimated for large black hole case.

  1. Charge transfer in zirconium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'Nichuk, B. L.; Stasyuk, Z. V.

    1991-12-01

    In superhigh-vacuum conditions (residual gas pressure less than 10-8 Pa), electro-conductive dimensional phenomena, the Hall constant, and the absolute differential thermoemf of zirconium films are investigated. The experimental results are analyzed within the framework of current model concepts regarding volume, surface, and grain-boundary scattering of charge carriers (the Mayadas-Schatzkes and Tel'e-Tosser-Pichard models). The charge-transfer parameters in zirconium are determined.

  2. Chemical Depth Profiling from Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay Aktosun

    2006-03-21

    The material profile of a thin film can be analyzed by placing the film on a substrate and by sending a neutron beam onto it at various angles of incidence. Technically, the scattering length density of the film needs to be determined as a function of depth. A reflectometer is used to measure the amount of reflection (reflectivity) as a function of the angle of incidence. Mathematically, this is equivalent to sending the neutron beam onto the film at every energy but at a fixed angle of incidence. The film profile needs to be recovered from the measured reflectivity data. Unfortunately, the unique recovery is impossible, and many distinct unrelated profiles may correspond to the same reflectivity data. In our DOE/EPSCoR sponsored research, we have developed an analytical method to uniquely recover the profile of a thin film from the measured reflectivity data. We have shown that by taking reflectivity measurements with two different substrates, one can uniquely determine the film profile. Previously, it was known that one could uniquely recover the profile by taking reflectivity measurements with three different substrates, and our findings indicate that the same goal can be accomplished by using fewer measurements. At Mississippi State University we started an informal weekly seminar (called ''the reflectometry meeting'') at to attract various undergraduate and graduate students into the field. There were about 3 undergraduate students, 6 graduate students, and 2 faculty members attending these seminars. The PI has collaborated with Dr. Norm Berk at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on various aspects of neutron reflectometry, from which various interesting problems of theoretical and practical importance have arisen. One of these problems is closely related to the important mathematical problem known as analytic extrapolation. Under appropriate conditions (known to hold in neutron reflectometry), the reflection data taken in a finite interval

  3. Utilizing Prior Information for Depth to Improve Seismic Event Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. K.; Kane, K.; Anderson, D. N.; Schult, F. R.; Ballard, S.

    2006-05-01

    We are developing and testing a novel location algorithm for estimating the depth of a seismic event in order to improve the discrimination of events. Information from the algorithm will be incorporated into a statistically based discrimination framework to determine the source of an event. The depth estimation approach differs from currently used algorithms, which use non-linear regression techniques, by using Bayesian techniques to incorporate prior information about the depth of an event. We use first arriving P-waves and their associated modeled travel times to estimate the most likely event depth. The likelihood is constructed with gaussian errors. Depth may be modeled as a skewed distribution if characteristics of the waveforms from an event indicate that bounds on the depth are appropriate. For instance, the Rg phase is present in a wave form only when an event is shallow. Therefore, the presence of Rg in a dataset could lead one to assume a shallow- skewed prior distribution for the depth parameter. For most seismic event data sets, depth and origin time are the hypocentral parameters that are most poorly constrained because of the source-receiver geometry imposed by the Earth. It is not unusual for current location algorithms to return event solutions that fit the data very well and yet have event depths that are above the surface of the earth (so called "air quakes") or well below the known limits of seismicity for a given area. The solutions are statistically valid in that the confidence bounds are large enough to encompass more realistic depths the specified percent of the time, but they are unsatisfying to seismologists. The effect of repeatedly seeing such unreasonable depths is to develop a mistrust of the depth determinations in all cases, even when depth may be well constrained. What is needed is a means to flexibly incorporate apriori information about acceptable depth distributions to better constrain the hypocentral depth estimates when they are

  4. Jet charge at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Lin, Tongyan; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-05-24

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the standard model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-standard-model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pileup, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as standard model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically decaying W bosons in tt[over ¯] events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multihadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte Carlo fragmentation models.

  5. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  6. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  7. Charge-Dissipative Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical cables that dissipate spurious static electric charges, in addition to performing their main functions of conducting signals, have been developed. These cables are intended for use in trapped-ion or ionizing-radiation environments, in which electric charges tend to accumulate within, and on the surfaces of, dielectric layers of cables. If the charging rate exceeds the dissipation rate, charges can accumulate in excessive amounts, giving rise to high-current discharges that can damage electronic circuitry and/or systems connected to it. The basic idea of design and operation of charge-dissipative electrical cables is to drain spurious charges to ground by use of lossy (slightly electrically conductive) dielectric layers, possibly in conjunction with drain wires and/or drain shields (see figure). In typical cases, the drain wires and/or drain shields could be electrically grounded via the connector assemblies at the ends of the cables, in any of the conventional techniques for grounding signal conductors and signal shields. In some cases, signal shields could double as drain shields.

  8. The neural basis of depth perception from motion parallax.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyunGoo R; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2016-06-19

    In addition to depth cues afforded by binocular vision, the brain processes relative motion signals to perceive depth. When an observer translates relative to their visual environment, the relative motion of objects at different distances (motion parallax) provides a powerful cue to three-dimensional scene structure. Although perception of depth based on motion parallax has been studied extensively in humans, relatively little is known regarding the neural basis of this visual capability. We review recent advances in elucidating the neural mechanisms for representing depth-sign (near versus far) from motion parallax. We examine a potential neural substrate in the middle temporal visual area for depth perception based on motion parallax, and we explore the nature of the signals that provide critical inputs for disambiguating depth-sign.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269599

  9. All-optical depth coloring based on directional gating.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungjin; Kim, Mugeon; Hahn, Joonku

    2016-09-19

    In non-contacting depth extraction there are several issues, such as the accuracy and the measurement speed. In the issue of the measurement speed, the computation cost for image processing is significant. We present an all-optical depth extraction method by coloring objects according to their depth. Our system is operated fully optically and both encoding and decoding processes are optically performed. Therefore, all-optical depth coloring has a distinct advantage to extract the depth information in real time without any computation cost. We invent a directional gating method to extract the points from the object which are positioned at the same distance. Based on this method, the objects look painted by different colors according to the distance when the objects are observed through our system. In this paper, we demonstrate the all-optical depth coloring system and verify the feasibility of our method. PMID:27661875

  10. Pier-scour depths affected by clay in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents pier-scour depths measured during 1943-94, that are thought to have been affected by consolidated cohesive materials (clay) in Mississippi. MDOT soil reports were available for 29 measured pier-scour depths thought to be affected by clay. The cohesion and friction angles were approximated for the clay, and using the soil borings where clay was overlain by sand and(or) gravel, the top of the clay stratum was approximated in order to determine the net scour through the clay. Eight additional measured pier-scour depths were thought to be affected by clay, but no MDOT soil reports or borings were available. The net pier-scour depth through the clay is a rough approximation where sand and (or) gravel overlie a clay stratum and, therefore, only represents part of the total pier-scour depth. Limited data indicate the pier-scour depth decreases as shear strength of the clay increases.

  11. Decoding of depth and motion in ambiguous binocular perception.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Ko; Ogiya, Mitsuharu; Hirai, Yuzo

    2011-07-01

    We have shown previously that random dots with an interocular time delay (ITD), the time difference of the onset of dots between the two eyes, yield both apparent depth and motion, although depth and velocity are covariant and, thus, ITD is inherently ambiguous. The depth of random dots with ITD was proportional to ITD, suggesting that the visual system assumes a constant velocity of the dots and determines depth on the basis of this constant velocity. We performed psychophysical experiments to investigate whether subjects perceive a constant velocity with a variety of ITDs in random dots aligned along a single vertical line that ensures neither apparent motion nor accidental disparity between the dots. The results showed that subjects perceive a constant velocity for a variety of ITDs with simultaneous perception of depth in proportion to ITD, indicating the priority of depth over velocity in ambiguous binocular perception derived from ITD.

  12. The neural basis of depth perception from motion parallax.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyunGoo R; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2016-06-19

    In addition to depth cues afforded by binocular vision, the brain processes relative motion signals to perceive depth. When an observer translates relative to their visual environment, the relative motion of objects at different distances (motion parallax) provides a powerful cue to three-dimensional scene structure. Although perception of depth based on motion parallax has been studied extensively in humans, relatively little is known regarding the neural basis of this visual capability. We review recent advances in elucidating the neural mechanisms for representing depth-sign (near versus far) from motion parallax. We examine a potential neural substrate in the middle temporal visual area for depth perception based on motion parallax, and we explore the nature of the signals that provide critical inputs for disambiguating depth-sign.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  13. Sensitivity of depth of maximum and absorption depth of EAS to hadron production mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Galkin, V. I.; Hein, L. A.; Ivanenko, I. P.; Kanevsky, B. L.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of experimental data on depth of extensive air showers (EAS) development maximum in the atmosphere, T sub M and path of absorption, lambda, in the lower atmosphere of EAS with fixed particle number in the energy region eV with the results of calculation show that these parameters are sensitive mainly to the inelastic interaction cross section and scaling violation in the fragmentation and pionization region. The data are explained in a unified manner within the framework of a model in which scaling is violated slightly in the fragmentation region and strongly in the pionization region at primary cosmic rays composition close to the normal one and a permanent increase of inelastic interaction cross section. It is shown that, while interpreting the experimental data, disregard of two methodical points causes a systematic shift in T sub M: (1) shower selection system; and (2) EAS electron lateral distribution when performing the calculations on basis of which the transfer is made from the Cerenkov pulse FWHM to the depth of shower maximum, T sub M.

  14. Deglacial Evolution of Atlantic Mid-Depth and Intermediate-Depth Water Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Gebbie, G.; Huang, K. F.; Guo, W.; Schmittner, A.; Liu, Z.; Curry, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    Deglacial variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) feature prominently in hypotheses of deglacial climate variability and atmospheric CO2rise. However, there is lingering uncertainty in the glacial deepwater mass configuration (e.g. Gebbie, 2014) and deglacial AMOC variability is even more poorly understood. For example, the deglacial evolution of the contribution of northern and southern source waters to the middle and intermediate depths of the Atlantic is still vigorously debated. Here, we evaluate the evolution of subsurface Atlantic ventilation, emphasizing middle and intermediate depths, by comparing new and published records of water mass variability to output from transient model simulations designed to provide insight into the climatic and oceanographic effects of a dramatic reduction in the AMOC, such as apparently occurred during Heinrich Stadial 1 (Liu et al., 2009; Schmittner and Lund, 2014). Gebbie, G. (2014), How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal? Paleoceanography, 29, 190-209, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002557. Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, R. Thomas, P. U. Clark, A. E. Carlson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, W. Curry, E. Brook, D. Erickson, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, J., and J. Chen (2009), Transient climate simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming, Science, 325, 310-314. Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (submitted), Carbon Isotopes Support Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Decline as a Trigger for Early Deglacial CO2 rise Climate of the Past Discussions.

  15. Fusion of Kinect depth data with trifocal disparity estimation for near real-time high quality depth maps generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Guillaume; Kerbiriou, Paul; Drazic, Valter; Bureller, Olivier; Sabater, Neus; Schubert, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Generating depth maps along with video streams is valuable for Cinema and Television production. Thanks to the improvements of depth acquisition systems, the challenge of fusion between depth sensing and disparity estimation is widely investigated in computer vision. This paper presents a new framework for generating depth maps from a rig made of a professional camera with two satellite cameras and a Kinect device. A new disparity-based calibration method is proposed so that registered Kinect depth samples become perfectly consistent with disparities estimated between rectified views. Also, a new hierarchical fusion approach is proposed for combining on the flow depth sensing and disparity estimation in order to circumvent their respective weaknesses. Depth is determined by minimizing a global energy criterion that takes into account the matching reliability and the consistency with the Kinect input. Thus generated depth maps are relevant both in uniform and textured areas, without holes due to occlusions or structured light shadows. Our GPU implementation reaches 20fps for generating quarter-pel accurate HD720p depth maps along with main view, which is close to real-time performances for video applications. The estimated depth is high quality and suitable for 3D reconstruction or virtual view synthesis.

  16. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  17. Technique for estimating depth of 100-year floods in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Charles R.; Lewis, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Preface: A method is presented for estimating the depth of the loo-year flood in four hydrologic areas in Tennessee. Depths at 151 gaging stations on streams that were not significantly affected by man made changes were related to basin characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Equations derived from the analysis can be used to estimate the depth of the loo-year flood if the size of the drainage basin is known.

  18. DISCHARGE AND DEPTH BEHIND A PARTIALLY BREACHED DAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1987-01-01

    The role that the velocity-distribution correction factor plays in the determination of the flood discharge and corresponding flow depth behind a partially breached dam is investigated. Assumption of a uniformly progressive flow for an established dam-break flood in a rectangular channel of infinite extent leads to the formulation of a theoretical relation between the depth and velocity of flow expressed in differential form. Integrating this ordinary differential equation, one can express the velocity in terms of the depth.

  19. Depth spreading through empty space induced by sparse disparity cues.

    PubMed

    Li, Xintong; Huang, Abigail E; Altschuler, Eric L; Tyler, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of visual processing is to develop an understanding of the three-dimensional layout of the objects in our immediate vicinity from the variety of incomplete and noisy depth cues available to the eyes. Binocular disparity is one of the dominant depth cues, but it is often sparse, being definable only at the edges of uniform surface regions, and visually resolvable only where the edges have a horizontal disparity component. To understand the full 3D structure of visual objects, our visual system has to perform substantial surface interpolation across unstructured visual space. This interpolation process was studied in an eight-spoke depth spreading configuration corresponding to that used in the neon color spreading effect, which generates a strong percept of a sharp contour extending through empty space from the disparity edges within the spokes. Four hypotheses were developed for the form of the depth surface induced by disparity in the spokes defining an incomplete disk in depth: low-level local (isotropic) depth propagation, mid-level linear (anisotropic) depth-contour interpolation or extrapolation, and high-level (anisotropic) figural depth propagation of a disk figure in depth. Data for both perceived depth and position of the perceived contour clearly rejected the first three hypotheses and were consistent with the high-level figural hypothesis in both uniform disparity and slanted disk configurations. We conclude that depth spreading through empty visual space is an accurately quantifiable perceptual process that propagates depth contours anisotropically along their length and is governed by high-level figural properties of 3D object structure. PMID:23946433

  20. Tillage energy versus hardpan configuration and tillage depth

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, T.H.; Wolf, D.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing a computer-based data acquisition system, the influence o depth of the A/sub 2/ and B soil horizons on implement draft of a subsoiler and subsoiler-bedder was measured for different subsoiling depths. Implement ftsgy was primarily a function of subsoiling depth for the soil moisture content existing at the time of this study. Forward speed, slip and actual power delivered to the implement are reported. 18 refs.

  1. An image cancellation approach to depth-from-focus

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Graser, M.

    1995-03-01

    Depth calculation of an object allows computer reconstruction of the surface of the object in three dimensions. Such information provides human operators 3D measurements for visualization, diagnostic and manipulation. It can also provide the necessary coordinates for semi or fully automated operations. This paper describes a microscopic imaging system with computer vision algorithms that can obtain the depth information by making use of the shallow depth of field of microscopic lenses.

  2. Ultra-high modulation depth exceeding 2,400% in optically controlled topological surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sangwan; Jang, Houk; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Moon, Jisoo; Sung, Ji Ho; Park, Jun; Cha, Soonyoung; Oh, Seongshik; Jo, Moon-Ho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Choi, Hyunyong

    2015-01-01

    Modulating light via coherent charge oscillations in solids is the subject of intense research topics in opto-plasmonics. Although a variety of methods are proposed to increase such modulation efficiency, one central challenge is to achieve a high modulation depth (defined by a ratio of extinction with/without light) under small photon-flux injection, which becomes a fundamental trade-off issue both in metals and semiconductors. Here, by fabricating simple micro-ribbon arrays of topological insulator Bi2Se3, we report an unprecedentedly large modulation depth of 2,400% at 1.5 THz with very low optical fluence of 45 μJ cm−2. This was possible, first because the extinction spectrum is nearly zero due to the Fano-like plasmon–phonon-destructive interference, thereby contributing an extremely small denominator to the extinction ratio. Second, the numerator of the extinction ratio is markedly increased due to the photoinduced formation of massive two-dimensional electron gas below the topological surface states, which is another contributor to the ultra-high modulation depth. PMID:26514372

  3. Depth profiling of tritium in materials for fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    The paper outlines recent progress in depth profiling of tritium distribution near the surface of materials by two ion beam techniques; elastic recoil detection (ERD) and T(d,/alpha/)n nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The sensitivity and depth-resolution of both methods are examined for a series of tritiated titanium films. Calculated depth profiles and ranges of implanted tritium ions in selected candidate materials for thermonuclear fusion devices are also given. Depth profiles of tritium implanted into specimens of graphite and lithium oxides as a function of temperature are discussed as the examples of applications.

  4. Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Baums, Iliana B; Shank, Timothy M; Morrison, Cheryl L; Cordes, Erik E

    2015-05-22

    The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200-1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species commonly occurs throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths ranging from 400 to 900 m. We found significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.042) across seven sites spanning 400 km of distance and 400 m of depth. A pattern of isolation by depth emerged, but geographical distance between sites may further limit gene flow. Water mass boundaries may serve to isolate populations across depth; however, adaptive divergence with depth is also a possible scenario. Microsatellite markers also revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.434) between C. delta and a closely related species, Callogorgia americana, demonstrating the utility of microsatellites in species delimitation of octocorals. Results provided support for the depth-differentiation hypothesis, strengthening the notion that factors covarying with depth serve as isolation mechanisms in deep-sea populations.

  5. Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Baums, Iliana B; Shank, Timothy M; Morrison, Cheryl L; Cordes, Erik E

    2015-05-22

    The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200-1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species commonly occurs throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths ranging from 400 to 900 m. We found significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.042) across seven sites spanning 400 km of distance and 400 m of depth. A pattern of isolation by depth emerged, but geographical distance between sites may further limit gene flow. Water mass boundaries may serve to isolate populations across depth; however, adaptive divergence with depth is also a possible scenario. Microsatellite markers also revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.434) between C. delta and a closely related species, Callogorgia americana, demonstrating the utility of microsatellites in species delimitation of octocorals. Results provided support for the depth-differentiation hypothesis, strengthening the notion that factors covarying with depth serve as isolation mechanisms in deep-sea populations. PMID:25904664

  6. Penetration depth at green wavelengths in turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory and field measurement program was conducted to determine apparent remote sensing penetration depths at a wavelength of 520 nm. Tests were made for various types of sediments under controlled conditions in a laboratory. Field tests were conducted in several different water bodies over a wide range of solar elevation angles. Laboratory results indicate that apparent penetration depth is significantly influenced by mineral content and/or size of suspended sediments. Field measurements show wide variation in apparent penetration depth, even when suspended solids concentration is nearly constant. Apparent penetration depth does not appear to be a strong function of solar elevation angle so long as the water mixture remains constant.

  7. Gestalt grouping via closure degrades suprathreshold depth percepts.

    PubMed

    Deas, Lesley M; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2014-08-19

    It is well known that the perception of depth is susceptible to changes in configuration. For example, stereoscopic precision for a pair of vertical lines can be dramatically reduced when these lines are connected to form a closed object. Here, we extend this paradigm to suprathreshold estimates of perceived depth. Using a touch-sensor, observers made quantitative estimates of depth between a vertical line pair presented in isolation or as edges of a closed rectangular object with different figural interpretations. First, we show that the amount of depth estimated within a closed rectangular object is consistently reduced relative to the vertical edges presented in isolation or when they form the edges of two segmented objects. We then demonstrate that the reduction in perceived depth for closed objects is modulated by manipulations that influence perceived closure of the central figure. Depth percepts were most disrupted when the horizontal connectors and vertical lines matched in color. Perceived depth increased slightly when the connectors had opposite contrast polarity, but increased dramatically when flankers were added. Thus, as grouping cues were added to counter the interpretation of a closed object, the depth degradation effect was systematically eliminated. The configurations tested here rule out explanations based on early, local interactions such as inhibition or cue conflict; instead, our results provide strong evidence of the impact of Gestalt grouping, via closure, on depth magnitude percepts from stereopsis.

  8. Recent advances in modeling depth distribution of soil carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Shu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depth distribution of soil carbon storage determines the sensitivity of soil carbon to environmental change. We present different approaches that have been used to represent the vertical heterogeneity of soil carbon both in mapping and modeling studies. In digital soil mapping, many studies applied exponential decay functions in soils where carbon concentration has been observed to decline with depth. Recent studies used various forms of spline functions to better represent the vertical distribution of soil carbon along with soil horizons. These studies fitted mathematical functions that described the observations and then interpolated the model coefficients using soil-forming factors and used maps of model coefficients with depth to predict the SOC storage at desired depth intervals. In general, the prediction accuracy decreased with depth and the challenge remains to find appropriate soil-forming factors that determine/explain subsurface soil variation. Models such as Century, RothC, and Terrestrial Ecosystem Model use the exponential depth distribution functions of soil carbon in their model structures. In CLM 4.5 the soil profile is partitioned into 10 layers down to 3.8 m depth and the carbon input from plant roots is assumed to decrease following an exponential function. Not accounting for soil horizons in representing biogeochemistry and the assumption of globally uniform soil depth remain major sources of uncertainty in these models. In this presentation, we will discuss the merits and demerits of using various profile depth distribution functions to represent the vertical heterogeneity of soil carbon storage.

  9. Measurements of light background at large depth in the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannykh, A. E.; Beresnev, V. I.; Gaidash, V. A.; Gulkhandanyan, O. M.; Ivanov, V. I.; Markov, M. A.; Paka, V. T.; Shtranikh, I. V.; Surin, N. M.; Volkov, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The mean intensity of Cerenkov emission from the products of K(40) decay and bioluminescence was measured at depths to 5 km. The intensity of ocean light background is found to depend upon depth and at the 5 km level is equal on averaged to 300 + or - 60 quanta/sq cms into spatial angle of 2 pi sterradian in transparency window. The amplitudes, duration and number of BL flashes were measured at various depths. The intensive flashes due to BL are shown to be observed rather seldom at depths over 4 km.

  10. A Statistical Study for Optimum Surface Roughness and Engraving Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasman, Şefika; Saklakoǧlu, I. Etem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of scan times on surface roughness and engraving depth an experimental design was implemented to AISI H13 tool steed workpiece using fiber laser. For this purpose, an experimental design plan was constituted using full factorial design and results were evaluated for surface roughness and engraving depth. The results showed that the scan times and the scan speed significantly affect both surface roughness and engraving depth. In order to characterize the surface roughness and engraving depth, two linear regression models were constituted.

  11. Gestalt grouping via closure degrades suprathreshold depth percepts.

    PubMed

    Deas, Lesley M; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the perception of depth is susceptible to changes in configuration. For example, stereoscopic precision for a pair of vertical lines can be dramatically reduced when these lines are connected to form a closed object. Here, we extend this paradigm to suprathreshold estimates of perceived depth. Using a touch-sensor, observers made quantitative estimates of depth between a vertical line pair presented in isolation or as edges of a closed rectangular object with different figural interpretations. First, we show that the amount of depth estimated within a closed rectangular object is consistently reduced relative to the vertical edges presented in isolation or when they form the edges of two segmented objects. We then demonstrate that the reduction in perceived depth for closed objects is modulated by manipulations that influence perceived closure of the central figure. Depth percepts were most disrupted when the horizontal connectors and vertical lines matched in color. Perceived depth increased slightly when the connectors had opposite contrast polarity, but increased dramatically when flankers were added. Thus, as grouping cues were added to counter the interpretation of a closed object, the depth degradation effect was systematically eliminated. The configurations tested here rule out explanations based on early, local interactions such as inhibition or cue conflict; instead, our results provide strong evidence of the impact of Gestalt grouping, via closure, on depth magnitude percepts from stereopsis. PMID:25139863

  12. Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong Moo; Son, Jung-Young

    2008-12-22

    Binocular disparity and monocular depth information are the principal functions of ideal 3D displays. 3D display systems such as stereoscopic or multi-view, super multi-view (SMV), and multi-focus (MF) displays were considered for the testing of the satisfaction level with the monocular accommodation of three different depths of 3D object points. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the MF 3D display gives a monocular depth cue. In addition, the experimental results of the monocular MF 3D display show clear monocular focus on four different depths. Therefore, we can apply the MF 3D display to monocular 3D displays.

  13. Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral

    PubMed Central

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Baums, Iliana B.; Shank, Timothy M.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2015-01-01

    The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200–1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species commonly occurs throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths ranging from 400 to 900 m. We found significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.042) across seven sites spanning 400 km of distance and 400 m of depth. A pattern of isolation by depth emerged, but geographical distance between sites may further limit gene flow. Water mass boundaries may serve to isolate populations across depth; however, adaptive divergence with depth is also a possible scenario. Microsatellite markers also revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.434) between C. delta and a closely related species, Callogorgia americana, demonstrating the utility of microsatellites in species delimitation of octocorals. Results provided support for the depth-differentiation hypothesis, strengthening the notion that factors covarying with depth serve as isolation mechanisms in deep-sea populations. PMID:25904664

  14. Efficient streaming of stereoscopic depth-based 3D videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Dogancan; Aabed, Mohammed; Solh, Mashhour; AlRegib, Ghaassan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to extract depth from motion, texture and intensity. We first analyze the depth map to extract a set of depth cues. Then, based on these depth cues, we process the colored reference video, using texture, motion, luminance and chrominance content, to extract the depth map. The processing of each channel in the YCRCB-color space is conducted separately. We tested this approach on different video sequences with different monocular properties. The results of our simulations show that the extracted depth maps generate a 3D video with quality close to the video rendered using the ground truth depth map. We report objective results using 3VQM and subjective analysis via comparison of rendered images. Furthermore, we analyze the savings in bitrate as a consequence of eliminating the need for two video codecs, one for the reference color video and one for the depth map. In this case, only the depth cues are sent as a side information to the color video.

  15. A depth-dependent formula for shallow water propagation.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    In shallow water propagation, the sound field depends on the proximity of the receiver to the sea surface, the seabed, the source depth, and the complementary source depth. While normal mode theory can predict this depth dependence, it can be computationally intensive. In this work, an analytical solution is derived in terms of the Faddeeva function by converting a normal mode sum into an integral based on a hypothetical continuum of modes. For a Pekeris waveguide, this approach provides accurate depth dependent propagation results (especially for the surface decoupling) without requiring complex calculation methods for eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions.

  16. Smoke optical depths - Magnitude, variability, and wavelength dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Russell, P. B.; Colburn, D. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Allen, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne autotracking sun-photometer has been used to measure magnitudes, temporal/spatial variabilities, and the wavelength dependence of optical depths in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectrum of smoke from two forest fires and one jet fuel fire and of background air. Jet fuel smoke optical depths were found to be generally less wavelength dependent than background aerosol optical depths. Forest fire smoke optical depths, however, showed a wide range of wavelength depedences, such as incidents of wavelength-independent extinction.

  17. Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Gellman, D. I.; Slater, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple, iterative procedure to determine the optical depth components of the extinction optical depth measured by a solar radiometer is presented. Simulated data show that the iterative procedure improves the determination of the exponent of a Junge law particle size distribution. The determination of the optical depth due to aerosol scattering is improved as compared to a method which uses only two points from the extinction data. The iterative method was used to determine spectral optical depth components for June 11-13, 1988 during the MAC III experiment.

  18. The utility of defocus blur in binocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Dhanraj

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether defocus blur is a quantitative cue for depth perception is a topic of renewed interest. A recent study suggests that relative defocus blur can be used in computing depth throughout the visual field, particularly in regions where disparity loses precision. However, elements of the study's experimental design and theoretical analysis appear to undermine this claim. First, the study did not provide evidence that blur can be used as a quantitative depth cue. It only measured blur discrimination thresholds, not perceived depth from for blur. Second, the study's conceptualization of the complementary use of blur and disparity, and related conjectures, are based on the specific viewing geometry and fixation distance tested. They do not appear to generalize to natural viewing situations and tasks. I suggest a different way in which defocus blur might affect depth perception. Because depth-of-focus blur is a cue to egocentric distance, it could contribute to quantitative depth perception by scaling depth relations specified by other relative depth cues.

  19. Contribution of motion parallax to segmentation and depth perception.

    PubMed

    Yoonessi, Ahmad; Baker, Curtis L

    2011-08-24

    Relative image motion resulting from active movement of the observer could potentially serve as a powerful perceptual cue, both for segmentation of object boundaries and for depth perception. To examine the perceptual role of motion parallax from shearing motion, we measured human performance in three psychophysical tasks: segmentation, depth ordering, and depth magnitude estimation. Stimuli consisted of random dot textures that were synchronized to head movement with sine- or square-wave modulation patterns. Segmentation was assessed with a 2AFC orientation judgment of a motion-defined boundary. In the depth-ordering task, observers reported which modulation half-cycle appeared in front of the other. Perceived depth magnitude was matched to that of a 3D rendered image with multiple static cues. The results indicate that head movement might not be important for segmentation, even though it is crucial for obtaining depth from motion parallax--thus, concomitant depth perception does not appear to facilitate segmentation. Our findings suggest that segmentation works best for abrupt, sharply defined motion boundaries, whereas smooth gradients are more powerful for obtaining depth from motion parallax. Thus, motion parallax may contribute in a different manner to segmentation and to depth perception and suggests that their underlying mechanisms might be distinct.

  20. Spatial analysis of storm depths from an Arizona raingage network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennessey, N. M.; Eagleson, P. S.; Qinliang, W.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    1986-01-01

    Eight years of summer rainstorm observations are analyzed by a dense network of 93 raingages operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, in the 150 km Walnut Gulch experimental catchment near Tucson, Arizona. Storms are defined by the total depths collected at each raingage during the noon-to-noon period for which there was depth recorded at any of the gages. For each of the resulting 428 storm days, the gage depths are interpolated onto a dense grid and the resulting random field analyzed to obtain moments, isohyetal plots, spatial correlation function, variance function, and the spatial distribution of storm depth.

  1. Structured IR illumination for relative depth sensing in virtual interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Raulot, Victorien; Grossman, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Depth mapping or depth sensing has become a popular field, applied not only to automotive sensing for collision avoidance (radar) but also to gesture sensing for gaming and virtual interfaces (optical). Popular gesture sensing devices such as the Kinect from Microsoft's Xbox gaming device produce a full absolute depth map, which is in most cases not adapted to the task on hand (relative gesture sensing). We propose in this paper a new gesture sensing technique through structured IR illumination to provide a relative depth mapping rather than an absolute one, and this reducing the requirements on computing power and therefore enabling this technology for wearable computing such as see through display.

  2. Method of measuring field funneling and range straggling in semiconductor charge-collecting junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor); Malone, Carl J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Electric-field funneling length is measured while irradiating a semiconductor charge-collecting junction with electron-hole-pair generating charged particles at a first junction bias voltage. The bias voltage is then reduced to a second level in order to reduce the depth of the depletion region such that the total charge can no longer be collected by drift and measured in the energy band previously displayed in the multichannel analyzer. This is representative of the maximum electric field funnelling length which may be calculated by measuring the difference at the second bias voltage level of the depletion width and the ion penetration range. The bias voltage is further lowered to a third level at which the particles are collected over a spread of energy levels while at least some of the particles are still collected at the selected energy level. From this the different depths of penetration of the particles are determined while additional effects due to diffusion are minimized.

  3. Mobility of Charge Carriers in Polymer and Mica Electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, G. K.; Fedchishin, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Ionizing radiation of an electric corona gas discharge (ECGD) and electric barrier gas discharge (EBGD) creates a radiation thickness gradient of recombination center concentration N rec = f(h) near the surface of polymer and mica electrets. The mobility of charge carriers in polymer and mica electrets and the stability of the electret potential difference U el = f(t) are obtained by the method of experimental measurements of the x-ray radiation half-absorption depth δ 1/2ECGD, EBGD .

  4. Gas-charged sediments in the Amazon submarine delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; de Alencar Costa, Elen

    1996-03-01

    Seismic profiling with 3.5-kHz and GeoPulse in the Amazon submarine delta indicates that gas-charged sediments cover an area greater than 31,000 km2. Gas appears on seismic profiles as gas-brightening reflectors near the river mouth, where mud and sand are well stratified. In fine sediments of the distal portion of the system, gas turbidity zones predominate. Biogenic gas is generated during degradation of terrestrial and marine organic matter by bacteria. The depth of gas in sediment below the seabed depends in part on anaerobic methane oxidation and the base of the sulfate reduction zone and on stratigraphic traps.

  5. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Ahmed; Williams, Simon; Samson, Esuene; Fairhead, Derek; Ravat, Dhananjay; Blakely, Richard J.

    2010-09-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  6. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  7. Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Loftus, Zachary; McCormac, Nathan; Venable, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control of the penetration force applied to a pin tool in friction stir welding has been found to be a robust and reliable means for controlling the depth of penetration of the tool. This discovery has made it possible to simplify depth control and to weld with greater repeatability, even on workpieces with long weld joints. Prior to this discovery, depths of penetration in friction stir welding were controlled by hard-tooled roller assemblies or by depth actuators controlled by feedback from such external sensors as linear variable-differential transformers or laser-based devices. These means of control are limited: A hard-tooled roller assembly confines a pin tool to a preset depth that cannot be changed easily during the welding process. A measurement by an external sensor is only an indirect indicative of the depth of penetration, and computations to correlate such a measurement with a depth of penetration are vulnerable to error. The present force-feedback approach exploits the proportionality between the depth and the force of penetration Unlike a depth measurement taken by an external sensor, a force measurement can be direct because it can be taken by a sensor coupled directly to the pin tool. The reading can be processed through a modern electronic servo control system to control an actuator to keep the applied penetration force at the desired level. In comparison with the older depth-control methods described above, this method offers greater sensitivity to plasticizing of the workpiece metal and is less sensitive to process noise, resulting in a more consistent process. In an experiment, a tapered panel was friction stir welded while controlling the force of penetration according to this method. The figure is a plot of measurements taken during the experiment, showing that force was controlled with a variation of 200 lb (890 N), resulting in control of the depth of penetration with a variation of 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).

  8. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-01-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20th century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes. PMID:27599577

  9. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-09-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20th century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  10. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-01-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20(th) century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes. PMID:27599577

  11. Multilevel depth and image fusion for human activity detection.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bingbing; Pei, Yong; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing complex human activities usually requires the detection and modeling of individual visual features and the interactions between them. Current methods only rely on the visual features extracted from 2-D images, and therefore often lead to unreliable salient visual feature detection and inaccurate modeling of the interaction context between individual features. In this paper, we show that these problems can be addressed by combining data from a conventional camera and a depth sensor (e.g., Microsoft Kinect). We propose a novel complex activity recognition and localization framework that effectively fuses information from both grayscale and depth image channels at multiple levels of the video processing pipeline. In the individual visual feature detection level, depth-based filters are applied to the detected human/object rectangles to remove false detections. In the next level of interaction modeling, 3-D spatial and temporal contexts among human subjects or objects are extracted by integrating information from both grayscale and depth images. Depth information is also utilized to distinguish different types of indoor scenes. Finally, a latent structural model is developed to integrate the information from multiple levels of video processing for an activity detection. Extensive experiments on two activity recognition benchmarks (one with depth information) and a challenging grayscale + depth human activity database that contains complex interactions between human-human, human-object, and human-surroundings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multilevel grayscale + depth fusion scheme. Higher recognition and localization accuracies are obtained relative to the previous methods. PMID:23996589

  12. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B; Hajian, Arsen R

    2015-01-01

    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry. PMID:25803289

  13. Fish depth distributions in the Lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killgore, K. J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature exists about depth distribution of fish in oceans, lakes and reservoirs, but less is known about fish depth distribution in large rivers. Most of the emphasis on fish distributions in rivers has focused on longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distributions. Knowledge on depth distribution is necessary to understand species and community habitat needs. Considering this void, our goal was to identify patterns in fish benthic distribution along depth gradients in the Lower Mississippi River. Fish were collected over 14 years in depths down to 27 m. Fish exhibited non-random depth distributions that varied seasonally and according to species. Species richness was highest in shallow water, with about 50% of the 62 species detected no longer collected in water deeper than 8 m and about 75% no longer collected in water deeper than 12 m. Although richness was highest in shallow water, most species were not restricted to shallow water. Rather, most species used a wide range of depths. A weak depth zonation occurred, not as strong as that reported for deep oceans and lakes. Larger fish tended to occur in deeper water during the high-water period of an annual cycle, but no correlation was evident during the low-water period. The advent of landscape ecology has guided river research to search for spatial patterns along the length of the river and associated floodplains. Our results suggest that fish assemblages in large rivers are also structured vertically. 

  14. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted...

  15. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted...

  16. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted...

  17. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted...

  18. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted...

  19. Mobility and low contrast trip hazard avoidance using augmented depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Chris; Walker, Janine G.; Lieby, Paulette; Scott, Adele; Barnes, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We evaluated a novel visual representation for current and near-term prosthetic vision. Augmented depth emphasizes ground obstacles and floor-wall boundaries in a depth-based visual representation. This is achieved by artificially increasing contrast between obstacles and the ground surface via a novel ground plane extraction algorithm specifically designed to preserve low-contrast ground-surface boundaries. Approach. The effectiveness of augmented depth was examined in human mobility trials compared against standard intensity-based (Intensity), depth-based (Depth) and random (Random) visual representations. Eight participants with normal vision used simulated prosthetic vision with 20 phosphenes and eight perceivable brightness levels to traverse a course with randomly placed small and low-contrast obstacles on the ground. Main results. The number of collisions was significantly reduced using augmented depth, compared with intensity, depth and random representations (48%, 44% and 72% less collisions, respectively). Significance. These results indicate that augmented depth may enable safe mobility in the presence of low-contrast obstacles with current and near-term implants. This is the first demonstration that an augmentation of the scene ensuring key objects are visible may provide better outcomes for prosthetic vision.

  20. Depth discrimination from occlusions in 3D clutter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Zheng, Haomin; Rezvankhah, Shayan

    2016-09-01

    Objects such as trees, shrubs, and tall grass consist of thousands of small surfaces that are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) volume. To perceive the depth of surfaces within 3D clutter, a visual system can use binocular stereo and motion parallax. However, such parallax cues are less reliable in 3D clutter because surfaces tend to be partly occluded. Occlusions provide depth information, but it is unknown whether visual systems use occlusion cues to aid depth perception in 3D clutter, as previous studies have addressed occlusions for simple scene geometries only. Here, we present a set of depth discrimination experiments that examine depth from occlusion cues in 3D clutter, and how these cues interact with stereo and motion parallax. We identify two probabilistic occlusion cues. The first is based on the fraction of an object that is visible. The second is based on the depth range of the occluders. We show that human observers use both of these occlusion cues. We also define ideal observers that are based on these occlusion cues. Human observer performance is close to ideal using the visibility cue but far from ideal using the range cue. A key reason for the latter is that the range cue depends on depth estimation of the clutter itself which is unreliable. Our results provide new fundamental constraints on the depth information that is available from occlusions in 3D clutter, and how the occlusion cues are combined with binocular stereo and motion parallax cues. PMID:27618514

  1. Claypan depth effect on soil phosphorus and potassium dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in spatially-variable soil test P (STP) and soil test K (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Using apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) to estimate topsoil depth (or depth to...

  2. Depth Profilometry via Multiplexed Optical High-Coherence Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2015-01-01

    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry. PMID:25803289

  3. Systematic variation in the depths of slabs beneath arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, P.; Engdahl, R.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    The depths to the tops of the zones of intermediate-depth seismicity beneath arc volcanoes are determined using the hypocentral locations of Engdahl et al. These depths are constant, to within a few kilometres, within individual arc segments, but differ by tens of kilometres from one arc segment to another. The range in depths is from 65 km to 130 km, inconsistent with the common belief that the volcanoes directly overlie the places where the slabs reach a critical depth that is roughly constant for all arcs. The depth to the top of the intermediate-depth seismicity beneath volcanoes correlates neither with age of the descending ocean floor nor with the thermal parameter of the slab. This depth does, however, exhibit an inverse correlation with the descent speed of the subducting plate, which is the controlling factor both for the thermal structure of the wedge of mantle above the slab and for the temperature at the top of the slab. We interpret this result as indicating that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a process that depends critically upon the temperature at the top of the slab, or in the wedge of mantle, immediately below the volcanic arc.

  4. Conceptualization of Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Academic Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…

  5. Depth discrimination from occlusions in 3D clutter.

    PubMed

    Langer, Michael S; Zheng, Haomin; Rezvankhah, Shayan

    2016-09-01

    Objects such as trees, shrubs, and tall grass consist of thousands of small surfaces that are distributed over a three-dimensional (3D) volume. To perceive the depth of surfaces within 3D clutter, a visual system can use binocular stereo and motion parallax. However, such parallax cues are less reliable in 3D clutter because surfaces tend to be partly occluded. Occlusions provide depth information, but it is unknown whether visual systems use occlusion cues to aid depth perception in 3D clutter, as previous studies have addressed occlusions for simple scene geometries only. Here, we present a set of depth discrimination experiments that examine depth from occlusion cues in 3D clutter, and how these cues interact with stereo and motion parallax. We identify two probabilistic occlusion cues. The first is based on the fraction of an object that is visible. The second is based on the depth range of the occluders. We show that human observers use both of these occlusion cues. We also define ideal observers that are based on these occlusion cues. Human observer performance is close to ideal using the visibility cue but far from ideal using the range cue. A key reason for the latter is that the range cue depends on depth estimation of the clutter itself which is unreliable. Our results provide new fundamental constraints on the depth information that is available from occlusions in 3D clutter, and how the occlusion cues are combined with binocular stereo and motion parallax cues.

  6. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  7. Measurement of water depth by multispectral ratio techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.

    1970-01-01

    The technique for measuring the depth of water using a multispectral scanner is discussed. The procedure takes advantage of the absorption properties of different wavelengths of light. Making use of the property of the selected transmission of light at different wavelengths, an equation was developed relating the outputs of at least two channels of multispectral scanner to measure water depth.

  8. Fast mode decision for 3D-HEVC depth intracoding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Li, Nana; Wu, Qinggang

    2014-01-01

    The emerging international standard of high efficiency video coding based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) is a successor to multiview video coding (MVC). In 3D-HEVC depth intracoding, depth modeling mode (DMM) and high efficiency video coding (HEVC) intraprediction mode are both employed to select the best coding mode for each coding unit (CU). This technique achieves the highest possible coding efficiency, but it results in extremely large encoding time which obstructs the 3D-HEVC from practical application. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on the correlation between texture video and depth map is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC depth intracoding computational complexity. Since the texture video and its associated depth map represent the same scene, there is a high correlation among the prediction mode from texture video and depth map. Therefore, we can skip some specific depth intraprediction modes rarely used in related texture CU. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce computational complexity of 3D-HEVC depth intracoding while maintaining coding efficiency. PMID:24963512

  9. New charge for BMS symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Aruna; Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-03-01

    Conservation laws of asymptotic symmetries are essential to quantify the amount of energy-momentum and angular momentum carried away by gravitational radiation from isolated systems. The asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetimes at null infinity is the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group. While the flux associated to an arbitrary BMS vector field was provided by Ashtekar and Streubel (1981) using symplectic methods, the tensorial expression of a corresponding two-dimensional charge integral linear in an arbitrary BMS vector field has not been available in the literature. We fill this gap by providing such a charge. I will discuss its properties and relation to Geroch's supermomentum and the charge of Dray and Streubel (1984).

  10. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  11. Evaporating Global Charges in Braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-09-01

    In braneworld models the global charges, such as baryon or lepton number, are not conserved. The global-charge non-conservation is a rather model-independent feature which arises due to quantum fluctuations of the brane worldvolume. These fluctuations create ``baby branes'' that can capture some global charges and carry them away into the bulk of higher-dimensional space. Such processes are exponentially suppressed at low-energies, but can be significant at high enough temperatures or energies. These effects can lead to a new, intrinsically high-dimensional mechanism of baryogenesis. Baryon asymmetry might be produced due either to evaporation into the baby branes, or creation of the baryon number excess in collisions of two Brane Universes.

  12. Alternator control for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  13. Privacy-Sensitive Congestion Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresford, Alastair R.; Davies, Jonathan J.; Harle, Robert K.

    National-scale congestion charging schemes are increasingly viewed as the most viable long-term strategy for controlling congestion and maintaining the viability of the road network. In this paper we challenge the widely held belief that enforceable and economically viable congestion charging schemes require drivers to give up their location privacy to the government. Instead we explore an alternative scheme where privately-owned cars enforce congestion charge payments by using an on-board vehicle unit containing a camera and wireless communications. Our solution prevents centralised tracking of vehicle movements but raises an important issue: should we trust our neighbours with a little personal information in preference to entrusting it all to the government?

  14. Opportunity and the charge nurse.

    PubMed

    Brown, R

    Nursing Standard has, over the past six weeks, produced a series of articles dealing with issues in ward management for charge nurses. Series co-ordinator Ros Brown now offers a postscript which acts as a conclusion for the series and reflects on the dilemmas and opportunities which face charge nurses as they enter into the world of purchasers and providers, hospital Trusts and PREPP. It is essential that the role of the charge nurse is not only preserved in this changing climate, she argues, but is cultivated, nurtured and recognised as an indispensable function. The future looks bright for those prepared to discard the habits of the past and grasp the challenges of the present.

  15. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a...

  16. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a...

  17. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a...

  18. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a...

  19. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a...

  20. 5 CFR 630.206 - Minimum charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum charge. 630.206 Section 630.206... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.206 Minimum charge. (a) Unless an agency establishes a minimum charge of less than one hour, or establishes a different minimum charge...

  1. 47 CFR 69.124 - Interconnection charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection charge. 69.124 Section 69.124... Computation of Charges § 69.124 Interconnection charge. (a) Until December 31, 2001, local exchange carriers not subject to price cap regulation shall assess an interconnection charge expressed in dollars...

  2. Logic depth aware context independent timing model generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parag; Kumar, Naresh; Bhatnagar, P. S.; Agarwal, N. K.

    2016-03-01

    Logic depth aware static timing analysis involves a pre-characterized library that models the variability over the path on the basis of total timing path depth. With shrinking design geometries and rush to pack more components in a reduced size chip, hierarchical timing analysis has emerged as a stronger alternative to closing the designs however logic depth based timing analysis brings new set of challenges in generating timing models for the multiply instantiated hierarchical blocks at the chip level. In this paper, we discuss challenges imposed by logic depth in creating hierarchical timing analysis and propose a new algorithm in generating a model comprehending logic depths for multiply instantiated blocks. We demonstrate that usage of such timing model generation algorithm can significantly speedup the process of model extraction and process accuracy within 10% of the original block timing.

  3. Infrared imaging of burn wounds to determine burn depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargroder, Andrew G.; Davidson, James E., Sr.; Luther, Donald G.; Head, Jonathan F.

    1999-07-01

    Determination of burn wound depth is at present left to the surgeons visual examination. Many burn wounds are obviously, by visual inspection, superficial 2 degree burns or true 3 degree burns. However, those burn wounds that fall between the obvious depth burns are difficult to assess visually, and therefore wound depth determination often requires waiting 5 to 7 days postburn. Initially, 10 burn patients underwent IR imaging at various times during the evaluation of their burn wounds. These patients were followed to either healing or skin grafting. The IR images were then reviewed to determine their accuracy in determining the depth of the wound. IR imaging of burn wounds with focal plane staring array midrange IR systems appears promising in determination of burn depth one to two days postburn. This will allow clinical decision regarding operative or nonoperative intervention to be made earlier, thus decreasing hospital stays and time to healing.

  4. Optical Depth from Realistic Microlensing Models of M31

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, Geza; Crotts, Arlin

    2000-06-01

    We provide a set of microlensing optical depth maps for M31. Optical depths toward Andromeda were calculated on the basis of a four-component model of the lens and source populations: disk and bulge sources lensed by bulge, M31 halo, and Galactic halo lenses. We confirm the high optical depth and the strong optical depth gradient along the M31 minor axis due to a dark halo of lenses and also discuss the magnitude of the self-lensing due to the bulge. We explore how the shape of the optical depth maps to M31 vary with the halo parameters core radius and flattening. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  5. Acupuncture and Depth: Future Direction for Acupuncture Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The research on acupuncture has increased steadily over the years and regular review and revision of the direction of future acupuncture research are necessary. This paper aims to review and explore the significance of acupuncture depth in modern acupuncture research. Searches conducted in Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases reflected a lack of focus on depth of acupuncture. We propose that the research trends of acupuncture should progress to the depth of insertion. It is suggested that future acupuncture research, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs), should take into consideration the depth of insertion. Comparison between databases using different language of medium suggests the need for international collaboration of researchers from the same field. It is also crucial to inherit and innovate traditional medicine (TM) through modern technology. The use of bibliometric method is also suitable for development of TM research trends. Acupuncture and depth should be considered as one of the future directions of acupuncture research. PMID:25114707

  6. Interaction of depth probes and style of depiction

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; Koenderink, Jan J.; Leyssen, Mieke H. R.; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of stylistic differences on the nature of pictorial spaces as they appear to an observer when looking into a picture. Four pictures chosen from diverse styles of depiction were studied by 2 different methods. Each method addresses pictorial depth but draws on a different bouquet of depth cues. We find that the depth structures are very similar for 8 observers, apart from an idiosyncratic depth scaling (up to a factor of 3). The differences between observers generalize over (very different) pictures and (very different) methods. They are apparently characteristic of the person. The differences between depths as sampled by the 2 methods depend upon the style of the picture. This is the case for all observers except one. PMID:23145306

  7. Deposits from Multiple Shallow Discrete Blasts with Variable Explosion Depths: Analog Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G.; Sonder, I.

    2014-12-01

    The reconstruction of eruptive processes from ejecta deposits is a vital element of volcano hazard assessment. Large-scale experiments provide an opportunity to test ejecta distribution and volume to energy and depth parameters for discrete blasts. Experiments conducted at the University at Buffalo Geohazards Field Station produced meter-scale craters with ejecta deposits. Repeated chemical explosions occurred in constructed strata of compacted aggregates (e.g. sands, gravels) with variable configurations. The experiments revealed that shallow blasts, low scaled depth (<0.004 m/J1/3), are required to produce significant extra-crater deposits. Sixteen discrete blasts produced ejecta between 5 -18 m from the blast center (> 2x crater radius). Each experiment had between one and four explosions in the same horizontal positions (pad), with variable charge depth and energy. The extra-crater deposits were collected up to 18 m from the blast center. Ejecta produced by discrete explosions can be divided into three zones: proximal, medial and distal. The proximal deposits form a constructional feature around the crater. Medial ejecta forms a thin continuous blanket and distal ejecta consists of isolated clasts scattered beyond the medial blanket. A strong relationship between the shape of the jet produced by shallow blasts and the distribution of ejecta were reproduced through the multiple experiments. The jet shape is controlled by crater geometry and condition. Therefore, crater geometry and condition influences ejecta distribution. Blasts that interact with an existing crater have more vertically focused jets. The elevation of the crater rim, enhanced by proximal deposits, contributes to future depositional patterns by producing confined jets. Small discrete blasts frequently have >50% of their volume in the proximal zone. These experiments show that deposit distribution is sensitive to surface geometries in addition to the energy and depth of the blast.

  8. Evaluation of detectors for acquisition of pristine depth-dose curves in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin; Lambert, Jamil; Timmermann, Beate; Mertens, Thierry; Takoukam Talla, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of quasi-monoenergetic ("pristine") depth-dose curves is an essential task in the frame of commissioning and quality assurance of a proton therapy treatment head. For pencil beam scanning delivery modes this is often accomplished by measuring the integral ionization in a plane perpendicular to the axis of an unscanned beam. We focus on the evaluation of three integral detectors: two of them are plane-parallel ionization chambers with an effective radius of 4.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively, mounted in a scanning water phantom. The third integral detector is a 6.0 cm radius multilayer ionization chamber. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding measurements under broad field conditions, which are performed with a small radius plane-parallel chamber and a small radius multilayer ionization chamber. We study how a measured depth-dose curve of a pristine proton field depends on the detection device, by evaluating the shape of the depth-dose curve, the relative charge collection efficiency, and intercomparing measured ranges. Our results show that increasing the radius of an integral chamber from 4.1 cm to 6.0 cm increases the collection efficiency by 0%-3.5% depending on beam energy and depth. Ranges can be determined by the large electrode multilayer ionization chamber with a typical uncertainty of 0.4 mm on a routine basis. The large electrode multilayer ionization chamber exhibits a small distortion in the Bragg Peak region. This prohibits its use for acquisition of base data, but is tolerable for quality assurance. The good range accuracy and the peak distortion are characteristics of the multilayer ionization chamber design, as shown by the direct comparison with the small electrode counterpart.

  9. Evaluation of detectors for acquisition of pristine depth-dose curves in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin; Lambert, Jamil; Timmermann, Beate; Mertens, Thierry; Takoukam Talla, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of quasi-monoenergetic ("pristine") depth-dose curves is an essential task in the frame of commissioning and quality assurance of a proton therapy treatment head. For pencil beam scanning delivery modes this is often accomplished by measuring the integral ionization in a plane perpendicular to the axis of an unscanned beam. We focus on the evaluation of three integral detectors: two of them are plane-parallel ionization chambers with an effective radius of 4.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively, mounted in a scanning water phantom. The third integral detector is a 6.0 cm radius multilayer ionization chamber. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding measurements under broad field conditions, which are performed with a small radius plane-parallel chamber and a small radius multilayer ionization chamber. We study how a measured depth-dose curve of a pristine proton field depends on the detection device, by evaluating the shape of the depth-dose curve, the relative charge collection efficiency, and intercomparing measured ranges. Our results show that increasing the radius of an integral chamber from 4.1 cm to 6.0 cm increases the collection efficiency by 0%-3.5% depending on beam energy and depth. Ranges can be determined by the large electrode multilayer ionization chamber with a typical uncertainty of 0.4 mm on a routine basis. The large electrode multilayer ionization chamber exhibits a small distortion in the Bragg Peak region. This prohibits its use for acquisition of base data, but is tolerable for quality assurance. The good range accuracy and the peak distortion are characteristics of the multilayer ionization chamber design, as shown by the direct comparison with the small electrode counterpart. PMID:26699567

  10. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  11. Enhancing the ATIC Charge Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunashingha, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment measures the energy spectra of elements, from H to Fe, in the energy region from about 100 GeV to tens of TeV. The ATIC instrument was flown twice in long-duration balloon flights around the South Pole; the ATIC-1 test flight during Dec. 2000 - Jan. 2001 and the ATIC-2 science flight during Dec. 2002 - Jan. 2003. Analyses of both datasets have, to date, relied upon the highly segmented Silicon Matrix (SiM) detector to separate the incident cosmic ray from the calorimeter backscatter and to identify the charge. This method has worked well, enabling ATIC to separate protons from helium and to resolve all the major species up through iron. This charge resolution can be significantly improved by restricting the analysis to particle trajectories that pass through two SiM pixels at the cost of using only a fraction of the potential instrument geometry. However, immediately below the SiM is the two layer SI hodoscope (x, y) consisting of Bicron BC-408 plastic scintillator 2 cm wide, 1 cm thick, 88.2 cm long strips viewed by Hamamatsu R5611 photomultiplier tubes on each end of each strip. The primary purpose of the ATIC hodoscopes is to provide a fast trigger, and each hodoscope includes two crossed layers of strips (42 per layer in the case of Sl) providing supplemental particle trajectory information. The hodoscope readout electronics were designed to provide reasonable charge resolution over the dynamic range from protons through iron. This presentation discusses the S 1 hodoscope energy deposit calibrations, examines the charge resolution possible with this detector and investigates combining the S1 and SiM charge measurements to improve the overall ATIC charge resolution while minimizing degradation of the instrument geometry.

  12. General stationary charged black holes as charged particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Wu, Shao-Feng; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Jiang, Ying

    2011-08-01

    We study the possibility of getting infinite energy in the center-of-mass frame of colliding charged particles in a general stationary charged black hole. For black holes with twofold degenerate horizon, it is found that arbitrary high center-of-mass energy can be attained, provided that one of the particle has critical angular momentum or critical charge and the remained parameters of particles and black holes satisfy certain restriction. For black holes with multiple-fold degenerate event horizons, the restriction is released. For nondegenerate black holes, the ultrahigh center-of-mass is possible to be reached by invoking the multiple scattering mechanism. We obtain a condition for the existence of innermost stable circular orbit with critical angular momentum or charge on any-fold degenerate horizons, which is essential to get ultrahigh center-of-mass energy without fine-tuning problem. We also discuss the proper time spending by the particle to reach the horizon and the duality between frame-dragging effect and electromagnetic interaction. Some of these general results are applied to braneworld small black holes.

  13. Simulations of charge transfer in Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, N.; Stefanov, K.; Hall, D.; Jordan, D.; Holland, A.

    2014-12-01

    Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are a variant of traditional CCD technology well suited to applications that demand high speed operation in low light conditions. On-chip signal amplification allows the sensor to effectively suppress the noise introduced by readout electronics, permitting sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates. The devices have been the subject of many detailed studies concerning their operation, however there has not been a study into the transfer and multiplication process within the EMCCD gain register. Such an investigation has the potential to explain certain observed performance characteristics, as well as inform further optimisations to their operation. In this study, the results from simulation of charge transfer within an EMCCD gain register element are discussed with a specific focus on the implications for serial charge transfer efficiency (CTE). The effects of operating voltage and readout speed are explored in context with typical operating conditions. It is shown that during transfer, a small portion of signal charge may become trapped at the semiconductor-insulator interface that could act to degrade the serial CTE in certain operating conditions.

  14. Derivation of soil moisture sensing depth from microwave satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, Richard; Holmes, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from low frequency passive microwave satellite sensors (e.g. ESAs current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS)) are assumed to estimate spatially explicit soil moisture content of the first centimeters. However, the exact microwave sensing depth and the dynamic nature of the sensing depth at satellite grid scale is still to a large degree unknown. A more reliable estimation of the sensing depth would greatly improve the utility of microwave soil moisture retrievals. Validation activities could be fine-tuned, algorithms could be improved, and modeling applications could match observations to more optimal model depth. In addition to all this, soil moisture sensing depth information is essential for the development of a consistent fundamental soil moisture climate data record. With the availability of multiple polar orbiting satellites with multi-frequency microwave radiometers it has now become possible to study the microwave sensing depth as it manifests itself at observational scales. The approach uses the differences in timing between the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) of microwave observations and thermal infrared observations as a basis to calculate the sensing depth. Using an intercalibrated multi sensor microwave data set and geostationary thermal infrared observations this approach is used to evaluate sensing depth at several microwave frequencies relevant for soil moisture retrieval. Field data in combination with an integrated thermodynamic hydrological microwave model are then used to develop guidelines for a dynamic sensing depth algorithm. The key advantage of this approach is its global applicability, providing timely and consistent information on sensing depth for different satellite soil moisture datasets.

  15. Burn depth assessments by photoacoustic imaging and laser Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Ida, Taiichiro; Iwazaki, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ohkura, Tsuyako; Iwaya, Keiichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Sato, Shunichi; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of burn depths is crucial to determine the treatment plan for severe burn patients. However, an objective method for burn depth assessment has yet to be established, although a commercial laser Doppler imaging (LDI) system is used limitedly. We previously proposed burn depth assessment based on photoacoustic imaging (PAI), in which thermoelastic waves originating from blood under the burned tissue are detected, and we showed the validity of the method by experiments using rat models with three different burn depths: superficial dermal burn, deep dermal burn and deep burn. On the basis of those results, we recently developed a real-time PAI system for clinical burn diagnosis. Before starting a clinical trial, however, there is a need to reveal more detailed diagnostic characteristics, such as linearity and error, of the PAI system as well as to compare its characteristics with those of an LDI system. In this study, we prepared rat models with burns induced at six different temperatures from 70 to 98 °C, which showed a linear dependence of injury depth on the temperature. Using these models, we examined correlations of signals obtained by PAI and LDI with histologically determined injury depths and burn induction temperatures at 48 hours postburn. We found that the burn depths indicated by PAI were highly correlative with histologically determined injury depths (depths of viable vessels) as well as with burn induction temperatures. Perfusion values measured by LDI were less correlative with these parameters, especially for burns induced at higher temperatures, being attributable to the limited detectable depth for light involving a Doppler shift in tissue. In addition, the measurement errors in PAI were smaller than those in LDI. On the basis of these results, we will be able to start clinical studies using the present PAI system.

  16. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  17. Sonic depth sounder for laboratory and field use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, E.V.; Simons, Daryl B.; Posakony, G.J.

    1961-01-01

    The laboratory investigation of roughness in alluvial channels has led to the development of a special electronic device capable of mapping the streambed configuration under dynamic conditions. This electronic device employs an ultrasonic pulse-echo principle, similar to that of a fathometer, that utilizes microsecond techniques to give high accuracy in shallow depths. This instrument is known as the sonic depth sounder and was designed to cover a depth range of 0 to 4 feet with an accuracy of ? 0.5 percent. The sonic depth sounder is capable of operation at frequencies of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 kilocycles. The ultrasonic beam generated at the transducer is designed to give a minimum-diameter interrogating signal over the extended depth range. The information obtained from a sonic depth sounder is recorded on a strip-chart recorder. This permanent record allows an analysis to be made of the streambed configuration under different dynamic conditions. The model 1024 sonic depth sounder was designed principally as a research instrument to meet laboratory needs. As such, it is somewhat limited in its application as a field instrument on large streams and rivers. The principles employed in this instrument, however, have many potentials for field applications such as the indirect measurement of bed load when the bed roughness is ripples and (or) dunes, depth measurement, determination of bed configuration, and determination of depth of scour around bridge piers and abutments. For field application a modification of the present system into a battery-operated lightweight instrument designed to operate at a depth range of 0 to 30 feet is possible and desirable.

  18. Configuration effects on satellite charging response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    The response of various spacecraft configurations to a charging environment in sunlight was studied using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program code. The configuration features geometry, type of stabilization, and overall size. Results indicate that sunlight charging response is dominated by differential charging effects. Shaded insulation charges negatively result in the formation of potential barriers which suppress photoelectron emission from sunlit surfaces. Sunlight charging occurs relatively slowly: with 30 minutes of charging simulations, in none of the configurations modeled did the most negative surface cell reach half its equilibrium potential in eclipse.

  19. Shaped charge with an axial channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygin, A. V.; Proskuryakov, E. V.; Sorokin, M. V.; Fomin, V. M.

    2011-05-01

    A shaped charge with an axial channel is considered. The charge is initiated by an impact of an annular plate. As a result, the shaped charge is initiated at all points of the domain shaped as a ring. The impact plate material and parameters (velocity, thickness, width, and distance covered by the plate) that ensure stable penetration of the shaped charge are determined. The results obtained can be used to develop a composite (e.g., "tandem") shaped charge of the "base-head" type (the charge located farther from the target is first initiated, followed by initiation of the charge located closer to the target).

  20. Failures and anomalies attributed to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, R. D.; Alexander, M. B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging can be very detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions. Assuring that subsystems and systems are protected against charging is an important engineering function necessary to assure mission success. Spacecraft charging is expected to have a significant role in future space activities and programs. Objectives of this reference publication are to present a brief overview of spacecraft charging, to acquaint the reader with charging history, including illustrative cases of charging anomalies, and to introduce current spacecraft charging prevention activities of the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  1. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  2. New charged anisotropic compact models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kileba Matondo, D.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We find new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations which are relevant in the description of highly compact stellar objects. The relativistic star is charged and anisotropic with a quark equation of state. Exact solutions of the field equations are found in terms of elementary functions. It is interesting to note that we regain earlier quark models with uncharged and charged matter distributions. A physical analysis indicates that the matter distributions are well behaved and regular throughout the stellar structure. A range of stellar masses are generated for particular parameter values in the electric field. In particular the observed mass for a binary pulsar is regained.

  3. Scientist to appeal misconduct charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Lawyers for the "bubble-fusion" researcher Rusi Taleyarkhan have told Physics World that he will appeal over the findings of a panel that last month found him guilty of two charges of scientific misconduct. Taleyarkhan, a nuclear engineer at Purdue University in the US, was charged by a sixmember internal committee, which concluded that he had cited a paper by researchers in his own lab as if it were an independent confirmation of his alleged discovery of bubble fusion in 2002. The committee also found him guilty of adding the name of a student who had not contributed to that paper as an author.

  4. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Allman, Steve L.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  5. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  6. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  7. Getting a charge out of transparent tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Randal

    2000-01-01

    When two pieces of transparent tape are placed on top of each other (sticky side to nonsticky side) and then separated, it is observed that one piece becomes negatively charged and the other positively charged. The sign of the charge on each piece depends on the brand of tape used. This phenomenon is frequently used to investigate the properties of charge and charged objects in introductory physics courses.

  8. Constraints on Lithospheric Dynamics From Curie Depth/Magnetic Bottom Depth Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravat, D.

    2011-12-01

    In Eastern Egypt and parts of Canada, where inferred mantle temperatures are cooler than the Curie temperature of magnetite, several carefully performed spectral magnetic bottom estimates correspond to the Moho. This suggests that the continental mantle in these regions is likely to be non-magnetic and constitutes the magnetic anomaly based validation of the proposal of Wasilewski and co-workers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary. On the other hand, a few estimates of magnetic bottom in the Red Sea reside in the oceanic lithospheric uppermost mantle suggesting that serpentinization may have occurred there and hence that part of the mantle may be magnetic. It remains to be seen whether normal uppermost oceanic mantle in many places around the world is serpentinized. A tectonic scenario where the process of serpentinization may be important is the mantle wedges above subducting oceanic plates. I use carefully derived Curie depth/magnetic bottom estimates over the North American continent to explore whether ancient, presently intracratonic, subduction margins can be detected where the upper plate mantle may have been serpentinized. In this context, evaluation of ensemble, parallelepiped, and fractal magnetization models and methods for performing magnetic depth calculations suggests that there are many solutions that fit the same observed azimuthally averaged spectra and, therefore, finding solutions on the criterion of the best-fit spectra alone does not guarantee the most optimum solution. Derived solutions must be validated by different magnetic bottom determining methods and through complementary geophysical information before they can be meaningfully interpreted. Using layered magnetization structure from these methods, I also derive an upper limit for the regional magnetization for the bottommost layer. In the regions of Pikwitonei and Kapuskasing uplifted lower crustal cross-sections in Canada, where magnetization was previously thought to be inadequate to

  9. Depth-resolved ballistic imaging in a low-depth-of-field optical Kerr gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yipeng; Tan, Wenjiang; Si, Jinhai; Ren, YuHu; Xu, Shichao; Tong, Junyi; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate depth-resolved imaging in a ballistic imaging system, in which a heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate is introduced to extract useful imaging photons for detecting an object hidden in turbid media and a compound lens is proposed to ensure both the depth-resolved imaging capability and the long working distance. Two objects of about 15-μm widths hidden in a polystyrene-sphere suspension have been successfully imaged with approximately 600-μm depth resolution. Modulation-transfer-function curves with the object in and away from the object plane have also been measured to confirm the depth-resolved imaging capability of the low-depth-of-field (low-DOF) ballistic imaging system. This imaging approach shows potential for application in research of the internal structure of highly scattering fuel spray.

  10. Variations in effective compensation depth across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, R.R.; Hall, S.A. ); Bills, B.G.

    1989-06-01

    Aphrodite Terra is the largest elevated terrain on Venus and it serves as a focal point in current discussions of global tectonic style. Using the topography and gravity data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) the authors have estimated an effective depth of Airy compensation for each of 75 orbital arcs that provide fairly uniform areal coverage of the entire province. The most pronounced pattern that emerges is a general increase in compensation depth to the east. The most rapid change occurs near 135{degree}; the average west of there is 70 km, while the average to the east is 230 km. Superimposed on this larger trend are five distinctive regional patterns, four well defined peaks and one interval of widely scattered and poorly constrained depths. The maxima in compensation depth are well correlated with regional topographic highs. While these observations are easily reconciled with the general notion that Aphrodite is a region of crustal divergence, the great depth of compensation is difficult to accord with the more specific suggestion that Aphrodite is a terrestrial type divergent plate margin. The alternative suggestion that Aphrodite, and the other equatorial highlands on Venus, are surface manifestations of hot upwelling mantle plumes is consistent both with the great depths of compensation and with the pattern of regional peaks and intervening troughs. The broader scale increase in effective depth of compensation from west to east is more enigmatic, but it might reflect an age progression of the plumes.

  11. Microphysical and Dynamical Influences on Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.

    2005-03-18

    Cirrus cloud inhomogeneity occurs at scales greater than the cirrus radiative smoothing scale ({approx}100 m), but less than typical global climate model (GCM) resolutions ({approx}300 km). Therefore, calculating cirrus radiative impacts in GCMs requires an optical depth distribution parameterization. Radiative transfer calculations are sensitive to optical depth distribution assumptions (Fu et al. 2000; Carlin et al. 2002). Using raman lidar observations, we quantify cirrus timescales and optical depth distributions at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, OK (USA). We demonstrate the sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) calculations to assumed optical depth distributions and to the temporal resolution of optical depth measurements. Recent work has highlighted the importance of dynamics and nucleation for cirrus evolution (Haag and Karcher 2004; Karcher and Strom 2003). We need to understand the main controls on cirrus optical depth distributions to incorporate cirrus variability into model radiative transfer calculations. With an explicit ice microphysics parcel model, we aim to understand the influence of ice nucleation mechanism and imposed dynamics on cirrus optical depth distributions.

  12. Structure Selective Depth Superresolution for RGB-D Cameras.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjung; Ham, Bumsub; Oh, Changjae; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes a method for high-quality depth superresolution. The standard formulations of image-guided depth upsampling, using simple joint filtering or quadratic optimization, lead to texture copying and depth bleeding artifacts. These artifacts are caused by inherent discrepancy of structures in data from different sensors. Although there exists some correlation between depth and intensity discontinuities, they are different in distribution and formation. To tackle this problem, we formulate an optimization model using a nonconvex regularizer. A nonlocal affinity established in a high-dimensional feature space is used to offer precisely localized depth boundaries. We show that the proposed method iteratively handles differences in structure between depth and intensity images. This property enables reducing texture copying and depth bleeding artifacts significantly on a variety of range data sets. We also propose a fast alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm to solve our optimization problem. Our solver shows a noticeable speed up compared with the conventional majorize-minimize algorithm. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to the existing methods.

  13. Optimal integration of shading and binocular disparity for depth perception.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Paul G; Bloj, Marina; Harris, Julie M

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relative utility of shape from shading and binocular disparity for depth perception. Ray-traced images either featured a smooth surface illuminated from above (shading-only) or were defined by small dots (disparity-only). Observers judged which of a pair of smoothly curved convex objects had most depth. The shading cue was around half as reliable as the rich disparity information for depth discrimination. Shading- and disparity-defined cues where combined by placing dots in the stimulus image, superimposed upon the shaded surface, resulting in veridical shading and binocular disparity. Independently varying the depth delivered by each channel allowed creation of conflicting disparity-defined and shading-defined depth. We manipulated the reliability of the disparity information by adding disparity noise. As noise levels in the disparity channel were increased, perceived depths and variances shifted toward those of the now more reliable shading cue. Several different models of cue combination were applied to the data. Perceived depths and variances were well predicted by a classic maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) model of cue integration, for all but one observer. We discuss the extent to which MLE is the most parsimonious model to account for observer performance.

  14. Plenoptic depth map in the case of occlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Yu, Jingyi; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Georgiev, Todor

    2013-03-01

    Recent realizations of hand-held plenoptic cameras have given rise to previously unexplored effects in photography. Designing a mobile phone plenoptic camera is becoming feasible with the significant increase of computing power of mobile devices and the introduction of System on a Chip. However, capturing high numbers of views is still impractical due to special requirements such as ultra-thin camera and low costs. In this paper, we analyze a mobile plenoptic camera solution with a small number of views. Such a camera can produce a refocusable high resolution final image if a depth map is generated for every pixel in the sparse set of views. With the captured multi-view images, the obstacle to recovering a high-resolution depth is occlusions. To robustly resolve these, we first analyze the behavior of pixels in such situations. We show that even under severe occlusion, one can still distinguish different depth layers based on statistics. We estimate the depth of each pixel by discretizing the space in the scene and conducting plane sweeping. Specifically, for each given depth, we gather all corresponding pixels from other views and model the in-focus pixels as a Gaussian distribution. We show how it is possible to distinguish occlusion pixels, and in-focus pixels in order to find the depths. Final depth maps are computed in real scenes captured by a mobile plenoptic camera.

  15. A GSO depth of interaction detector for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Ishibashi, H.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed a GSO depth of interaction detector. Three GSO scintillators with different concentration of Ce were chosen and stacked along depth of interaction direction and optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) or a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). In the beginning, pulse shape, light output and zero-cross time were measured to select a proper combination of GSO scintillators with different concentration of Ce. Selecting three GSO scintillators with different concentration of Ce, a single stacked GSO/PMT depth of interaction detector was fabricated for estimating the possibility of this method. Using the zero-cross time analysis, three peaks correspond to decay times of the three GSO scintillators were obtained. Finally, a GSO/PSPMT depth of interaction block detector was fabricated and tested. The block detector consists of 7 x 7 matrix of GSO scintillators which have three layers of different concentration of Ce optically coupled to a PSPMT. The pulse shape analysis was used for determination of depth of interaction direction while the Anger logic was used for transaxial and axial directions. Good separation was observed in depth of interaction direction as well as transaxial and axial directions. These results indicate that the GSO block detector may become one solution to develop a positron emission tomograph (PET) with depth of interaction detection capability.

  16. Modeling of Depth Cue Integration in Manual Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Barbara T.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Davis, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Psychophysical research has demonstrated that human observers utilize a variety of visual cues to form a perception of three-dimensional depth. However, most of these studies have utilized a passive judgement paradigm, and failed to consider depth-cue integration as a dynamic and task-specific process. In the current study, we developed and experimentally validated a model of manual control of depth that examines how two potential cues (stereo disparity and relative size) are utilized in both first- and second-order active depth control tasks. We found that stereo disparity plays the dominate role for determining depth position, while relative size dominates perception of depth velocity. Stereo disparity also plays a reduced role when made less salient (i.e., when viewing distance is increased). Manual control models predict that position information is sufficient for first-order control tasks, while velocity information is required to perform a second-order control task. Thus, the rules for depth-cue integration in active control tasks are dependent on both task demands and cue quality.

  17. Depth Perception of Surgeons in Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Rositsa; Boulanger, Pierre; Zheng, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) poses visual challenges to the surgeons. In MIS, binocular disparity is not freely available for surgeons, who are required to mentally rebuild the 3-dimensional (3D) patient anatomy from a limited number of monoscopic visual cues. The insufficient depth cues from the MIS environment could cause surgeons to misjudge spatial depth, which could lead to performance errors thus jeopardizing patient safety. In this article, we will first discuss the natural human depth perception by exploring the main depth cues available for surgeons in open procedures. Subsequently, we will reveal what depth cues are lost in MIS and how surgeons compensate for the incomplete depth presentation. Next, we will further expand our knowledge by exploring some of the available solutions for improving depth presentation to surgeons. Here we will review the innovative approaches (multiple 2D camera assembly, shadow introduction) and devices (3D monitors, head-mounted devices, and auto-stereoscopic monitors) for 3D image presentation from the past few years.

  18. Temporal characteristics of depth perception from motion parallax.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kenchi; Maruya, Kazushi; Sato, Takao

    2013-01-10

    Temporal characteristics of depth perception from motion parallax were examined by modulating parallax intermittently while observers moved their head side to side. In Experiment 1, parallax of a fixed value was introduced only for the central 1/6 to 5/6 portion of each component head movement. It was found that the perceived depth was proportional to the temporal average of parallax-specified depth. In addition, observers did not notice any abrupt temporal change of depth. In Experiment 2, parallax was increased or decreased once per trial either at the center or the end of one of the component head movements, and observers judged the direction of depth change. Again, observers did not notice any abrupt change of depth. The percentage of correct responses was almost constant for large change amplitudes. Reaction times to the change were over 1 s even for the largest changes, and it increased for smaller change amplitudes. These results indicate that the mechanism for depth from parallax has a configuration similar to that proposed for structure from motion, and that it involves a temporal integration process with a relatively long time-constant.

  19. An opaque surface influences the depth from the Pulfrich phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kham, Keetaek

    2004-01-01

    When a pendulum, swinging in a frontoparallel plane, is viewed with a neutral density filter before one eye, the pendulum bob appears to rotate in an elliptical path. This illusion, known as the Pulfrich phenomenon, was used to examine depth cue interaction in a natural environment. An opaque surface was placed behind the pendulum. This intervention put the 'Pulfrich depth' of the pendulum in conflict with the information provided by other depth cues, such as interposition, and observers reported that the 'far' part of the pendulum's Pulfrich trajectory appeared to be flat. This was not the case when the surface was transparent. If the opaque surface was placed farther behind the pendulum's physical path, the far trajectory became increasingly elliptical. These results suggest that the opaque surface influences the pendulum's depth qualitatively and quantitatively. That is, the depth order between the surface and the pendulum is determined by interposition, but the absolute depth of the pendulum's Pulfrich trajectory is constrained by the surface's depth.

  20. Take Charge of Your Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marshall A.

    2013-01-01

    Today's work world is full of uncertainty. Every day, people hear about another organization going out of business, downsizing, or rightsizing. To prepare for these uncertain times, one must take charge of their own career. This article presents some tips for surviving in today's world of work: (1) Be self-managing; (2) Know what you…

  1. Sounding the Charge for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Lessons emerging now from successful schools have much to teach us about the practices of dynamic leaders. But if leaders can't talk about the what and the why of those practices in ways that inspire their staffs to action, they may change programs or policies, but they'll never change people. There are hard-charging school and district leaders…

  2. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  3. Internal charge behaviour of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Keith; Fothergill, John C.

    2004-05-01

    The incorporation of 23 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles into an epoxy matrix to form a nanocomposite structure is described. It is shown that the use of nanometric particles results in a substantial change in the behaviour of the composite, which can be traced to the mitigation of internal charge when a comparison is made with conventional TiO2 fillers. A variety of diagnostic techniques (including dielectric spectroscopy, electroluminescence, thermally stimulated current and photoluminescence) have been used to augment pulsed electro-acoustic space charge measurement to provide a basis for understanding the underlying physics of the phenomenon. It would appear that, when the size of the inclusions becomes small enough, they act cooperatively with the host structure and cease to exhibit interfacial properties, leading to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. It is postulated that the particles are surrounded by high charge concentrations in the Gouy-Chapman-Stern layer. Since nanoparticles have very high specific areas, these regions allow limited charge percolation through nano-filled dielectrics. The practical consequences of this have also been explored in terms of the electric strength exhibited. It would appear that there was a window in which real advantages accrue from the nano-formulated material. An optimum loading of about 10% (by weight) is indicated.

  4. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  5. Calibrating river bathymetry via image to depth quantile transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing has emerged as a powerful means of measuring river depths, but standard algorithms such as Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) require field measurements to calibrate image-derived estimates. Such reliance upon field-based calibration undermines the advantages of remote sensing. This study introduces an alternative approach based on the probability distribution of depths dd within a reach. Provided a quantity XX related to dd can be derived from a remotely sensed data set, image-to-depth quantile transformation (IDQT) infers depths throughout the image by linking the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of XX to that of dd. The algorithm involves determining, for each pixel in the image, the CDF value for that particular value of X/bar{X} and then inferring the depth at that location from the inverse CDF of the scaled depths d/dbard/bar{d}, where the overbar denotes a reach mean. For X/bar{X}, an empirical CDF can be derived directly from pixel values or a probability distribution fitted. Similarly, the CDF of d/dbard/bar{d} can be obtained from field data or from a theoretical model of the frequency distribution of dd within a reach; gamma distributions have been used for this purpose. In essence, the probability distributions calibrate XX to dd while the image provides the spatial distribution of depths. IDQT offers a number of advantages: 1) direct field measurements of dd during image acquisition are not absolutely necessary; 2) because the XX vs. dd relation need not be linear, negative depth estimates along channel margins and shallow bias in pools are avoided; and 3) because individual pixels are not linked to specific depth measurements, accurate geo-referencing of field and image data sets is not critical. Application of OBRA and IDQT to a gravel-bed river indicated that the new, probabilistic algorithm was as accurate as the standard, regression-based approach and lead to more hydraulically reasonable bathymetric maps.

  6. Charge transport in single crystal organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    addition, Hall effect and temperature-dependent measurements are employed for more in-depth understandings of the transport mechanism in these unconventional devices at the extreme charge densities. Inspiringly, a truly metallic state is within reach of this type of device structure. Overall, this thesis demonstrates high mobility, high charge density and high performance organic single crystal transistors, with versatile fabrication techniques, comprehensive electrical and structural characterizations, well-developed theories and models and advanced transport measurements.

  7. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai; Li, Baohui

    2015-05-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG)5/(KGKG)5, (EEGG)5/(KKGG)5, and (EEGG)5/(KGKG)5, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight-averaged molar

  8. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  9. Noninvasive methods for determining lesion depth from vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Braue, Ernest H; Graham, John S; Doxzon, Bryce F; Hanssen, Kelly A; Lumpkin, Horace L; Stevenson, Robert S; Deckert, Robin R; Dalal, Stephen J; Mitcheltree, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Before sulfur mustard (HD) injuries can be effectively treated, assessment of lesion depth must occur. Accurate depth assessment is important because it dictates how aggressive treatment needs to be to minimize or prevent cosmetic and functional deficits. Depth of injury typically is assessed by physical examination. Diagnosing very superficial and very deep lesions is relatively easy for the experienced burn surgeon. Lesions of intermediate depth, however, are often problematic in determining the need for grafting. This study was a preliminary evaluation of two noninvasive bioengineering methodologies, laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICGFI), to determine their ability to accurately diagnose depth of sulfur mustard lesions in a weanling swine model. Histological evaluation was used to assess the accuracy of the imaging techniques in determining burn depth. Six female weanling swine (8-12 kg) were exposed to 400 microl of neat sulfur mustard on six ventral sites for 2, 8, 30, or 60 minutes. This exposure regimen produced lesions of varying depths from superficial to deep dermal. Evaluations of lesion depth using the bioengineering techniques were conducted at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. After euthanasia at 72 hours after exposure, skin biopsies were taken from each site and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin histological evaluation to determine the true depth of the lesion. Results demonstrated that LDPI and ICGFI were useful tools to characterize skin perfusion and provided a good estimate of HD lesion depth. Traditional LDPI and the novel prototype ICGFI instrumentation used in this study produced images of blood flow through skin lesions, which provided a useful assessment of burn depth. LDPI and ICGFI accurately predicted the need for aggressive treatment (30- and 60-minute HD lesions) and nonaggressive treatment (2- and 8-minute HD lesions) for the lesions generated in this study. Histological

  10. Wind profiler mixing depth and entrainment measurements with chemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, W.M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.D.; Buhr, M.P.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Kok, G.L.

    1994-12-31

    Wind profiling radars operating at 915 MHz have been present at a number of regional air quality studies. The profilers can provide a continuous, accurate record of the depth of the convective mixed layer with good time resolution. Profilers also provide information about entrainment at the boundary layer top. Mixing depth data from several days of the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment II (ROSE II) study in Alabama in June, 1992 are presented. For several cases, chemical measurements from aircraft and ground-based instruments are shown to correspond to mixing depth and entrainment zone behavior observed by the profiler.

  11. Depth cue interaction in telepresence and simulated telemanipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Andrew; Tharp, Gregory; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    We examined the contribution of two important depth cues, occlusion and disparity, on the performance of a simulated telerobotic task. We have simulated a three-axis tracking task that is viewed under four different levels of realism. We hoped to determine if the combined presentation of the depth cues has a more beneficial effect on performance than either depth cue presented singularly. Results showed similar performance improvements with the presentation of occlusion or disparity individually. When both cues were present together, a somewhat larger performance improvement was measured.

  12. Depth of conduit flow in unconfined carbonate aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.

    2001-04-01

    The locus of formation of cave conduits in carbonate aquifers is dependent on hydraulic, structural, and solubility factors, and these can facilitate flow deep below the water table. Geothermal heating results in increasing temperatures and decreasing viscosity with depth. This favors deep conduit development for flow paths with lengths >3 km. Steeply dipping strata aid the flow of undersaturated water to depth along bedding planes. These factors indicate that flow deep below the water table should be associated with steep dips and long flow paths. Empirical evidence strongly supports this model and demonstrates that the flow depth of conduits is directly proportional to flow-path length and stratal dip.

  13. Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria K.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.

  14. Cancer treatment by ultrasound: Increasing the depth of necrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, David; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-06-01

    Tissue coagulation by high-intensity ultrasound is a well-established method of cancer treatment. It suffers, however, from insufficient depth of action in the case of deep-seated tumors where endoscopic or interstitial applicators are used. It is demonstrated here that this depth can be increased by temporarily creating cavitation bubbles in such a way that ultrasound attenuation becomes stronger in the zone where tissue heating is insufficient. In vitro experiments in liver tissue confirm that bubbles are indeed located in this zone and that the effective depth of coagulation necrosis is doubled.

  15. Displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Ishizaki, Katsumi; Yasokawa, Toshiki; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nakai, Seiji; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naoyuki

    2006-12-11

    This letter reports a method for displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells. This proposed optical spatial filtering method allows visualization of the transparent cells and determination of depth migration as a horizontal displacement positive or negative first order diffracted light on the detector surface. When the sample is displaced upward or downward from the focal plane, first and negative first order diffracted light form images at a different point as a light circle. The coordinates of these two light circles on the detector surface change places when the displacement of depth migration moves to the opposite direction.

  16. Stereoscopic depth perception for robot vision: algorithms and architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, R.J.; Kak, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of depth perception algorithms for computer vision is considered. In automated manufacturing, depth information is vital for tasks such as path planning and 3-d scene analysis. The presentation begins with a survey of computer algorithms for stereoscopic depth perception. The emphasis is on the Marr-Poggio paradigm of human stereo vision and its computer implementation. In addition, a stereo matching algorithm based on the relaxation labelling technique is examined. A computer architecture designed to efficiently implement stereo matching algorithms, an MIMD array interfaced to a global memory, is presented. 9 references.

  17. Global Patterns of Vertical Root Distributions and Maximum Rooting Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, H. J.; Jackson, R. B.

    2001-05-01

    Plant roots are important pathways in global biogeochemical cycles. Roots transport water from the soil to the atmosphere and carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, redistribute nutrients and water in the soil profile, and contribute to the weathering of soil minerals. Data on the vertical distribution and maximum depths of roots in the soil profile are needed to quantify these and other processes. The global coverage of such root data is uneven, which makes it desirable to estimate global root distributions and maximum rooting depths from measurements of aboveground vegetation structure, soil parameters, and climatic variables. We analyzed root two databases compiled from the literature to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that influence vertical root distributions in global ecosystems and maximum rooting depths of individual plants. The first database included 520 vertical root profiles from 286 geographic locations. The second database included 1350 rooting depths for individual plants species from water-limited systems globally. Vertical root distributions were characterized by interpolated 50% and 95% rooting depths (the depths above which 50% or 95% of all roots are located). The 95% rooting depths increased with decreasing latitude from 80\\deg to 30\\deg, but showed no clear trend in the tropics. Mean annual evapotranspiration, precipitation, and length of the warm season were all positively correlated with rooting depths. Globally, more than 90% of all profiles had at least 50% of all roots in the upper 0.3 m of the soil profile (incl. organic horizons) and 95% of all roots in the upper 2 m. Deeper 50% and 95% rooting depths were mainly found in water-limited ecosystems. Median rooting depths of individual plants in water-limited ecosystems increased with increasing precipitation from less than 1 m in deserts with <50 mm of mean annual precipitation to about 2 m in climates with 650 to 750 mm mean annual precipitation. Maximum rooting depths were

  18. Should charge variants of monoclonal antibody therapeutics be considered critical quality attributes?

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-09-01

    Charge variants, namely acidic and basic variants, are typically found in mAb therapeutics. Charge heterogeneity is typically not regarded to affect safety and efficacy of the product. As a result, the commonly followed approach involves assignment of a specification for the variants based on statistical analysis of variability in levels that is seen during commercial manufacturing. This is followed by monitoring of product quality to demonstrate consistency. This paper aims to demonstrate that this perception of charge variants warrants a more in-depth investigation to evaluate the role charge variants play in safety and efficacy of a mAb therapeutic. In addition, a novel procedure has been suggested for making this assessment and alleviate the problems that are traditionally faced when isolating these variants for characterization. The suggested procedure utilizes the principles of bioseparations, cell biology, and statistics and it is demonstrated that this is significantly more efficient than the approach practiced today. PMID:27387433

  19. Instability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid subjected to charge injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicón, Rafael; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2006-10-01

    We study the linear stability of an interface between air and a low conducting liquid in the presence of unipolar injection of charge. As a consequence of charge injection, a volume charge density builds up in the air gap and a surface charge density on the interface. Above a certain voltage threshold the electrical stresses may destabilize the interface, giving rise to a characteristic cell pattern known as rose-window instability. Contrary to what occurs in the classical volume electrohydrodynamic instability in insulating liquids, the typical cell size is several times larger than the liquid depth. We analyze the linear stability through the usual procedure of decomposing an arbitrary perturbation into normal modes. The resulting homogeneous linear system of ordinary differential equations is solved using a commercial software package. Finally, an analytical method is developed that provides a solution valid in the limit of small wavenumbers.

  20. Slow highly charged ion induced nanopit formation on the KCl(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report on nanostructuring of the KCl(001) surface induced by the individual impact of slow highly charged ions. Samples were irradiated with Xe ions with charge states of Q = 15 to 40 at kinetic energies from 1.7 to 160 keV. The formation of nanopits at the virgin surface is observed and attributed to a defect-mediated desorption process involving the removal of up to 2000 surface atoms per incident ion. The depth of the produced pits is shallow, but not limited to the first monolayer. From the variation of the ion parameters (charge state and kinetic energy) we derive a phase diagram for the structuring of the KCl(001) surface with highly charged ions.

  1. London penetration depth of λ-(BETS)2 GaCl 4 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jason; Kim, H.; Cho, K.; Tantar, M. A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-03-01

    After many years of study, it is still unclear whether the superconductivity of organic charge transfer salts is conventional or not. In particular, symmetry of the superconducting gap is an important unresolved question. The gap anisotropy and nodal structure can be probed via precision measurements of London penetration depth, λ (T) , for which tunnel-diode resonator has been developed over past 20 years. Here we report λ (T) in λ -(BETS)2 GaCl 4 crystals (Tc ~ 5 ~K) measured down to 400 mK. We find that different samples exhibit different widths of superconducting transition, ΔTc . It is known for organic superconductors that cooling rate from room temperature is important for the properties probed at the low temperatures. We discuss observed variation of ΔTc with the cooling rate as well as sample size and aspect ratio. Results are compared with thermal conductivity measurements.

  2. 3D silicon sensors with variable electrode depth for radiation hard high resolution particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Vià, C.; Borri, M.; Dalla Betta, G.; Haughton, I.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Povoli, M.; Mendicino, R.

    2015-04-01

    3D sensors, with electrodes micro-processed inside the silicon bulk using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, were industrialized in 2012 and were installed in the first detector upgrade at the LHC, the ATLAS IBL in 2014. They are the radiation hardest sensors ever made. A new idea is now being explored to enhance the three-dimensional nature of 3D sensors by processing collecting electrodes at different depths inside the silicon bulk. This technique uses the electric field strength to suppress the charge collection effectiveness of the regions outside the p-n electrodes' overlap. Evidence of this property is supported by test beam data of irradiated and non-irradiated devices bump-bonded with pixel readout electronics and simulations. Applications include High-Luminosity Tracking in the high multiplicity LHC forward regions. This paper will describe the technical advantages of this idea and the tracking application rationale.

  3. Study of the signal response of the MÖNCH 25μm pitch hybrid pixel detector at different photon absorption depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, S.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Johnson, I.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.; Schmitt, B.; Stampanoni, M.

    2015-03-01

    MÖNCH is a 25 μm pitch hybrid silicon pixel detector with a charge integrating analog read-out front-end in each pixel. The small pixel size brings new challenges in bump-bonding, power consumption and chip design. The MÖNCH02 prototype ASIC, manufactured in UMC 110 nm technology with a field of view of 4×4 mm2 and 160×160 pixels, has been characterized in the single photon regime, i.e. with less than one photon acquired per frame on average on a 3×3 pixel cluster. The low noise and small pixel size allow spatial interpolation with high resolution. Understanding charge sharing as a function of the photon absorption depth and sensor bias is a key for optimal processing of single photon data for high resolution imaging. To characterize the charge collection of the detector, the sensor was illuminated with a 20 keV photon beam in edge-on configuration at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra. By slicing the beam by means of a 5 μm slit and scanning through the 320 μm silicon sensor depth, the charge collection is characterized as a function of the photon absorption depth for different sensor bias voltages.

  4. An efficient parallel algorithm: Poststack and prestack Kirchhoff 3D depth migration using flexi-depth iterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Richa; Srivastava, Abhishek; Khonde, Kiran; Sirasala, Kirannmayi M.; Londhe, Ashutosh; Chavhan, Hitesh

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel 3D Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm suitable for current class of multicore architecture. The fundamental Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm exhibits inherent parallelism however, when it comes to 3D data migration, as the data size increases the resource requirement of the algorithm also increases. This challenges its practical implementation even on current generation high performance computing systems. Therefore a smart parallelization approach is essential to handle 3D data for migration. The most compute intensive part of Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm is the calculation of traveltime tables due to its resource requirements such as memory/storage and I/O. In the current research work, we target this area and develop a competent parallel algorithm for post and prestack 3D Kirchhoff depth migration, using hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming techniques. We introduce a concept of flexi-depth iterations while depth migrating data in parallel imaging space, using optimized traveltime table computations. This concept provides flexibility to the algorithm by migrating data in a number of depth iterations, which depends upon the available node memory and the size of data to be migrated during runtime. Furthermore, it minimizes the requirements of storage, I/O and inter-node communication, thus making it advantageous over the conventional parallelization approaches. The developed parallel algorithm is demonstrated and analysed on Yuva II, a PARAM series of supercomputers. Optimization, performance and scalability experiment results along with the migration outcome show the effectiveness of the parallel algorithm.

  5. Spring Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice using the IceBridge Snow Depth Product (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, M.; Rigor, I. G.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Snow has dual roles in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. In winter, it insulates sea ice from colder air temperatures, slowing its growth. From spring into summer, the albedo of snow determines how much insolation is transmitted through the sea ice and into the underlying ocean, ultimately impacting the progression of the summer ice melt. Knowing the snow thickness and distribution are essential for understanding and modeling sea ice thermodynamics and the surface heat budget. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the snow cover is necessary for identifying its impacts in the changing Arctic. This study assesses springtime snow conditions on Arctic sea ice using airborne snow thickness measurements from Operation IceBridge (2009-2012). The 2012 data were validated with coordinated in situ measurements taken in March 2012 during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment field campaign. We find a statistically significant correlation coefficient of 0.59 and RMS error of 5.8 cm. The comparison between the IceBridge snow thickness product and the 1937, 1954-1991 Soviet drifting ice station data suggests that the snow cover has thinned by 33% in the western Arctic and 44% in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. A rudimentary estimation shows that a thinner snow cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas translates to a mid-December surface heat flux as high as 81 W/m2 compared to 32 W/m2. The relationship between the 2009-2012 thinner snow depth distribution and later sea ice freeze-up is statistically significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.59. These results may help us better understand the surface energy budget in the changing Arctic, and may improve our ability to predict the future state of the sea ice cover.

  6. Towards Improved Cirrus Cloud Optical Depths from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Anne; Vaughan, Mark; Pelon, Jacques; Winker, David; Trepte, Chip; Young, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews recent advances regarding the retrieval of optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds using synergetic analyses of perfectly collocated observations from the CALIOP lidar and the IIR infrared radiometer aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  8. Effects of cortical damage on binocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic depth perception requires considerable neural computation, including the initial correspondence of the two retinal images, comparison across the local regions of the visual field and integration with other cues to depth. The most common cause for loss of stereoscopic vision is amblyopia, in which one eye has failed to form an adequate input to the visual cortex, usually due to strabismus (deviating eye) or anisometropia. However, the significant cortical processing required to produce the percept of depth means that, even when the retinal input is intact from both eyes, brain damage or dysfunction can interfere with stereoscopic vision. In this review, I examine the evidence for impairment of binocular vision and depth perception that can result from insults to the brain, including both discrete damage, temporal lobectomy and more systemic diseases such as posterior cortical atrophy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  9. Depth of Field Analysis for Multilayer Automultiscopic Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanman, D.; Wetzstein, G.; Hirsch, M.; Raskar, R.

    2013-02-01

    With the re-emergence of stereoscopic displays, through polarized glasses for theatrical presentations and shuttered liquid crystal eyewear in the home, automultiscopic displays have received increased attention. Commercial efforts have predominantly focused on parallax barrier and lenticular architectures applied to LCD panels. Such designs suffer from reduced resolution and brightness. Recently, multilayer LCDs have emerged as an alternative supporting full-resolution imagery with enhanced brightness and depth of field. We present a signal-processing framework for comparing the depth of field for conventional automultiscopic displays and emerging architectures comprising multiple light-attenuating layers. We derive upper bounds for the depths of field, indicating the potential of multilayer configurations to significantly enhance resolution and depth of field, relative to conventional designs.

  10. 8. EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION, SHOWING DEPTH OF DOORWAYS, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION, SHOWING DEPTH OF DOORWAYS, LOOKING SOUTH - Penn School Historic District, Brick Church, SC Route 37, 1 mile South of Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  11. Confocal volume in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-11-15

    To clarify the degradation of confocality in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling (optical sectioning) and the influence of pinhole filtering on it, we investigate the confocal volume in detail based on Gaussian beam optics and scalar wave optics. Theoretical depth profiles of a homogeneous transparent sample for four different pinhole sizes, which are computed using the measured incident beam waist radius w{sub 0} and only a few optical system specific parameters such as a numerical aperture (NA) and a focal length, show a good agreement with the corresponding measured depth profiles. The computed confocal volume demonstrates that the pinhole size affects the actual probe depth as well as the axial resolution and the total intensity loss.

  12. Structured illumination assisted microdeflectometry with optical depth scanning capability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng-Huei; Hua, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microdeflectometry is a powerful noncontact tool for measuring nanometer defects on a freeform surface. However, it requires a time-consuming process to take measurements at different depths for an extended depth of field (EDOF) and lacks surface information for integrating the measured gradient data to height. We propose an optical depth scanning technique to speed up the measurement process and introduce the structured illumination technique to efficiently determine the focused data among 3D observation and provide surface orientations for reconstructing an unknown surface shape. We demonstrated 3D measurements with an equivalent surface height sensitivity of 7.21 nm and an EDOF of at least 250 μm, which is 15 times that of the diffraction limited depth range. PMID:27607986

  13. Optimizing depth estimates from magnetic anomalies using spatial analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, Julia B.; Diniz, Tatiana; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Blakely, Richard J.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a methodology to analyze the spatial and statistical properties of the tilt derivative of magnetic anomalies, thus facilitating the mapping of the location and depth of concealed magnetic sources. This methodology uses commonly available graphical information system (GIS) software to estimate and interpolate horizontal distances between key attributes of the tilt derivative, which then are used to estimate depth and location of causative bodies. Application of the method to synthetic data illustrates its reliability to determine depths to magnetic contacts. We also achieved consistent depth results using real data from the northwest portion of the Paraná Basin, Brazil, where magnetic anomaly interpretations are complicated by low geomagnetic inclinations and rocks with remanent magnetization. The tilt-derivative method provides more continuous and higher resolution contact information than the 3D Euler deconvolution technique.

  14. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  16. Background Subtraction Based on Color and Depth Using Active Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Enrique J.; Diaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage. PMID:23857259

  17. Effects of cortical damage on binocular depth perception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic depth perception requires considerable neural computation, including the initial correspondence of the two retinal images, comparison across the local regions of the visual field and integration with other cues to depth. The most common cause for loss of stereoscopic vision is amblyopia, in which one eye has failed to form an adequate input to the visual cortex, usually due to strabismus (deviating eye) or anisometropia. However, the significant cortical processing required to produce the percept of depth means that, even when the retinal input is intact from both eyes, brain damage or dysfunction can interfere with stereoscopic vision. In this review, I examine the evidence for impairment of binocular vision and depth perception that can result from insults to the brain, including both discrete damage, temporal lobectomy and more systemic diseases such as posterior cortical atrophy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269597

  18. Bessel beam Grueneisen photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junhui; Wang, Lidai; Noordam, Cedric; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    The short focal depth of a Gaussian beam limits the volumetric imaging speed of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). A Bessel beam, which is diffraction-free, provides a long focal depth, but its side-lobes may deteriorate image quality when the Bessel beam is directly employed to excite photoacoustic signals in ORPAM. Here, we present a nonlinear approach based on the Grueneisen relaxation effect to suppress the side-lobe artifacts in photoacoustic imaging. This method extends the focal depth of OR-PAM and speeds up volumetric imaging. We experimentally demonstrated a 1-mm focal depth with a 7-μm lateral resolution and volumetrically imaged a carbon fiber and red blood cell samples.

  19. Effects of cortical damage on binocular depth perception.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic depth perception requires considerable neural computation, including the initial correspondence of the two retinal images, comparison across the local regions of the visual field and integration with other cues to depth. The most common cause for loss of stereoscopic vision is amblyopia, in which one eye has failed to form an adequate input to the visual cortex, usually due to strabismus (deviating eye) or anisometropia. However, the significant cortical processing required to produce the percept of depth means that, even when the retinal input is intact from both eyes, brain damage or dysfunction can interfere with stereoscopic vision. In this review, I examine the evidence for impairment of binocular vision and depth perception that can result from insults to the brain, including both discrete damage, temporal lobectomy and more systemic diseases such as posterior cortical atrophy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269597

  20. 23. Photocopy of 1979 engineering drawing. 'IN DEPTH BRIDGE INSPECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of 1979 engineering drawing. 'IN DEPTH BRIDGE INSPECTION, LEWISBURG, UNION COUNTY,' SHOWING FRAMING PLAN AND STRESS DIAGRAM. (Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.) - St. Anthony Street Bridge, Spanning Buffalo Creek, Legislative Route 59024, Lewisburg, Union County, PA