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Sample records for derivative pentamidine represses

  1. Bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine represses DNA damage response through inhibition of histone H2A acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MRE11 is an important nuclease which functions in the end-resection step of homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As MRE11-deficient ATLD cells exhibit hyper radio-sensitivity and impaired DSB repair, MRE11 inhibitors could possibly function as potent radio-sensitizers. Therefore, we investigated whether a bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine, which can inhibit endoexonuclease activity, might influence DSB-induced damage responses via inhibition of MRE11. Results We first clarified that pentamidine inhibited MRE11 nuclease activity and also reduced ATM kinase activity in vitro. Pentamidine increased the radio-sensitivity of HeLa cells, suggesting that this compound could possibly influence DNA damage response factors in vivo. Indeed, we found that pentamidine reduced the accumulation of γ-H2AX, NBS1 and phospho-ATM at the sites of DSBs. Furthermore, pentamidine decreased HR activity in vivo. Pentamidine was found to inhibit the acetylation of histone H2A which could contribute both to inhibition of IR-induced focus formation and HR repair. These results suggest that pentamidine might exert its effects by inhibiting histone acetyltransferases. We found that pentamidine repressed the activity of Tip60 acetyltransferase which is known to acetylate histone H2A and that knockdown of Tip60 by siRNA reduced HR activity. Conclusion These results indicate that inhibition of Tip60 as well as hMRE11 nuclease by pentamidine underlies the radiosensitizing effects of this compound making it an excellent sensitizer for radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:20144237

  2. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  3. Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... pentamidine.You may develop a cough while using aerosol pentamidine. The cough may be more severe if ... your doctor. Your doctor may suggest slowing the aerosol stream or may prescribe a bronchodilator (medication that ...

  4. The effect of pentamidine on melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jason; Stewart, Benjamin J; Glaysher, Sharon; Peregrin, Katherine; Knight, Louise A; Weber, David J; Cree, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    Pentamidine is a small molecule inhibitor of the Ca2+ binding protein S100B and disrupts the S100B-p53 protein-protein interaction; this is thought to restore wild type p53 tumour suppressor function in melanoma. Additional anti-cancer effects may be the result of inhibition of PRL family phosphatases. In this study we have used a standardised ATP Tumour Chemosensitivity Assay (ATP-TCA) to investigate the effect of pentamidine on cells derived from 18 skin melanoma samples, and 1 uveal melanoma sample. The cells were tested at six concentrations from which the IC50 and IC90 were calculated. To allow comparison between samples, an IndexSUM was calculated based on percentage tumour growth inhibition at each concentration. Of the skin melanoma samples tested, 78% exhibited an IndexSUM<300 indicating strong inhibition. The median IndexSUM of 237 also indicates strong inhibition. The median IC90 was 79.5% of the test drug concentration (30.2 μM) consistent with a strong response at a clinically achievable drug concentration. The uveal melanoma sample exhibited and IndexSUM=333, indicating moderate inhibition, and 86% inhibition at test drug concentration (30.2 μM). These results support the prospect of a therapeutic use for pentamidine in melanoma, and a phase II clinical trial is in progress. PMID:19966562

  5. Activity of pentamidine and pentamidine analogs against Toxoplasma gondii in cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Hall, J E; Tidwell, R R

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of pentamidine and nine pentamidine analogs to inhibit the development of Toxoplasma gondii were examined in vitro. Treatment of infected cultures with pentamidine and five of its analogs caused a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in the numbers of tachyzoites produced. Analogs of pentamidine may be useful agents in the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1952867

  6. Effect of cimetidine on pentamidine induced hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Arino, Toru; Karakawa, Seiji; Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Nagata, Masashi; Yasuhara, Masato

    2012-10-15

    The antiprotozoal agent pentamidine, used for the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), is known to cause abnormalities in blood glucose homeostasis, such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Pentamidine has been reported to be a substrate of organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1). We investigated the combination effects of cimetidine, an OCT1 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of pentamidine and on pentamidine-induced hyperglycemia. Pentamidine was infused intravenously to rats for 20 min at a dose of 7.5 or 15 mg/kg and serum samples were obtained periodically. The serum concentration of glucose did not change significantly after pentamidine infusion at 7.5mg/kg, while it increased with pentamidine at 15 mg/kg, and the maximal concentration of glucose was 167 ± 36 mg/dl, 30 min after the start of pentamidine infusion. Cimetidine (50mg/kg) enhanced the pentamidine-induced elevation of glucose concentration and the maximal concentration of glucose was 208 ± 33 mg/dl in the pentamidine 15 mg/kg treated group. Cimetidine combination significantly reduced total body clearance of pentamidine and increased pentamidine concentrations in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. A significant correlation was found between changes in serum glucose concentrations and serum concentrations of pentamidine 30 min after the start of pentamidine infusion. These results suggest that the hyperglycemic effect of pentamidine is dependent on the concentration of pentamidine and can be enhanced by cimetidine combination.

  7. Administration of aerosol pentamidine: a program design.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, C M; Anton, W R; Gormley, F X; Brazell, C

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol pentamidine (AP) is an FDA-approved prophylaxis against pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-infected individuals who have a CD4+ lymphocyte count less than 200/mm3, constitutional symptoms, or a previous history of the pneumonia. The University of Washington Medical Center, a 450-bed tertiary care center, established a successful aerosol pentamidine treatment program, providing treatment in its special procedure nit. The authors present an overview of AP and discuss the role of interdisciplinary teamwork, staff training, patient teaching, and the provision of safety measures for patients and healthcare providers.

  8. Analogs of Pentamidine as Potential Anti-Pneumocystis Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewska, Dorota; Żabinski, Jerzy; Kaźmierczak, Pawel; Rezler, Mateusz; Krassowska-Świebocka, Barbara; Collins, Margaret S.; Cushion, Melanie T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 20 pentamidine analogs were prepared using 2 general Schemes that evaluated heteroatoms, sulfobenzene and alkanediamide groups in the aliphatic linker and methoxy substituents attached to the benzene rings for efficacy against the fungal pathogen, Pneumocystis carinii in an ATP bioassay. All but one of the 20 bisamidines reduced the ATP content of the P. carinii over the 72 hr of the assay period. The highest activities were associated with the lack of methoxy groups and the presence of the O, N and S heteroatoms. Activity (IC50) for compounds 1, 5, 6, 10 ranged from 1.1 to 2.13 µM. The compound 11 with similar activity (1.33 µM), bears a sulfobenzene group at a nitrogen in the aliphatic linker. The alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines showed a moderate inhibition of ATP. Generally, the inclusion of a heteroatom in the aliphatic linker and absence of methoxy groups at the benzene rings were associated with higher activities in this assay. Of note, most of the compounds had little to no cytotoxicity in mammalian cell cultures. Although not quite as potent as other pentamidine derivatives, these compounds hold promise for decreased side effects within the mammalian host. PMID:22200403

  9. p53 Represses the Oncogenic Sno-MiR-28 Derived from a SnoRNA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Bracken, Cameron P.; Pillman, Katherine A.; Lawrence, David M.; Goodall, Gregory J.; Callen, David F.; Neilsen, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    p53 is a master tumour repressor that participates in vast regulatory networks, including feedback loops involving microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate p53 and that themselves are direct p53 transcriptional targets. We show here that a group of polycistronic miRNA-like non-coding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs (sno-miRNAs) are transcriptionally repressed by p53 through their host gene, SNHG1. The most abundant of these, sno-miR-28, directly targets the p53-stabilizing gene, TAF9B. Collectively, p53, SNHG1, sno-miR-28 and TAF9B form a regulatory loop which affects p53 stability and downstream p53-regulated pathways. In addition, SNHG1, SNORD28 and sno-miR-28 are all significantly upregulated in breast tumours and the overexpression of sno-miR-28 promotes breast epithelial cell proliferation. This research has broadened our knowledge of the crosstalk between small non-coding RNA pathways and roles of sno-miRNAs in p53 regulation. PMID:26061048

  10. Amino and chlorambucil analogues of pentamidine--synthesis and biological examinations.

    PubMed

    Pućkowska, Anna; Drozdowska, Danuta; Rusak, Małgorzata; Bielawski, Tomasz; Bruzgo, Irena; Midura-Nowaczek, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The amino analogues of pentamidine with a polymethylene (n = 3 - 6) chain and their chlorambucil derivatives were synthesized. The obtained compounds revealed cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line (IC50 = 22 - 95 +/- 2 pM), mainly by the induction of apoptosis. The topoisomerase I/II inhibition assay and the ethidium displacement assay with the use of pBR322 plasmid DNA were used to the study of mechanism by which the obtained compounds could act. All the compounds are able to bind with DNA and interfere in vitro with the activity of topoisomerase (I and II). The determination of association constants with the use of calf thymus DNA, T4 coliphage DNA, poly(dA-dT)2 and poly(dG-dC)2 showed that the tested compounds bind within minor groove of B-DNA, but not selectively. The alkylating activity of chlorambucil derivatives determined in vitro using a Preussmann test was similar to the activity of chlorambucil. The influence of all the compounds on the amidolytic activity of plasmin and trypsin was also examined. The plasmin activity was inhibited by pentamidine, chlorambucil and aromatic bis-amines (IC50 = 0.1 - 8 mM), whereas the trypsin activity was influenced only by pentamidine.

  11. Pentamidine aerosol for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after BMT.

    PubMed

    Link, H; Vöhringer, H F; Wingen, F; Brägas, B; Schwardt, A; Ehninger, G

    1993-05-01

    Following BMT there is a 5-15% risk of interstitial pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii (PcP). Cotrimoxazole is therefore administered prophylactically, but may cause myelodepression, allergic reactions and nephrotoxicity. As PcP prophylaxis with pentamidine aerosol is effective in patients with AIDS, we conducted a prospective trial with regular inhalations of pentamidine. The aim of this study was to evaluate toxicity, safety, practicability and possible resorption of aerosolized pentamidine. We treated 31 allogeneic and 12 autologous BMT patients with 60 mg pentamidine 3 days before and 14 days after BMT. Starting 4 weeks after BMT, 300 mg pentamidine was given every 4 weeks for 6 months. There was no pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii. The only noteworthy side-effects were cough (19.8%), salivation (9.6%), and sore throat (5.7%), of similar frequency after allogeneic or autologous BMT. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, pentamidine could only be detected in the serum of 33-54% of patients tested. In these patients the median serum levels were 7.5-9 ng/ml. We conclude that pentamidine aerosol has only minor side-effects, is well tolerated and safe, and is therefore an attractive alternative for PcP prophylaxis after BMT.

  12. Intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii/jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Abigail; Hemmelgarn, Trina; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Teusink, Ashley

    2015-05-01

    SMX/TMP is the current gold standard for prophylaxis against PCP in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Currently, there are several second-line options for prophylaxis but many, including intravenous (IV) pentamidine, have not been reported to be as effective or as safe as SMX/TMP in the pediatric transplant population. This study is to determine the efficacy and safety of IV pentamidine in preventing PCP in pediatric transplant patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate all transplant patients that received at least one dose of IV pentamidine from January 2010 to July 2013. The primary outcome, IV pentamidine efficacy, was evaluated by the incidence of PCP diagnosis for 28 days after the last dose of IV pentamidine if patient was transitioned to another agent for PCP prophylaxis. Patients on IV pentamidine for entire course of PCP prophylaxis were followed at least six months after discontinuation of IV pentamidine. The safety of IV pentamidine was assessed by the incidence of adverse events leading to pentamidine discontinuation. All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. All transplant patients at CCHMC who had received IV pentamidine were reviewed, and 333 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall incidence of PCP was found to be 0.3% for pediatric transplant patients on pentamidine. Pentamidine was found to be safe, and the incidence of adverse events leading to discontinuation was 6% with the most common reason being tachycardia 2.1%. IV pentamidine is safe and effective as PCP prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients with a PCP breakthrough rate of 0.3% (1 of 333 patients), and only 20 adverse events led to discontinuation. We recommend that IV pentamidine be considered as a second-line option in pediatric transplant patients who cannot tolerate SMX/TMP.

  13. Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Henning, Petra; Liu, Xianwen; Nagano, Kenichi; Saito, Hiroaki; Börjesson, Anna E; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen; Kindlund, Bert; Engdahl, Cecilia; Koskela, Antti; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Eriksson, Emma E; Zaman, Farasat; Hammarstedt, Ann; Isaksson, Hanna; Bally, Marta; Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per; Sävendahl, Lars; Feng, Jian Q; Tuckermann, Jan; Tuukkanen, Juha; Poutanen, Matti; Baron, Roland; Lerner, Ulf H; Gori, Francesca; Ohlsson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need. PMID:25306233

  14. Pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits GABAergic neurotransmission by activating endocytosis and repression of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Riffault, Baptiste; Medina, Igor; Dumon, Camille; Thalman, Carine; Ferrand, Nadine; Friedel, Perrine; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Porcher, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    GABA is the canonical inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. This inhibitory action is largely mediated by GABA type A receptors (GABAARs). Among the many factors controlling GABAergic transmission, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to play a major role in regulating synaptic inhibition. Recent findings have demonstrated that BDNF can be released as a precursor (proBDNF). Although the role of mature BDNF on GABAergic synaptogenesis and maintenance has been well studied, an important question still unanswered is whether secreted proBDNF might affect GABAergic neurotransmission. Here, we have used 14 d in vitro primary culture of hippocampal neurons and ex vivo preparations from rats to study the function of proBDNF in regulation of GABAAR trafficking and activity. We demonstrate that proBDNF impairs GABAergic transmission by the activation of two distinct pathways: (1) a RhoA-Rock-PTEN pathway that decreases the phosphorylation levels of GABAAR, thus affecting receptor function and triggering endocytosis and degradation of internalized receptors, and (2) a JAK-STAT-ICER pathway leading to the repression of GABAARs synthesis. These effects lead to the diminution of GABAergic synapses and are correlated with a decrease in GABAergic synaptic currents. These results revealed new functions for proBDNF-p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling pathway in the control of the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic activity by regulating the trafficking and synthesis of GABAARs at inhibitory synapses.

  15. Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: the melarsoprol and pentamidine story.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicola; de Koning, Harry P; Mäser, Pascal; Horn, David

    2013-03-01

    Melarsoprol and pentamidine represent the two main classes of drugs, the arsenicals and diamidines, historically used to treat the diseases caused by African trypanosomes: sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in livestock. Cross-resistance to these drugs was first observed over 60 years ago and remains the only example of cross-resistance among sleeping sickness therapies. A Trypanosoma brucei adenosine transporter is well known for its role in the uptake of both drugs. More recently, aquaglyceroporin 2 (AQP2) loss of function was linked to melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance. AQP2, a channel that appears to facilitate drug accumulation, may also be linked to clinical cases of resistance. Here, we review these findings and consider some new questions as well as future prospects for tackling the devastating diseases caused by these parasites.

  16. Safe and Effective Prophylaxis with Bimonthly Intravenous Pentamidine in the Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Population.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emily R; Musick, Lisa; Zinter, Matthew S; Lang, Tess; Cowan, Mort J; Weintrub, Peggy S; Dvorak, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    Without prophylaxis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) develops in 5%-15% of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) patients with mortality above 50%. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a standard PCP prophylaxis; pentamidine is frequently used as second-line prophylaxis because of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole's potential for cytopenias. Monthly intravenous (IV) pentamidine has variable efficacy with PCP infection rates of 0%-10% in pediatric patients, and higher breakthrough rates in those younger than 2 years. We hypothesized that bimonthly (twice monthly) pentamidine might have equivalent safety and improved efficacy; therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of bimonthly pentamidine PCP prophylaxis. We retrospectively reviewed records of all pediatric HCT patients who received bimonthly IV pentamidine between December 2006 and June 2013, and collected data regarding demographics, clinical course, prophylaxis rationale, laboratory values and adverse events. Between December 2006 and June 2013, 111 pediatric HCT patients received bimonthly IV pentamidine (574 doses, 8758 patient-days); 31 patients were younger than 2 years at initiation. In the majority (53% of courses), pentamidine was initiated because of cytopenias. Fourteen patients (12.6% of patients, 2.4% of doses) experienced a side-effect prompting discontinuation, including 3 patients with infusion-related hypotension/anaphylaxis and 3 with acute pancreatic dysfunction. No patients [0% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.2)] developed PCP during or after bimonthly IV pentamidine prophylaxis. Bimonthly IV pentamidine for PCP prophylaxis in the HCT pediatric population has comparable safety to monthly IV pentamidine and was highly effective, including in the very young. Bimonthly IV pentamidine should be considered in pediatric patients as second-line PCP prophylaxis.

  17. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  18. Nuclear localization of MBNL1: splicing-mediated autoregulation and repression of repeat-derived aberrant proteins.

    PubMed

    Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Kurosawa, Masaru; Oma, Yoko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Ishiura, Shoichi; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    In some neurological diseases caused by repeat expansions such as myotonic dystrophy, the RNA-binding protein muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) accumulates in intranuclear inclusions containing mutant repeat RNA. The interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA in the nucleus is a key event leading to loss of MBNL function, yet the details of this effect have been elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism and significance of MBNL1 nuclear localization. We found that MBNL1 contains two classes of nuclear localization signal (NLS), a classical bipartite NLS and a novel conformational NLS. Alternative splicing of exon 7 acts as a switch between these NLS types and couples MBNL1 activity and intracellular localization. Depending on its nuclear localization, MBNL1 promoted nuclear accumulation of mutant RNA containing a CUG or CAG repeat, some of which produced proteins containing homopolymeric tracts such as polyglutamine. Furthermore, MBNL1 repressed the expression of these homopolymeric proteins including those presumably produced through repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. These results suggest that nuclear retention of expanded RNA reflects a novel role of MBNL proteins in repressing aberrant protein expression and may provide pathological and therapeutic implications for a wide range of repeat expansion diseases associated with nuclear RNA retention and/or RAN translation.

  19. Synthesis of oxadiazole-morpholine derivatives and manifestation of the repressed CD31 Microvessel Density (MVD) as tumoral angiogenic parameters in Dalton's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghorbani, Mohammed; Vigneshwaran, V; Ranganatha, V Lakshmi; Prabhakar, B T; Khanum, Shaukath Ara

    2015-06-01

    A series of oxadiazole derivatives possessing morpholine 6a-l were synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of key intermediates [1,3,4]-oxadiazole-2-thiol derivatives 5a-l with 4-(2-chloroethyl) morpholine. Compounds 6a-l were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo antitumor potential in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) tumor cells. Among 6a-l series, compound 6a with concentration ∼8.5μM have shown extensive cytotoxicity in vitro and 85% reduction in tumor volume in vivo, attributing an excellent anti-proliferative capability towards the cancer cells. Compound 6a has extensively inhibited the Microvessel Density (MVD) or tumoral neovasculature which was evident from the CD31 immuno staining and peritoneal H&E staining. The major reason for the antiproliferative activity of compound 6a was due to the repression of tumor vasculature.

  20. Upregulation of miR-22 promotes osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by repressing HDAC6 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shan; Wang, Shihua; Bian, Chunjing; Yang, Zhuo; Zhou, Hong; Zeng, Yang; Li, Hongling; Han, Qin; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchmal stem cells (MSCs) can be differentiated into either adipocytes or osteoblasts, and a reciprocal relationship exists between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Multiple transcription factors and signaling pathways have been reported to regulate adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, respectively, yet the molecular mechanism underlying the cell fate alteration between adipogenesis and osteogenesis still remains to be illustrated. MicroRNAs are important regulators in diverse biological processes by repressing protein expression of their targets. Here, miR-22 was found to regulate adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) in opposite directions. Our data showed that miR-22 decreased during the process of adipogenic differentiation but increased during osteogenic differentiation. On one hand, overexpression of miR-22 in hADMSCs could inhibit lipid droplets accumulation and repress the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic-specific genes. On the other hand, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, as well as increased expression of osteo-specific genes, indicated a positive role of miR-22 in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Target databases prediction and validation by Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction identified histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as a direct downstream target of miR-22 in hADMSCs. Inhibition of endogenous HDAC6 by small-interfering RNAs suppressed adipogenesis and stimulated osteogenesis, consistent with the effect of miR-22 overexpression in hADMSCs. Together, our results suggested that miR-22 acted as a critical regulator of balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hADMSCs by repressing its target HDAC6.

  1. Epigenetic repression of PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 promotes ovarian cancer via NOS2-derived nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjie; Yu, Chuan; Zhou, Shengtao; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lau, Bonnie; Luo, Zhongyue; Lin, Qiao; Yang, Huiliang; Xuan, Yu; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-12

    Ovarian cancer constitutes one of the most lethal gynaecological malignancies worldwide and currently no satisfactory therapeutic approaches have been established. Therefore, elucidation of molecular mechanisms to develop targeted therapy of ovarian cancer is crucial. PDLIM2 is critical to promote ubiquitination of nuclear p65 and thus its role in inflammation has been highlighted recently. We demonstrate that PDLIM2 is decreased in both ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma and in various human ovarian cancer cell lines compared with normal ovary tissues and human ovarian surface epithelial cells (HOSE). Further functional analysis revealed that PDLIM2 is epigenetically repressed in ovarian cancer development and inhibition of PDLIM2 promoted ovarian cancer growth both in vivo and in vitro via NOS2-derived nitric oxide signaling, leading to recruitment of M2 type macrophages. These results suggest that PDLIM2 might be involved in ovarian cancer pathogenesis, which could serve as a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer patients.

  2. High-potency block of Kir4.1 channels by pentamidine: molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Figueroa, Iván A; Marmolejo-Murillo, Leticia G; Cui, Meng; Delgado-Ramírez, Mayra; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Sánchez-Chapula, José A; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A

    2017-10-06

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels are expressed in almost all mammalian tissues and contribute to a wide range of physiological processes. Kir4.1 channel expression is found in the brain, inner ear, eye, and kidney. Loss-of-function mutations in the pore-forming Kir4.1 subunit cause an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness and tubulopathy (SeSAME/EST syndrome). Despite its importance in physiological and pathological conditions, pharmacological research of Kir4.1 is limited. Here, we characterized the effect of pentamidine on Kir4.1 channels using electrophysiology, mutagenesis and computational methods. Pentamidine potently inhibited Kir4.1 channels when applied to the cytoplasmic side under inside-out patch clamp configuration (IC50 = 97nM). The block was voltage dependent. Molecular modeling predicted the binding of pentamidine to the transmembrane pore region of Kir4.1 at aminoacids T127, T128 and E158. Mutation of each of these residues reduced the potency of pentamidine to block Kir4.1 channels. A pentamidine analogue (PA-6) inhibited Kir4.1 with similar potency (IC50 = 132nM). Overall, this study shows that pentamidine blocks Kir4.1 channels interacting with threonine and glutamate residues in the transmembrane pore region. These results can be useful to design novel compounds with major potency and specificity over Kir4.1 channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of (131)I-pentamidine for scintigraphy of experimentally Leishmania tropica-infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Inceboz, Tonay; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Eren, Mine Şencan; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Bekiş, Recep; Yilmaz, Osman; Er, Özge; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to assess the ability of (131)I-Pentamidine scintigraphy to detect the lesions of Leishmania tropica infection. An experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis was developed. The presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was confirmed. Pentamidine was radioiodinated with (131)I. The radiolabeled pentamidine was validated by the requisite quality control tests to check its radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro stability. (131)I-Pentamidine (activity: 18.5 MBq/100 µl) was injected intracardiacally into infected hamsters. Static whole body images of the hamsters were acquired under the gamma camera at 5 and 30 min, 2, 6 and 24 h following the administration. On the scintigrams, anatomically adjusted regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the right feet (target) and left feet (not-target) and various organs. Accumulation of (131)I-Pentamidine at sites of infection is expressed as the target to non-target (T/NT) ratio. The results T/NT ratio decreased with time. In concluding the (131)I-Pentamidine has poor sensitivity in detection of L. tropica infection.

  4. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia

    2016-01-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization–recommended therapy, for single Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis lesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm2 lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain—ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm2 [ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm2 lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for Bolivian L. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days. PMID:26903605

  5. Pentamidine Inhibition of Group I Intron Splicing in Candida albicans Correlates with Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Miletti, Karl E.; Leibowitz, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that pentamidine, which has been clinically used against Pneumocystis carinii, inhibits in vitro a group I intron ribozyme from that organism. Another fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, also harbors a group I intron ribozyme (Ca.LSU) in the essential rRNA genes in almost half of the clinical isolates analyzed. To determine whether pentamidine inhibits Ca.LSU in vitro and in cells, phylogenetically closely related intron-containing (4-1) and intronless (62-1) strains were studied. Splicing in vitro of the Ca.LSU group I intron ribozyme was completely inhibited by pentamidine at 200 μM. On rich glucose medium, the intron-containing strain was more sensitive to growth inhibition by pentamidine than was the intronless strain, as measured by disk or broth microdilution assays. On rich glycerol medium, they were equally susceptible to pentamidine. At pentamidine levels selectively inhibiting the intron-containing strain (1 μM) in glucose liquid cultures, inhibition of splicing and rRNA maturation was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR within 1 min with a 10- to 15-fold accumulation of precursor rRNA. No comparable effect was seen in the intronless strain. These results correlate the cellular splicing inhibition of Ca.LSU with the growth inhibition of strain 4-1 harboring Ca.LSU. Broth microdilution assays of 13 Candida strains showed that intron-containing strains were generally more susceptible to pentamidine than the intronless strains. Our data suggest that ribozymes found in pathogenic microorganisms but absent in mammals may be targets for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:10722497

  6. Is Aerosolized Pentamidine for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Prophylaxis in Renal Transplant Recipients Not as Safe as We Might Think?

    PubMed

    Macesic, N; Urbancic, K; Ierino, F; Grayson, M L

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks ofPneumocystispneumonia have been described in renal transplant recipients. Aerosolized pentamidine is frequently used for prophylaxis in this setting. We report our experience with aerosolized pentamidine use in 56 renal transplant recipients. We found high rates of adverse reactions in patients with chronic respiratory disease.

  7. Attenuation of Porphyromonas gingivalis oral infection by α-amylase and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Miao, Yu-Song; Fu, Yun; Li, Xi-Ting; Yu, Shao-Jie

    2015-08-01

    The Porphyromonas gingivalis bacterium is one of the most influential pathogens in oral infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial activity of α-amylase and pentamidine against Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated. Their in vitro inhibitory activity was investigated with the agar overlay technique, and the minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were determined. Using the bactericidal concentration, the antimicrobial actions of the inhibitors were investigated. In the present study, multiple techniques were utilized, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), general structural analysis and differential gene expression analysis. The results obtained from SEM and bactericidal analysis indicated a notable observation; the pentamidine and α-amylase treatment destroyed the structure of the bacterial cell membranes, which led to cell death. These results were used to further explore these inhibitors and the mechanisms by which they act. Downregulated expression levels were observed for a number of genes coding for hemagglutinins and gingipains, and various genes involved in hemin uptake, chromosome replication and energy production. However, the expression levels of genes associated with iron storage and oxidative stress were upregulated by α-amylase and pentamidine. A greater effect was noted in response to pentamidine treatment. The results of the present study demonstrate promising therapeutic potential for α-amylases and pentamidine. These molecules have the potential to be used to develop novel drugs and broaden the availability of pharmacological tools for the attenuation of oral infections caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

  8. Pentamidine for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and other protozoal diseases.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R D; Hewlett, E L

    1985-11-01

    Pentamidine isethionate, discovered to have antiprotozoal activity in 1938, has recently been approved in the United States for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Despite frequent adverse reactions, which are at times life-threatening, pentamidine remains an important alternative to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia in patients with a history of allergy to sulfonamides or who have severe reactions or a lack of response to treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Although not approved for other indications, pentamidine has been shown to be effective when used prophylactically against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the cause of West African sleeping sickness, as well as for treatment of the early hemolymphatic stage of that disease, and for treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis.

  9. Factors determining pulmonary deposition of aerosolized pentamidine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Smaldone, G.C.; Fuhrer, J.; Steigbigel, R.T.; McPeck, M. )

    1991-04-01

    Although aerosolized pentamidine (AP) has recently been approved for prophylaxis and is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of pneumocystis, pneumonia (PCP), factors important in the deposition of AP have not been described. Using radioaerosol techniques, deposition was measured in 22 patients receiving AP for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP. In all patients total and regional deposition of pentamidine, breathing pattern, pulmonary function (PFT), regional ventilation, and type of nebulizer were analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after inhalation to assess the relationship between pentamidine levels in BAL fluid and measured aerosol deposition. The nebulizers tested were the Marquest Respirgard II and the Cadema AeroTech II, both previously characterized in our laboratory. The aerosol particles consist of water droplets containing dissolved pentamidine and technetium 99m bound to albumin. Analysis of particles sampled during inhalation via cascade impaction confirmed a close relationship between radioactivity in the droplets and the concentration of pentamidine as measured by HPLC (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001; n = 18). Deposition was measured by capturing inhaled and exhaled particles on absolute filters and measuring radioactivity. This technique allows the determination of the deposition fraction (DF, the fraction of the amount inhaled that is deposited), which provides information on factors strictly related to the patient. To confirm the filter measurements, pentamidine deposition was also measured by gamma camera. The camera measurement was possible because each patient's thoracic attenuation of radioactivity was determined by a quantitative perfusion scan. Regional lung volume and ventilation were determined by xenon 133 equilibrium scan and washout.

  10. Intralesional Pentamidine: A Novel Therapy for Single Lesions of Bolivian Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis lesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for Bolivian L. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Pentamidine blocks the interaction between mutant S100A5 and RAGE V domain and inhibits the RAGE signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-08-19

    The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models-the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex-and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis with intravenous pentamidine before therapeutic keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Bradley A; Wagoner, Michael D; Goins, Kenneth M; Sutphin, John E; Greiner, Mark A; Kitzmann, Anna S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of pretreatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis with intravenous pentamidine (IVP) before therapeutic keratoplasty (TKP). A retrospective chart review was performed of the medical records of every patient treated with IVP before TKP for Acanthamoeba keratitis at a single, tertiary care eye center between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2012. The main outcome measures were microbiological cure, graft survival, and visual outcome. Eight eyes of 7 patients met the inclusion criteria. Preoperatively, all 8 eyes had failed traditional antiamoebic therapy, including 5 eyes with recurrent infections after previous TKP. The patients were treated with IVP (190-400 mg/d) for a median of 14 days (range, 7-26 days). After 8 TKP, a microbiological cure was achieved, and a clear graft was maintained in 5 (62.5%) eyes during a mean follow-up interval of 31.2 months (range, 1.0-95.7 months). Repeat TKP in 3 eyes with recurrent Acanthamoeba keratitis resulted in 2 additional microbiological cures and 1 more clear graft. The final best-corrected visual acuity was ≥20/40 in 5 (62.5%) eyes and worse than 20/200 in 3 eyes. Overall, the final vision was improved in 6 (75.0%) eyes, remained the same in 1 (12.5%) eye, and was worse in 1 (12.5%) eye. The adjunctive use of IVP before TKP may assist with the achievement of microbiological cure, clear graft, and good visual outcome in a majority of eyes with Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  13. The novel combination of chlorpromazine and pentamidine exerts synergistic antiproliferative effects through dual mitotic action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret S; Johansen, Lisa; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wilson, Amy; Keegan, Mitchell; Avery, William; Elliott, Peter; Borisy, Alexis A; Keith, Curtis T

    2007-12-01

    Combination therapy has proven successful in treating a wide variety of aggressive human cancers. Historically, combination treatments have been discovered through serendipity or lengthy trials using known anticancer agents with similar indications. We have used combination high-throughput screening to discover the unexpected synergistic combination of an antiparasitic agent, pentamidine, and a phenothiazine antipsychotic, chlorpromazine. This combination, CRx-026, inhibits the growth of tumor cell lines in vivo more effectively than either pentamidine or chlorpromazine alone. Here, we report that CRx-026 exerts its antiproliferative effect through synergistic dual mitotic action. Chlorpromazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin KSP/Eg5 and inhibits tumor cell proliferation through mitotic arrest and accumulation of monopolar spindles. Pentamidine treatment results in chromosomal segregation defects and delayed progression through mitosis, consistent with inhibition of the phosphatase of regenerating liver family of phosphatases. We also show that CRx-026 synergizes in vitro and in vivo with the microtubule-binding agents paclitaxel and vinorelbine. These data support a model where dual action of pentamidine and chlorpromazine in mitosis results in synergistic antitumor effects and show the importance of systematic screening for combinations of targeted agents.

  14. Pentamidine blocks the interaction between mutant S100A5 and RAGE V domain and inhibits the RAGE signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-08-19

    The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models—the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex—and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. - Highlights: • The interaction between mS100A5–RAGE V was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. • The interfacial residues on mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine contact surface were mapped by {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC experiments. • mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine complex models were generated from NMR restraints using HADDOCK program. • The bioactivity of the mS100A5–RAGE V and mS100A5–pentamidine complex was studied using WST-1 assay.

  15. [Treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis, with lesions in the mucosa, using pentamidine isethionate].

    PubMed

    Amato, V S; de Paula, J G; Imamura, R; Amato Neto, V; Duarte, M I; Boulos, M I; Boulos, M; Nicodemo, A C; de Mendonca, J S

    1996-01-01

    Ten patients with mucosal lesions caused by American tegumental leishmaniasis were treated with pentamidine isethionate at the dose 4 mg/kg on alternate days by the intravenous route. The mean posology was 2,140 mg. Healing of the lesions occurred in 9 (90%) of the patients who completed treatment. There was no recurrence during a follow-up time of 1 to 24 months (mean, 7,7 months). One patient discontinued treatment before healing of the lesion because be developed diabetes mellitus. In 3 (30%) patients, blood exams showed increased urea and creatinine levels and leucopenia, which were corrected by increasing the interval between administrations of the drug. Pentamidine isethionate is efficient in bringing about cicatrization of the lesions but needs further evaluation in terms of its value in preventing recurrence.

  16. Leishmania Mexicana: Uptake of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Pentamidine by Parasite and Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    brucei-group Trypano- Leishmania donovani in vitro. Comparative Bio- soma. Journal of Protozoology 23, 349-356. chemistry and Physiology 68c, 95-98...NO.ACESON.Ft Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-5012 ELEMENT NO. ACCESSION NO 11, TITLE (Include Security Classification) LEISHMANIA MEXICANA: UPTAKE OF...RESEARCH BRIEF Leishmania mexicana: Uptake of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Pentamidine by Parasite and Macrophages JONATHAN D. BERMAN

  17. Pentamidine sensitizes Gram-negative pathogens to antibiotics and overcomes acquired colistin resistance.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jonathan M; MacNair, Craig R; Ilyas, Bushra; French, Shawn; Côté, Jean-Philippe; Bouwman, Catrien; Farha, Maya A; Sieron, Arthur O; Whitfield, Chris; Coombes, Brian K; Brown, Eric D

    2017-03-06

    The increasing use of polymyxins(1) in addition to the dissemination of plasmid-borne colistin resistance threatens to cause a serious breach in our last line of defence against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, and heralds the emergence of truly pan-resistant infections. Colistin resistance often arises through covalent modification of lipid A with cationic residues such as phosphoethanolamine-as is mediated by Mcr-1 (ref. 2)-which reduce the affinity of polymyxins for lipopolysaccharide(3). Thus, new strategies are needed to address the rapidly diminishing number of treatment options for Gram-negative infections(4). The difficulty in eradicating Gram-negative bacteria is largely due to their highly impermeable outer membrane, which serves as a barrier to many otherwise effective antibiotics(5). Here, we describe an unconventional screening platform designed to enrich for non-lethal, outer-membrane-active compounds with potential as adjuvants for conventional antibiotics. This approach identified the antiprotozoal drug pentamidine(6) as an effective perturbant of the Gram-negative outer membrane through its interaction with lipopolysaccharide. Pentamidine displayed synergy with antibiotics typically restricted to Gram-positive bacteria, yielding effective drug combinations with activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens in vitro, and against systemic Acinetobacter baumannii infections in mice. Notably, the adjuvant activity of pentamidine persisted in polymyxin-resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Overall, pentamidine and its structural analogues represent unexploited molecules for the treatment of Gram-negative infections, particularly those having acquired polymyxin resistance determinants.

  18. Aerosolized pentamidine: Effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Jules-Elysee, K.M.; Stover, D.E.; Zaman, M.B.; Bernard, E.M.; White, D.A. )

    1990-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of previous aerosolized pentamidine therapy on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. This was a retrospective study of fifty-two consecutive patients with P. carinii pneumonia and underlying infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had bronchoscopy. Twenty-one patients who were on aerosolized pentamidine therapy served as the study group. Thirty-one patients who had not received the drug served as the control group. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia was 62% for the study group and 100% for the control group (P less than 0.05). This lower yield was significant for the subset of patients having their first episode of P. carinii pneumonia. The yield of transbronchial biopsy was similar for both groups of patients (81% compared with 84%). The yield of bronchoscopy was not influenced by use of zidovudine. Review of lavage specimen slides suggested that there may be fewer organisms present in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. An atypical roentgenographic presentation of upper lobe predominant infiltrates was seen in 38% of the study patients and 7% of the control patients. In addition, pneumothoraces and cystic changes were also frequently seen in the study patients. Gallium scans, when done, were also atypical in the study group. Markers of the severity of disease, however, were similar in both groups. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients is lower in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. Unusual roentgenographic presentations and atypical gallium scans are also found in this setting.

  19. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  20. Induction and Repression of Amidase Enzymes in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans can grow on acetamide as both a carbon and nitrogen source and can also grow on formamide as a nitrogen source. Two distinct enzymes, an acetamidase and a formamidase, are produced. The control of the synthesis of these two enzymes in a wild-type strain was investigated. The formamidase is induced by acetamide and formamide and repressed by ammonia. The acetamidase is induced by formamide and acetamide, repressed by carbon metabolites derived from glucose and acetate, and repressed by ammonia. Repression of the acetamidase by ammonia depends on the carbon source; growth on glucose but not on acetate or acetamide allows repression to occur. The pattern of acetamidase repression is compared with that of histidine catabolic enzymes in various bacteria. PMID:5432013

  1. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  2. The great repression

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bianca P.; Fischer, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:23665541

  3. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  4. Glycosaminoglycans are potential pharmacological targets for classic DNA minor groove binder drugs berenil and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc

    2015-10-14

    It is shown that the antiprotozoal drugs berenil and pentamidine, conventional minor groove binders of DNA, form non-covalent complexes with polyanionic glycosaminoglycans. Induced circular dichroism (CD) spectra as well as UV hypochromism confirmed drug binding to the asymmetric template of heparin and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The biphasic nature of the CD signals refers to intermolecular chiral exciton coupling between the dicationic guest molecules forming a right- or a left-handed helical array along the GAG chains. Quantitative evaluation of the spectroscopic data measured in pH 7.0 buffer solution (80 mM NaCl) indicated a higher (Ka ∼ 10(6) M(-1) for berenil) and a lower (Ka ∼ 10(5) M(-1) for pentamidine) affinity heparin binding of these agents, similar to that reported for DNA. Drug-chondroitin sulfate complexes (Ka ∼ 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) could be detected only at low ionic strength. These results imply that besides nucleic acids, GAGs may be another pharmacological targets for diarylamidine drugs.

  5. A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis.

    PubMed

    Neves, Leandro Ourives; Talhari, Anette Chrusciak; Gadelha, Ellen Priscilla Nunes; Silva Júnior, Roberto Moreira da; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Talhari, Sinésio

    2011-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857). The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7%) in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40%) patients, especially arthralgia (20.3%) in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1%) or induration (10.8%) at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.

  6. Repositioning Antimicrobial Agent Pentamidine as a Disruptor of the Lateral Interactions of Transmembrane Domain 5 of EBV Latent Membrane Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Fiorini, Zeno; Smith, Christina; Zhang, Yingning; Li, Jing; Watkins, Linda R.; Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    The lateral transmembrane protein-protein interactions (PPI) have been regarded as “undruggable” despite their importance in many essential biological processes. The homo-trimerization of transmembrane domain 5 (TMD-5) of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is critical for the constitutive oncogenic activation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Herein we repurpose the antimicrobial agent pentamidine as a regulator of LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. The results of ToxR assay, tryptophan fluorescence assay, courmarin fluorescence dequenching assay, and Bis-Tris sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) consistently show pentamidine disrupts LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. Furthermore, pentamidine inhibits LMP-1 signaling, inducing cellular apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation in the EBV infected B cells. In contrast, EBV negative cells are less susceptible to pentamidine. This study provides a novel non-peptide small molecule agent for regulating LMP-1 TMD-5 lateral interactions. PMID:23094078

  7. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB)

    PubMed Central

    Georgian, Ana R.; Sanderson, Lisa; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Brown, Rachel C.; Muresan, Paula; Fleck, Roland A.; Thomas, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Pentamidine is an effective trypanocidal drug used against stage 1 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it accumulates inside the endothelial cells but has limited entry into the brain. This study examined transporters involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse BBB using hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cell lines, respectively. Results revealed that both cell lines expressed the organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3), however, P-gp was only expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells. Polarised expression of OCT1 was also observed. Functional assays found that ATP depletion significantly increased [3H]pentamidine accumulation in hCMEC/D3 cells (***p<0.001) but not in bEnd.3 cells. Incubation with unlabelled pentamidine significantly decreased accumulation in hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cells after 120 minutes (***p<0.001). Treating both cell lines with haloperidol and amantadine also decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation significantly (***p<0.001 and **p<0.01 respectively). However, prazosin treatment decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation only in hCMEC/D3 cells (*p<0.05), and not bEnd.3 cells. Furthermore, the presence of OCTN, MATE, PMAT, ENT or CNT inhibitors/substrates had no significant effect on the accumulation of [3H]pentamidine in both cell lines. From the data, we conclude that pentamidine interacts with multiple transporters, is taken into brain endothelial cells by OCT1 transporter and is extruded into the blood by ATP-dependent mechanisms. These interactions along with the predominant presence of OCT1 in the luminal membrane of the BBB contribute to the limited entry of pentamidine into the brain. This information is of key importance to the development of pentamidine based combination therapies which could be used to treat CNS stage HAT by improving CNS delivery, efficacy against trypanosomes and safety profile of pentamidine. PMID:28362799

  8. Pentamidine antagonizes the benznidazole's effect in vitro, and lacks of synergy in vivo: Implications about the polyamine transport as an anti-Trypanosoma cruzi target.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Verónica; Castro, Lorena; Reigada, Chantal; Cortes, Leonel; Díaz, María V; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A; Lapier, Michel; Campos-Estrada, Carolina; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Benznidazole is the first-line drug used in treating Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). However, benznidazole has limited efficacy and several adverse reactions. Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal drug used in the treatment of leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. In T. cruzi, pentamidine blocks the transport of putrescine, a precursor of trypanothione, which constitutes an essential molecule in the resistance of T. cruzi to benznidazole. In the present study, we describe the effect of the combination of benznidazole and pentamidine on isolated parasites, mammalian cells and in mice infected with T. cruzi. In isolated trypomastigotes, we performed a dose-matrix scheme of combinations, where pentamidine antagonized the effect of benznidazole, mainly at concentrations below the EC50 of pentamidine. In T. cruzi-infected mammalian cells, pentamidine reversed the effect of benznidazole (measured by qPCR). In comparison, in infected BALB/c mice, pentamidine failed to get synergy with benznidazole, measured on mice survival, parasitemia and amastigote nest quantification. To further explain the in vitro antagonism, we explored whether pentamidine affects intracellular trypanothione levels, however, pentamidine produced no change in trypanothione concentrations. Finally, the T. cruzi polyamine permease (TcPAT12) was overexpressed in epimastigotes, showing that pentamidine has the same trypanocidal effect, independently of transporter expression levels. These results suggest that, in spite of the high potency in the putrescine transport blockade, TcPAT12 permease is not the main target of pentamidine, and could explain the lack of synergism between pentamidine and benznidazole.

  9. Dysfunction of Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α (PDGFRα) Represses the Production of Oligodendrocytes from Arylsulfatase A-deficient Multipotential Neural Precursor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Pituch, Katarzyna C.; Moyano, Ana L.; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Marottoli, Felecia M.; Li, Guannan; Hu, Chenqi; van Breemen, Richard; Månsson, Jan E.; Givogri, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-bound receptor for platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFRα) is crucial for controlling the production of oligodendrocytes (OLs) for myelination, but regulation of its activity during OL differentiation is largely unknown. We have examined the effect of increased sulfated content of galactosylceramides (sulfatides) on the regulation of PDGFRα in multipotential neural precursors (NPs) that are deficient in arylsulfatase A (ASA) activity. This enzyme is responsible for the lysosomal hydrolysis of sulfatides. We show that sulfatide accumulation significantly impacts the formation of OLs via deregulation of PDGFRα function. PDGFRα is less associated with detergent-resistant membranes in ASA-deficient cells and showed a significant decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Rescue experiments with ASA showed a normalization of the ratio of long versus short sulfatides, restored PDGFRα levels, corrected its localization to detergent-resistant membranes, increased AKT phosphorylation, and normalized the production of OLs in ASA-deficient NPs. Moreover, our studies identified a novel mechanism that regulates the secretion of PDGFRα in NPs, in glial cells, and in the brain cortex via exosomal shedding. Our study provides a first step in understanding the role of sulfatides in regulating PDGFRα levels in OLs and its impact in myelination. PMID:25605750

  10. A Combination of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Endoderm Transplant with LDHA-Repressing miRNA Can Attenuate High-Fat Diet Induced Type II Diabetes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunya; Wang, Xiujie; Shao, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. The deficit and dysfunction of insulin secreting β-cell are signature symptom for T2D. Additionally, in pancreatic β-cell, a small group of genes which are abundantly expressed in most other tissues are highly selectively repressed. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is one of such genes. Upregulation of LDHA is found in both human T2D and rodent T2D models. In this study, we identified a LDHA-suppressing microRNA (hsa-miR-590-3p) and used it together with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived pancreatic endoderm (PE) transplantation into a high-fat diet induced T2D mouse model. The procedure significantly improved glucose metabolism and other symptoms of T2D. Our findings support the potential T2D treatment using the combination of microRNA and hESC-differentiated PE cells. PMID:26770982

  11. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mouli; Selma-Soriano, Estela; Magny, Emile; Couso, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Artero, Ruben; Llamusi, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats. PMID:26515653

  12. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mouli; Selma-Soriano, Estela; Magny, Emile; Couso, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Artero, Ruben; Llamusi, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats.

  13. Lens epithelium-derived growth factor relieves transforming growth factor-beta1-induced transcription repression of heat shock proteins in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Fatma, Nigar; Kubo, Eri; Shinohara, Toshimichi; Chylack, Leo T; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2003-05-30

    Lens epithelium-cell derived growth factor (LEDGF) is a transcriptional activator. It protects the cells by binding to cis-stress response ((A/T)GGGG(T/A)), and heat shock (HSE; nGAAn) elements in the stress genes and activating their transcription. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in the control of tissue homeostasis, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we provide evidence that TGF-beta1 down-regulates LEDGF expression and diminishes its affinity for DNA during TGF-beta1-induced phenotypic changes and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells. Surprisingly, TGF-beta1 treatment for 48 h markedly decreased the LEDGF, Hsp27, and alphaB-crystallin promoter activities with the decrease of abundance of LEDGF mRNA and protein. Deletion mutants of the LEDGF promoter showed that one TGF-beta1 inhibitory element (TIE) like sequence nnnTTGGnnn (-444 to -433) contributed to this negative regulation. Mutation of TIE (TTGG to TATT) abolished the down-regulation of the LEDGF promoter. Gel mobility and supershift assays showed that LEDGF in the nuclear extracts of TGF-beta1-treated human lens epithelial cells did not bind to stress-response elements and HSE. The TGF-beta1-induced down-regulation of LEDGF, Hsp27, and alphaB-crystallin promoters activity was reversed by cotransfection with a plasmid expressing LEDGF. Because overexpression of LEDGF was able to relieve TGF-beta1 and/or stress-induced changes, it would be a candidate molecule to postpone age-related degenerating disorders.

  14. Disulfiram and its novel derivative sensitize prostate cancer cells to the growth regulatory mechanisms of the cell by re-expressing the epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor-estrogen receptor β.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Verma, Vikas; Lal, Nand; Yadav, Santosh K; Sarkar, Saumya; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Porwal, Konica; Rawat, Tara; Maikhuri, J P; Rajender, Singh; Sharma, V L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen Receptor-β (ER-β), a tumor-suppressor in prostate cancer, is epigenetically repressed by hypermethylation of its promoter. DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs), which catalyze the transfer of methyl-groups to CpG islands of gene promoters, are overactive in cancers and can be inhibited by DNMT-inhibitors to re-express the tumor suppressors. The FDA-approved nucleoside DNMT-inhibitors like 5-Azacytidine and 5-Aza-deoxycytidine carry notable concerns due to their off-target toxicity, therefore non-nucleoside DNMT inhibitors are desirable for prolonged epigenetic therapy. Disulfiram (DSF), an antabuse drug, inhibits DNMT and prevents proliferation of cells in prostate and other cancers, plausibly through the re-expression of tumor suppressors like ER-β. To increase the DNMT-inhibitory activity of DSF, its chemical scaffold was optimized and compound-339 was discovered as a doubly potent DSF-derivative with similar off-target toxicity. It potently and selectively inhibited cell proliferation of prostate cancer (PC3/DU145) cells in comparison to normal (non-cancer) cells by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, accompanied with inhibition of total DNMT activity, and re-expression of ER-β (mRNA/protein). Bisulfite-sequencing of ER-β promoter revealed that compound-339 demethylated CpG sites more efficaciously than DSF, restoring near-normal methylation status of ER-β promoter. Compound-339 docked on to the MTase domain of DNMT1 with half the energy of DSF. In xenograft mice-model, the tumor volume regressed by 24% and 50% after treatment with DSF and compound-339, respectively, with increase in ER-β expression. Apparently both compounds inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation by re-expressing the epigenetically repressed tumor-suppressor ER-β through inhibition of DNMT activity. Compound-339 presents a new lead for further study as an anti-prostate cancer agent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The repressed and implicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Talvitie, Vesa; Ihanus, Juhani

    2002-12-01

    The distinction between implicit (non-conscious) and explicit (conscious) knowledge made by cognitive scientists is applied to the psychoanalytic idea of repressed contents. The consequences of repression are suggested to have been caused by implicit representations. Repressed memories can also be treated in terms of explicit representations, which are prevented from becoming activated. Implicit knowledge cannot, however, be made conscious, and thus the idea of becoming conscious of the repressed desires and fears that have never been conscious is contradictory. This tension may be relieved by reconceptualising the idea of becoming conscious of the repressed. It is suggested that this could be seen as creating explicit knowledge about the effects of implicit representations. By applying the implicit/explicit knowledge distinction, psychoanalytic ideas concerning the repressed could be connected to current views in the domain of cognitive orientation.

  16. Aquaporin 2 mutations in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense field isolates correlate with decreased susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol.

    PubMed

    Graf, Fabrice E; Ludin, Philipp; Wenzler, Tanja; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Pyana, Patient Pati; Büscher, Philippe; de Koning, Harry P; Horn, David; Mäser, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The predominant mechanism of drug resistance in African trypanosomes is decreased drug uptake due to loss-of-function mutations in the genes for the transporters that mediate drug import. The role of transporters as determinants of drug susceptibility is well documented from laboratory-selected Trypanosoma brucei mutants. But clinical isolates, especially of T. b. gambiense, are less amenable to experimental investigation since they do not readily grow in culture without prior adaptation. Here we analyze a selected panel of 16 T. brucei ssp. field isolates that (i) have been adapted to axenic in vitro cultivation and (ii) mostly stem from treatment-refractory cases. For each isolate, we quantify the sensitivity to melarsoprol, pentamidine, and diminazene, and sequence the genomic loci of the transporter genes TbAT1 and TbAQP2. The former encodes the well-characterized aminopurine permease P2 which transports several trypanocides including melarsoprol, pentamidine, and diminazene. We find that diminazene-resistant field isolates of T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense carry the same set of point mutations in TbAT1 that was previously described from lab mutants. Aquaglyceroporin 2 has only recently been identified as a second transporter involved in melarsoprol/pentamidine cross-resistance. Here we describe two different kinds of TbAQP2 mutations found in T. b. gambiense field isolates: simple loss of TbAQP2, or loss of wild-type TbAQP2 allele combined with the formation of a novel type of TbAQP2/3 chimera. The identified mutant T. b. gambiense are 40- to 50-fold less sensitive to pentamidine and 3- to 5-times less sensitive to melarsoprol than the reference isolates. We thus demonstrate for the first time that rearrangements of the TbAQP2/TbAQP3 locus accompanied by TbAQP2 gene loss also occur in the field, and that the T. b. gambiense carrying such mutations correlate with a significantly reduced susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol.

  17. Outcome of acute East African trypanosomiasis in a Polish traveller treated with pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Małgorzata; Stefaniak, Jerzy; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Geysen, Dirk; Clerinx, Jan

    2014-02-27

    African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic infection sporadically imported to Europe by tourists or immigrants returning from endemic areas. We present the first and an unusual case of East African trypanosomiasis imported to Poland by a patient returning from a tourist trip to Uganda and Rwanda, which was successfully treated with pentamidine. A 61-year-old Polish man was admitted to the Department because of high-grade fever and multi-organ dysfunction after a tourist trip to East Africa. He experienced a single tsetse fly bite during a safari trip to the Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda. On admission, his clinical status was severe, with high fever of 41ºC, preceded by chills, bleeding from the gums and oral mucosa, haemorrhages at the sites of venipuncture, numerous ecchymoses, fine-spotted skin rash, tachycardia, hepatosplenomegaly, dehydration, jaundice, dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, generalised oedema and oliguria. There was a typical non-painful trypanosomal chancre with central necrosis and peripheral erythema on his left arm. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hypoglycaemia, elevated creatinine and urea, high activity of aminotransferases, elevated levels of inflammatory markers, hypoproteinaemia, proteinuria, abnormal clotting and bleeding times, low fibrinogen level, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. A peripheral blood smear showed numerous Trypanosoma brucei trypomastigotes with a massive parasitaemia of 100,000/μl. T. brucei rhodesiense subspecies was finally identified on the basis of the characteristic serum resistance-associated gene using a polymerase chain reaction, and a seroconversion of specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies in the peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serological tests for T. brucei gambiense subspecies were negative. A severe clinical course of acute rhodesiense trypanosomiasis with renal failure, respiratory distress

  18. Outcome of acute East African trypanosomiasis in a Polish traveller treated with pentamidine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic infection sporadically imported to Europe by tourists or immigrants returning from endemic areas. We present the first and an unusual case of East African trypanosomiasis imported to Poland by a patient returning from a tourist trip to Uganda and Rwanda, which was successfully treated with pentamidine. Case presentation A 61-year-old Polish man was admitted to the Department because of high-grade fever and multi-organ dysfunction after a tourist trip to East Africa. He experienced a single tsetse fly bite during a safari trip to the Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda. On admission, his clinical status was severe, with high fever of 41ºC, preceded by chills, bleeding from the gums and oral mucosa, haemorrhages at the sites of venipuncture, numerous ecchymoses, fine-spotted skin rash, tachycardia, hepatosplenomegaly, dehydration, jaundice, dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, generalised oedema and oliguria. There was a typical non-painful trypanosomal chancre with central necrosis and peripheral erythema on his left arm. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hypoglycaemia, elevated creatinine and urea, high activity of aminotransferases, elevated levels of inflammatory markers, hypoproteinaemia, proteinuria, abnormal clotting and bleeding times, low fibrinogen level, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. A peripheral blood smear showed numerous Trypanosoma brucei trypomastigotes with a massive parasitaemia of 100,000/μl. T. brucei rhodesiense subspecies was finally identified on the basis of the characteristic serum resistance-associated gene using a polymerase chain reaction, and a seroconversion of specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies in the peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serological tests for T. brucei gambiense subspecies were negative. A severe clinical course of acute rhodesiense trypanosomiasis with renal

  19. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  20. Chimerization at the AQP2-AQP3 locus is the genetic basis of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in clinical Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates.

    PubMed

    Graf, Fabrice E; Baker, Nicola; Munday, Jane C; de Koning, Harry P; Horn, David; Mäser, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Aquaglyceroporin-2 is a known determinant of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in Trypanosoma brucei brucei laboratory strains. Recently, chimerization at the AQP2-AQP3 tandem locus was described from melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistant Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from sleeping sickness patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Here, we demonstrate that reintroduction of wild-type AQP2 into one of these isolates fully restores drug susceptibility while expression of the chimeric AQP2/3 gene in aqp2-aqp3 null T. b. brucei does not. This proves that AQP2-AQP3 chimerization is the cause of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in the T. b. gambiense isolates.

  1. Translational repression contributes greater noise to gene expression than transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Michał; Miekisz, Jacek; Kierzek, Andrzej M

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic effects in gene expression may result in different physiological states of individual cells, with consequences for pathogen survival and artificial gene network design. We studied the contributions of a regulatory factor to gene expression noise in four basic mechanisms of negative gene expression control: 1), transcriptional regulation by a protein repressor, 2), translational repression by a protein; 3), transcriptional repression by RNA; and 4), RNA interference with the translation. We investigated a general model of a two-gene network, using the chemical master equation and a moment generating function approach. We compared the expression noise of genes with the same effective transcription and translation initiation rates resulting from the action of different repressors, whereas previous studies compared the noise of genes with the same mean expression level but different initiation rates. Our results show that translational repression results in a higher noise than repression on the promoter level, and that this relationship does not depend on quantitative parameter values. We also show that regulation of protein degradation contributes more noise than regulated degradation of mRNA. These are unexpected results, because previous investigations suggested that translational regulation is more accurate. The relative magnitude of the noise introduced by protein and RNA repressors depends on the protein and mRNA degradation rates, and we derived expressions for the threshold below which the noise introduced by a protein repressor is higher than the noise introduced by an RNA repressor.

  2. Amplification of Kp Elements Associated with the Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M. S.; Black, D. M.; Dover, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Mobile P elements in Drosophila melanogaster cause hybrid dysgenesis if their mobility is not repressed. One type of repression, termed P cytotype, is a complex interaction between chromosomes carrying P elements and cytoplasm and is transmitted through the cytoplasm only of females. Another type of repression is found in worldwide M' strains that contain approximately 30 copies per individual of one particular P element deletion-derivative termed the KP element. This repression is transmitted equally through both sexes. In the present study we show that biparentally transmitted repression increases in magnitude together with a rapid increase in KP copy-number in genotypes starting with one or a few KP elements and no other deletion-derivatives. Such correlated increases in repression and KP number per genome occur only in the presence of complete P elements, supporting the interpretation that they are probably a consequence of the selective advantage enjoyed by flies carrying the highest numbers of KP elements. Analysis of Q strains also reveals the presence of qualitative differences in the way the repression of dysgenesis is transmitted. In general, Q strains not containing KP elements have the P cytotype mode of repression, whereas Q strains with KP elements transmit repression through both sexes. This difference among Q strains further supports the existence of at least two types of repression of P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in natural populations of D. melanogaster. PMID:2852140

  3. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  4. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  5. The unified theory of repression.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2006-10-01

    Repression has become an empirical fact that is at once obvious and problematic. Fragmented clinical and laboratory traditions and disputed terminology have resulted in a Babel of misunderstandings in which false distinctions are imposed (e.g., between repression and suppression) and necessary distinctions not drawn (e.g., between the mechanism and the use to which it is put, defense being just one). "Repression" was introduced by Herbart to designate the (nondefensive) inhibition of ideas by other ideas in their struggle for consciousness. Freud adapted repression to the defensive inhibition of "unbearable" mental contents. Substantial experimental literatures on attentional biases, thought avoidance, interference, and intentional forgetting exist, the oldest prototype being the work of Ebbinghaus, who showed that intentional avoidance of memories results in their progressive forgetting over time. It has now become clear, as clinicians had claimed, that the inaccessible materials are often available and emerge indirectly (e.g., procedurally, implicitly). It is also now established that the Ebbinghaus retention function can be partly reversed, with resulting increases of conscious memory over time (hypermnesia). Freud's clinical experience revealed early on that exclusion from consciousness was effected not just by simple repression (inhibition) but also by a variety of distorting techniques, some deployed to degrade latent contents (denial), all eventually subsumed under the rubric of defense mechanisms ("repression in the widest sense"). Freudian and Bartlettian distortions are essentially the same, even in name, except for motive (cognitive vs. emotional), and experimentally induced false memories and other "memory illusions" are laboratory analogs of self-induced distortions.

  6. Efficacy and safety of a single dose pentamidine (7mg/kg) for patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. guyanensis: a pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Ellen Priscilla Nunes; Talhari, Sinésio; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Neves, Leandro Ourives; Talhari, Carolina; Gontijo, Bernardo; da Silva Junior, Roberto Moreira; Talhari, Anette Chrusciak

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications. PMID:26734860

  7. Efficacy and safety of a single dose pentamidine (7mg/kg) for patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. guyanensis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Ellen Priscilla Nunes; Talhari, Sinésio; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Neves, Leandro Ourives; Talhari, Carolina; Gontijo, Bernardo; Silva Junior, Roberto Moreira da; Talhari, Anette Chrusciak

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Recombinant Pneumocystis carinii Topoisomerase I: Differential Interactions with Human Topoisomerase I Poisons and Pentamidine

    PubMed Central

    Van Dross, Rukiyah T.; Sanders, Marilyn M.

    2002-01-01

    The Pneumocystis carinii topoisomerase I-encoding gene has been cloned and sequenced, and the expressed enzyme interactions with several classes of topoisomerase I poisons have been characterized. The P. carinii topoisomerase I protein contains 763 amino acids and has a molecular mass of ca. 90 kDa. The expressed enzyme relaxes supercoiled DNA to completion and has no Mg2+ requirement. Cleavage assays reveal that both the human and P. carinii enzymes form covalent complexes in the presence of camptothecin, Hoechst 33342, and the terbenzimidazole QS-II-48. As with the human enzyme, no cleavage is stimulated in the presence of 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or berenil. A yeast cytotoxicity assay shows that P. carinii topoisomerase I is also a cytotoxic target for the mixed intercalative plus minor-groove binding drug nogalamycin. In contrast to the human enzyme, P. carinii topoisomerase I is resistant to both nitidine and potent protoberberine human topoisomerase I poisons. The differences in the sensitivities of P. carinii and human topoisomerase I to various topoisomerase I poisons support the use of the fungal enzyme as a molecular target for drug development. Additionally, we have characterized the interaction of pentamidine with P. carinii topoisomerase I. We show, by catalytic inhibition, cleavage, and yeast cytotoxicity assays, that pentamidine does not target topoisomerase I. PMID:12069967

  9. Molecular characterization of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii topoisomerase I: differential interactions with human topoisomerase I poisons and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    van Dross, Rukiyah T; Sanders, Marilyn M

    2002-07-01

    The Pneumocystis carinii topoisomerase I-encoding gene has been cloned and sequenced, and the expressed enzyme interactions with several classes of topoisomerase I poisons have been characterized. The P. carinii topoisomerase I protein contains 763 amino acids and has a molecular mass of ca. 90 kDa. The expressed enzyme relaxes supercoiled DNA to completion and has no Mg2+ requirement. Cleavage assays reveal that both the human and P. carinii enzymes form covalent complexes in the presence of camptothecin, Hoechst 33342, and the terbenzimidazole QS-II-48. As with the human enzyme, no cleavage is stimulated in the presence of 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or berenil. A yeast cytotoxicity assay shows that P. carinii topoisomerase I is also a cytotoxic target for the mixed intercalative plus minor-groove binding drug nogalamycin. In contrast to the human enzyme, P. carinii topoisomerase I is resistant to both nitidine and potent protoberberine human topoisomerase I poisons. The differences in the sensitivities of P. carinii and human topoisomerase I to various topoisomerase I poisons support the use of the fungal enzyme as a molecular target for drug development. Additionally, we have characterized the interaction of pentamidine with P. carinii topoisomerase I. We show, by catalytic inhibition, cleavage, and yeast cytotoxicity assays, that pentamidine does not target topoisomerase I.

  10. Structure-In Vitro Activity Relationships of Pentamidine Analogues and Dication-Substituted Bis-Benzimidazoles as New Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Del Poeta, Maurizio; Schell, Wiley A.; Dykstra, Christine C.; Jones, Susan; Tidwell, Richard R.; Czarny, Agnieszka; Bajic, Miroslav; Bajic, Marina; Kumar, Arvind; Boykin, David; Perfect, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty analogues of pentamidine, 7 primary metabolites of pentamidine, and 30 dicationic substituted bis-benzimidazoles were screened for their inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. A majority of the compounds had MICs at which 80% of the strains were inhibited (MIC80s) comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Unlike fluconazole, many of these compounds were found to have potent fungicidal activity. The most potent compound against C. albicans had an MIC80 of ≤0.09 μg/ml, and the most potent compound against C. neoformans had an MIC80 of 0.19 μg/ml. Selected compounds were also found to be active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Candida species other than C. albicans, and fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans and C. neoformans. It is clear from the data presented here that further studies on the structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action and toxicities, and in vivo efficacies of these compounds are warranted to determine their clinical potential. PMID:9756747

  11. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  12. Carbon catabolite repression in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is capable of directly fermenting xylan and the biomass-derived sugars glucose, cellobiose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose. It has been metabolically engineered and developed as a biocatalyst for the production of ethanol. Results We report the initial characterization of the carbon catabolite repression system in this organism. We find that sugar metabolism in T. saccharolyticum is regulated by histidine-containing protein HPr. We describe a mutation in HPr, His15Asp, that leads to derepression of less-favored carbon source utilization. Conclusion Co-utilization of sugars can be achieved by mutation of HPr in T. saccharolyticum. Further manipulation of CCR in this organism will be instrumental in achieving complete and rapid conversion of all available sugars to ethanol. PMID:23181505

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Pafuramidine versus Pentamidine Maleate for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness in a Randomized, Comparator-Controlled, International Phase 3 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pohlig, Gabriele; Bernhard, Sonja C.; Blum, Johannes; Burri, Christian; Mpanya, Alain; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Mpoto, Alfred Mpoo; Munungu, Blaise Fungula; N’tombe, Patrick Mangoni; Deo, Gratias Kambau Manesa; Mutantu, Pierre Nsele; Kuikumbi, Florent Mbo; Mintwo, Alain Fukinsia; Munungi, Augustin Kayeye; Dala, Amadeu; Macharia, Stephen; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Franco, Jose Ramon; Dituvanga, Ndinga Dieyi; Tidwell, Richard R.; Olson, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is a neglected tropical disease with limited treatment options that currently require parenteral administration. In previous studies, orally administered pafuramidine was well tolerated in healthy patients (for up to 21 days) and stage 1 HAT patients (for up to 10 days), and demonstrated efficacy comparable to pentamidine. Methods This was a Phase 3, multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active control study where 273 male and female patients with first stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT were treated at six sites: one trypanosomiasis reference center in Angola, one hospital in South Sudan, and four hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between August 2005 and September 2009 to support the registration of pafuramidine for treatment of first stage HAT in collaboration with the United States Food and Drug Administration. Patients were treated with either 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day for 10 days or 4 mg/kg pentamidine intramuscularly once daily for 7 days to assess the efficacy and safety of pafuramidine versus pentamidine. Pregnant and lactating women as well as adolescents were included. The primary efficacy endpoint was the combined rate of clinical and parasitological cure at 12 months. The primary safety outcome was the frequency and severity of adverse events. The study was registered on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number ISRCTN85534673. Findings/Conclusions The overall cure rate at 12 months was 89% in the pafuramidine group and 95% in the pentamidine group; pafuramidine was non-inferior to pentamidine as the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval did not exceed 15%. The safety profile of pafuramidine was superior to pentamidine; however, 3 patients in the pafuramidine group had glomerulonephritis or nephropathy approximately 8 weeks post-treatment. Two of these events were judged as

  14. Repression of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth by Regulating Met/EGFR/VEGFR-Akt/NF-κB Pathways with Theanine and Its Derivative, (R)-2-(6,8-Dibromo-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentanoic Ethyl Ester (DTBrC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Li, Zheng; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Rongqin; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ji, Dexin; Zhang, Huarong; Wu, Fei; Tian, Huihui; Liu, Kun; Wu, Benhao

    2016-09-21

    To explore the potential of theanine against cancer, we have studied the anticancer activities of theanine from tea and its semisynthesized derivative, (R)-2-(6,8-dibromo-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentanoic ethyl ester (DTBrC), in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC). Theanine and DTBrC displayed inhibitory effects on the growth and migration of HHC cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Theanine and DTBrC significantly enhanced the repression of HHC cell growth in combination with anticancer drug pirarubicin. Theanine and DTBrC completely suppressed HGF- and EGF+HGF-induced migration with a reduction of p53 tumor suppressor level and enhanced the p53 protein expression in HHC cells. The Akt and NF-κB knockdown greatly reduced cancer cell migration with a decrease in CD44 expression. DTBrC and theanine significantly repressed the protein expressions in the Met/EGFR/VEGFR-Akt/NF-κB pathways, which might be the mechanism for their biologic effects.

  15. S100B-p53 disengagement by pentamidine promotes apoptosis and inhibits cellular migration via aquaporin-4 and metalloproteinase-2 inhibition in C6 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCCIA, ELENA; CIRILLO, CARLA; MARCHETTO, ANNALISA; TIBERI, SAMANTA; SAWIKR, YOUSSEF; PESCE, MARCELLA; D'ALESSANDRO, ALESSANDRA; SCUDERI, CATERINA; SARNELLI, GIOVANNI; CUOMO, ROSARIO; STEARDO, LUCA; ESPOSITO, GIUSEPPE

    2015-01-01

    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is highly expressed in glioma cells and promotes cancer cell survival via inhibition of the p53 protein. In melanoma cells, this S100B-p53 interaction is known to be inhibited by pentamidine isethionate, an antiprotozoal agent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pentamidine on rat C6 glioma cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. The change in C6 cell proliferation following treatment with pentamidine was determined by performing a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide-formazan assay. Significant dose-dependent decreases in proliferation were observed at pentamidine concentrations of 0.05 µM (58.5±5%; P<0.05), 0.5 µM (40.6±7%; P<0.01) and 5 µM (13±4%; P<0.001) compared with the control (100% viability). Furthermore, treatment with 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis versus the untreated cells, as determined by DNA fragmentation assays, immunofluorescence analysis of C6 chromatin using Hoechst staining, and immunoblot analysis of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (100%, P<0.05; 453%, P<0.01; and 1000%, P<0.001, respectively) and Bcl-2 (-60%, P<0.001; −80.13%, P<0.001; −95%, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, the administration of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine significantly upregulated the protein expression levels of p53 (681±87.5%, P<0.05; 1244±94.3%, P<0.01; and 2244±111%, P<0.001, respectively), and significantly downregulated the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (42±2.3%, P<0.05; 71±2.5%, P<0.01; and 95.8±3.3%, P<0.001, respectively) and aquaporin 4 (38±2.5%, P<0.05; 69±2.6%, P<0.01; and 88±3.0%, P<0.001, respectively), compared with the untreated cells. The wound healing assay demonstrated that cell migration was significantly impaired by treatment with 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine compared with untreated cells (88±4.2%, P<0.05; 64±2%, P<0.01; and 42

  16. S100B-p53 disengagement by pentamidine promotes apoptosis and inhibits cellular migration via aquaporin-4 and metalloproteinase-2 inhibition in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Capoccia, Elena; Cirillo, Carla; Marchetto, Annalisa; Tiberi, Samanta; Sawikr, Youssef; Pesce, Marcella; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Scuderi, Caterina; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is highly expressed in glioma cells and promotes cancer cell survival via inhibition of the p53 protein. In melanoma cells, this S100B-p53 interaction is known to be inhibited by pentamidine isethionate, an antiprotozoal agent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pentamidine on rat C6 glioma cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. The change in C6 cell proliferation following treatment with pentamidine was determined by performing a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide-formazan assay. Significant dose-dependent decreases in proliferation were observed at pentamidine concentrations of 0.05 µM (58.5±5%; P<0.05), 0.5 µM (40.6±7%; P<0.01) and 5 µM (13±4%; P<0.001) compared with the control (100% viability). Furthermore, treatment with 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis versus the untreated cells, as determined by DNA fragmentation assays, immunofluorescence analysis of C6 chromatin using Hoechst staining, and immunoblot analysis of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (100%, P<0.05; 453%, P<0.01; and 1000%, P<0.001, respectively) and Bcl-2 (-60%, P<0.001; -80.13%, P<0.001; -95%, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, the administration of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine significantly upregulated the protein expression levels of p53 (681±87.5%, P<0.05; 1244±94.3%, P<0.01; and 2244±111%, P<0.001, respectively), and significantly downregulated the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (42±2.3%, P<0.05; 71±2.5%, P<0.01; and 95.8±3.3%, P<0.001, respectively) and aquaporin 4 (38±2.5%, P<0.05; 69±2.6%, P<0.01; and 88±3.0%, P<0.001, respectively), compared with the untreated cells. The wound healing assay demonstrated that cell migration was significantly impaired by treatment with 0.05, 0.5 and 5 µM pentamidine compared with untreated cells (88±4.2%, P<0.05; 64±2%, P<0.01; and 42±3

  17. Activity of Bisnaphthalimidopropyl Derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Nuno A. G.; Gaspar, Luis; Costa, David M.; Loureiro, Inês; Thoo-Lin, Paul Kong; Ramos, Isbaal; Roura, Meritxell; Pruvost, Alain; Pemberton, Ian K.; Loukil, Hadjer; MacDougall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for African trypanosomiasis are either toxic, costly, difficult to administer, or prone to elicit resistance. This study evaluated the activity of bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIP) derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei. BNIPDiaminobutane (BNIPDabut), the most active of these compounds, showed in vitro inhibition in the single-unit nanomolar range, similar to the activity in the reference drug pentamidine, and presented low toxicity and adequate metabolic stability. Additionally, using a murine model of acute infection and live imaging, a significant decrease in parasite load in BNIPDabut-treated mice was observed. However, cure was not achieved. BNIPDabut constitutes a new scaffold for antitrypanosomal drugs that deserves further consideration. PMID:26787703

  18. RNA polymerase III under control: repression and de-repression.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Magdalena; Graczyk, Damian

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis of tRNA by yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is regulated in response to changing environmental conditions. This control is mediated by Maf1, the global negative regulator of Pol III transcription conserved from yeast to humans. Details regarding the molecular basis of Pol III repression by Maf1 are now emerging from recently reported structural and biochemical data on Pol III and Maf1. Efficient Pol III transcription, following the shift of cells from a non-fermentable carbon source to glucose, requires phosphorylation of Maf1. One of the newly identified Maf1 kinases is the chromatin-bound casein kinase II (CK2). Current studies have allowed us to propose an innovative mechanism of Pol III regulation. We suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Maf1, occurring directly on tDNA chromatin, controls Pol III recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump in plasma-membrane vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei; selective inhibition by pentamidine.

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, G; Lopez-Estraño, C; Docampo, R; Moreno, S N

    1993-01-01

    Despite previous reports [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar and Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351; Mazumder, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Ray and Bhaduri (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18440-18446] that the plasma membrane of different trypanosomatids only contains Ca(2+)-ATPase that does not show any demonstrable dependence on Mg2+, a high-affinity (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase was demonstrated in the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei. The enzyme became saturated with micromolar amounts of Ca2+, reaching a Vmax. of 3.45 +/- 0.66 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein. The Km,app. for Ca2+ was 0.52 +/- 0.03 microM. This was decreased to 0.23 +/- 0.05 microM, and the Vmax. was increased to 6.36 +/- 0.22 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein (about 85%), when calmodulin was present. T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles accumulated Ca2+ on addition of ATP only when Mg2+ was present, and released it to addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. In addition, this Ca2+ transport was stimulated by calmodulin. Addition of NaCl to Ca(2+)-loaded T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles did not result in Ca2+ release, thus suggesting the absence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in these parasites. Therefore the (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase would be the only mechanism so far described that is responsible for the long-term fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of these parasites. The trypanocidal drug pentamidine inhibited the T. brucei plasma-membrane (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ transport at concentrations that had no effect on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of human or pig erythrocytes. In this latter case, pentamidine behaved as a weak calmodulin antagonist, since it inhibited the stimulation of the erythrocyte Ca(2+)-ATPase by calmodulin. PMID:8280074

  20. Comparative efficacy assessment of pentamidine isethionate and diminazene aceturate in the chemotherapy of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Akpa, P O; Ezeokonkwo, R C; Eze, C A; Anene, B M

    2008-02-14

    The chemotherapeutic efficacy of diminazene aceturate (Berenil)--a standard veterinary trypanocide and pentamidine isethionate (PMI)--a human trypanocide was compared in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Also, the activities of the drugs on some serum liver enzymes were evaluated before and after treatment to ascertain the relative safety of the drugs. Fifteen local dogs (mongrels) were used for the study. Three of the dogs were uninfected controls, and twelve were infected with a stock of T. brucei brucei. Three of the infected dogs were untreated controls, three were given diminazene aceturate (DA) at 7 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly (i/m), another three received pentamidine isethionate (PMI) at 4 mg/kg i/m on days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 post infection (PI) and the remaining three dogs were also given same dose of PMI on days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 PI. Both trypanocides effectively cleared the parasites from the blood of the infected treated dogs. However, the infection subsequently relapsed at day 42 PI in one of the dogs in the DA treated group which later died at day 70 PI. Relapse infection was not recorded with the PMI treated groups although two dogs died in the PMI treated group II (treatment at days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 PI) without showing relapsed parasitaemia. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, and haemoglobin (Hb) level which decreased significantly following infection, were reversed by the trypanocidal treatment. The reversal in the red cell values was faster in the PMI treated groups than in the DA treated group. The serum alkaline phosphate (SAP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels increased following infection and drug administration. The increase in the enzyme levels was greater in the DA treated groups than PMI treated groups. It was thus concluded that PMI given at 4 mg/kg i/m at days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 PI constituted a safe

  1. Repression of the Histidine Operon: Effect of the First Enzyme on the Kinetics of Repression

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, John S.; Berberich, M. A.; Venetianer, Pál; Goldberger, Robert F.

    1969-01-01

    Kinetic studies on repression of the enzymes for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium showed that, upon addition of histidine to a derepressed culture, the enzymes became repressed in a temporal sequence which corresponds with the positional sequence of the genes in the histidine operon. This serial pattern of repression occurred under conditions in which the feedback site of the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis is intact. When this site was rendered nonfunctional the pattern of repression was changed so that all of the enzymes became repressed concomitantly. These results suggest that the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis plays a hitherto unrecognized role in control of the histidine system. PMID:4887508

  2. Multiple Gene Repression in Cyanobacteria Using CRISPRi.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lun; Cengic, Ivana; Anfelt, Josefine; Hudson, Elton P

    2016-03-18

    We describe the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) for gene repression in the model cyanobacterium Synechcocystis sp. PCC 6803. The nuclease-deficient Cas9 from the type-II CRISPR/Cas of Streptrococcus pyogenes was used to repress green fluorescent protein (GFP) to negligible levels. CRISPRi was also used to repress formation of carbon storage compounds polyhydroxybutryate (PHB) and glycogen during nitrogen starvation. As an example of the potential of CRISPRi for basic and applied cyanobacteria research, we simultaneously knocked down 4 putative aldehyde reductases and dehydrogenases at 50-95% repression. This work also demonstrates that tightly repressed promoters allow for inducible and reversible CRISPRi in cyanobacteria.

  3. Hox genes control vertebrate body elongation by collinear Wnt repression.

    PubMed

    Denans, Nicolas; Iimura, Tadahiro; Pourquié, Olivier

    2015-02-26

    In vertebrates, the total number of vertebrae is precisely defined. Vertebrae derive from embryonic somites that are continuously produced posteriorly from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during body formation. We show that in the chicken embryo, activation of posterior Hox genes (paralogs 9-13) in the tail-bud correlates with the slowing down of axis elongation. Our data indicate that a subset of progressively more posterior Hox genes, which are collinearly activated in vertebral precursors, repress Wnt activity with increasing strength. This leads to a graded repression of the Brachyury/T transcription factor, reducing mesoderm ingression and slowing down the elongation process. Due to the continuation of somite formation, this mechanism leads to the progressive reduction of PSM size. This ultimately brings the retinoic acid (RA)-producing segmented region in close vicinity to the tail bud, potentially accounting for the termination of segmentation and axis elongation.

  4. A structure-function analysis of transcriptional repression mediated by the WT1, Wilms' tumor suppressor protein.

    PubMed

    Madden, S L; Cook, D M; Rauscher, F J

    1993-07-01

    The chromosome 11p13 Wilms' tumor locus (wt1) encodes a zinc finger-containing transcription factor (WT1). WT1 binds to the consensus sequence (5'-GCGGGGGCG-3') and represses transcription when bound to this site in vivo. The mechanism of repression is not yet defined. To investigate the mechanisms of transcriptional repression and map the domains of WT1 responsible, we constructed hybrid proteins between the yeast GAL4 1-147 DNA binding domain and WT1. Fusion of a 298 amino acid glutamine-proline-rich N-terminal segment of WT1 to the GAL4 DNA binding domain created a potent transcriptional repressor. The use of N- and C-terminal truncations of this segment demonstrated that as few as 96 amino acids were required for active repression by GAL4-WT1 hybrid proteins in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. However, the truncated GAL4-WT1 fusion proteins functioned poorly as repressors in embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells, suggesting cell type-specific requirements for transcriptional repression. Site-directed mutagenesis of the WT1 repression domain revealed that deletion of homopolymeric proline and glycine regions, as well as single amino acid changes, partially inactivated the repression function. Single repressor binding sites placed upstream of the transcription start site conferred WT1-mediated repression to a heterologous promoter, whereas multiple sites resulted in additive (non-synergistic) increases in transcriptional repression. Significant repression of transcription was observed when binding sites were placed 760 base pairs upstream or 1000 base pairs downstream relative to the site of transcription initiation. We conclude that the transcriptional repression function of WT1 is contained in the N-terminal, non-DNA binding domain of the protein and that repression can be functionally transferred to a heterologous DNA binding domain.

  5. Mitosis-associated repression in development

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. PMID:27401553

  6. The Diamidine Diminazene Aceturate Is a Substrate for the High-Affinity Pentamidine Transporter: Implications for the Development of High Resistance Levels in TrypanosomesS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Ibrahim A.; Kazibwe, Anne J. N.; El-Sabbagh, Nasser; Al-Salabi, Mohammed I.; Ward, Christopher P.; Eze, Anthonius A.; Munday, Jane C.; Mäser, Pascal; Matovu, Enock; Barrett, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a disease of humans and livestock in many areas south of the Sahara. Resistance to the few existing drugs is a major impediment to the control of these diseases, and we investigated how resistance to the main veterinary drug diminazene aceturate correlates with changes in drug transport in resistant strains. The strain tbat1(−/−), lacking the TbAT1/P2 aminopurine transporter implicated previously in diminazene transport, was adapted to higher levels of diminazene resistance. The resulting cell line was designated ABR and was highly cross-resistant to other diamidines and moderately resistant to cymelarsan. Procyclic trypanosomes were shown to be a convenient model to study diamidine uptake in Trypanosoma brucei brucei given the lack of TbAT1/P2 and a 10-fold higher activity of the high-affinity pentamidine transporter (HAPT1). Diminazene could be transported by HAPT1 in procyclic trypanosomes. This drug transport activity was lacking in the ABR line, as reported previously for the pentamidine-adapted line B48. The Km for diminazene transport in bloodstream tbat1(−/−) trypanosomes was consistent with uptake by HAPT1. Diminazene transport in ABR and B48 cells was reduced compared with tbat1(−/−), but their resistance phenotype was different: B48 displayed higher levels of resistance to pentamidine and the melaminophenyl arsenicals, whereas ABR displayed higher resistance to diminazene. These results establish a loss of HAPT1 function as a contributing factor to diminazene resistance but equally demonstrate for the first time that adaptations other than those determining the initial rates of drug uptake contribute to diamidine and arsenical resistance in African trypanosomes. PMID:21436312

  7. Use of Pentamidine As Secondary Prophylaxis to Prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Infected Patients, the First Twelve Months of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Diro, Ermias; Ritmeijer, Koert; Boelaert, Marleen; Alves, Fabiana; Mohammed, Rezika; Abongomera, Charles; Ravinetto, Raffaella; De Crop, Maaike; Fikre, Helina; Adera, Cherinet; Colebunders, Robert; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become an important opportunistic infection in persons with HIV-infection in VL-endemic areas. The co-infection leads to profound immunosuppression and high rate of annual VL recurrence. This study assessed the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of monthly pentamidine infusions to prevent recurrence of VL in HIV co-infected patients. Methods A single-arm, open-label trial was conducted at two leishmaniasis treatment centers in northwest Ethiopia. HIV-infected patients with a VL episode were included after parasitological cure. Monthly infusions of 4mg/kg pentamidine-isethionate diluted in normal-saline were started for 12months. All received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Time-to-relapse or death was the primary end point. Results Seventy-four patients were included. The probability of relapse-free survival at 6months and at 12 months was 79% and 71% respectively. Renal failure, a possible drug-related serious adverse event, occurred in two patients with severe pneumonia. Forty-one patients completed the regimen taking at least 11 of the 12 doses. Main reasons to discontinue were: 15 relapsed, five died and seven became lost to follow-up. More patients failed among those with a CD4+cell count ≤ 50cells/μl, 5/7 (71.4%) than those with counts above 200 cells/μl, 2/12 (16.7%), (p = 0.005). Conclusion Pentamidine secondary prophylaxis led to a 29% failure rate within one year, much lower than reported in historical controls (50%-100%). Patients with low CD4+cell counts are at increased risk of relapse despite effective initial VL treatment, ART and secondary prophylaxis. VL should be detected and treated early enough in patients with HIV infection before profound immune deficiency installs. PMID:26431253

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  9. CD4 T Cell-Derived IFN-γ Plays a Minimal Role in Control of Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Must Be Actively Repressed by PD-1 to Prevent Lethal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Shunsuke; Kauffman, Keith D.; Sallin, Michelle A.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Young, Howard A.; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Barber, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    IFN-γ–producing CD4 T cells are required for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, but the extent to which IFN-γ contributes to overall CD4 T cell-mediated protection remains unclear. Furthermore, it is not known if increasing IFN-γ production by CD4 T cells is desirable in Mtb infection. Here we show that IFN-γ accounts for only ~30% of CD4 T cell-dependent cumulative bacterial control in the lungs over the first six weeks of infection, but >80% of control in the spleen. Moreover, increasing the IFN-γ–producing capacity of CD4 T cells by ~2 fold exacerbates lung infection and leads to the early death of the host, despite enhancing control in the spleen. In addition, we show that the inhibitory receptor PD-1 facilitates host resistance to Mtb by preventing the detrimental over-production of IFN-γ by CD4 T cells. Specifically, PD-1 suppressed the parenchymal accumulation of and pathogenic IFN-γ production by the CXCR3+KLRG1-CX3CR1- subset of lung-homing CD4 T cells that otherwise mediates control of Mtb infection. Therefore, the primary role for T cell-derived IFN-γ in Mtb infection is at extra-pulmonary sites, and the host-protective subset of CD4 T cells requires negative regulation of IFN-γ production by PD-1 to prevent lethal immune-mediated pathology. PMID:27244558

  10. Leishmania panamensis: comparative inhibition of nuclear DNA topoisomerase II enzymes from promastigotes and human macrophages reveals anti-parasite selectivity of fluoroquinolones, flavonoids and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Cortázar, Tania M; Coombs, Graham H; Walker, John

    2007-08-01

    Certain model inhibitors exerted selective action against the catalytic activity of nuclear DNA topoisomerase II (TOPII) of Leishmania panamensis promastigotes. The second-generation fluoroquinolones enoxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited extraordinarily high anti-parasite selectivity displaying 582- and 40-fold greater potencies against L. panamensis TOPII as compared with the human macrophage enzyme. The flavonoids quercetin and ellagic acid showed inverse specificities, the former being 161-fold more potent against L. panamensis TOPII, and the latter 15.7-fold more active against macrophage TOPII. The protoberberine coralyne was a potent inhibitor of both Leishmania and macrophage TOPII. Bis-benzimidazoles and the diamidine diminazene aceturate exhibited uniformly high potencies against parasite and host TOPII, but a second diamidine pentamidine showed 17.6-fold greater specificity for Leishmania TOPII. The antimonial sodium stibogluconate was an ineffective inhibitor of parasite TOPII showing 4.3-fold greater potency against the macrophage enzyme. These findings suggest that the leishmanicidal activities of certain fluoroquinolones and pentamidine may be mediated partly through TOPII inhibition.

  11. Pentamidine analogs as inhibitors of [(3)H]MK-801 and [(3)H]ifenprodil binding to rat brain NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael L; Maciejewska, Dorota; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Żabiński, Jerzy; Kaźmierczak, Paweł; Rezler, Mateusz; Jarak, Ivana; Piantanida, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Mayence, Annie; Rebernik, Patrick; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed A; Boykin, David W; Huang, Tien L

    2015-08-01

    The anti-protozoal drug pentamidine is active against opportunistic Pneumocystis pneumonia, but in addition has several other biological targets, including the NMDA receptor (NR). Here we describe the inhibitory potencies of 76 pentamidine analogs at 2 binding sites of the NR, the channel binding site labeled with [(3)H]MK-801 and the [(3)H]ifenprodil binding site. Most analogs acted weaker at the ifenprodil than at the channel site. The spermine-sensitivity of NR inhibition by the majority of the compounds was reminiscent of other long-chain dicationic NR blockers. The potency of the parent compound as NR blocker was increased by modifying the heteroatoms in the bridge connecting the 2 benzamidine moieties and also by integrating the bridge into a seven-membered ring. Docking of the 45 most spermine-sensitive bisbenzamidines to a recently described acidic interface between the N-terminal domains of GluN1 and GluN2B mediating polyamine stimulation of the NR revealed the domain contributed by GluN1 as the most relevant target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pentamidine analogs as inhibitors of [3H]MK-801 and [3H]ifenprodil binding to rat brain NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael L.; Maciejewska, Dorota; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Żabiński, Jerzy; Kaźmierczak, Paweł; Rezler, Mateusz; Jarak, Ivana; Piantanida, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Mayence, Annie; Rebernik, Patrick; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Boykin, David W.; Huang, Tien L.

    2016-01-01

    The anti-protozoal drug pentamidine is active against opportunistic Pneumocystis pneumonia, but in addition has several other biological targets, including the NMDA receptor (NR). Here we describe the inhibitory potencies of 76 pentamidine analogs at 2 binding sites of the NR, the channel binding site labeled with [3H]MK-801 and the [3H]ifenprodil binding site. Most analogs acted weaker at the ifenprodil than at the channel site. The spermine-sensitivity of NR inhibition by the majority of the compounds was reminiscent of other long-chain dicationic NR blockers. The potency of the parent compound as NR blocker was increased by modifying the heteroatoms in the bridge connecting the 2 benzamidine moieties and also by integrating the bridge into a seven-membered ring. Docking of the 45 most spermine-sensitive bisbenzamidines to a recently described acidic interface between the N-terminal domains of GluN1 and GluN2B mediating polyamine stimulation of the NR revealed the domain contributed by GluN1 as the most relevant target. PMID:26117647

  13. Repression domains of class II ERF transcriptional repressors share an essential motif for active repression.

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Matsui, K; Hiratsu, K; Shinshi, H; Ohme-Takagi, M

    2001-08-01

    We reported previously that three ERF transcription factors, tobacco ERF3 (NtERF3) and Arabidopsis AtERF3 and AtERF4, which are categorized as class II ERFs, are active repressors of transcription. To clarify the roles of these repressors in transcriptional regulation in plants, we attempted to identify the functional domains of the ERF repressor that mediates the repression of transcription. Analysis of the results of a series of deletions revealed that the C-terminal 35 amino acids of NtERF3 are sufficient to confer the capacity for repression of transcription on a heterologous DNA binding domain. This repression domain suppressed the intermolecular activities of other transcriptional activators. In addition, fusion of this repression domain to the VP16 activation domain completely inhibited the transactivation function of VP16. Comparison of amino acid sequences of class II ERF repressors revealed the conservation of the sequence motif (L)/(F)DLN(L)/(F)(x)P. This motif was essential for repression because mutations within the motif eliminated the capacity for repression. We designated this motif the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, and we identified this motif in a number of zinc-finger proteins from wheat, Arabidopsis, and petunia plants. These zinc finger proteins functioned as repressors, and their repression domains were identified as regions that contained an EAR motif.

  14. Mitosis-associated repression in development.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. © 2016 Esposito et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Molecular architecture of polycomb repressive complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chittock, Emily C.; Latwiel, Sebastian; Miller, Thomas C.R.

    2017-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are a large and diverse family that epigenetically repress the transcription of key developmental genes. They form three broad groups of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) known as PRC1, PRC2 and Polycomb Repressive DeUBiquitinase, each of which modifies and/or remodels chromatin by distinct mechanisms that are tuned by having variable compositions of core and accessory subunits. Until recently, relatively little was known about how the various PcG proteins assemble to form the PRCs; however, studies by several groups have now allowed us to start piecing together the PcG puzzle. Here, we discuss some highlights of recent PcG structures and the insights they have given us into how these complexes regulate transcription through chromatin. PMID:28202673

  16. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Henrik; Schmidt, Anna Christine; Hildenbrand, Oliver; Scharf, Daniela; Kehyayan, Aram; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT)] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR)]. Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD), and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall. Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced. Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of repression, in line

  17. zif-1 translational repression defines a second, mutually exclusive OMA function in germline transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Robertson, Scott M; Nishi, Yuichi; Lin, Rueyling

    2010-10-01

    Specification of primordial germ cells requires global repression of transcription. In C. elegans, primordial germ cells are generated through four rounds of asymmetric divisions, starting from the zygote P0, each producing a transcriptionally repressed germline blastomere (P1-P4). Repression in P2-P4 requires PIE-1, which is provided maternally in oocytes and segregated to all germline blastomeres. We have shown previously that OMA-1 and OMA-2 repress global transcription in P0 and P1 by sequestering TAF-4, an essential component of TFIID. Soon after the first mitotic cycle, OMA proteins undergo developmentally regulated degradation. Here, we show that OMA proteins also repress transcription in P2-P4 indirectly, through a completely different mechanism that operates in oocytes. OMA proteins bind to both the 3' UTR of the zif-1 transcript and the eIF4E-binding protein, SPN-2, repressing translation of zif-1 mRNA in oocytes. zif-1 encodes the substrate-binding subunit of the E3 ligase for PIE-1 degradation. Inhibition of zif-1 translation in oocytes ensures high PIE-1 levels in oocytes and germline blastomeres. The two OMA protein functions are strictly regulated in both space and time by MBK-2, a kinase activated following fertilization. Phosphorylation by MBK-2 facilitates the binding of OMA proteins to TAF-4 and simultaneously inactivates their function in repressing zif-1 translation. Phosphorylation of OMA proteins displaces SPN-2 from the zif-1 3' UTR, releasing translational repression. We propose that MBK-2 phosphorylation serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA proteins from specific translational repressors in oocytes to global transcriptional repressors in embryos, together effectively repressing transcription in all germline blastomeres.

  18. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  19. The great repression: chromatin and cryptic transcription.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Bianca P; Fischer, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity.

  20. Repression of arterial genes in hemogenic endothelium is sufficient for haematopoietic fate acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Carlos O; Hawkins, John S; Schmitt, Christopher E; Bos, Frank L; Zape, Joan P; Cautivo, Kelly M; Borges Pinto, Hugo; Rhyner, Alexander M; Yu, Hui; Donohoe, Mary E; Wythe, Joshua D; Zovein, Ann C

    2015-07-23

    Changes in cell fate and identity are essential for endothelial-to-haematopoietic transition (EHT), an embryonic process that generates the first adult populations of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hemogenic endothelial cells. Dissecting EHT regulation is a critical step towards the production of in vitro derived HSCs. Yet, we do not know how distinct endothelial and haematopoietic fates are parsed during the transition. Here we show that genes required for arterial identity function later to repress haematopoietic fate. Tissue-specific, temporally controlled, genetic loss of arterial genes (Sox17 and Notch1) during EHT results in increased production of haematopoietic cells due to loss of Sox17-mediated repression of haematopoietic transcription factors (Runx1 and Gata2). However, the increase in EHT can be abrogated by increased Notch signalling. These findings demonstrate that the endothelial haematopoietic fate switch is actively repressed in a population of endothelial cells, and that derepression of these programs augments haematopoietic output.

  1. Repression of arterial genes in hemogenic endothelium is sufficient for haematopoietic fate acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lizama, Carlos O.; Hawkins, John S.; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Bos, Frank L.; Zape, Joan P.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Borges Pinto, Hugo; Rhyner, Alexander M.; Yu, Hui; Donohoe, Mary E.; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zovein, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cell fate and identity are essential for endothelial-to-haematopoietic transition (EHT), an embryonic process that generates the first adult populations of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hemogenic endothelial cells. Dissecting EHT regulation is a critical step towards the production of in vitro derived HSCs. Yet, we do not know how distinct endothelial and haematopoietic fates are parsed during the transition. Here we show that genes required for arterial identity function later to repress haematopoietic fate. Tissue-specific, temporally controlled, genetic loss of arterial genes (Sox17 and Notch1) during EHT results in increased production of haematopoietic cells due to loss of Sox17-mediated repression of haematopoietic transcription factors (Runx1 and Gata2). However, the increase in EHT can be abrogated by increased Notch signalling. These findings demonstrate that the endothelial haematopoietic fate switch is actively repressed in a population of endothelial cells, and that derepression of these programs augments haematopoietic output. PMID:26204127

  2. JAZ8 lacks a canonical degron and has an EAR motif that mediates transcriptional repression of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Christine; Figueroa, Pablo; Depew, Cody L; Cooke, Thomas F; Sheard, Laura B; Moreno, Javier E; Katsir, Leron; Zheng, Ning; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2012-02-01

    The lipid-derived hormone jasmonoyl-L-Ile (JA-Ile) initiates large-scale changes in gene expression by stabilizing the interaction of JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) repressors with the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), which results in JAZ degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recent structural studies show that the JAZ1 degradation signal (degron) includes a short conserved LPIAR motif that seals JA-Ile in its binding pocket at the COI1-JAZ interface. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana JAZ8 lacks this motif and thus is unable to associate strongly with COI1 in the presence of JA-Ile. As a consequence, JAZ8 is stabilized against jasmonate (JA)-mediated degradation and, when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, represses JA-regulated growth and defense responses. These findings indicate that sequence variation in a hypervariable region of the degron affects JAZ stability and JA-regulated physiological responses. We also show that JAZ8-mediated repression depends on an LxLxL-type EAR (for ERF-associated amphiphilic repression) motif at the JAZ8 N terminus that binds the corepressor TOPLESS and represses transcriptional activation. JAZ8-mediated repression does not require the ZIM domain, which, in other JAZ proteins, recruits TOPLESS through the EAR motif-containing adaptor protein NINJA. These findings show that EAR repression domains in a subgroup of JAZ proteins repress gene expression through direct recruitment of corepressors to cognate transcription factors.

  3. Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2004-06-01

    The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere.

  4. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  5. In vitro antileishmanial activity of three saponins isolated from ivy, alpha-hederin, beta-hederin and hederacolchiside A(1), in association with pentamidine and amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Ridoux, O; Di Giorgio, C; Delmas, F; Elias, R; Mshvildadze, V; Dekanosidze, G; Kemertelidze, E; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P

    2001-06-01

    The in vitro antileishmanial activity of three saponins isolated from ivy, alpha-hederin, beta-hederin and hederacolchiside A(1), was investigated on parasites of the species Leishmania mexicana, in their promastigote and amastigote forms compared with their toxicity versus human monocytes. The results showed that saponins exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity on all stages of development of the parasite but demonstrated a strong toxicity versus human cells. Association of subtoxic concentrations of saponins with antileishmanial drugs such as pentamidine and amphotericin B demonstrated that saponins could enhance the efficiency of conventional drugs on both the promastigote and the amastigote stages of development of the parasite. The results demonstrated moreover that the action of saponins on promastigote membrane was cumulative with those of amphotericin B.

  6. Repression: finding our way in the maze of concepts.

    PubMed

    Garssen, Bert

    2007-12-01

    Repression is associated in the literature with terms such as non-expression, emotional control, rationality, anti-emotionality, defensiveness and restraint. Whether these terms are synonymous with repression, indicate a variation, or are essentially different from repression is uncertain. To clarify this obscured view on repression, this paper indicates the similarities and differences between these concepts. Repression is the general term that is used to describe the tendency to inhibit the experience and the expression of negative feelings or unpleasant cognitions in order to prevent one's positive self-image from being threatened ('repressive coping style'). The terms self-deception versus other-deception, and socially related versus personally related repression refer to what is considered to be different aspects of repression. Defensiveness is a broader concept that includes both anxious defensiveness and repression; the essential difference is whether negative emotions are reported or not. Concepts that are sometimes associated with repression, but which are conceptually different, are also discussed in this paper: The act of suppression, 'repressed memories,' habitual suppression, concealment, type C coping pattern, type D personality, denial, alexithymia and blunting. Consequences for research: (1) When summarizing findings reported in the literature, it is essential to determine which concepts the findings represent. This is rarely made explicit, and failure to do so may lead to drawing the wrong conclusions (2) It is advisable to use scales based on different aspects of repression (3) Whether empirical findings substantiate the similarities and differences between concepts described in this paper will need to be shown.

  7. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  8. Repression and substitutive formation: the relationship between Freud's concepts reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines Freud's concept of repression and the relationship between repression and substitutive formation as it presents itself in Freud's writings. The author shows that Freud gives at least four different meanings to the term "repression": Freud uses it interchangeably with defense, as a consciously intended forgetting, as a specific unconscious mechanism of defense, and to describe the consequence of defense mechanisms leading to substitutive formations. The inconsistencies in this relationship are discussed and clarified, and Freud's economic and linguistic attempts at founding repression are subjected to critique; the need of a primal repression as a necessary condition for repression proper is pointed out. In developing Freud's linguistic foundation of repression further, the author presents defense as a semantic displacement. Ideas are excluded from the realm of the concepts that belong to them historically. These presentations become unconscious, that is, repressed, in that they can no longer be identified as "cases" of these conceptual internal contents. At the same time they are displaced into the extensions of concepts whose internal contents do not belong to them originally. It is by virtue of the internal contents of these concepts that the displaced elements as substitutive formations once again attain consciousness, albeit a false one. The author suggests dismissing repression as a specific defense mechanism of its own; to reversing Freud's thesis that repression, as a rule, creates a substitutive formation into its opposite; and recognizing that the mechanisms used to build substitutes, as a rule, create repression.

  9. Zeste maintains repression of Ubx transgenes: Support for a new model of polycomb repression

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Man-Wook; Laney, Jeffrey D.; Jeon, Sang-Hack; Ali, Janann; Biggin, Mark D.

    2001-09-01

    During late embryogenesis, the expression domains of homeotic genes are maintained by two groups of ubiquitously expressed regulators: the Polycomb repressors and the Trithorax activators. It is not known how the activities of the two maintenance systems are initially targeted to the correct genes. Zeste and GAGA are sequence specific DNA binding proteins previously shown to be Trithorax group activators of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we demonstrate that Zeste and GAGA DNA binding sites at the proximal promoter are also required to maintain, but not to initiate, repression of Ubx. Further, the repression mediated by Zeste DNA binding site is abolished in zeste null embryos. These data imply that Zeste and probably GAGA mediate Polycomb repression. We present a model in which the dual transcriptional activities of Zeste and GAGA are an essential component of the mechanism that chooses which maintenance system is to be targeted to a given promoter.

  10. Bending the rules of transcriptional repression: tightly looped DNA directly represses T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lionberger, Troy A; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2010-08-09

    From supercoiled DNA to the tight loops of DNA formed by some gene repressors, DNA in cells is often highly bent. Despite evidence that transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is affected in systems where DNA is deformed significantly, the mechanistic details underlying the relationship between polymerase function and mechanically stressed DNA remain unclear. Seeking to gain additional insight into the regulatory consequences of highly bent DNA, we hypothesize that tightly looping DNA is alone sufficient to repress transcription. To test this hypothesis, we have developed an assay to quantify transcription elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNAP on small, circular DNA templates approximately 100 bp in size. From these highly bent transcription templates, we observe that the elongation velocity and processivity can be repressed by at least two orders of magnitude. Further, we show that minicircle templates sustaining variable levels of twist yield only moderate differences in repression efficiency. We therefore conclude that the bending mechanics within the minicircle templates dominate the observed repression. Our results support a model in which RNAP function is highly dependent on the bending mechanics of DNA and are suggestive of a direct, regulatory role played by the template itself in regulatory systems where DNA is known to be highly bent. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bending the Rules of Transcriptional Repression: Tightly Looped DNA Directly Represses T7 RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, Troy A.; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    From supercoiled DNA to the tight loops of DNA formed by some gene repressors, DNA in cells is often highly bent. Despite evidence that transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is affected in systems where DNA is deformed significantly, the mechanistic details underlying the relationship between polymerase function and mechanically stressed DNA remain unclear. Seeking to gain additional insight into the regulatory consequences of highly bent DNA, we hypothesize that tightly looping DNA is alone sufficient to repress transcription. To test this hypothesis, we have developed an assay to quantify transcription elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNAP on small, circular DNA templates ∼100 bp in size. From these highly bent transcription templates, we observe that the elongation velocity and processivity can be repressed by at least two orders of magnitude. Further, we show that minicircle templates sustaining variable levels of twist yield only moderate differences in repression efficiency. We therefore conclude that the bending mechanics within the minicircle templates dominate the observed repression. Our results support a model in which RNAP function is highly dependent on the bending mechanics of DNA and are suggestive of a direct, regulatory role played by the template itself in regulatory systems where DNA is known to be highly bent. PMID:20712997

  12. MeCP2 Repression of G9a in Regulation of Pain and Morphine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi; Tao, Wenjuan; Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Wei; Kenny, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are commonly used for pain relief, but their strong rewarding effects drive opioid misuse and abuse. How pain affects the liability of opioid abuse is unknown at present. In this study, we identified an epigenetic regulating cascade activated by both pain and the opioid morphine. Both persistent pain and repeated morphine upregulated the transcriptional regulator MeCP2 in mouse central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MeCP2 bound to and repressed the transcriptional repressor histone dimethyltransferase G9a, reducing G9a-catalyzed repressive mark H3K9me2 in CeA. Repression of G9a activity increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Behaviorally, persistent inflammatory pain increased the sensitivity to acquiring morphine-induced, reward-related behavior of conditioned place preference in mice. Local viral vector-mediated MeCP2 overexpression, Cre-induced G9a knockdown, and CeA application of BDNF mimicked, whereas MeCP2 knockdown inhibited, the pain effect. These results suggest that MeCP2 directly represses G9a as a shared mechanism in central amygdala for regulation of emotional responses to pain and opioid reward, and for their behavioral interaction. PMID:24990928

  13. MeCP2 repression of G9a in regulation of pain and morphine reward.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Tao, Wenjuan; Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Wei; Kenny, Paul J; Pan, Zhizhong Z

    2014-07-02

    Opioids are commonly used for pain relief, but their strong rewarding effects drive opioid misuse and abuse. How pain affects the liability of opioid abuse is unknown at present. In this study, we identified an epigenetic regulating cascade activated by both pain and the opioid morphine. Both persistent pain and repeated morphine upregulated the transcriptional regulator MeCP2 in mouse central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MeCP2 bound to and repressed the transcriptional repressor histone dimethyltransferase G9a, reducing G9a-catalyzed repressive mark H3K9me2 in CeA. Repression of G9a activity increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Behaviorally, persistent inflammatory pain increased the sensitivity to acquiring morphine-induced, reward-related behavior of conditioned place preference in mice. Local viral vector-mediated MeCP2 overexpression, Cre-induced G9a knockdown, and CeA application of BDNF mimicked, whereas MeCP2 knockdown inhibited, the pain effect. These results suggest that MeCP2 directly represses G9a as a shared mechanism in central amygdala for regulation of emotional responses to pain and opioid reward, and for their behavioral interaction.

  14. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  15. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  16. Repression: Finding Our Way in the Maze of Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Repression is associated in the literature with terms such as non-expression, emotional control, rationality, anti-emotionality, defensiveness and restraint. Whether these terms are synonymous with repression, indicate a variation, or are essentially different from repression is uncertain. To clarify this obscured view on repression, this paper indicates the similarities and differences between these concepts. Repression is the general term that is used to describe the tendency to inhibit the experience and the expression of negative feelings or unpleasant cognitions in order to prevent one’s positive self-image from being threatened (‘repressive coping style’). The terms self-deception versus other-deception, and socially related versus personally related repression refer to what is considered to be different aspects of repression. Defensiveness is a broader concept that includes both anxious defensiveness and repression; the essential difference is whether negative emotions are reported or not. Concepts that are sometimes associated with repression, but which are conceptually different, are also discussed in this paper: The act of suppression, ‘repressed memories,’ habitual suppression, concealment, type C coping pattern, type D personality, denial, alexithymia and blunting. Consequences for research: (1) When summarizing findings reported in the literature, it is essential to determine which concepts the findings represent. This is rarely made explicit, and failure to do so may lead to drawing the wrong conclusions (2) It is advisable to use scales based on different aspects of repression (3) Whether empirical findings substantiate the similarities and differences between concepts described in this paper will need to be shown. PMID:17653842

  17. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  18. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Christine E.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2015-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT. PMID:26001292

  19. Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Y; Barouki, R

    1999-01-01

    Gene expression is modulated by both physiological signals (hormones, cytokines, etc.) and environmental stimuli (physical parameters, xenobiotics, etc.). Oxidative stress appears to be a key pleiotropic modulator which may be involved in either pathway. Indeed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been described as second messengers for several growth factors and cytokines, but have also been shown to rise following cellular insults such as xenobiotic metabolism or enzymic deficiency. Extensive studies on the induction of stress-response genes by oxidative stress have been reported. In contrast, owing to the historical focus on gene induction, less attention has been paid to gene repression by ROS. However, a growing number of studies have shown that moderate (i.e. non-cytotoxic) oxidative stress specifically down-regulates the expression of various genes. In this review, we describe the alteration of several physiological functions resulting from oxidative-stress-mediated inhibition of gene transcription. We will then focus on the repressive oxidative modulation of various transcription factors elicited by ROS. PMID:10477257

  20. Repression of Staphylococcus aureus by Food Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Troller, John A.; Frazier, W. C.

    1963-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the inhibition of an enterotoxin-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus by food bacteria were investigated. Type of medium and temperature of incubation were important factors in determining the amount of inhibition. The pH range of maximal inhibition was found to be 7.4 to 6.2. Availability of oxygen was not a factor. As the ratios of inhibitor to staphylococcus were increased from 1:1 to 10:1 and 100:1, the amount of inhibition was markedly increased. Inhibition occurred in custard, where it increased with increasing ratios of effector to staphylococcus. The repression of the staphylococcus in all media usually was sufficient to be of practical significance. PMID:13994250

  1. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  2. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  3. Glucose repression may involve processes with different sugar kinase requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, P; Nieto, A; Prieto, J A

    1996-01-01

    Adding glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing among nonfermentable carbon sources leads to glucose repression. This process may be resolved into several steps. An early repression response requires any one of the three glucose kinases present in S. cerevisiae (HXK1, HXK2, or GLK1). A late response is only achieved when Hxk2p is present. PMID:8755906

  4. Dream Recall And Repression: Evidence For An Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.; Wolfe, Gary

    1973-01-01

    An "Inner-rejectant" life style committed to repressing dreams has been described in terms of external locus of control, field dependence, and "poor inner life." However, in empirical studies reported here, results do not provide strong support for the (repression) formulation. The results suggest a distinction between life-style variables related…

  5. Dream Recall And Repression: Evidence For An Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.; Wolfe, Gary

    1973-01-01

    An "Inner-rejectant" life style committed to repressing dreams has been described in terms of external locus of control, field dependence, and "poor inner life." However, in empirical studies reported here, results do not provide strong support for the (repression) formulation. The results suggest a distinction between life-style variables related…

  6. SMRT isoforms mediate repression and anti-repression of nuclear receptor heterodimers.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J D; Umesono, K; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional repression represents an important component in the regulation of cell differentiation and oncogenesis mediated by nuclear hormone receptors. Hormones act to relieve repression, thus allowing receptors to function as transcriptional activators. The transcriptional corepressor SMRT was identified as a silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors. SMRT is highly related to another corepressor, N-CoR, suggesting the existence of a new family of receptor-interacting proteins. We demonstrate that SMRT is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that interacts with unliganded receptor heterodimers in mammalian cells. Furthermore, expression of the receptor-interacting domain of SMRT acts as an antirepressor, suggesting the potential importance of splicing variants as modulators of thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8755515

  7. Promiscuous RNA binding by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Davidovich, Chen; Zheng, Leon; Goodrich, Karen J.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase required for epigenetic silencing during development and cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) recruit PRC2 to chromatin, but the general role of RNA in maintaining repressed chromatin is unknown. Here we measure the binding constant of human PRC2 to various RNAs and find comparable affinity for human lncRNAs targeted by PRC2 and irrelevant transcripts from ciliates and bacteria. PRC2 binding is size-dependent, with lower affinity for shorter RNAs. In vivo, PRC2 predominantly occupies repressed genes; PRC2 is also associated with active genes, but most of these are not regulated by PRC2. These findings support a model in which promiscuous binding of PRC2 to RNA transcripts allows it to scan for target genes that have escaped repression, leading to maintenance of the repressed state. Such RNAs may also provide a decoy for PRC2. PMID:24077223

  8. Regulation of Peripheral Nerve Myelin Maintenance by Gene Repression through Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ki H.; Hung, Holly A.; Srinivasan, Rajini; Xie, Huafeng; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2015-01-01

    Myelination of peripheral nerves by Schwann cells requires coordinate regulation of gene repression as well as gene activation. Several chromatin remodeling pathways critical for peripheral nerve myelination have been identified, but the functions of histone methylation in the peripheral nerve have not been elucidated. To determine the role of histone H3 Lys27 methylation, we have generated mice with a Schwann cell-specific knock-out of Eed, which is an essential subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that catalyzes methylation of histone H3 Lys27. Analysis of this mutant revealed no significant effects on early postnatal development of myelin. However, its loss eventually causes progressive hypermyelination of small-diameter axons and apparent fragmentation of Remak bundles. These data identify the PRC2 complex as an epigenomic modulator of mature myelin thickness, which is associated with changes in Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, we found that Eed inactivation causes derepression of several genes, e.g., Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (Igfbp2), that become activated after nerve injury, but without activation of a primary regulator of the injury program, c-Jun. Analysis of the activated genes in cultured Schwann cells showed that Igfbp2 regulates Akt activation. Our results identify an epigenomic pathway required for establishing thickness of mature myelin and repressing genes that respond to nerve injury. PMID:26041929

  9. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    PubMed

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The New State of the Art: Cas9 for Gene Activation and Repression

    PubMed Central

    La Russa, Marie F.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 technology has rapidly changed the landscape for how biologists and bioengineers study and manipulate the genome. Derived from the bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR-Cas9 has been coopted and repurposed for a variety of new functions, including the activation or repression of gene expression (termed CRISPRa or CRISPRi, respectively). This represents an exciting alternative to previously used repression or activation technologies such as RNA interference (RNAi) or the use of gene overexpression vectors. We have only just begun exploring the possibilities that CRISPR technology offers for gene regulation and the control of cell identity and behavior. In this review, we describe the recent advances of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for gene regulation and outline advantages and disadvantages of CRISPRa and CRISPRi (CRISPRa/i) relative to alternative technologies. PMID:26370509

  11. JAZ8 Lacks a Canonical Degron and Has an EAR Motif That Mediates Transcriptional Repression of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Christine; Figueroa, Pablo; DePew, Cody L.; Cooke, Thomas F.; Sheard, Laura B.; Moreno, Javier E.; Katsir, Leron; Zheng, Ning; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-derived hormone jasmonoyl-l-Ile (JA-Ile) initiates large-scale changes in gene expression by stabilizing the interaction of JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) repressors with the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), which results in JAZ degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recent structural studies show that the JAZ1 degradation signal (degron) includes a short conserved LPIAR motif that seals JA-Ile in its binding pocket at the COI1-JAZ interface. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana JAZ8 lacks this motif and thus is unable to associate strongly with COI1 in the presence of JA-Ile. As a consequence, JAZ8 is stabilized against jasmonate (JA)-mediated degradation and, when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, represses JA-regulated growth and defense responses. These findings indicate that sequence variation in a hypervariable region of the degron affects JAZ stability and JA-regulated physiological responses. We also show that JAZ8-mediated repression depends on an LxLxL-type EAR (for ERF-associated amphiphilic repression) motif at the JAZ8 N terminus that binds the corepressor TOPLESS and represses transcriptional activation. JAZ8-mediated repression does not require the ZIM domain, which, in other JAZ proteins, recruits TOPLESS through the EAR motif–containing adaptor protein NINJA. These findings show that EAR repression domains in a subgroup of JAZ proteins repress gene expression through direct recruitment of corepressors to cognate transcription factors. PMID:22327740

  12. Osterix represses adipogenesis by negatively regulating PPARγ transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Younho; Kim, Chae Yul; Cheong, Heesun; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2016-10-18

    Osterix is a novel bone-related transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, and bone maturation. Because a reciprocal relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, we hypothesized that Osterix might have a role in adipogenesis. Ablation of Osterix enhanced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, whereas overexpression suppressed this process and inhibited the expression of adipogenic markers including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Further studies indicated that Osterix significantly decreased PPARγ-induced transcriptional activity. Using co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pull down analysis, we found that Osterix directly interacts with PPARγ. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPARγ was responsible for this interaction, which was followed by repression of PPARγ-induced transcriptional activity, even in the presence of rosiglitazone. Taken together, we identified the Osterix has an important regulatory role on PPARγ activity, which contributed to the mechanism of adipogenesis.

  13. Perspective: repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2003-04-01

    Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance of transmission via gametes. Randomized success means that each part of the genome can increase its own success only by enhancing the total number of progeny and thus increasing the success of the group. Alexander used this insight about repression of competition in fair meiosis to develop his theories for the evolution of human sociality. Alexander argued that human social structures spread when they repress competition within groups and promote successful group-against-group competition. Buss introduced a new example with his suggestion that metazoan success depended on repression of competition between cellular lineages. Maynard Smith synthesized different lines of thought on repression of competition. In this paper, I develop simple mathematical models to illustrate the main processes by which repression of competition evolves. With the concepts made clear, I then explain the history of the idea. I finish by summarizing many new developments in this subject and the most promising lines for future study.

  14. Reciprocal repression between P53 and TCTP.

    PubMed

    Amson, Robert; Pece, Salvatore; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Vyas, Rajesh; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Tosoni, Daniela; Colaluca, Ivan; Viale, Giuseppe; Rodrigues-Ferreira, Sylvie; Wynendaele, Jessika; Chaloin, Olivier; Hoebeke, Johan; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Telerman, Adam

    2011-12-11

    Screening for genes that reprogram cancer cells for the tumor reversion switch identified TCTP (encoding translationally controlled tumor protein) as a crucial regulator of apoptosis. Here we report a negative feedback loop between P53 and TCTP. TCTP promotes P53 degradation by competing with NUMB for binding to P53-MDM2-containing complexes. TCTP inhibits MDM2 auto-ubiquitination and promotes MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of P53. Notably, Tctp haploinsufficient mice are sensitized to P53-dependent apoptosis. In addition, P53 directly represses TCTP transcription. In 508 breast cancers, high-TCTP status associates with poorly differentiated, aggressive G3-grade tumors, predicting poor prognosis (P < 0.0005). Tctp knockdown in primary mammary tumor cells from ErbB2 transgenic mice results in increased P53 expression and a decreased number of stem-like cancer cells. The pharmacological compounds sertraline and thioridazine increase the amount of P53 by neutralizing TCTP's action on the MDM2-P53 axis. This study links TCTP and P53 in a previously unidentified regulatory circuitry that may underlie the relevance of TCTP in cancer.

  15. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Mauricio H.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  16. YB-1 regulates tiRNA-induced Stress Granule formation but not translational repression

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Achorn, Chris; Kedersha, Nancy L.; Anderson, Paul J.; Ivanov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced angiogenin (ANG)-mediated tRNA cleavage promotes a cascade of cellular events that starts with production of tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs) and culminates with enhanced cell survival. This stress response program relies on a subset tiRNAs that inhibit translation initiation and induce the assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes with cytoprotective and pro-survival properties. SG-promoting tiRNAs bear oligoguanine motifs at their 5′-ends, assemble G-quadruplex-like structures and interact with the translational silencer YB-1. We used CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic manipulations and biochemical approaches to examine the role of YB-1 in tiRNA-mediated translational repression and SG assembly. We found that YB-1 directly binds to tiRNAs via its cold shock domain. This interaction is required for packaging of tiRNA-repressed mRNAs into SGs but is dispensable for tiRNA-mediated translational repression. Our studies reveal the functional role of YB-1 in the ANG-mediated stress response program. PMID:27174937

  17. Evidence for maternally transmitted small interfering RNA in the repression of transposition in Drosophila virilis

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila is a syndrome of gonadal atrophy, sterility, and male recombination, and it occurs in the progeny of crosses between males that harbor certain transposable elements (TEs) and females that lack them. Known examples of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster result from mobilization of individual families of TEs, such as the P element, the I element, or hobo. An example of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis is unique in that multiple, unrelated families of TEs become mobilized, but a TE designated Penelope appears to play a major role. In all known examples of hybrid dysgenesis, the paternal germ line transmits the TEs in an active state, whereas the female germ line maintains repression of the TEs. The mechanism of maternal maintenance of repression is not known. Recent evidence suggests that the molecular machinery of RNA interference may function as an important host defense against TEs. This protection is mediated by the action of endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) composed of dsRNA molecules of 21-25 nt that can target complementary transcripts for destruction. In this paper, we demonstrate that endogenous siRNA derived from the Penelope element is maternally loaded in embryos through the female germ line in D. virilis. We also present evidence that the maternal inheritance of these endogenous siRNAs may contribute to maternal repression of Penelope. PMID:16247000

  18. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  19. A link between c-Myc-mediated transcriptional repression and neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L A; Dolde, C; Barrett, J; Wu, C S; Dang, C V

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the transcription factor c-Myc contributes to oncogenesis by altering the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, but its precise function in neoplasia remains ambiguous. The ability of c-Myc to bind the sequence CAC(G/A)TG and transactivate appears to be linked to its transforming activity; however, c-Myc also represses transcription in vitro through a pyrimidine-rich cis element termed the initiator (Inr). In transfection experiments using the adenoviral major late (adML) promoter, which contains two Myc binding sites and an Inr, we determined that c-Myc represses transcription through the initiator in vivo. This activity requires the dimerization domain and amino acids 106 to 143, which are located within the transactivation domain and are necessary for neoplastic transformation. We studied a lymphoma-derived c-Myc substitution mutation at 115-Phe, which is within the region required for transcriptional suppression, and found the mutant more effective than wild-type c-Myc in transforming rodent fibroblasts and in suppressing the adML promoter. Our studies of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function c-Myc mutations suggest a link between c-Myc-mediated neoplastic transformation and transcriptional repression through the Inr. PMID:8601634

  20. A link between c-Myc-mediated transcriptional repression and neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, L A; Dolde, C; Barrett, J; Wu, C S; Dang, C V

    1996-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that the transcription factor c-Myc contributes to oncogenesis by altering the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, but its precise function in neoplasia remains ambiguous. The ability of c-Myc to bind the sequence CAC(G/A)TG and transactivate appears to be linked to its transforming activity; however, c-Myc also represses transcription in vitro through a pyrimidine-rich cis element termed the initiator (Inr). In transfection experiments using the adenoviral major late (adML) promoter, which contains two Myc binding sites and an Inr, we determined that c-Myc represses transcription through the initiator in vivo. This activity requires the dimerization domain and amino acids 106 to 143, which are located within the transactivation domain and are necessary for neoplastic transformation. We studied a lymphoma-derived c-Myc substitution mutation at 115-Phe, which is within the region required for transcriptional suppression, and found the mutant more effective than wild-type c-Myc in transforming rodent fibroblasts and in suppressing the adML promoter. Our studies of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function c-Myc mutations suggest a link between c-Myc-mediated neoplastic transformation and transcriptional repression through the Inr.

  1. IKK-2 inhibitor TPCA-1 represses nasal epithelial inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sachse, F; Becker, K; Basel, T J; Weiss, D; Rudack, C

    2011-06-01

    Nasal polyposis (NP) is considered a subgroup within chronic rhinosinusitis. NP can be further subdivided into aspirin sensitive- and aspirin tolerant types (ASNP/ ATNP). Although the true etiology of NP has not been identified so far, it is agreed that NP represents an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa. Alterations of cellular kinase activities including that of IKK-2 might play a role in this inflammatory process. Paraffin sections of ASNP, ATNP and controls were immunostained with Phospho-IkB-α antibody that detects the direct IKK-2 product (IkB-α. Intensity of epithelial staining was analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. In cultured nasal polyp epithelial cells (NPECs) epithelial derived cytokines IL-8 and GRO α were induced by TNF-α or Staphylococcal supernatants and subsequently repressed by IKK-2 inhibitor TPCA-1. Significant Phospho-IkB-α staining was observed in the nasal epithelium of ASNP compared to ATNP and controls suggesting strong IKK-2 activation in patients with ASNP in vivo. In vitro, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and GRO-α in NPECs were significantly repressed by TPCA-1. IKK-2 activity is increased in the subgroup of ASNP. IL-8 and GRO-α responses were repressed by IKK-2 inhibitor TPCA-1 in vitro. IKK-2 inhibitors might represent a potential target for anti-inflammatory intervention in ASNP.

  2. Targeted Transcriptional Repression in Bacteria Using CRISPR Interference (CRISPRi).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, John S; Wong, Spencer; Peters, Jason M; Almeida, Ricardo; Qi, Lei S

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference (CRISPRi) is a powerful technology for sequence-specifically repressing gene expression in bacterial cells. CRISPRi requires only a single protein and a custom-designed guide RNA for specific gene targeting. In Escherichia coli, CRISPRi repression efficiency is high (~300-fold), and there are no observable off-target effects. The method can be scaled up as a general strategy for the repression of many genes simultaneously using multiple designed guide RNAs. Here we provide a protocol for efficient guide RNA design, cloning, and assay of the CRISPRi system in E. coli. In principle, this protocol can be used to construct CRISPRi systems for gene repression in other species of bacteria.

  3. Multiple repressive mechanisms in the hippocampus during memory formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun; Yu, Nam-Kyung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Sim, Su-Eon; Kang, SukJae Joshua; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Ji-il; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, V Narry; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-10-02

    Memory stabilization after learning requires translational and transcriptional regulations in the brain, yet the temporal molecular changes that occur after learning have not been explored at the genomic scale. We used ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing to quantify the translational status and transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus after contextual fear conditioning. We revealed three types of repressive regulations: translational suppression of ribosomal protein-coding genes in the hippocampus, learning-induced early translational repression of specific genes, and late persistent suppression of a subset of genes via inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1/ERα) signaling. In behavioral analyses, overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the newly identified genes undergoing rapid translational repression, or activating ESR1 in the hippocampus impaired memory formation. Collectively, this study unveils the yet-unappreciated importance of gene repression mechanisms for memory formation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Relationship Between Repressions Sensitization and a Measure of Self Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; Warehime, Robert G.

    1971-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that a rather strong inverse relationship exists between repression-sensitization and Personality Orientation Inventory scale scores. The evidence suggests that repressors may be better adjusted than sensitizers. (Author)

  5. Human protein tau represses DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xing Sheng; Qu, M H; Liu, Ying; He, Rong Qiao

    2005-11-30

    Here, in the experiments of both PCR and real-time PCR, a repression of DNA amplification was observed in the presence of protein tau. Furthermore, a strong repression appeared when an in vitro DNA replication assay was performed at the physiological temperature (37 degrees C). The incorporation of dNTP was markedly decreased to approximately 12% of control by the presence of tau23 and to approximately 15% by tau40. In the competitive experiments, the PCR product could be restored when the competitor DNA was added, indicating that the association of tau with the template gave rise to the repression. However, tau did not repress the yield of RNA in transcription, suggesting that tau was replaced or ejected from the template by the elongating T7 RNA polymerase.

  6. Rhizobium japonicum mutants that are hypersensitive to repression of H2 uptake by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Maier, R J; Merberg, D M

    1982-04-01

    The synthesis of an H2 oxidation system in free-living Rhizobium japonicum wild-type strain SR is repressed by oxygen. Maximal H2 uptake rates were obtained in strain SR after derepression in 11 microM or less dissolved oxygen. Oxygen levels above 45 microM completely repressed H2 uptake in strain SR. Five R. japonicum mutant strains that are hypersensitive to repression or H2 oxidation by oxygen were derived from strain SR. The mutants were obtained by screening H2 uptake-negative mutants that retained the ability to oxidize H2 as bacteroids from soybean nodules. As bacteroids, the five mutant strains were capable of H2 oxidation rates comparable to that of the wild type. The mutants did not take up H2 when derepressed in 22 microM dissolved oxygen, whereas strain SR had substantial activity at this oxygen concentration. The O2 repression of H2 uptake in both the wild-type and two mutant strains, SR174 and SR200, was rapid and was similar to the effect of inhibiting synthesis of H2 uptake system components with rifampin. None of the mutant strains was able to oxidize H2 when the artificial electron acceptors methylene blue or phenazine methosulfate were provided. The mutant strains were not sensitive to killing by oxygen, they took up O2 at rates similar to strain SR, and they did not produce an H2 uptake system that was oxygen labile. Cyclic AMP levels were comparable in strain SR and the five mutant strains after subjection of the cultures to the derepression conditions.

  7. Rhizobium japonicum mutants that are hypersensitive to repression of H2 uptake by oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R J; Merberg, D M

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of an H2 oxidation system in free-living Rhizobium japonicum wild-type strain SR is repressed by oxygen. Maximal H2 uptake rates were obtained in strain SR after derepression in 11 microM or less dissolved oxygen. Oxygen levels above 45 microM completely repressed H2 uptake in strain SR. Five R. japonicum mutant strains that are hypersensitive to repression or H2 oxidation by oxygen were derived from strain SR. The mutants were obtained by screening H2 uptake-negative mutants that retained the ability to oxidize H2 as bacteroids from soybean nodules. As bacteroids, the five mutant strains were capable of H2 oxidation rates comparable to that of the wild type. The mutants did not take up H2 when derepressed in 22 microM dissolved oxygen, whereas strain SR had substantial activity at this oxygen concentration. The O2 repression of H2 uptake in both the wild-type and two mutant strains, SR174 and SR200, was rapid and was similar to the effect of inhibiting synthesis of H2 uptake system components with rifampin. None of the mutant strains was able to oxidize H2 when the artificial electron acceptors methylene blue or phenazine methosulfate were provided. The mutant strains were not sensitive to killing by oxygen, they took up O2 at rates similar to strain SR, and they did not produce an H2 uptake system that was oxygen labile. Cyclic AMP levels were comparable in strain SR and the five mutant strains after subjection of the cultures to the derepression conditions. PMID:6277861

  8. Distinct localizations and repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Yuko; Kimura, Yumiko; Taira, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yuko; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2006-01-01

    MM-1 was identified as a c-Myc-binding protein and has been reported to repress the E-box-dependent transcription activity of c-Myc by recruiting HDAC1 complex via TIF1 beta/KAP1. In this study, originally isolated MM-1 was found to be a fusion protein comprised of the N-terminal 13 amino acids from the sequence of chromosome 14 and of the rest of the amino acids from that of chromosome 12 and was found to be expressed ubiquitously in all human tissues. Four splicing isoforms of MM-1, MM-1alpha, MM-1beta, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta, which are derived from the sequence of chromosome 12, were then identified. Of these isoforms, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta were found to be expressed in tissue-specific manners and MM-1beta was found to be expressed ubiquitously. Although all of the isoforms potentially possessed c-Myc- and TIF1beta-binding activities, MM-1beta and MM-1delta were found to be mainly localized in the cytoplasm and MM-1alpha and MM-1gamma were found to be localized in the nucleus together with both c-Myc and TIF1beta. Furthermore, when repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc transcription activity were examined by reporter gene assays in HeLa cells, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1gamma, but not MM-1beta, were found to repress transcription activity of c-Myc, and the degrees of repression by MM-1gamma and MM-1delta were smaller than those by MM-1 and MM-1alpha. These results suggest that each MM-1 isoform distinctly regulates c-Myc transcription activity in respective tissues.

  9. Rev-Erbs repress macrophage gene expression by inhibiting enhancer-directed transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Michael T.Y.; Cho, Han; Lesch, Hanna P.; Gosselin, David; Heinz, Sven; Tanaka-Oishi, Yumiko; Benner, Christopher; Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Kim, Aneeza S.; Kosaka, Mika; Lee, Cindy Y.; Watt, Andy; Grossman, Tamar R.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Evans, Ronald M.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Rev-Erbα and Rev-Erbβ are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm1,2, metabolism3,4, and inflammatory responses5. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting NCoR/HDAC3 co-repressor complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes6-8, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here, we present evidence that in macrophages, Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby mRNAs, implying a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a method that quantifies nascent 5′ ends (5′-GRO-Seq), we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for direct roles of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription. PMID:23728303

  10. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  11. Chromatin Landscape Defined by Repressive Histone Methylation during Oligodendrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Magri, Laura; Zhang, Fan; Marsh, Nidaa O.; Albrecht, Stefanie; Huynh, Jimmy L.; Kaur, Jasbir; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Zhang, Weijia; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cell types, differentiation requires an interplay between extrinsic signals and transcriptional changes mediated by repressive and activating histone modifications. Oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) are electrically responsive cells receiving synaptic input. The differentiation of these cells into myelinating oligodendrocytes is characterized by temporal waves of gene repression followed by activation of myelin genes and progressive decline of electrical responsiveness. In this study, we used chromatin isolated from rat OPCs and immature oligodendrocytes, to characterize the genome-wide distribution of the repressive histone marks, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, during differentiation. Although both marks were present at the OPC stage, only H3K9me3 marks (but not H3K27me3) were found to be increased during differentiation, at genes related to neuronal lineage and regulation of membrane excitability. Consistent with these findings, the levels and activity of H3K9 methyltransferases (H3K9 HMT), but not H3K27 HMT, increased more prominently upon exposure to oligodendrocyte differentiating stimuli and were detected in stage-specific repressive protein complexes containing the transcription factors SOX10 or YY1. Silencing H3K9 HMT, but not H3K27 HMT, impaired oligodendrocyte differentiation and functionally altered the response of oligodendrocytes to electrical stimulation. Together, these results identify repressive H3K9 methylation as critical for gene repression during oligodendrocyte differentiation. PMID:25568127

  12. Gene expression in self-repressing system with multiple gene copies.

    PubMed

    Miekisz, Jacek; Szymańska, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We analyze a simple model of a self-repressing system with multiple gene copies. Protein molecules may bound to DNA promoters and block their own transcription. We derive analytical expressions for the variance of the number of protein molecules in the stationary state in the self-consistent mean-field approximation. We show that the Fano factor (the variance divided by the mean value) is bigger for the one-gene case than for two gene copies and the difference decreases to zero as frequencies of binding and unbinding increase to infinity.

  13. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-05-11

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress.

  14. Percept-genetic signs of repression in histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rubino, I A; Saya, A; Pezzarossa, B

    1992-04-01

    Several types of perceptual distortions of two anxiety-arousing visual stimuli are coded as repression in the Defense Mechanism Test, a tachistoscopic, percept-genetic technique. Given the well-established correspondence between hysteria and repression, the study included a clinical validation of these variants of repression against the diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder. 41 subjects with evidence of this disorder on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II were compared with 41 nonhistrionic controls. Significantly more histrionics were coded for the type of repression in which the threatening figure is transformed into a harmless object (code 1:42), while animal- and statue-repressions, when combined (codes 1:1 and 1:2), were significantly more characteristic of the nonhistrionic group. As an unpredicted finding, significantly more histrionic subjects employed defensive strategies, currently coded as reaction formations (code 4:). Histrionic subjects without concomitant compulsive features were coded more frequently for introaggression (code 6:) compared both with nonhistrionic controls and with histrionic-compulsive subjects. The findings are discussed within the context of the available percept-genetic literature. It is suggested that the Defense Mechanism Test may be further employed to objectify and investigate the defense mechanisms of the DSM-III-R disorders.

  15. Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Robert; Kasprzewska, Ania; Fleming, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    A classical view is that leaf shape is the result of local promotion of growth linked to cell proliferation. However, an alternative hypothesis is that leaf form is the result of local repression of growth in an otherwise growing system. Here we show that leaf form can indeed be manipulated in a directed fashion by local repression of growth. We show that targeting expression of an inhibitor of a cyclin-dependent kinase (KRP1) to the sinus area of developing leaves of Arabidopsis leads to local growth repression and the formation of organs with extreme lobing, including generation of leaflet-like organs. Directing KRP1 expression to other regions of the leaf using an miRNA target sequence tagging approach also leads to predictable novel leaf forms, and repression of growth in the leaf margin blocks the outgrowth of lobes, leading to a smoother perimeter. In addition, we show that decreased growth around the perimeter and across the leaf abaxial surface leads to a change in 3D form, as predicted by mechanical models of leaf growth. Our analysis provides experimental evidence that local repression of growth influences leaf shape, suggesting that it could be part of the mechanism of morphogenesis in plants in the context of an otherwise growing system.

  16. Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-01-07

    The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap.

  17. PPARα Promotes Cancer Cell Glut1 Transcription Repression.

    PubMed

    You, Mengli; Jin, Jianhua; Liu, Qian; Xu, QingGang; Shi, Juanjuan; Hou, Yongzhong

    2017-06-01

    Abundant nutrient availability including glucose and amino acids plays an important role in maintaining cancer cell energetic and biosynthetic pathways. As a nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) regulates inflammation and cancer progression, however, it is still unclear the interaction of PPARα with the cancer cell glucose metabolism. Here we found that PPARα reduced Glut1 (Glucose transporter 1) protein and gene levels in HCT-116, SW480, HeLa, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. In contrast, silenced PPARα reversed this event. Further analysis shows that PPARα directly targeted the consensus PPRE motif of Glut1 promoter region resulting in Glut1 transcription repression. PPARα-mediated Glut1 transcription repression led to decreased influx of glucose in cancer cells. These findings revealed a novel mechanism of PPARα-mediated cancer cell Glut1 transcription repression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1556-1562, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. TOPLESS mediates auxin-dependent transcriptional repression during Arabidopsis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Szemenyei, Heidi; Hannon, Mike; Long, Jeff A

    2008-03-07

    The transcriptional response to auxin is critical for root and vascular development during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Auxin induces the degradation of AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) transcriptional repressors, freeing their binding partners, the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) proteins, which can activate transcription of auxin response genes. We show that TOPLESS (TPL) can physically interact with IAA12/BODENLOS (IAA12/BDL) through an ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. TPL can repress transcription in vivo and is required for IAA12/BDL repressive activity. In addition, tpl-1 can suppress the patterning defects of the bdl-1 mutant. Direct interaction between TPL and ARF5/MONOPTEROS, which is regulated by IAA12/BDL, results in a loss-of-function arf5/mp phenotype. These observations show that TPL is a transcriptional co-repressor and further our understanding of how auxin regulates transcription during plant development.

  19. The adenovirus E1A N-terminal repression domain represses transcription from a chromatin template in vitro.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Paul M; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Green, Maurice

    2012-06-20

    The adenovirus repression domain of E1A 243R at the E1A N-terminus (E1A 1-80) transcriptionally represses genes involved in differentiation and cell cycle progression. E1A 1-80 represses transcription in vitro from naked DNA templates through its interaction with p300 and TFIID. E1A 1-80 can also interact with several chromatin remodeling factors and associates with chromatin in vivo. We show here that E1A 243R and E1A 1-80 can repress transcription from a reconstituted chromatin template in vitro. Temporal analysis reveals strong repression by E1A 1-80 when added at pre-activation, activation and early transcription stages. Interestingly, E1A 1-80 can greatly enhance transcription from chromatin templates, but not from naked DNA, when added at pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation and transcription-initiation stages. These data reveal a new dimension for E1A 1-80's interface with chromatin and may reflect its interaction with key players in PIC formation, p300 and TFIID, and/or possibly a role in chromatin remodeling.

  20. The adenovirus E1A N-terminal repression domain represses transcription from a chromatin template in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Paul M.; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The adenovirus repression domain of E1A 243R at the E1A N-terminus (E1A 1–80) transcriptionally represses genes involved in differentiation and cell cycle progression. E1A 1–80 represses transcription in vitro from naked DNA templates through its interaction with p300 and TFIID. E1A 1–80 can also interact with several chromatin remodeling factors and associates with chromatin in vivo. We show here that E1A 243R and E1A 1–80 can repress transcription from a reconstituted chromatin template in vitro. Temporal analysis reveals strong repression by E1A 1–80 when added at pre-activation, activation and early transcription stages. Interestingly, E1A 1–80 can greatly enhance transcription from chromatin templates, but not from naked DNA, when added at pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation and transcription-initiation stages. These data reveal a new dimension for E1A 1–80's interface with chromatin and may reflect its interaction with key players in PIC formation, p300 and TFIID, and/or possibly a role in chromatin remodeling. PMID:22521914

  1. Phage HK022 Nun protein represses translation of phage λ N (transcription termination/translation repression)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong C.; Zhou, Jian-guang; Wilson, Helen R.; Mogilnitskiy, Grigoriy; Court, Donald L.; Gottesman, Max E.

    2003-01-01

    The N-terminal arginine-rich motif of phage HK022 Nun protein binds to NUT sequences in phage λ nascent transcripts and induces transcription termination. Interactions between the Nun C terminus and RNA polymerase as well as the DNA template are required for termination. We have isolated Nun C-terminal point and deletion mutants that are unable to block transcription. The mutants bind NUT RNA and inhibit translation of the λ N gene. Thus HK022 excludes λ both by terminating transcription on the phage chromosome and by preventing translation of the essential λ N gene. Like N autoregulation, translation repression by Nun requires host RNaseIII deficiency (rnc) or a mutation in the RNaseIII processing site (rIII) located between NUTL and the beginning of the N coding sequence. Our data support the idea that Nun bound at NUTL causes steric interference with ribosome attachment to the nearby N coding sequence. Two models, Nun acting alone or in complex with host proteins, are discussed. PMID:12684530

  2. A high-resolution map of transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ziwei; Brown, Karen E; Carroll, Thomas; Taylor, Benjamin; Vidal, Isabel Ferreirós; Hendrich, Brian; Rueda, David; Fisher, Amanda G; Merkenschlager, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Turning genes on and off is essential for development and homeostasis, yet little is known about the sequence and causal role of chromatin state changes during the repression of active genes. This is surprising, as defective gene silencing underlies developmental abnormalities and disease. Here we delineate the sequence and functional contribution of transcriptional repression mechanisms at high temporal resolution. Inducible entry of the NuRD-interacting transcriptional regulator Ikaros into mouse pre-B cell nuclei triggered immediate binding to target gene promoters. Rapid RNAP2 eviction, transcriptional shutdown, nucleosome invasion, and reduced transcriptional activator binding required chromatin remodeling by NuRD-associated Mi2beta/CHD4, but were independent of HDAC activity. Histone deacetylation occurred after transcriptional repression. Nevertheless, HDAC activity contributed to stable gene silencing. Hence, high resolution mapping of transcriptional repression reveals complex and interdependent mechanisms that underpin rapid transitions between transcriptional states, and elucidates the temporal order, functional role and mechanistic separation of NuRD-associated enzymatic activities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22767.001 PMID:28318487

  3. Repression-Sensitization and Multidimensional Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Man, Anton; Ratti, Lucie LeMay

    1989-01-01

    Studied relationships among repression-sensitization and Levenson's three dimensions of perceived contingency (internal, powerful others, and chance) in college students (N=70). Found relationship between sensitization and belief in powerful others appeared to depend on the presence of a belief in chance control. (Author/ABL)

  4. PICKLE acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chun; Chuang, King; Henderson, James T.; Rider, Stanley Dean; Bai, Yinglin; Zhang, Heng; Fountain, Matthew; Gerber, Jacob; Ogas, Joe

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY PICKLE (PKL) codes for a CHD3 chromatin remodeling factor that plays multiple roles in Arabidopsis growth and development. Previous analysis of the expression of genes that exhibit PKL-dependent regulation suggested that PKL acts during germination to repress expression of embryonic traits. In this study, we examined the expression of PKL protein to investigate when and where PKL acts to regulate development. A PKL:eGFP translational fusion is preferentially localized in the nucleus of cells, consistent with the proposed role for PKL as a chromatin remodeling factor. A steroid-inducible version of PKL - a fusion of PKL to the glucocorticoid receptor (PKL:GR) - was used to examine when PKL acts to repress expression of embryonic traits. We found that activation of PKL:GR during germination was sufficient to repress expression of embryonic traits in the primary roots of pkl seedlings whereas activation of PKL:GR after germination had little effect. In contrast, we observed that PKL is required continuously after germination to repress expression of PHERES1, a type I MADS box gene that is normally expressed during early embryogenesis in wild-type plants. Thus PKL acts at multiple points during development to regulate patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:16359393

  5. Addressing the repressed needs of the Arabic client.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, M

    1997-01-01

    In comparison to families in Western society, the traditional Arabic family plays a relatively greater role in providing support for adult progeny. This serves to condition adult offspring to continue to comply with the will and values of the family. Therefore, in exchange for familial support, Arabic individuals learn to repress authentic needs and emotions, and within that process they relinquish the need for self-actualization. Arabic society discourages individualism and opposes self-actualization by means of simultaneous punishment and moralization. Thus, there is a relatively greater development of the social value system (or superego) and comparatively less development of the self (or ego). In comparison to Western society, Arabic individuals continue to experience greater oppression during adulthood. Given these cultural differences, the processes of reliving and activating repressed needs and emotions, which ultimately serves to promote self-actualization, will transform intrapsychic conflicts into interpersonal and social ones. Thus, personal actions typically encouraged during Western psychotherapy are likely to produce significant social oppression. Indeed, promoting awareness of repressed needs and emotions often leads the Arabic client to become more helpless, because such wishes will rarely be socially sanctioned or satisfactorily fulfilled. Therefore, when addressing repressed needs and emotions in psychotherapy, ego strength, cultural identity, and degree of strictness of the client's family of origin must be considered.

  6. Impact of expert testimony on the believability of repressed memories.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, D B; Boney-McCoy, S

    1997-01-01

    Research suggests that people question the believability of trial testimony based on an alleged victim's previously repressed memories. Participants read one of six scenarios depicting the trial of a man accused of sexually assaulting a young girl. The alleged victim either reported the assault immediately (child witness) or waited 20 years to report it (adult witness). In the adult witness condition, the woman's memory for the event had either been repressed until recently or had always been available, and expert testimony was offered on behalf of the defense, the prosecution, both, or neither. Regression analyses revealed that women perceived the accuser's testimony as more believable and the defendant's testimony as less believable than men did. Similarly, the belief in the accuser's testimony decreased and the belief in the defendant's testimony increased when the accuser was an adult in contrast to a child, and when the defense offered expert testimony in contrast to its absence. In addition, guilty verdicts were associated with higher levels of accuser believability, lower levels of defendant believability and testimony based on repressed memories in contrast to testimony based on memories that were never repressed.

  7. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  8. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Soraia M.; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake. PMID:26063801

  9. MyoR Modulates Cardiac Conduction by Repressing Gata4

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John P.; Bhakta, Minoti; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Wang, Lin; Lubczyk, Christina; Olson, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac conduction system coordinates electrical activation through a series of interconnected structures, including the atrioventricular node (AVN), the central connection point that delays impulse propagation to optimize cardiac performance. Although recent studies have uncovered important molecular details of AVN formation, relatively little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate AV delay, the primary function of the mature AVN. We identify here MyoR as a novel transcription factor expressed in Cx30.2+ cells of the AVN. We show that MyoR specifically inhibits a Cx30.2 enhancer required for AVN-specific gene expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MyoR interacts directly with Gata4 to mediate transcriptional repression. Our studies reveal that MyoR contains two nonequivalent repression domains. While the MyoR C-terminal repression domain inhibits transcription in a context-dependent manner, the N-terminal repression domain can function in a heterologous context to convert the Hand2 activator into a repressor. In addition, we show that genetic deletion of MyoR in mice increases Cx30.2 expression by 50% and prolongs AV delay by 13%. Taken together, we conclude that MyoR modulates a Gata4-dependent regulatory circuit that establishes proper AV delay, and these findings may have wider implications for the variability of cardiac rhythm observed in the general population. PMID:25487574

  10. Gene repression by minimal lac loops in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bond, Laura M; Peters, Justin P; Becker, Nicole A; Kahn, Jason D; Maher, L James

    2010-12-01

    The inflexibility of double-stranded DNA with respect to bending and twisting is well established in vitro. Understanding apparent DNA physical properties in vivo is a greater challenge. Here, we exploit repression looping with components of the Escherichia coli lac operon to monitor DNA flexibility in living cells. We create a minimal system for testing the shortest possible DNA repression loops that contain an E. coli promoter, and compare the results to prior experiments. Our data reveal that loop-independent repression occurs for certain tight operator/promoter spacings. When only loop-dependent repression is considered, fits to a thermodynamic model show that DNA twisting limits looping in vivo, although the apparent DNA twist flexibility is 2- to 4-fold higher than in vitro. In contrast, length-dependent resistance to DNA bending is not observed in these experiments, even for the shortest loops constraining <0.4 persistence lengths of DNA. As observed previously for other looping configurations, loss of the nucleoid protein heat unstable (HU) markedly disables DNA looping in vivo. Length-independent DNA bending energy may reflect the activities of architectural proteins and the structure of the DNA topological domain. We suggest that the shortest loops are formed in apical loops rather than along the DNA plectonemic superhelix.

  11. Conserved miR-10 family represses proliferation and induces apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiajie, Tu; Yanzhou, Yang; Hoi-Hung, Albert Cheung; Zi-Jiang, Chen; Wai-Yee, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Granulosa cells (GCs) are essential somatic cells in the ovary and play an important role in folliculogenesis. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and the TGF-β pathway have been identified as a critical hormone and signalling pathway, respectively, in GCs. In this study, we found that a conserved microRNA family that includes miR-10a and miR-10b repressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in human, mouse, and rat GCs (hGCs, mGCs and rGCs, respectively). Moreover, essential hormones and growth factors in the follicle, such as FSH, FGF9 and some ligands in the TGF-β pathway (TGFβ1, Activin A, BMP4 and BMP15), inhibited miR-10a and miR-10b expression in GCs. In contrast, the miR-10 family suppressed many key genes in the TGF-β pathway, suggesting a negative feedback loop between the miR-10 family and the TGF-β pathway in GCs. By using bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq, qPCR, FISH, immunofluorescence, Western blot and luciferase reporter assays, BDNF was identified as a direct target of the miR-10 family in GCs. Additionally, reintroduction of BDNF rescued the effects of miR-10a and miR-10b in GCs. Collectively, miR-10a and miR-10b repressed GC development during folliculogenesis by repressing BDNF and the TGF-β pathway. These effects by the miR-10 family on GCs are conserved among different species. PMID:28112253

  12. A vir-repressed gene of Bordetella pertussis is required for virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, D T; Shahin, R; Mekalanos, J J

    1992-01-01

    Coordinate regulation of gene expression in Bordetella pertussis is controlled by the products of the vir locus, BvgA and BvgS. In the presence of modulating signals such as MgSO4 and nicotinic acid, expression of vir-activated genes (vag) is reduced, while expression of vir-repressed genes (vrg) is maximal. We have cloned one of these vir-repressed genes, vrg-6, in Escherichia coli. DNA sequencing has shown that vrg-6 is contained on a single EcoRI restriction endonuclease fragment and is predicted to code for a protein of 105 amino acids with a molecular weight of 11,441. The predicted protein product appears to have two domains, one consisting of seven hydrophobic proline-rich pentameric repeats and the other consisting of five alkaline trimeric repeats. Southern blot analysis has revealed vrg-6-homologous sequences in the chromosomes of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, but, unlike Bordetella pertussis, these species do not express vrg-6-homologous RNA when grown under modulating conditions. In order to assess the role of vrg gene products in B. pertussis pathogenesis, two 18323 derivatives which harbor TnphoA insertions in vrg genes were analyzed in a mouse model of respiratory infection. Strain SK6, which carries a vrg-6::TnphoA mutation, failed to induce lymphocytosis and was significantly less able to colonize lungs and trachea than its parent strain 18323 or than SK18, which harbors a TnphoA fusion in the vrg-18 locus. This is the first evidence that a vir-repressed gene may play an important role in the virulence of B. pertussis and the pathogenesis of whooping cough. Images PMID:1730491

  13. Hepatitis C virus represses E-cadherin expression via DNA methylation to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungmi; Jang, Kyung Lib

    2014-04-04

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is known to induce promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes including E-cadherin to repress their expression when overexpressed in human hepatocytes; however, its actual role during HCV infection is still unknown. Here, we report that infection with HCV derived from pJFH-1 replicon system that mimics natural infection elevates protein levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3b to enhance DNMT activity in human hepatocytes. As a consequence, HCV induced promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, resulting in repression of its expression. In addition down-regulation of E-cadherin by HCV led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition that is known to be a critical event during the late stage of tumorigenesis.

  14. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Grimes, Craig D; Czora, Cody S

    2016-07-07

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. Copyright © 2016 Simmons et al.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 10 represses premature cell differentiation during establishment of the intestinal progenitor niche.

    PubMed

    Nyeng, Pia; Bjerke, Maureen Ann; Norgaard, Gitte Anker; Qu, Xiaoling; Kobberup, Sune; Jensen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Spatio-temporal regulation of the balance between cell renewal and cell differentiation is of vital importance for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factor signaling relayed from the mesenchyme to the epithelium is necessary for progenitor maintenance during organogenesis of most endoderm-derived organs, but it is still ambiguous whether the signal is exclusively mitogenic. Furthermore, the downstream mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to elucidate these questions we performed a complementary analysis of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10), gain-of-function and loss-of-function in the embryonic mouse duodenum, where the progenitor niche is clearly defined and differentiation proceeds in a spatially organized manner. In agreement with a role in progenitor maintenance, FGF10 is expressed in the duodenal mesenchyme during early development while the cognate receptor FGFR2b is expressed in the epithelial progenitor niche. Fgf10 gain-of-function in the epithelium leads to spatial expansion of the progenitor niche and repression of cell differentiation, while loss-of-function results in premature cell differentiation and subsequent epithelial hypoplasia. We conclude that FGF10 mediated mesenchymal-to-epithelial signaling maintains the progenitor niche in the embryonic duodenum primarily by repressing cell differentiation, rather than through mitogenic signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FGF10-signaling targets include ETS-family transcription factors, which have previously been shown to regulate epithelial maturation and tumor progression.

  16. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  17. Unintended Consequences of Repression: Alliance Formation in South Korea's Democracy Movement (1970-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Paul Y.

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding the impact of repression on social movements has yielded conflicting findings; some argue that repression decreases the total quantity of protest events while others argue that it motivates protest. To move beyond this impasse, various scholars have suggested exploring how repression influences the quality of social movements.…

  18. Unintended Consequences of Repression: Alliance Formation in South Korea's Democracy Movement (1970-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Paul Y.

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding the impact of repression on social movements has yielded conflicting findings; some argue that repression decreases the total quantity of protest events while others argue that it motivates protest. To move beyond this impasse, various scholars have suggested exploring how repression influences the quality of social movements.…

  19. Recovering a repressed memory, and representational shift in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Szajnberg, N M

    1993-01-01

    This case report focuses on the disappearance of a fixed pictorial iconic representation and transformation to symbolic (word) representation following the recovery of a repressed memory in a twelve-and-a-half-year-old after the first eleven months of psychoanalysis. There is a substantial body of psychoanalytic literature on the importance of language, naming or articulation of experiences associated with transformation of psychic structure (Fenichel, 1941; Glover, 1955; Kris, 1956a, 1956b; Werner and Kaplan, 1963; Schafer, 1976, 1978a, 1978b, 1980; Shapiro, 1979; Spence, 1982; Stern, 1989) and a relatively autonomous literature on the communicative representational power of children's play or visual portrayals (Piaget, 1962; A. Freud, 1947; Klein, 1964; Axeline, 1947; Esman, 1983; Neubauer et al., 1987; Krall, 1989). To our knowledge, there is no report of the structural effect of the recovery of a repressed traumatic experience, in this case, with subsequent parental confirmation of the traumatic event.

  20. Construction of glucose-repressible yeast expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Yao, B; Marmur, J; Sollitti, P

    1993-12-31

    A set of two episomal yeast expression vectors, pYME1 and pYME2, were constructed. These Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors each contain a modified yeast MAL6S (encoding maltase) promoter that is expressed constitutively, but is subject to carbon catabolite repression by glucose. Expression from this promoter is still dependent upon the presence of active MALR (regulatory) protein. These expression vectors are particularly useful because most S. cerevisiae strains are MAL+, thereby exhibiting a wider host range than GAL-based vector systems. These pYME1 and pYME2 vectors are capable of expression to levels comparable to GAL-based expression plasmids and much higher than a variety of other repressible promoter vectors. The vectors are identical, except that their multiple cloning sites (MCS) are in opposite orientations, making them convenient for inserting heterologous genes.

  1. Repression predicts outcome following multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Burns, J W

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether repression predicts outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain and whether links between anxiety and outcome are obscured by repressors. Ninety-three chronic pain patients completed a 4-week pain program. Lifting capacity, walking endurance, depression, pain severity, and activity were measured at pre- and posttreatment. Low-anxious, repressor, high-anxious, and defensive/high-anxious groups were formed from median splits of Anxiety Content (ACS) and Lie scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). Significant ACS x Lie interactions were found for lifting capacity, depression, and pain severity changes. Planned comparisons showed that both repressors and high-anxious patients performed poorly on lifting capacity; repressors alone recovered poorly on depression and pain severity. Results imply that repression may interfere with the process and outcome of pain programs.

  2. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/−) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. These studies define the critical opposing functions of DREAM and USF1 in inhibiting and inducing A20 expression, respectively, and thereby the strength of NF-κB signaling. Targeting of DREAM to induce USF1-mediated A20 expression is therefore a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in diseases such as acute lung injury associated with unconstrained NF-κB activity. PMID:24487321

  3. Repression and reactivation of lithium efflux from erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Goodnick, P J; Meltzer, H L; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1979-10-01

    Efflux of lithium from human erythrocytes was studied in patients before, during, and after discontinuation of administration of lithium carbonate. Onset of lithium-induced repression of efflux took approximately 10 days and was significantly shorter in patients who had had lithium therapy previously. Reactivation took a longer period of time--approximately 2 week--and was found to be related to duration of lithium therapy. Theoretical pathways of lithium flow through membranes are discussed.

  4. Repressive coping style and positive self-presentation.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V; Sisterson, Grant; Baluch, Bahman

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews 59 studies looking at cognitive, individual differences and physiological correlates of the repressive coping style, as defined by Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson (1979). A central aim is to evaluate the relative importance of the anxiety and social desirability components of repression. Thus, the empirical study investigates the relationships between repression and a number of relevant, but hitherto unexamined, constructs, including trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), self-estimated intelligence, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, and stoicism. It was hypothesized that repressors would score higher than the other three groups on trait EI, self-estimated IQ and functional impulsivity, but lower on dysfunctional impulsivity. In total, 259 (174 females) participants from three British universities completed questionnaires measuring the dependent and independent variables. Participants were divided into four groups (truly low anxious, non-defensive/high anxious, defensive/high anxious and repressors) based on their scores on anxiety and social desirability. Analyses (moderated multiple regressions and ANOVAs) were conducted both on the total sample as well as on 'extreme-scoring' individuals. Where there were significant differences, the hypotheses were supported, particularly with respect to trait EI, self-estimated IQ and impulsivity. Using 'extreme-scoring' groups did not effectively change the results. The regressions revealed an absence of significant interactions between anxiety and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the now replicated effect that repressors present a highly positive and optimistic self-image, despite cognitive and behavioural data suggesting that their coping style is psychologically unhealthy. In addition, it is argued that many findings in the repressive coping style literature can be parsimoniously explained through main effects of anxiety or social desirability alone (i.e., without

  5. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  6. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or “empty”) signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664

  7. Trans-inactivation: Repression in a wrong place.

    PubMed

    Shatskikh, Aleksei S; Abramov, Yuriy A; Lavrov, Sergey A

    2016-08-19

    Trans-inactivation is the repression of genes on a normal chromosome under the influence of a rearranged homologous chromosome demonstrating the position effect variegation (PEV). This phenomenon was studied in detail on the example of brown(Dominant) allele causing the repression of wild-type brown gene on the opposite chromosome. We have investigated another trans-inactivation-inducing chromosome rearrangement, In(2)A4 inversion. In both cases, brown(Dominant) and In(2)A4, the repression seems to be the result of dragging of the euchromatic region of the normal chromosome into the heterochromatic environment. It was found that cis-inactivation (classical PEV) and trans-inactivation show different patterns of distribution along the chromosome and respond differently to PEV modifying genes. It appears that the causative mechanism of trans-inactivation is de novo heterochromatin assembly on euchromatic sequences dragged into the heterochromatic nuclear compartment. Trans-inactivation turns out to be the result of a combination of heterochromatin-induced position effect and the somatic interphase chromosome pairing that is widespread in Diptera.

  8. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A.; Levine, Arnold J.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53’s transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma. PMID:27535933

  9. Nitric oxide participates in plant flowering repression by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Yin; Suresh Kumar, Subbiah; Hua, Moda Sang; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, ‘pseudobulb with inflorescent bud’ (PIB) and ‘pseudobulb with axillary bud’ (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process. Applying AsA to Oncidium PLB (protocorm-like bodies) significantly elevated the NO content and enzyme activities. Application of sodium nitroprusside (-NO donor) on Arabidopsis vtc1 mutant caused late flowering and expression level of flowering-associated genes (CO, FT and LFY) were reduced, suggesting NO signaling is vital for flowering repression. Conversely, the flowering time of noa1, an Arabidopsis NO-deficient mutant, was not altered after treatment with L-galacturonate, a precursor of AsA, suggesting AsA is required for NO-biosynthesis involved in the NO-mediated flowering-repression pathway. Altogether, Oncidium bolting is tightly regulated by AsA-mediated NO level and downregulation of transcriptional levels of NO metabolism genes. PMID:27731387

  10. BMP-dependent gene repression cascade in Drosophila eggshell patterning

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Enrica; Fuchs, Alisa; Cheung, Lily S.; Chayengia, Mrinal; Veikkolainen, Ville; Seyfferth, Janine; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.; Pyrowolakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) signal by activating Smad transcription factors to control a number of decisions during animal development. In Drosophila, signaling by the BMP ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) involves the activity of brinker (brk) which, in most contexts, is repressed by Dpp. Brk encodes a transcription factor which represses BMP signaling output by antagonizing Smad-dependent target gene activation. Here, we study BMP-dependent gene regulation during Drosophila oogenesis by following the signal transmission from Dpp to its target broad (br), a gene with a crucial function in eggshell patterning. We identify regulatory sequences that account for expression of both brk and br, and connect these to the transcription factors of the pathway. We show that Dpp directly regulates brk transcription through Smad- and Schnurri (Shn)-dependent repression. Brk is epistatic to Dpp in br expression and activates br indirectly, through removal of a repressor, which is yet to be identified. Our work provides first cis-regulatory insights into transcriptional interpretation of BMP signaling in eggshell morphogenesis and defines a transcriptional cascade that connects Dpp to target gene regulation. PMID:25704512

  11. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression.

    PubMed

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or "empty") signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents.

  12. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Kingston, R E; Bunker, C A; Imbalzano, A N

    1996-04-15

    Recent studies have provided strong evidence that macromolecular complexes are used in the cell to remodel chromatin structure during activation and to create an inaccessible structure during repression, Although there is not yet any rigorous demonstration that modification of chromatin structure plays a direct, causal role in either activation or repression, there is sufficient smoke to indicate the presence of a blazing inferno nearby. It is clear that complexes that remodel chromatin are tractable in vitro; hopefully this will allow the establishment of systems that provide a direct analysis of the role that remodeling might play in activation. These studies indicate that establishment of functional systems to corroborate the elegant genetic studies on repression might also be tractable. As the mechanistic effects of these complexes are sorted out, it will become important to understand how the complexes are regulated. In many of the instances discussed above, the genes whose products make up these complexes were identified in genetic screens for effects on developmental processes. This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists.

  13. Multiple mechanisms mediate glucose repression of the yeast GAL1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lamphier, M S; Ptashne, M

    1992-01-01

    Several mechanisms contribute to the glucose repression of the GAL1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that one mechanism involves the transcriptional down-regulation of the GAL4 gene and a second requires the GAL80 gene. We also examine the contribution of cis-acting negative elements in the GAL1 promoter to glucose repression. In an otherwise wild-type strain disruption of any one of these three mechanisms alleviates repression of GAL1 only 2- to 4-fold. However, in the absence of the other two mechanisms the transcriptional down-regulation of GAL4 is sufficient to repress GAL1 expression 40- to 60-fold and the GAL80-dependent mechanism is sufficient to repress GAL1 expression 20- to 30-fold. These first two mechanisms constitute a functionally redundant system of repression and both must be disrupted in order to abolish glucose repression of GAL1. In contrast, negative elements in the GAL1 promoter are effective in repressing GAL1 expression 2- to 4-fold in glucose medium only when at least one of the other two mechanisms of repression is present. Thus, glucose repression of GAL1 is mediated primarily by the first two mechanisms, whereas the third mechanism supplements repression severalfold. PMID:1631075

  14. Carbon catabolite repression-independent and pH-dependent production of indoles by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2013-10-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indole derivatives (indoles) from aniline, anthranilate or L-tryptophan. Glucose repressed indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2, while malate had no effect. Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on glucose resulted in decrease in culture pH (6.4) compared with malate (8.4). Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on sugar carbon sources decreased culture pH (6.4-6.6) and indole production. Further, culture pH of 6.4 repressed the indole production, and pH 8.4 promoted the production irrespective of carbon sources used for growth. Moreover, correlation between indole production and culture pH was observed, where acidic pH inhibited indole production, while alkaline pH promoted the production, suggesting the role of pH in indole production. Tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme activities are significantly high in malate-grown cultures (pH 8.4) compared with that of the glucose (pH 6.4)-grown cultures and corroborated well with indole production, indicating their role in indole production. These results confirm that indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2 is pH dependent rather than carbon catabolite repression.

  15. Reciprocal Repression between Sox3 and Snail Transcription Factors Defines Embryonic Territories at Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Acloque, Hervé; Ocaña, Oscar H.; Matheu, Ander; Rizzoti, Karine; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Nieto, M. Angela

    2011-01-01

    Summary In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Snail2 and Sox3 factors. We also show that the relationship between Sox3 and Snail is conserved in the mouse embryo and in human cancer cells. In the embryo, Snail-expressing cells ingress at the primitive streak, whereas Sox3-positive cells, which are unable to ingress, ensure the formation of ectodermal derivatives. Thus, the subdivision of the early embryo into the two main territories, ectodermal and mesendodermal, is regulated by changes in cell behavior mediated by the antagonistic relationship between Sox3 and Snail transcription factors. PMID:21920318

  16. cis-Encoded Small RNAs, a Conserved Mechanism for Repression of Polysaccharide Utilization in Bacteroides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanlu; Förstner, Konrad U; Vogel, Jörg; Smith, C Jeffrey

    2016-09-15

    Bacteroides is a major component of the human gut microbiota which has a broad impact on the development and physiology of its host and a potential role in a wide range of disease syndromes. The predominance of this genus is due in large part to expansion of paralogous gene clusters, termed polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), dedicated to the uptake and catabolism of host-derived and dietary polysaccharides. The nutritive value and availability of polysaccharides in the gut vary greatly; thus, their utilization is hierarchical and strictly controlled. A typical PUL includes regulatory genes that induce PUL expression in response to the presence of specific glycan substrates. However, the existence of additional regulatory mechanisms has been predicted to explain phenomena such as hierarchical control and catabolite repression. In this report, a previously unknown layer of regulatory control was discovered in Bacteroides fragilis Exploratory transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed the presence of cis-encoded antisense small RNAs (sRNAs) associated with 15 (30%) of the B. fragilis PULs. A model system using the Don (degradation of N-glycans) PUL showed that the donS sRNA negatively regulated Don expression at the transcriptional level, resulting in a decrease in N-glycan utilization. Additional studies performed with other Bacteroides species indicated that this regulatory mechanism is highly conserved and, interestingly, that the regulated PULs appear to be closely linked to the utilization of host-derived glycans rather than dietary plant polysaccharides. The findings described here demonstrate a global control mechanism underlying known PUL regulatory circuits and provide insight into regulation of Bacteroides physiology. The human gut is colonized by a dense microbiota which is essential to the health and normal development of the host. A key to gut homeostasis is the preservation of a stable, diverse microbiota. Bacteroides is a dominant genus

  17. Nrf2-dependent repression of interleukin-12 expression in human dendritic cells exposed to inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Génard, Romain; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic, a well-known Nrf2 inducer, exerts immunosuppressive properties. In this context, we recently reported that the differentiation of human blood monocytes into immature dendritic cells (DCs), in the presence of low and noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenic, represses the ability of DCs to release key cytokines in response to different stimulating agents. Particularly, arsenic inhibits the expression of human interleukin-12 (IL-12, also named IL-12p70), a major proinflammatory cytokine that controls the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes. In the present study, we determined if Nrf2 could contribute to these arsenic immunotoxic effects. To this goal, human monocyte-derived DCs were first differentiated in the absence of metalloid and then pretreated with arsenic just before DC stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Under these experimental conditions, arsenic rapidly and stably activates Nrf2 and increases the expression of Nrf2 target genes. It also significantly inhibits IL-12 expression in activated DCs, at both mRNA and protein levels. Particularly, arsenic reduces mRNA levels of IL12A and IL12B genes which encodes the p35 and p40 subunits of IL-12p70, respectively. tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a reference Nrf2 inducer, mimics arsenic effects and potently inhibits IL-12 expression. Genetic inhibition of Nrf2 expression markedly prevents the repression of both IL12 mRNA and IL-12 protein levels triggered by arsenic and tBHQ in human LPS-stimulated DCs. In addition, arsenic significantly reduces IL-12 mRNA levels in LPS-activated bone marrow-derived DCs from Nrf2+/+ mice but not in DCs from Nrf2-/- mice. Finally, we show that, besides IL-12, arsenic significantly reduces the expression of IL-23, another heterodimer containing the p40 subunit. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that arsenic represses IL-12 expression in human-activated DCs by specifically stimulating Nrf2 activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. p53 represses Sp1 DNA binding and HIV-LTR directed transcription.

    PubMed

    Bargonetti, J; Chicas, A; White, D; Prives, C

    1997-11-01

    The HIV-LTR region contains binding sites for, and is regulated by, a number of transcription factors including Sp1 and NF-kB. The wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein represses transcription from the HIV-LTR promoter while oncogenic mutant forms of p53 stimulate expression from the HIV-LTR. We have shown previously that wild-type p53 is a site specific DNA binding protein that binds to a region of the SV40 virus which contains GC-box DNA binding sites for the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1. In this study using DNase I footprinting, we have shown that purified p53 is able to protect the Sp1 binding sites and the adjacent NF-kB site of the HIV-LTR. Furthermore we have demonstrated that when p53 and Sp1 are mixed together both proteins change each other's interaction with DNA. Interestingly, we noted that oncogenic mutant p53 is also able to change the interaction of Sp1 with DNA. We confirmed p53 dependent repression of HIV-LTR driven transcription by comparing the expression from an HIV-LTR reporter construct in the presence and absence of p53. EMSA of an oligonucleotide sequence derived from the HIV-LTR sequence demonstrated a slight decrease in Sp1 DNA binding activity with nuclear extract derived from the cell line expressing a high level of wild-type p53. These data suggest that the influence of p53 on the transcription of promoters with Sp1 binding sites may be partially due to a change in the DNA binding ability of Sp1.

  19. A new translational repression element and unusual transcriptional control regulate expression of don juan during Drosophila spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blümer, Nicole; Schreiter, Kay; Hempel, Leonie; Santel, Ansgar; Hollmann, Martin; Schäfer, Mireille A; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila don juan (dj) gene encodes a basic protein that is expressed solely in the male germline and shows structural similarities to the linker histone H1. Don Juan is located in two different subcellular structures: in the nucleus during the phase of chromatin condensation and later in the mitochondrial derivatives starting with spermatid individualization. The don juan gene is transcribed in primary spermatocytes under the control of 23 bp upstream in combination with downstream sequences. During meiotic stages and in early spermatid stages don juan mRNA is translationally repressed for several days. Analysis of male sterile mutants which fail to undergo meiosis shows that release of dj mRNA from translational repression is independent of meiosis. In gel retardation assays 60 nucleotides at the end of the dj leader form four major complexes with proteins that were extracted from testes but not with protein extracts from ovaries. Transformation studies prove that in vivo 35 bp within that region of the dj mRNA is essential to confer translational repression. UV cross-linking studies show that a 62 kDa protein specifically binds to the same region within the 5' untranslated region. The dj translational repression element, TRE, is distinct from the translational control element, TCE, described earlier for all members of the Mst(3)CGP gene family. Moreover, expression studies in several male sterile mutants reveal that don juan mRNA is translated in earlier developmental stages during sperm morphogenesis than the Mst(3)CGP mRNAs. This proves that translational activation of dormant mRNAs in spermatogenesis occurs at different time-points which are characteristic for each gene, an essential feature for coordinated sperm morphogenesis.

  20. An extended model for the repression of photosynthesis genes by the AppA/PpsR system in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rakesh; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Hauser, Marcus J B; Straube, Ronny

    2012-09-01

    Purple bacteria derive energy from aerobic respiration or photosynthesis depending on the availability of oxygen and light. Under aerobic conditions, photosynthesis genes are specifically repressed by the PpsR protein. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the repressive action of PpsR is antagonized by the blue-light and redox-sensitive flavoprotein AppA, which sequesters PpsR under anaerobic conditions into transcriptionally inactive complexes. However, under semi-aerobic conditions, blue-light excitation of AppA causes the AppA-PpsR complexes to dissociate, again leading to a repression of photosynthesis genes. We have recently developed a simple mathematical model suggesting that this phenotype arises from the formation of a maximum in the response curve of reduced PpsR at intermediate oxygen concentrations. However, this model focused mainly on the oxygen-dependent interactions whereas light regulation was only implemented in a simplified manner. In the present study, we incorporate a more detailed mechanism for the light-dependent interaction between AppA and PpsR, which now allows for a direct comparison with experiments. Specifically, we take into account that, upon blue-light excitation, AppA undergoes a conformational change, creating a long-lived signalling state causing the dissociation of the AppA-PpsR complexes. The predictions of the extended model are found to be in good agreement with experimental results on the light-dependent repression of photosynthesis genes under semi-aerobic conditions. We also identify the potential kinetic and stoichiometric constraints that the interplay between light and redox regulation imposes on the functionality of the AppA/PpsR system, especially with respect to a possible bistable response. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  1. Repression of the soma-specific transcriptome by Polycomb-repressive complex 2 promotes male germ cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Weipeng; Starmer, Joshua; Fedoriw, Andrew M.; Yee, Della; Magnuson, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27) and functions as a critical epigenetic regulator of both stem cell pluripotency and somatic differentiation, but its role in male germ cell development is unknown. Using conditional mutagenesis to remove the core PRC2 subunits EED and SUZ12 during male germ cell development, we identified a requirement for PRC2 in both mitotic and meiotic germ cells. We observed a paucity of mutant spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which appears independent of repression of the known cell cycle inhibitors Ink4a/Ink4b/Arf. Moreover, mutant spermatocytes exhibited ectopic expression of somatic lamins and an abnormal distribution of SUN1 proteins on the nuclear envelope. These defects were coincident with abnormal chromosome dynamics, affecting homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis. We observed acquisition of H3K27me3 on stage-specific genes during meiotic progression, indicating a requirement for PRC2 in regulating the meiotic transcriptional program. Together, these data demonstrate that transcriptional repression of soma-specific genes by PRC2 facilitates homeostasis and differentiation during mammalian spermatogenesis. PMID:25228648

  2. PHB biosynthesis in catabolite repression mutant of Burkholderia sacchari.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gosset, Guillermo; Rocha, Rafael Costa Santos; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Ferreira da Silva, Luiziana

    2011-10-01

    Due to the effect of catabolite repression, sugar mixtures cannot be metabolized in a rapid and efficient way implicating in lower productivity in bioprocesses using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In gram-negative bacteria, this mechanism is mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS), which concomitantly internalizes and phosphorylates sugars. In this study, we isolated a UV mutant of Burkholderia sacchari, called LFM828, which transports hexoses and pentoses by a non-PTS uptake system. This mutant presented released glucose catabolite repression over the pentoses. In mixtures of glucose, xylose, and arabinose, specific growth rates and the specific sugar consumption rates were, respectively, 10 and 23% higher in LFM828, resulting in a reduced time to exhaust all sugars in the medium. However, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis experiments it was necessary the supplementation of yeast extract to maintain higher values of growth rate and sugar consumption rate. The deficient growth in mineral medium was partially recovered by replacing the ammonium nitrogen source by glutamate. It was demonstrated that the ammonium metabolism is not defective in LFM828, differently from ammonium, glutamate can also be used as carbon and energy allowing an improvement on the carbohydrates utilization for PHB production in LFM828. In contrast, higher rates of ammonia consumption and CO(2) production in LFM828 indicate altered fluxes through the central metabolism in LFM828 and the parental. In conclusion, PTS plays an important role in cell physiology and the elimination of its components has a significant impact on catabolite repression, carbon flux distribution, and PHB biosynthesis in B. sacchari.

  3. Thrombospondin-1 Is a Transcriptional Repression Target of PRMT6*

    PubMed Central

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Richard, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is known to catalyze the generation of asymmetric dimethylarginine in polypeptides. Although the cellular role of PRMT6 is not well understood, it has been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. PRMT6 is known to methylate histone H3 Arg-2 (H3R2), and this negatively regulates the lysine methylation of H3K4 resulting in gene repression. To identify in a nonbiased manner genes regulated by PRMT6 expression, we performed a microarray analysis on U2OS osteosarcoma cells transfected with control and PRMT6 small interfering RNAs. We identified thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, as a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6. Moreover, we show that PRMT6-deficient U2OS cells exhibited cell migration defects that were rescued by blocking the secreted TSP-1 with a neutralizing peptide or blocking α-TSP-1 antibody. PRMT6 associates with the TSP-1 promoter and regulates the balance of methylation of H3R2 and H3K4, such that in PRMT6-deficient cells H3R2 was hypomethylated and H3K4 was trimethylated at the TSP-1 promoter. Using a TSP-1 promoter reporter gene, we further show that PRMT6 directly regulates the TSP-1 promoter activity. These findings show that TSP-1 is a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6 and suggest that neutralizing the activity of PRMT6 could inhibit tumor progression and therefore may be of cancer therapeutic significance. PMID:19509293

  4. Repression of death consciousness and the psychedelic trip.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Varsha

    2012-01-01

    Death is our most repressed consciousness, it inheres our condition as the primordial fear. Perhaps it was necessary that this angst be repressed in man or he would be hurled against the dark forces of nature. Modern ethos was built on this edifice, where the 'denial of death' while 'embracing one's symbolic immortality' would be worshipped, so this ideology simply overturned and repressed looking into the morass of the inevitable when it finally announced itself. Once this slowly pieced its way into all of life, 'death' would soon become a terminology in medicine too and assert its position, by giving a push to those directly dealing with the dying to shy away from its emotional and spiritual affliction. The need to put off death and prolong one's life would become ever more urgent. Research using psychedelics on the terminally ill which had begun in the 1950s and 1960s would coerce into another realm and alter the face of medicine; but the aggression with which it forced itself in the 1960s would soon be politically maimed, and what remained would be sporadic outpours that trickled its way from European labs and underground boot camps. Now, with the curtain rising, the question has etched itself again, about the use of psychedelic drugs in medicine, particularly psychedelic psychotherapy with the terminally ill. This study is an attempt to philosophically explore death anxiety from its existential context and how something that is innate in our condition cannot be therapeutically cured. Psychedelic use was immutably linked with ancient cultures and only recently has it seen its scientific revival, from which a scientific culture grew around psychedelic therapy. How much of what was threaded in the ritual and spiritual mores can be extricated and be interpreted in our own mechanized language of medicine is the question that nudges many.

  5. Resveratrol-Mediated Repression and Reversion of Prostatic Myofibroblast Phenoconversion.

    PubMed

    Gharaee-Kermani, Mehrnaz; Moore, Bethany B; Macoska, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in berries, peanuts, grapes, and red wine, inhibits oxidation, inflammation, and cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in multiple cell types and or animal models. It represses collagen deposition in the vasculature, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and esophagus in animal models and may have some utility as an anti-fibrotic. Recent studies have shown that increased collagen deposition and tissue stiffness in the peri-urethral area of the prostate are associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and urinary obstructive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether Resveratrol might be useful to inhibit or revert TGFβ- and/or CXCL12-mediated myofibroblast phenoconversion of prostate fibroblasts in vitro, and therefore whether the use of anti-fibrotic therapeutics might be efficacious for the treatment of LUTD. Primary prostate and lung tissues were explanted and fibroblast monolayers expanded in vitro. Primary and N1 immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts, as well as primary fibroblasts cultured from a normal lung and one affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for comparison, were grown in serum-free defined media supplemented with vehicle, TGFβ or CXCL12, pre- or post-treatment with Resveratrol, and were evaluated using immunofluorescence for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and collagen I (COL1) protein expression and assessed for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COL1 and EGR1 transcript expression. This study showed that low concentrations of Resveratrol (≤50 μM) had no effect on N1 or primary prostate fibroblast cell proliferation, apoptosis, or COL1 or EGR1 gene transcription but repressed and reversed myofibroblast phenoconversion. As expected, these same effects were observed for IPF lung fibroblasts though higher levels of Resveratrol (≥100uM) were required. Taken together, these data suggest that, like lung fibroblasts, prostate fibroblast to myofibroblast phenoconversion can be both

  6. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Transcriptionally Represses Pak1 in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-García, Bernadette; Vázquez-Rivera, Viviana; González-Flores, Jonathan N.; Engel, Brienne E.; Cress, W. Douglas; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) as a regulator of adherens junction assembly and cell-to-cell adhesion in osteoblasts. This is a novel function since Rb is predominantly known as a cell cycle repressor. Herein, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which Rb performs this function, hypothesizing that Rb controls the activity of known regulators of adherens junction assembly. We found that Rb represses the expression of the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1), an effector of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Rac1 is a well-known regulator of adherens junction assembly whose increased activity in cancer is linked to perturbations of intercellular adhesion. Using nuclear run-on and luciferase reporter transcription assays, we found that Pak1 repression by Rb is transcriptional, without affecting Pak1 mRNA and protein stability. Pak1 promoter bioinformatics showed multiple E2F1 binding sites within 155 base pairs of the transcriptional start site, and a Pak1-promoter region containing these E2F sites is susceptible to transcriptional inhibition by Rb. Chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that an Rb-E2F complex binds to the region of the Pak1 promoter containing the E2F1 binding sites, suggesting that Pak1 is an E2F target and that the repressive effect of Rb on Pak1 involves blocking the trans-activating capacity of E2F. A bioinformatics analysis showed elevated Pak1 expression in several solid tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue, with both Pak1 and E2F increased relative to normal tissue in breast cancer, supporting a cancer etiology for Pak1 up-regulation. Therefore, we propose that by repressing Pak1 expression, Rb prevents Rac1 hyperactivity usually associated with cancer and related to cytoskeletal derangements that disrupt cell adhesion, consequently enhancing cancer cell migratory capacity. This de-regulation of cell adhesion due to Rb loss could be part of the molecular events associated with cancer progression

  7. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  8. Sensation in a single neuron pair represses male behavior in hermaphrodites

    PubMed Central

    White, Jamie Q.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pheromones elicit innate sex-specific mating behaviors in many species. We demonstrate that in C. elegans, male-specific sexual attraction behavior is programmed in both sexes but repressed in hermaphrodites. Repression requires a single sensory neuron pair, the ASIs. To represses attraction in adults, the ASIs must be present, active, and capable of sensing the environment during development. The ASIs release TGF-β, and ASI function can be bypassed by experimental activation of TGF-β signaling. Sexual attraction in de-repressed hermaphrodites requires the same sensory neurons as in males. The sexual identity of both these sensory neurons and a distinct subset of interneurons must be male to relieve repression and release attraction. TGF-β may therefore act to change connections between sensory- and interneurons during development to engage repression. Thus, sensation in a single sensory neuron pair during development reprograms a common neural circuit from male to female behavior. PMID:22920252

  9. How social media matter: Repression and the diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street movement.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Vasi, Ion Bogdan; Chang, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the role played by social media in reshaping the repression-mobilization relationship. Drawing on the case of the Occupy Wall Street movement, we examine the impact of Facebook and Twitter on the spatial diffusion of protests during a period of heightened state repression. Results from event history analyses suggest that the effects of repression on protest diffusion are contingent on the presence of social media accounts supporting the movement. We find that state repression at earlier protest sites encouraged activists to create Facebook and Twitter accounts in their own cities, which then served as important vehicles for the initiation of new Occupy protests. Moreover, results suggest that repression incidents can directly facilitate future protests in cities that already have Occupy Facebook accounts. This study highlights the potential of social media to both mediate and moderate the influence of repression on the diffusion of contemporary movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transforming Growth Factor β-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of c-myc Is Dependent on Direct Binding of Smad3 to a Novel Repressive Smad Binding Element

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Joshua P.; Liberati, Nicole T.; Waddell, David S.; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2004-01-01

    Smad proteins are the most well-characterized intracellular effectors of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signal. The ability of the Smads to act as transcriptional activators via TGF-β-induced recruitment to Smad binding elements (SBE) within the promoters of TGF-β target genes has been firmly established. However, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in TGF-β-mediated transcriptional repression are only recently being uncovered. The proto-oncogene c-myc is repressed by TGF-β, and this repression is required for the manifestation of the TGF-β cytostatic program in specific cell types. We have shown that Smad3 is required for both TGF-β-induced repression of c-myc and subsequent growth arrest in keratinocytes. The transcriptional repression of c-myc is dependent on direct Smad3 binding to a novel Smad binding site, termed a repressive Smad binding element (RSBE), within the TGF-β inhibitory element (TIE) of the c-myc promoter. The c-myc TIE is a composite element, comprised of an overlapping RSBE and a consensus E2F site, that is capable of binding at least Smad3, Smad4, E2F-4, and p107. The RSBE is distinct from the previously defined SBE and may partially dictate, in conjunction with the promoter context of the overlapping E2F site, whether the Smad3-containing complex actively represses, as opposed to transactivates, the c-myc promoter. PMID:14993291

  11. Repressive-defensive style and physiological reactivity among children and adolescents with asthma.

    PubMed

    Nassau, J H; Fritz, G K; McQuaid, E L

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluates the concordance of two self-report methods of operationalizing repressive-defensive style in children with asthma. It was hypothesized that, compared with low-anxious children, repressive-defensive children would exhibit increased physiological reactivity during a stressful laboratory task, despite comparable self-reports of state anxiety. Ninety-one children and adolescents (mean age = 11.5 years) with asthma participated in the study. Repressive-defensiveness was operationalized as self-reported low distress coupled with high defensiveness or restraint. Self-report data reflecting trait anxiety, defensiveness, and personality style were used to classify children as repressive-defensive by two independent methods. Physiological reactivity was operationalized as standardized changes in peripheral temperature, heart rate, and/or skin conductance from baseline to a stressful task. For the stressful task, children spoke into a tape recorder about a stressful or embarrassing event. Each method classified 20% of children as repressive-defensive. However, of the children classified as repressive-defensive by either method (n = 26), only 38% (n = 10) were classified as repressive-defensive by both methods. In addition, regardless of the classification method, repressive-defensive children did not consistently differ from low-anxious children with respect to physiological reactivity under stress, one of the hallmarks of repressive-defensiveness in adults. These results cast doubt on our ability to measure repressive-defensiveness reliably using self-report measures. Future research should determine whether children and adolescents can be reliably classified as repressive-defensive, whether this classification is related to physiological reactivity as in adults, and whether repressive-defensiveness plays a role in emotionally triggered asthma symptoms.

  12. Ski represses BMP signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    kluo@lbl.gov

    2001-05-16

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells by directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-{beta} family members.

  13. Repression of PES1 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieping; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobin; Jiang, Xuping; Huang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlining its development are far from clear. We recently reported that PES1 promoted development of breast cancer and ovarian cancer as an oncogene. In this study, we reported that ablation of endogenous PES1 resulted in significant suppression of cell proliferation and growth and led to cell cycle arrest in G2 or G1 phase, respectively, in two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and N87) in vitro. Meanwhile, silencing of PES1 obviously decreased expressions of cyclin D1, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and increased p21WAF1 expression. Re-expression of PES1 in these two kinds of PES1 knockdown cells rescued these effects. In vivo, repression of endogenous PES1 expression suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, 40.7 % (24/59) of gastric cancer tissues showed PES1 expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. However, there were not any positive PES1 stainings in matched adjacent tissues. Our results demonstrated that repression of PES1 changed expressions of some cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-related genes and inhibited gastric cancer growth, and PES1 expression increased in gastric cancer tissues. These results suggest that PES1 may play an important role in development of gastric cancer. PES1 may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  14. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertolin, Agustina P.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3′ UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available. PMID:27141964

  15. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Gebhardt, J Christof M

    2017-08-21

    Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. DJ-1 activates autophagy in the repression of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruicong; Jiang, Jingzhou; Dong, Bin; Tan, Weiping; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Yili; Dong, Yugang; Liu, Chen

    2017-09-21

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the risk factor of heart failure when the heart is confronted with pressure overload or neurohumoral stimuli. Autophagy, a conserved degradative pathway, is one of the important mechanisms involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. DJ-1 is a traditional anti-oxidative protein and emerging evidence suggested that DJ-1 might modulate autophagy. However, the regulation of autophagy by DJ-1 in the process of cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In our study, we firstly discovered that the expression of DJ-1declined in the process of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, and its alteration was parallel with the impairment of autophagy. Furthermore, we proved that DJ-1 knockout mice exhibited a more hypertrophied phenotype than wildtype mice in cardiac hypertrophy which indicated that DJ-1 is responsible for the repression of cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, DJ-1 knockout significantly exacerbated pulmonary edema due to cardiac hypertrophy. In the process of cardiac hypertrophy, DJ-1 knockout significantly impaired autophagy activation and enhanced mTORC1 and mTORC2 phosphorylation were found. Similarly, our in vitro study proved that DJ-1 overexpression ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and promoted autophagy activation. Taken together, DJ-1 might repress both pressure overload and PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the activation of autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Agustina P; Katz, Maximiliano J; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-09-19

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3' UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available.

  18. Abscisic acid represses the transcription of chloroplast genes*

    PubMed Central

    Yamburenko, Maria V.; Zubo, Yan O.; Börner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. ABA effects on the transcription of chloroplast genes, however, have not been investigated yet thoroughly. This work, therefore, studied the effects of ABA (75 μM) on transcription and steady-state levels of transcripts in chloroplasts of basal and apical segments of primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Basal segments consist of young cells with developing chloroplasts, while apical segments contain the oldest cells with mature chloroplasts. Exogenous ABA reduced the chlorophyll content and caused changes of the endogenous concentrations not only of ABA but also of cytokinins to different extents in the basal and apical segments. It repressed transcription by the chloroplast phage-type and bacteria-type RNA polymerases and lowered transcript levels of most investigated chloroplast genes drastically. ABA did not repress the transcription of psbD and a few other genes and even increased psbD mRNA levels under certain conditions. The ABA effects on chloroplast transcription were more pronounced in basal vs. apical leaf segments and enhanced by light. Simultaneous application of cytokinin (22 μM 6-benzyladenine) minimized the ABA effects on chloroplast gene expression. These data demonstrate that ABA affects the expression of chloroplast genes differentially and points to a role of ABA in the regulation and coordination of the activities of nuclear and chloroplast genes coding for proteins with functions in photosynthesis. PMID:24078671

  19. Nucleolar repression facilitates initiation and maintenance of senescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Leixiang; Song, Tanjing; Chen, Lihong; Soliman, Hatem; Chen, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells with defective apoptosis pathways often respond to chemotherapy by entering irreversible cell cycle arrest with features of senescence. However, rare cells can bypass entry to senescence, or re-enter cell cycle from a senescent state. Deficiency in senescence induction and maintenance may contribute to treatment resistance and early relapse after therapy. Senescence involves epigenetic silencing of cell cycle genes and reduced rRNA transcription. We found that senescence-inducing treatments such as DNA damage and RNA polymerase I inhibition stimulate the binding between the nucleolar protein NML (nucleomethylin) and SirT1. The NML complex promotes rDNA heterochromatin formation and represses rRNA transcription. Depletion of NML reduced the levels of H3K9Me3 and H3K27Me3 heterochromatin markers on rDNA and E2F1 target promoters in senescent cells, increased rRNA transcription, and increased the frequency of cell cycle re-entry. Depletion of the nucleolar transcription repressor factor TIP5 also promoted escape from senescence. Furthermore, tumor tissue staining showed that breast tumors without detectable nucleolar NML expression had poor survival. The results suggest that efficient regulation of nucleolar rDNA transcription facilitates the maintenance of irreversible cell cycle arrest in senescent cells. Deficiency in nucleolar transcription repression may accelerate tumor relapse after chemotherapy.

  20. Abscisic acid represses the transcription of chloroplast genes.

    PubMed

    Yamburenko, Maria V; Zubo, Yan O; Vanková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, Victor V; Kulaeva, Olga N; Börner, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. ABA effects on the transcription of chloroplast genes, however, have not been investigated yet thoroughly. This work, therefore, studied the effects of ABA (75 μM) on transcription and steady-state levels of transcripts in chloroplasts of basal and apical segments of primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Basal segments consist of young cells with developing chloroplasts, while apical segments contain the oldest cells with mature chloroplasts. Exogenous ABA reduced the chlorophyll content and caused changes of the endogenous concentrations not only of ABA but also of cytokinins to different extents in the basal and apical segments. It repressed transcription by the chloroplast phage-type and bacteria-type RNA polymerases and lowered transcript levels of most investigated chloroplast genes drastically. ABA did not repress the transcription of psbD and a few other genes and even increased psbD mRNA levels under certain conditions. The ABA effects on chloroplast transcription were more pronounced in basal vs. apical leaf segments and enhanced by light. Simultaneous application of cytokinin (22 μM 6-benzyladenine) minimized the ABA effects on chloroplast gene expression. These data demonstrate that ABA affects the expression of chloroplast genes differentially and points to a role of ABA in the regulation and coordination of the activities of nuclear and chloroplast genes coding for proteins with functions in photosynthesis.

  1. Evidence that regulatory protein MarA of Escherichia coli represses rob by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Laura M; Levy, Stuart B

    2010-08-01

    The MarA protein of Escherichia coli can both activate and repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the position and orientation of its degenerate 20-bp binding site ("marbox") at the promoter. For all three known repressed genes, the marbox overlaps the promoter. It has been reported that MarA represses the rob promoter via an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA-MarA ternary complex. Under similar conditions, we found a ternary complex for the repressed purA promoter also. These findings, together with the backwards orientation of repressed marboxes, suggested a unique interaction of MarA with RNAP in repression. However, no repression-specific residues of MarA could be found among 38 single-alanine replacement mutations previously shown to retain activation function or among mutants from random mutagenesis. Mutations Thr12Ala, Arg36Ala, Thr95Ile, and Pro106Ala were more damaging for activation than for repression, some up to 10-fold, so these residues may play a specific role in activation. We found that nonspecific binding of RNAP to promoterless regions of DNA was presumably responsible for the ternary complexes seen previously. When RNAP binding was promoter specific, MarA reduced RNAP access to the rob promoter; there was little or no ternary complex. These findings strongly implicate steric hindrance as the mechanism of repression of rob by MarA.

  2. Repression of host RNA polymerase II transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, C A; Dahmus, M E; Rice, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. This transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP II) transcription machinery to the viral genome. However, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcription specificities have not been examined. To determine how HSV-1 accomplishes repression of host RNAP II transcription, we assayed transcription patterns on several cellular genes in cells infected with mutant and wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that HSV-1 represses RNAP II transcription on most cellular genes. However, each cellular gene we examined responds differently to the transcription repressive effects of virus infection, both quantitatively and with respect to the involvement of viral gene products. Virus-induced shutoff of host RNAP II transcription requires expression of multiple immediate-early genes. In contrast, expression of delayed-early and late genes and viral DNA replication appear to contribute little to repression of host cell RNAP II transcription. Modification of RNAP II to the intermediately phosphorylated (II(I)) form appears unlinked to virus-induced repression of host cell transcription. However, full repression of host transcription is correlated with depletion of the hyperphosphorylated (IIO) form of RNAP II. PMID:9032335

  3. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  4. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2-Mediated Chromatin Repression Guides Effector CD8(+) T Cell Terminal Differentiation and Loss of Multipotency.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simon M; Amezquita, Robert A; Guan, Tianxia; Kleinstein, Steven H; Kaech, Susan M

    2017-04-04

    Understanding immunological memory formation depends on elucidating how multipotent memory precursor (MP) cells maintain developmental plasticity and longevity to provide long-term immunity while other effector cells develop into terminally differentiated effector (TE) cells with limited survival. Profiling active (H3K27ac) and repressed (H3K27me3) chromatin in naive, MP, and TE CD8(+) T cells during viral infection revealed increased H3K27me3 deposition at numerous pro-memory and pro-survival genes in TE relative to MP cells, indicative of fate restriction, but permissive chromatin at both pro-memory and pro-effector genes in MP cells, indicative of multipotency. Polycomb repressive complex 2 deficiency impaired clonal expansion and TE cell differentiation, but minimally impacted CD8(+) memory T cell maturation. Abundant H3K27me3 deposition at pro-memory genes occurred late during TE cell development, probably from diminished transcription factor FOXO1 expression. These results outline a temporal model for loss of memory cell potential through selective epigenetic silencing of pro-memory genes in effector T cells.

  5. Dominant repression of target genes by chimeric repressors that include the EAR motif, a repression domain, in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Matsui, Kyoko; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2003-06-01

    The redundancy of genes for plant transcription factors often interferes with efforts to identify the biologic functions of such factors. We show here that four different transcription factors fused to the EAR motif, a repression domain of only 12 amino acids, act as dominant repressors in transgenic Arabidopsis and suppress the expression of specific target genes, even in the presence of the redundant transcription factors, with resultant dominant loss-of-function phenotypes. Chimeric EIN3, CUC1, PAP1, and AtMYB23 repressors that included the EAR motif dominantly suppressed the expression of their target genes and caused insensitivity to ethylene, cup-shaped cotyledons, reduction in the accumulation of anthocyanin, and absence of trichomes, respectively. This chimeric repressor silencing technology (CRES-T), exploiting the EAR-motif repression domain, is simple and effective and can overcome genetic redundancy. Thus, it should be useful not only for the rapid analysis of the functions of redundant plant transcription factors but also for the manipulation of plant traits via the suppression of gene expression that is regulated by specific transcription factors.

  6. Hemolytic anemia repressed hepcidin level without hepatocyte iron overload: lesson from Günther disease model

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Sarah; Delaby, Constance; Moulouel, Boualem; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Pilard, Nathalie; Ducrot, Nicolas; Ged, Cécile; Lettéron, Philippe; de Franceschi, Lucia; Deybach, Jean Charles; Beaumont, Carole; Gouya, Laurent; De Verneuil, Hubert; Lyoumi, Saïd; Puy, Hervé; Karim, Zoubida

    2017-01-01

    Hemolysis occurring in hematologic diseases is often associated with an iron loading anemia. This iron overload is the result of a massive outflow of hemoglobin into the bloodstream, but the mechanism of hemoglobin handling has not been fully elucidated. Here, in a congenital erythropoietic porphyria mouse model, we evaluate the impact of hemolysis and regenerative anemia on hepcidin synthesis and iron metabolism. Hemolysis was confirmed by a complete drop in haptoglobin, hemopexin and increased plasma lactate dehydrogenase, an increased red blood cell distribution width and osmotic fragility, a reduced half-life of red blood cells, and increased expression of heme oxygenase 1. The erythropoiesis-induced Fam132b was increased, hepcidin mRNA repressed, and transepithelial iron transport in isolated duodenal loops increased. Iron was mostly accumulated in liver and spleen macrophages but transferrin saturation remained within the normal range. The expression levels of hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 and hemopexin receptor CD91 were drastically reduced in both liver and spleen, resulting in heme- and hemoglobin-derived iron elimination in urine. In the kidney, the megalin/cubilin endocytic complex, heme oxygenase 1 and the iron exporter ferroportin were induced, which is reminiscent of significant renal handling of hemoglobin-derived iron. Our results highlight ironbound hemoglobin urinary clearance mechanism and strongly suggest that, in addition to the sequestration of iron in macrophages, kidney may play a major role in protecting hepatocytes from iron overload in chronic hemolysis. PMID:28143953

  7. Hemolytic anemia repressed hepcidin level without hepatocyte iron overload: lesson from Günther disease model.

    PubMed

    Millot, Sarah; Delaby, Constance; Moulouel, Boualem; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Pilard, Nathalie; Ducrot, Nicolas; Ged, Cécile; Lettéron, Philippe; de Franceschi, Lucia; Deybach, Jean Charles; Beaumont, Carole; Gouya, Laurent; De Verneuil, Hubert; Lyoumi, Saïd; Puy, Hervé; Karim, Zoubida

    2017-02-01

    Hemolysis occurring in hematologic diseases is often associated with an iron loading anemia. This iron overload is the result of a massive outflow of hemoglobin into the bloodstream, but the mechanism of hemoglobin handling has not been fully elucidated. Here, in a congenital erythropoietic porphyria mouse model, we evaluate the impact of hemolysis and regenerative anemia on hepcidin synthesis and iron metabolism. Hemolysis was confirmed by a complete drop in haptoglobin, hemopexin and increased plasma lactate dehydrogenase, an increased red blood cell distribution width and osmotic fragility, a reduced half-life of red blood cells, and increased expression of heme oxygenase 1. The erythropoiesis-induced Fam132b was increased, hepcidin mRNA repressed, and transepithelial iron transport in isolated duodenal loops increased. Iron was mostly accumulated in liver and spleen macrophages but transferrin saturation remained within the normal range. The expression levels of hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 and hemopexin receptor CD91 were drastically reduced in both liver and spleen, resulting in heme- and hemoglobin-derived iron elimination in urine. In the kidney, the megalin/cubilin endocytic complex, heme oxygenase 1 and the iron exporter ferroportin were induced, which is reminiscent of significant renal handling of hemoglobin-derived iron. Our results highlight ironbound hemoglobin urinary clearance mechanism and strongly suggest that, in addition to the sequestration of iron in macrophages, kidney may play a major role in protecting hepatocytes from iron overload in chronic hemolysis.

  8. Retinoid X receptor alpha represses GATA-4-mediated transcription via a retinoid-dependent interaction with the cardiac-enriched repressor FOG-2.

    PubMed

    Clabby, Martha L; Robison, Trevor A; Quigley, Heather F; Wilson, David B; Kelly, Daniel P

    2003-02-21

    Dietary vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoids, regulate cardiac growth and development. To delineate mechanisms involved in retinoid-mediated control of cardiac gene expression, the regulatory effects of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) on atrial naturietic factor (ANF) gene transcription was investigated. The transcriptional activity of an ANF promoter-reporter in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes was repressed by RXR alpha in the presence of 9-cis-RA and by the constitutively active mutant RXR alpha F318A indicating that liganded RXR confers the regulatory effect. The RXR alpha-mediated repression mapped to the proximal 147 bp of the rat ANF promoter, a region lacking a consensus retinoid response element but containing several known cardiogenic cis elements including a well characterized GATA response element. Glutathione S-transferase "pull-down" assays revealed that RXR alpha interacts directly with GATA-4, in a ligand-independent manner, via the DNA binding domain of RXR alpha and the second zinc finger of GATA-4. Liganded RXR alpha repressed the activity of a heterologous promoter-reporter construct containing GATA-response element recognition sites in cardiac myocytes but not in several other cell types, suggesting that additional cardiac-enriched factors participate in the repression complex. Co-transfection of liganded RXR alpha and the known cardiac-enriched GATA-4 repressor, FOG-2, resulted in additive repression of GATA-4 activity in ventricular myocytes. In addition, RXR alpha was found to bind FOG-2, in a 9-cis-RA-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which retinoids regulate cardiogenic gene expression through direct interaction with GATA-4 and its co-repressor, FOG-2.

  9. Repression and splitting: towards a method of conceptual comparison.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2008-06-01

    An attempt is made to compare two psychoanalytic concepts which by 'belonging' to different psychoanalytic groups have come to be defined and used differently. The paper is also an inquiry into the possibility of a comparative psychoanalytic method. The two concepts are 'repression' and 'splitting of the ego' and an examination is made of the semantic similarities and differences. Some clinical material is offered that adds indicative clinical evidence to test the semantic comparison. The aim is to answer the question: Are the terms simply alternative ones for similar clinical phenomena? The paper offers one method which could provide an answer. It represents a general method for clarifying and maybe reconciling the differing points of view of competing psychoanalytic schools.

  10. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  11. Translational repression by RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Lal, Ashish; Martindale, Jennifer L; Kawai, Tomoko; Gorospe, Myriam

    2006-04-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR has been proposed to inhibit protein synthesis transiently by promoting the formation of translationally silent stress granules. Here, we report the selective binding of TIAR to several mRNAs encoding translation factors such as eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and eIF4E (translation initiation factors), eEF1B (a translation elongation factor), and c-Myc (which transcriptionally controls the expression of numerous translation regulatory proteins). TIAR bound the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs and potently suppressed their translation, particularly in response to low levels of short-wavelength UV (UVC) irradiation. The UVC-imposed global inhibition of the cellular translation machinery was significantly relieved after silencing of TIAR expression. We propose that the TIAR-mediated inhibition of translation factor expression elicits a sustained repression of protein biosynthesis in cells responding to stress.

  12. Id1 regulates angiogenesis through transcriptional repression of thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Volpert, Olga V; Pili, Roberto; Sikder, Hashmat A; Nelius, Thomas; Zaichuk, Tetiana; Morris, Chad; Shiflett, Clinton B; Devlin, Meghann K; Conant, Katherine; Alani, Rhoda M

    2002-12-01

    Id proteins are helix-loop-helix transcription factors that regulate tumor angiogenesis. In order to identify downstream effectors of Id1 involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, we performed PCR-select subtractive hybridization on wild-type and Id1 knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Here we demonstrate that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, is a target of transcriptional repression by Id1. We also show that Id1-null MEFs secrete an inhibitor of endothelial cell migration, which is completely inactivated by depletion of TSP-1. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed decreased neovascularization in matrigel assays in Id1-null mice compared to their wild-type littermates. This decrease was completely reversed by a TSP-1 neutralizing antibody. We conclude that TSP-1 is a major target for Id1 effects on angiogenesis.

  13. Plant Callus: Mechanisms of Induction and Repression[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Momoko; Sugimoto, Keiko; Iwase, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Plants develop unorganized cell masses like callus and tumors in response to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. Since the historical discovery that the combination of two growth-promoting hormones, auxin and cytokinin, induces callus from plant explants in vitro, this experimental system has been used extensively in both basic research and horticultural applications. The molecular basis of callus formation has long been obscure, but we are finally beginning to understand how unscheduled cell proliferation is suppressed during normal plant development and how genetic and environmental cues override these repressions to induce callus formation. In this review, we will first provide a brief overview of callus development in nature and in vitro and then describe our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying callus formation. PMID:24076977

  14. REPRESSIBLE ACID PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE AND CONSTITUTIVE PYROPHOSPHATASE OF SACCHAROMYCES MELLIS1

    PubMed Central

    Weimberg, Ralph; Orton, William L.

    1963-01-01

    Weimberg, Ralph (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.), and William L. Orton. Repressible acid phosphomonoesterase and constitutive pyrophosphatase of Saccharomyces mellis. J. Bacteriol. 86:805–813. 1963.—Saccharomyces mellis produces a nonspecific acid phosphomonoesterase (pH optimum of 5.5 to 6.0) when grown in a medium devoid of phosphate. Only minimal amounts of this enzyme are present in cells harvested from media containing phosphate. The enzyme requires no cofactors. It is inhibited by such anions as phosphate, arsenate, molybdate, and borate. S. mellis also contains an inorganic pyrophosphatase with a pH optimum of 7.5. The properties of this enzyme are distinctly different from those of the acid phosphomonoesterase. The pyrophosphatase requires Mg++ for activity. This enzyme is constitutive, since it is present in cells regardless of the phosphate content of the growth medium. PMID:14066478

  15. Bmp signaling represses Vegfa to promote outflow tract cushion development.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Wang, Jun; Morikawa, Yuka; Bonilla-Claudio, Margarita; Klysik, Elzbieta; Martin, James F

    2013-08-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a devastating anomaly that affects ∼1% of live births. Defects of the outflow tract (OFT) make up a large percentage of human CHD. We investigated Bmp signaling in mouse OFT development by conditionally deleting both Bmp4 and Bmp7 in the second heart field (SHF). SHF Bmp4/7 deficiency resulted in defective epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduced cardiac neural crest ingress, with resultant persistent truncus arteriosus. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that Vegfa was upregulated in the Bmp4/7 mutant hearts. To determine if Vegfa is a downstream Bmp effector during EMT, we examined whether Vegfa is transcriptionally regulated by the Bmp receptor-regulated Smad. Our findings indicate that Smad directly binds to Vegfa chromatin and represses Vegfa transcriptional activity. We also found that Vegfa is a direct target for the miR-17-92 cluster, which is also regulated by Bmp signaling in the SHF. Deletion of miR-17-92 reveals similar phenotypes to Bmp4/7 SHF deletion. To directly address the function of Vegfa repression in Bmp-mediated EMT, we performed ex vivo explant cultures from Bmp4/7 and miR-17-92 mutant hearts. EMT was defective in explants from the Bmp4/7 double conditional knockout (dCKO; Mef2c-Cre;Bmp4/7(f/f)) and miR-17-92 null. By antagonizing Vegfa activity in explants, EMT was rescued in Bmp4/7 dCKO and miR-17-92 null culture. Moreover, overexpression of miR-17-92 partially suppressed the EMT defect in Bmp4/7 mutant embryos. Our study reveals that Vegfa levels in the OFT are tightly controlled by Smad- and microRNA-dependent pathways to modulate OFT development.

  16. Transcriptional Repression by Drosophila Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Karim; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Lee, Tai-Lin; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Xiao, Hengyi; Isobe, Ken-Ichi; Juang, Jyh-Lyh; Shen, C.-K. James

    2000-01-01

    C methylation at genomic CpG dinucleotides has been implicated in the regulation of a number of genetic activities during vertebrate cell differentiation and embryo development. The methylated CpG could induce chromatin condensation through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complexes by methyl-CpG-binding proteins. These proteins consist of the methylated-DNA binding domain (MBD). Unexpectedly, however, several studies have identified MBD-containing proteins encoded by genes of Drosophila melanogaster, an invertebrate species supposed to be void of detectable m5CpG. We now report the genomic structure of a Drosophila gene, dMBD2/3, that codes for two MBD-containing, alternatively spliced, and developmentally regulated isoforms of proteins, dMBD2/3 and dMBD2/3Δ. Interestingly, in vitro binding experiments showed that as was the case for vertebrate MBD proteins, dMBD2/3Δ could preferentially recognize m5CpG-containing DNA through its MBD. Furthermore, dMBD2/3Δ as well as one of its orthologs in mouse, MBD2b, could function in human cells as a transcriptional corepressor or repressor. The activities of HDACs appeared to be dispensable for transcriptional repression by dMBD2/3Δ. Finally, dMBD2/3Δ also could repress transcription effectively in transfected Drosophila cells. The surprisingly similar structures and characteristics of the MBD proteins as well as DNA cytosine (C-5) methyltransferase-related proteins in Drosophila and vertebrates suggest interesting scenarios for their roles in eukaryotic cellular functions. PMID:10982856

  17. BRCA1-mediated repression of select X chromosome genes

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti VR; Aprelikova, Olga; Nuber, Ulrike A; Sotiriou, Christos; Liu, Edison T; Ropers, H Hilger; Yee, Cindy J; Boyd, Jeff; Barrett, J Carl

    2004-01-01

    Recently BRCA1 has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression from the X chromosome. In this study the influence of BRCA1 on expression of X chromosome genes was investigated. Complementary DNA microarrays were used to compare the expression levels of X chromosome genes in 18 BRCA1-associated ovarian cancers to those of the 13 "BRCA1-like" and 14 "BRCA2-like" sporadic tumors (as defined by previously reported expression profiling). Significance was determined using parametric statistics with P < 0.005 as a cutoff. Forty of 178 total X-chromosome transcripts were differentially expressed between the BRCA1-associated tumors and sporadic cancers with a BRCA2-like molecular profile. Thirty of these 40 genes showed higher mean expression in the BRCA1-associated samples including all 11 transcripts that mapped to Xp11. In contrast, four of 178 total X chromosome transcripts showed significant differential expression between BRCA1-associated and sporadic tumors with a BRCA1-like molecular profile. All four mapped to Xp11 and showed higher mean expression in BRCA1-associated tumors. Re-expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cell resulted in the repression of 21 transcripts. Eleven of the 21 (54.5%) transcripts mapped to Xp11. However, there was no significant overlap between these Xp11 genes and those found to be differentially expressed between BRCA1-associated and sporadic ovarian cancer samples. These results demonstrate that BRCA1 mediates the repression of several X chromosome genes, many of which map to the Xp11 locus. PMID:15383145

  18. From the repression of contents to the rules of the (narrative) self: a present-day cognitive view of the Freudian phenomenon of repressed contents.

    PubMed

    Talvitie, Vesa; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2006-06-01

    In psychoanalysis, it is commonly thought that ideas (desires, fears, etc.) may be repressed, and that they can be made conscious. In this article, we shall apply cognitive viewpoints and assert that ideas do not exist in the unconscious as 'ready made', and thus repressed ideas cannot be 'brought' into consciousness. We suggest that the contents of consciousness are formed by processes on four levels: (1) unconscious brain processes, (2) the level of consciousness, (3) the level of self-consciousness, and (4) the level of narrative self-consciousness. From this point of view, the absence (or repression) of certain contents appears to be due to the missing of processes on Levels 1-4. Consequently, repressed contents appear in consciousness when appropriate processes take place. When studied in terms of our four-level model, repression may be treated as part of the study of the self. By applying the viewpoint of the self to the phenomenon of repression, the danger of the homunculus problem can be avoided. It also becomes apparent that certain fundamental problems met in the study of the self are the ones that Freud tried to solve in his meta-psychological writings.

  19. Identification of the minimal repression domain of SUPERMAN shows that the DLELRL hexapeptide is both necessary and sufficient for repression of transcription in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Matsui, Kyoko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2004-08-13

    We reported previously that the carboxy-terminal 30 amino acids of SUPERMAN (SUPRD) function as a repression domain in Arabidopsis. In this study, we identified the peptide sequences in SUPRD that is both necessary and sufficient for repression of transcription. To our surprise, the hexapeptide DLELRL was sufficient, by itself, to confer the ability to repress transcription on a DNA-binding domain. A database search revealed that there are 32 TFIIIA-type zinc finger proteins in the Arabidopsis genome that contain a hexapeptide sequence similar or identical to that of DLELRL. These peptides acted as repression domains, suggesting that these zinc finger proteins might function as active repressors. Further mutational analysis within DLELRL revealed that an amphiphilic motif composed of six amino acids (XLxLXL) with preferences at the first and fifth positions is necessary and sufficient for strong repression. An assay of positional effects suggested that GAL4DB-DLELRL might function as a short-range repressor. A possible mechanism of the DLELRL-mediated repression is discussed.

  20. Repressive Coping, Emotional Adjustment, and Cognition in People Who Have Lost Loved Ones to Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Holly A.; McNally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that a repressive coping style is psychologically protective against the stress of trauma, yet it is unclear whether this finding generalizes to suicide bereavement. Thus, we assessed cognitive ability and mental health among individuals who lost a loved one to suicide. The results indicate that repressive coping may be…

  1. Cyclic 3′:5′-Adenosine Monosphate in Escherichia coli during Transient and Catabolite Repression

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter K.; Rosen, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic AMP concentrations were low for an adenylate cyclase-deficient mutant (cya-) and abnormally high for a catabolite receptor protein-deficient mutant (crp-). A fall in cellular cAMP concentration was always found when cells were subjected to transient repression. No consistent correlations were observed between catabolite repression and cellular cAMP levels. PMID:4364540

  2. The Role of Bile Salt Export Pump Gene Repression in Drug-Induced Cholestatic Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Garzel, Brandy; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) is predominantly responsible for the efflux of bile salts, and disruption of BSEP function is often associated with altered hepatic homeostasis of bile acids and cholestatic liver injury. Accumulating evidence suggests that many drugs can cause cholestasis through interaction with hepatic transporters. To date, a relatively strong association between drug-induced cholestasis and attenuated BSEP activity has been proposed. However, whether repression of BSEP transcription would contribute to drug-induced cholestasis is largely unknown. In this study, we selected 30 drugs previously reported as BSEP inhibitors to evaluate their effects on BSEP expression, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation, and correlations to clinically reported liver toxicity. Our results indicate that of the 30 BSEP inhibitors, five exhibited potent repression of BSEP expression (≥60% repression), ten were moderate repressors (20–60% repression), whereas others had negligible effects (≤20% repression). Of importance, two drugs (troglitazone and benzbromarone), previously withdrawn from the market because of liver injury, are among the potent repressors. Further investigation of the five potent repressors revealed that transcriptional repression of BSEP by lopinavir and troglitazone may occur through their interaction with FXR, whereas others are via FXR-independent yet unidentified pathways. Our data suggest that in addition to functional inhibition, repression of BSEP expression may play an important role in drug-induced cholestatic liver toxicity. Thus, a combination of the two would reveal a more accurate prediction of drug-induced cholestasis than does either repression or inhibition alone. PMID:24335466

  3. How stable is repression of disallowed genes in pancreatic islets in response to metabolic stress?

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Katleen; Granvik, Mikaela; Schraenen, Anica; Goyvaerts, Lotte; Van Lommel, Leentje; Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; In 't Veld, Peter; Gilon, Patrick; Schuit, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The specific phenotype of mature differentiated beta cells not only depends on the specific presence of genes that allow beta cell function but also on the selective absence of housekeeping genes ("disallowed genes") that would interfere with this function. Recent studies have shown that both histone modifications and DNA methylation via the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3A are involved in repression of disallowed genes in neonatal beta cells when these cells acquire their mature phenotype. It is unknown, however, if the environmental influence of advanced age, pregnancy and the metabolic stress of high fat diet or diabetes could alter the repression of disallowed genes in beta cells. In the present study, we show that islet disallowed genes-which are also deeply repressed in FACS-purified beta cells-remain deeply repressed in animals of advanced age and in pregnant females. Moreover, the stability of this repression was correlated with strong and stable histone repression marks that persisted in islets isolated from 2 year old mice and with overall high expression of Dnmt3a in islets. Furthermore, repression of disallowed genes was unaffected by the metabolic stress of high fat diet. However, repression of about half of the disallowed genes was weakened in 16 week-old diabetic db/db mice. In conclusion, we show that the disallowed status of islet genes is stable under physiological challenging conditions (advanced age, pregnancy, high fat diet) but partially lost in islets from diabetic animals.

  4. Functional synthetic Antennapedia genes and the dual roles of YPWM motif and linker size in transcriptional activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Reséndez-Pérez, Diana; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Villanueva-Segura, Karina; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Felix, Daniel A.; Fünfschilling, Raphael; Gehring, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Segmental identity along the anteroposterior axis of bilateral animals is specified by Hox genes. These genes encode transcription factors, harboring the conserved homeodomain and, generally, a YPWM motif, which binds Hox cofactors and increases Hox transcriptional specificity in vivo. Here we derive synthetic Drosophila Antennapedia genes, consisting only of the YPWM motif and homeodomain, and investigate their functional role throughout development. Synthetic peptides and full-length Antennapedia proteins cause head-to-thorax transformations in the embryo, as well as antenna-to-tarsus and eye-to-wing transformations in the adult, thus converting the entire head to a mesothorax. This conversion is achieved by repression of genes required for head and antennal development and ectopic activation of genes promoting thoracic and tarsal fates, respectively. Synthetic Antennapedia peptides bind DNA specifically and interact with Extradenticle and Bric-à-brac interacting protein 2 cofactors in vitro and ex vivo. Substitution of the YPWM motif by alanines abolishes Antennapedia homeotic function, whereas substitution of YPWM by the WRPW repressor motif, which binds the transcriptional corepressor Groucho, allows all proteins to act as repressors only. Finally, naturally occurring variations in the size of the linker between the homeodomain and YPWM motif enhance Antennapedia repressive or activating efficiency, emphasizing the importance of linker size, rather than sequence, for specificity. Our results clearly show that synthetic Antennapedia genes are functional in vivo and therefore provide powerful tools for synthetic biology. Moreover, the YPWM motif is necessary—whereas the entire N terminus of the protein is dispensable—for Antennapedia homeotic function, indicating its dual role in transcriptional activation and repression by recruiting either coactivators or corepressors. PMID:21712439

  5. Systematic repression of transcription factors reveals limited patterns of gene expression changes in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Amano, Tomokazu; Hoang, Hien G.; Binder, Bernard Y.; Tapnio, Richard; Bassey, Uwem; Malinou, Justin N.; Correa-Cerro, Lina S.; Yu, Hong; Xin, Li; Meyers, Emily; Zalzman, Michal; Nakatake, Yuhki; Stagg, Carole; Sharova, Lioudmila; Qian, Yong; Dudekula, Dawood; Sheer, Sarah; Cadet, Jean S.; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yang, Hsih-Te; Goldberg, Ilya; Evans, Michele K.; Longo, Dan L.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Networks of transcription factors (TFs) are thought to determine and maintain the identity of cells. Here we systematically repressed each of 100 TFs with shRNA and carried out global gene expression profiling in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unexpectedly, only the repression of a handful of TFs significantly affected transcriptomes, which changed in two directions/trajectories: one trajectory by the repression of either Pou5f1 or Sox2; the other trajectory by the repression of either Esrrb, Sall4, Nanog, or Tcfap4. The data suggest that the trajectories of gene expression change are already preconfigured by the gene regulatory network and roughly correspond to extraembryonic and embryonic fates of cell differentiation, respectively. These data also indicate the robustness of the pluripotency gene network, as the transient repression of most TFs did not alter the transcriptomes. PMID:23462645

  6. Osa-containing Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes are required for the repression of Wingless target genes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Russell T.; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wingless signaling pathway directs many developmental processes in Drosophila by regulating the expression of specific downstream target genes. We report here that the product of the trithorax group gene osa is required to repress such genes in the absence of the Wingless signal. The Wingless-regulated genes nubbin, Distal-less, and decapentaplegic and a minimal enhancer from the Ultrabithorax gene are misexpressed in osa mutants and repressed by ectopic Osa. Osa-mediated repression occurs downstream of the up-regulation of Armadillo but is sensitive both to the relative levels of activating Armadillo/Pangolin and repressing Groucho/Pangolin complexes present and to the responsiveness of the promoter to Wingless. Osa functions as a component of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex; other components of this complex are likewise required to repress Wingless target genes. These results suggest that altering the conformation of chromatin is an important mechanism by which Wingless signaling activates gene expression. PMID:11124806

  7. Krüppel-associated boxes are potent transcriptional repression domains.

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, J F; Friedman, J R; Meyer, W K; Vissing, H; Thiesen, H J; Rauscher, F J

    1994-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) is a highly conserved, 75-aa region containing two predicted amphipathic alpha-helices. The KRAB domain is present in the amino-terminal regions of more than one-third of all Krüppel-class Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins and is conserved from yeast to man; however, its function is unknown. Here it is shown that the KRAB domain functions as a DNA binding-dependent transcriptional repressor when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain from the yeast GAL4 protein. A 45-aa segment containing one of the predicted KRAB amphipathic helices was necessary and sufficient for repression. Amino acid substitutions in the predicted helix abolished the repression function. These results assign a function, transcriptional repression, to the highly conserved KRAB box and define a minimal repression domain which may aid in identifying mechanisms of repression. Images PMID:8183939

  8. Loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life events in women who develop breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fox, C M; Harper, A P; Hyner, G C; Lyle, R M

    1994-12-01

    Women awaiting mammograms at a breast clinic were given questionnaires to investigate the role of psychosocial variables in the development of breast cancer while controlling for established breast cancer risk factors. Questionnaires to determine loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life changes were completed by 826 female volunteers who were later classified into groups according to their diagnoses. The total emotional repression score showed a hierarchy of most repression to least repression for the most-diseased to the most-healthy subjects. A breakdown of the emotional repression scale revealed that each group was significantly different from the other in suppression of anger and unhappiness. Women in the new cancer group showed significantly more loneliness than the women in the fibrocystic and normal groups. The newly diagnosed cancer group also had a higher proportion of women who experienced the death of a spouse or close family member within the past two years compared to the other groups.

  9. The relationship between two types of impaired emotion processing: repressive coping and alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Lynn B.; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    The constructs of repressive coping and alexithymia are both related to impaired emotion processing, yet individuals with a repressive coping style (repressors) score lower than controls on standard self-report measures of alexithymia. A large body of evidence indicates that repressors avoid negative affect. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia by using independently-rated interviews with the aim of bypassing repressors’ tendency of avoiding negative affect. Results showed that repressors scored high on alexithymia, similar to anxious individuals on the independently-rated interview, but scored low on alexithymia on a questionnaire measure. Our findings confirm a link between alexithymia and repressive coping and stress the need for non-standard measures in exploring the nature of the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia. PMID:26136706

  10. SIRT6 represses LINE1 retrotransposons by ribosylating KAP1 but this repression fails with stress and age

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Michael; Kashyap, Mehr; Rezazadeh, Sarallah; Geneva, Anthony J.; Morello, Timothy D.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    L1 retrotransposons are an abundant class of transposable elements which pose a threat to genome stability and may play a role in age-related pathologies such as cancer. Recent evidence indicates that L1s become more active in somatic tissues during the course of aging; the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown, however. Here we report that the longevity regulating protein, SIRT6, is a powerful repressor of L1 activity. Specifically, SIRT6 binds to the 5′UTR of L1 loci, where it mono-ADP ribosylates the nuclear corepressor protein, KAP1, and facilitates KAP1 interaction with the heterochromatin factor, HP1α, thereby contributing to the packaging of L1 elements into transcriptionally repressive heterochromatin. During the course of aging, and also in response to DNA damage, however, we find that SIRT6 is depleted from L1 loci, allowing for the activation of these previously silenced retroelements. PMID:25247314

  11. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES complex maintains repression of KNOX homeobox genes via direct recruitment of Polycomb-repressive complex2

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Mukesh; Marco, Cristina F.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRCs) ensure the correct spatiotemporal expression of numerous key developmental regulators. Despite their pivotal role, how PRCs are recruited to specific targets remains largely unsolved, particularly in plants. Here we show that the Arabidopsis ASYMMETRIC LEAVES complex physically interacts with PRC2 and recruits this complex to the homeobox genes BREVIPEDICELLUS and KNAT2 to stably silence these stem cell regulators in differentiating leaves. The recruitment mechanism resembles the Polycomb response element-based recruitment of PRC2 originally defined in flies and provides the first such example in plants. Combined with recent studies in mammals, our findings reveal a conserved paradigm to epigenetically regulate homeobox gene expression during development. PMID:23468429

  12. Selective control of Pax7 expression by TNF-activated p38α/polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) signaling during muscle satellite cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mozzetta, Chiara; Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; Forcales, Sonia V; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Palacios, Daniela

    2011-01-15

    Muscle regeneration relies on adult muscle stem (satellite) cells. Inflammatory cues released within the regenerative microenvironment, such as TNFα, instruct different components of the satellite cell niche toward specialized tasks by regulating specific subsets of genes in each individual cell type. However, how regeneration cues are deciphered and interpreted by the multitude of cell types within the regenerative environment is unknown. We have recently identified an inflammation-activated signaling, consisting of p38α-mediated recruitment of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the Pax7 promoter, in satellite cells. Here we show that p38α-PRC2 regulation of Pax7 expression is restricted to a discrete stage of satellite cell-mediated regeneration. In activated satellite cells, Pax7 locus shows a "bivalent" chromatin signature, with co-existence of H3-K27(3me) and H3-K4(3me), that appears to confer responsiveness to p38α-PRC2 signaling. p38α activation resolves bivalence to H3-K27(3me) which results in Pax7 repression, while p38α blockade promotes Pax7 expression by preventing PRC2-mediated H3-K27(3me) and leading to relative increase in H3-K4(3me). Interestingly, in satellite cell-derived myotubes Pax7 expression cannot be re-induced by p38α blockade, revealing a post-mitotic resistance of Pax7 gene to inflammatory cues. Likewise, in other cell types, such as muscle-derived fibroblasts, Pax7 locus is constitutively repressed by PRC2 and is unresponsive to p38α signaling. Finally, we show that Pax7 repression in embryonic stem cells is not directed by p38α signaling, although it is mediated by PRC2. This evidence indicates a cell type- and differentiation-stage specific control of Pax7 transcription by the p38α-PRC2.

  13. MCRS2 represses the transactivation activities of Nrf1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Long; Lin, Young-Sun; Yang, Chi-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Jen; Wu, Shan-Fu; Lin, Ying-Ting; Huang, Chien-Fu

    2009-01-01

    in the redistribution of Nrf1. This suggested the existence of Nrf1-MCRS2 complex in vivo. To further confirm the biological function, a reporter driven by CNC-bZIP protein binding sites was also shown to be repressed by MCRS2 in a transient transfection assay. An artificial reporter gene activated by LexA-Nrf1 was also specifically repressed by MCRS2. Conclusion From the results, we showed MCRS2, a new Nrf1-interacting protein, has a repression effect on Nrf1-mediated transcriptional activation. This was the first ever identified repressor protein related to Nrf1 transactivation. PMID:19187526

  14. AP-1 mediated relief of repressive activity of the CD30 promoter microsatellite in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mariko; Ogawa, Yuji; Ito, Kinji; Higashihara, Masaaki; Kadin, Marshall E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Watanabe, Toshiki; Horie, Ryouichi

    2003-08-01

    Overexpression of CD30 is the hallmark of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells and drives constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB activation that is the molecular basis for the pathophysiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Transcription of the CD30 gene is controlled by the core promoter that is driven by Sp-1 and the microsatellite sequences (MSs) that represses core promoter activity. To understand the mechanism(s) of CD30 overexpression in H-RS cells, we structurally and functionally characterized the CD30 MSs. Although the CD30 MS of H-RS cell lines was polymorphic, it was not truncated compared with that of control cells. A strong core promoter activity and constitutive Sp-1 binding were revealed in all cell lines examined irrespective of the levels of CD30 expression. In transient reporter gene assays, all MS clones derived from H-RS cell lines repressed the core promoter activity in unrelated cell lines, but not in the H-RS cell lines. An AP-1-binding site was found in the MS at nucleotide position of -377 to -371, the presence of which was found to relieve repression of the core promoter in H-RS cell lines but not in other tumor cell lines. H-RS cell lines showed constitutive and strong AP-1-binding activity, but other cell lines did not. The AP-1 complex contained JunB, whose overexpression activated reporter constructs driven by the CD30 promoter including the MSs, and was dependent on the AP-1 site. JunB expression was detected in H-RS cells in vitro and in vivo, but not in reactive cells or tumor cells of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type. Transduction of JunB small interfering RNAs suppressed CD30 promoter activity in L428 cells but not in control cells. Taken together, overexpression and binding of JunB to the AP-1 site appear to relieve the repression of the core promoter by the CD30 MS in H-RS cells, which provide one basis for the constitutive overexpression of CD30 in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  15. Convergent repression of miR156 by sugar and the CDK8 module of Arabidopsis Mediator.

    PubMed

    Buendía-Monreal, Manuel; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2017-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, leaves produced during the juvenile vegetative phase are simple, while adult leaves are morphologically complex. The juvenile to adult transition is regulated by miR156, a microRNA that promotes juvenility by impeding the function of SPL transcription factors, which specify adult leaf traits. Both leaf derived sugars, as well as the Mediator Cyclin Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) module genes CENTER CITY (CCT)/MED12 and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT)/MED13, act upstream of miR156 to promote the juvenile to adult transition. However, it is not known whether sugar, CCT and GCT repress miR156 independently, as part of the same pathway, or in a cooperative manner. Here we show that sugar treatment can repress MIR156 expression in the absence of CCT or GCT. Both cct and the photosynthetic mutant chlorina1 (ch1) (which decreases sugar synthesis) exhibit extended juvenile development and increased MIR156A and MIR156C expression. Compared to ch1 and cct single mutants, the ch1 cct double mutant has a stronger effect on juvenile leaf traits, higher MIR156C levels, and a dramatic increase in MIR156A. Our results show that sugar and the CDK8 module are capable of regulating MIR156 independently, but suggest they normally act together in a synergistic manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elimination of carbon catabolite repression in Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2,3-butanediol production from glucose-xylose mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Huang, He; Ren, Lu-Jing; Peng, Chao; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2011-02-01

    Microbial preference for glucose implies incomplete and/or slow utilization of lignocellulose hydrolysates, which is caused by the regulatory mechanism named carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) producing Klebsiella oxytoca strain was engineered to eliminate glucose repression of xylose utilization. The crp(in) gene, encoding the mutant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein CRP(in), which does not require cAMP for functioning, was characterized and overexpressed in K. oxytoca. The engineered recombinant could utilize a mixture of glucose and xylose simultaneously, without CCR. The profiles of sugar consumption and 2,3-BD production by the engineered recombinant, in glucose and xylose mixtures, were examined and showed that glucose and xylose could be consumed simultaneously to produce 2,3-BD. This study offers a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve highly efficient utilization of sugar mixtures derived from the lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bio-based chemicals using enteric bacteria.

  17. Political Repression Against Soviet Astronomers in the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremmeva, A. I.

    1993-12-01

    The Soviet government's repression of the Russian intelligentsia in the late 1930s had a devastating effect on astronomy. This period was marked by the strengthening of a rigid ideology in society and a growing atmosphere of suspicion, fear, and spy mania. Under these conditions the international nature of astronomy--in particular the need for foreign contacts--became the excuse for accusations of "wrecking" against astronomers. The fate of individual astronomers and institutions depended greatly, however, on local circumstances. For example, the general political repression of the 1930s began in Leningrad at a time when Pulkovo Observatory director B. P. Gerasimovich was engaged in a sharp conflict with a small group of junior staff led by V. A. Ambartsumian. In addition, the very first arrest of a Leningrad astronomer--namely the arrest of B. V. Numerov--appears to have initiated a cascading series of arrests that spread like an avalanche through the close-knit com- munity of Leningrad astronomers. These two factors led to the devastating ruin of Pulkovo. Completely different circumstances saved GAISh. This was a com- paratively young institute whose junior staff had spent its formative years at GAISh rather than joining the staff from out- side (as had been the case at Pulkovo). Thus the GAISh staff had a greater degree of homogeneity and solidarity, and this, in turn, may explain why the ideological department at GAISh (the "partburo") conducted itself in a manner that differed sharply from that of the "partburo" at Pulkovo. Thanks to these circum- stances not even one arrest occurred at GAISh. The directors of Pulkovo and GAISh came from very similar back- grounds, but the different conditions at Pulkovo and GAISh led to dramatic differences in their fates: execution for B. P. Gerasimovich in 1937 and "only" the persecution of GAISh director V. G. Fesenkov. The persecution of V. G. Fesenkov included his dismissal from the post of chairman of the Astronomical

  18. A cellular chemical probe targeting the chromodomains of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Jacob I; Dickson, Bradley M; Cheng, Nancy; Liu, Yanli; Norris, Jacqueline L; Cholensky, Stephanie H; Tempel, Wolfram; Qin, Su; Huber, Katherine G; Sagum, Cari; Black, Karynne; Li, Fengling; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Baughman, Brandi M; Senisterra, Guillermo; Pattenden, Samantha G; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J; Bedford, Mark T; Min, Jinrong; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and characterization of UNC3866, a potent antagonist of the methyl-lysine (Kme) reading function of the Polycomb CBX and CDY families of chromodomains. Polycomb CBX proteins regulate gene expression by targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 to sites of H3K27me3 via their chromodomains. UNC3866 binds the chromodomains of CBX4 and CBX7 most potently with a Kd of ∼100 nM for each, and is 6- to 18-fold selective versus seven other CBX and CDY chromodomains while being highly selective versus >250 other protein targets. X-ray crystallography revealed that UNC3866 closely mimics the interactions of the methylated H3 tail with these chromodomains. UNC4195, a biotinylated derivative of UNC3866, was used to demonstrate that UNC3866 engages intact PRC1 and that EED incorporation into PRC1 is isoform-dependent in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Finally, UNC3866 inhibits PC3 cell proliferation, a known CBX7 phenotype, while UNC4219, a methylated negative control compound, has negligible effects. PMID:26807715

  19. Sirt1 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Repressing UCP2 in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bordone, Laura; Jhala, Ulupi S; Apfeld, Javier; McDonagh, Thomas; Lemieux, Madeleine; McBurney, Michael; Szilvasi, Akos; Easlon, Erin J; Lin, Su-Ju; Guarente, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP) gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In β cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin) levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in β cells to affect insulin secretion. PMID:16366736

  20. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  1. Repression of TCF3/E2A contributes to Hodgkin lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hanfeng; Xie, Linka; Wirth, Thomas; Ushmorov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Although Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) derived from germinal or post germinal B cells, they have lost the B cell phenotype in the process of lymphomagenesis. The phenomenon can be at least partially explained by repression of B-cell-specific transcription factors including TCF3, early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), SPI1/PU.1, and FOXO1, which are down-regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The unique phenotype has been suspected to be advantageous for survival of HRS cells. Ectopic expression of some of these transcription factors (EBF1, PU.1, FOXO1) indeed impaired survival of cHL cells. Here we show that forced expression of TCF3 causes cell death and cell cycle arrest in cHL cell lines. Mechanistically, TCF3 overexpression modulated expression of multiple pro-apoptotic genes including BIK, APAF1, FASLG, BOK, and TNFRSF10A/DR4. We conclude that TCF3 inactivation contributes not only to extinguishing of B cell phenotype but also to cHL oncogenesis. PMID:27166193

  2. Feedback circuitry between miR-218 repression and RTK activation in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lijoy K; Huangyang, Peiwei; Mucaj, Vera; Lee, Samuel S; Skuli, Nicolas; Eisinger-Mathason, T S Karin; Biju, Kevin; Li, Bo; Venneti, Sriram; Lal, Priti; Lathia, Justin D; Rich, Jeremy N; Keith, Brian; Simon, M Celeste

    2015-05-05

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling promotes the growth and progression of glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive type of brain tumor. We previously reported that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM directly promotes RTK activity by increasing the expression of key RTKs and their signaling mediators, including the RTK epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1), and the kinases PIK3CA and ARAF. However, increased RTK signaling usually activates negative feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. We found that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM cells also increased the expression of genes encoding additional upstream and downstream components of RTK signaling pathways, including the RTK platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and the kinases ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), that collectively overrode the negative feedback mechanism. Furthermore, increased RTK signaling itself suppressed miR-218 expression. Mass spectrometry and DNA pull-down identified binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) along with the transcriptional repressor BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) directly to the miR-218 locus. These data identify previously unknown feedback loops by which miR-218 repression promotes increased RTK signaling in high-grade gliomas.

  3. Repressed synthesis of ribosomal proteins generates protein-specific cell cycle and morphological phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Mamata; Bommakanti, Ananth; Shamsuzzaman, Md.; Gregory, Brian; Samsel, Leigh; Zengel, Janice M.; Lindahl, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The biogenesis of ribosomes is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Distortion of the coordinated synthesis of ribosomal components affects not only ribosome formation, but also cell fate. However, the connection between ribosome biogenesis and cell fate is not well understood. To establish a model system for inquiries into these processes, we systematically analyzed cell cycle progression, cell morphology, and bud site selection after repression of 54 individual ribosomal protein (r-protein) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that repression of nine 60S r-protein genes results in arrest in the G2/M phase, whereas repression of nine other 60S and 22 40S r-protein genes causes arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, bud morphology changes after repression of some r-protein genes. For example, very elongated buds form after repression of seven 60S r-protein genes. These genes overlap with, but are not identical to, those causing the G2/M cell cycle phenotype. Finally, repression of most r-protein genes results in changed sites of bud formation. Strikingly, the r-proteins whose repression generates similar effects on cell cycle progression cluster in the ribosome physical structure, suggesting that different topological areas of the precursor and/or mature ribosome are mechanistically connected to separate aspects of the cell cycle. PMID:24109599

  4. Natural memory beyond the storage model: repression, trauma, and the construction of a personal past.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Do Lam, Anne T A; Kessler, Henrik; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring memory processes show features which are difficult to investigate by conventional cognitive neuroscience paradigms. Distortions of memory for problematic contents are described both by psychoanalysis (internal conflicts) and research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; external traumata). Typically, declarative memory for these contents is impaired - possibly due to repression in the case of internal conflicts or due to dissociation in the case of external traumata - but they continue to exert an unconscious pathological influence: neurotic symptoms or psychosomatic disorders after repression or flashbacks and intrusions in PTSD after dissociation. Several experimental paradigms aim at investigating repression in healthy control subjects. We argue that these paradigms do not adequately operationalize the clinical process of repression, because they rely on an intentional inhibition of random stimuli (suppression). Furthermore, these paradigms ignore that memory distortions due to repression or dissociation are most accurately characterized by a lack of self-referential processing, resulting in an impaired integration of these contents into the self. This aspect of repression and dissociation cannot be captured by the concept of memory as a storage device which is usually employed in the cognitive neurosciences. It can only be assessed within the framework of a constructivist memory concept, according to which successful memory involves a reconstruction of experiences such that they fit into a representation of the self. We suggest several experimental paradigms that allow for the investigation of the neural correlates of repressed memories and trauma-induced memory distortions based on a constructivist memory concept.

  5. Natural Memory Beyond the Storage Model: Repression, Trauma, and the Construction of a Personal Past

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Do Lam, Anne T. A.; Kessler, Henrik; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring memory processes show features which are difficult to investigate by conventional cognitive neuroscience paradigms. Distortions of memory for problematic contents are described both by psychoanalysis (internal conflicts) and research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; external traumata). Typically, declarative memory for these contents is impaired – possibly due to repression in the case of internal conflicts or due to dissociation in the case of external traumata – but they continue to exert an unconscious pathological influence: neurotic symptoms or psychosomatic disorders after repression or flashbacks and intrusions in PTSD after dissociation. Several experimental paradigms aim at investigating repression in healthy control subjects. We argue that these paradigms do not adequately operationalize the clinical process of repression, because they rely on an intentional inhibition of random stimuli (suppression). Furthermore, these paradigms ignore that memory distortions due to repression or dissociation are most accurately characterized by a lack of self-referential processing, resulting in an impaired integration of these contents into the self. This aspect of repression and dissociation cannot be captured by the concept of memory as a storage device which is usually employed in the cognitive neurosciences. It can only be assessed within the framework of a constructivist memory concept, according to which successful memory involves a reconstruction of experiences such that they fit into a representation of the self. We suggest several experimental paradigms that allow for the investigation of the neural correlates of repressed memories and trauma-induced memory distortions based on a constructivist memory concept. PMID:21151366

  6. Repressed synthesis of ribosomal proteins generates protein-specific cell cycle and morphological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Mamata; Bommakanti, Ananth; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Gregory, Brian; Samsel, Leigh; Zengel, Janice M; Lindahl, Lasse

    2013-12-01

    The biogenesis of ribosomes is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Distortion of the coordinated synthesis of ribosomal components affects not only ribosome formation, but also cell fate. However, the connection between ribosome biogenesis and cell fate is not well understood. To establish a model system for inquiries into these processes, we systematically analyzed cell cycle progression, cell morphology, and bud site selection after repression of 54 individual ribosomal protein (r-protein) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that repression of nine 60S r-protein genes results in arrest in the G2/M phase, whereas repression of nine other 60S and 22 40S r-protein genes causes arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, bud morphology changes after repression of some r-protein genes. For example, very elongated buds form after repression of seven 60S r-protein genes. These genes overlap with, but are not identical to, those causing the G2/M cell cycle phenotype. Finally, repression of most r-protein genes results in changed sites of bud formation. Strikingly, the r-proteins whose repression generates similar effects on cell cycle progression cluster in the ribosome physical structure, suggesting that different topological areas of the precursor and/or mature ribosome are mechanistically connected to separate aspects of the cell cycle.

  7. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A core erythroid transcriptional network is repressed by a master regulator of myelo-lymphoid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wontakal, Sandeep N; Guo, Xingyi; Smith, Cameron; MacCarthy, Thomas; Bresnick, Emery H; Bergman, Aviv; Snyder, Michael P; Weissman, Sherman M; Zheng, Deyou; Skoultchi, Arthur I

    2012-03-06

    Two mechanisms that play important roles in cell fate decisions are control of a "core transcriptional network" and repression of alternative transcriptional programs by antagonizing transcription factors. Whether these two mechanisms operate together is not known. Here we report that GATA-1, SCL, and Klf1 form an erythroid core transcriptional network by co-occupying >300 genes. Importantly, we find that PU.1, a negative regulator of terminal erythroid differentiation, is a highly integrated component of this network. GATA-1, SCL, and Klf1 act to promote, whereas PU.1 represses expression of many of the core network genes. PU.1 also represses the genes encoding GATA-1, SCL, Klf1, and important GATA-1 cofactors. Conversely, in addition to repressing PU.1 expression, GATA-1 also binds to and represses >100 PU.1 myelo-lymphoid gene targets in erythroid progenitors. Mathematical modeling further supports that this dual mechanism of repressing both the opposing upstream activator and its downstream targets provides a synergistic, robust mechanism for lineage specification. Taken together, these results amalgamate two key developmental principles, namely, regulation of a core transcriptional network and repression of an alternative transcriptional program, thereby enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms that establish cellular identity.

  9. Repression of retrovirus-mediated transgene expression by interferons: implications for gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, S; Carroll, J M; Taichman, L B

    1997-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer is commonly used in gene therapy protocols and has the potential to provide long-term expression of the transgene. Although expression of a retrovirus-delivered transgene is satisfactory in cultured cells, it has been difficult to achieve consistent and high-level expression in vivo. In this investigation, we explored the possibility of modulating transgene expression by host-derived cytokines. Normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were transduced with recombinant retroviruses expressing a reporter gene (lacZ). Treatment of transduced cells with a proinflammatory cytokine, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), significantly reduced lacZ expression to less than 25% of that of nontreated cells. The inhibition was concentration dependent (peak at 5 ng/ml) and time dependent (maximal at 16 h for transcript and 24 h for protein); expression remained repressed in the continued presence of IFN-gamma but returned to normal levels 24 h after IFN-gamma withdrawal. The decrease in beta-galactosidase activity appeared to result from decrease in steady-state lacZ mRNA levels. Inhibitors of transcription and translation blocked IFN-gamma-induced repression, suggesting involvement of newly synthesized protein intermediates. Similar results were obtained by treatment of transduced cells with IFN-alpha but not with other proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-1), IL-4, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Although the level of lacZ mRNA was reduced by >70% following IFN treatment, the rate of lacZ transcription was not significantly different from that for nontreated cells. These results suggest that IFN-mediated regulation of transgene expression is at a posttranscriptional level. Interestingly, IFN-gamma also suppressed transgene expression driven by a cellular promoter (involucrin) inserted in an internal position in the retroviral vector. The presence of the overlapping 3' untranslated

  10. MicroRNA-125b Promotes Neuronal Differentiation in Human Cells by Repressing Multiple Targets▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Le, Minh T. N.; Xie, Huangming; Zhou, Beiyan; Chia, Poh Hui; Rizk, Pamela; Um, Moonkyoung; Udolph, Gerald; Yang, Henry; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Research on miRNAs has highlighted their importance in neural development, but the specific functions of neurally enriched miRNAs remain poorly understood. We report here the expression profile of miRNAs during neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Six miRNAs were significantly upregulated during differentiation induced by all-trans-retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of either miR-124a or miR-125b increases the percentage of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with neurite outgrowth. Subsequently, we focused our functional analysis on miR-125b and demonstrated the important role of this miRNA in both the spontaneous and induced differentiations of SH-SH5Y cells. miR-125b is also upregulated during the differentiation of human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and miR-125b ectopic expression significantly promotes the neurite outgrowth of these cells. To identify the targets of miR-125b regulation, we profiled the global changes in gene expression following miR-125b ectopic expression in SH-SY5Y cells. miR-125b represses 164 genes that contain the seed match sequence of the miRNA and/or that are predicted to be direct targets of miR-125b by conventional methods. Pathway analysis suggests that a subset of miR-125b-repressed targets antagonizes neuronal genes in several neurogenic pathways, thereby mediating the positive effect of miR-125b on neuronal differentiation. We have further validated the binding of miR-125b to the miRNA response elements of 10 selected mRNA targets. Together, we report here for the first time the important role of miR-125b in human neuronal differentiation. PMID:19635812

  11. MicroRNA-125b promotes neuronal differentiation in human cells by repressing multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Le, Minh T N; Xie, Huangming; Zhou, Beiyan; Chia, Poh Hui; Rizk, Pamela; Um, Moonkyoung; Udolph, Gerald; Yang, Henry; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Research on miRNAs has highlighted their importance in neural development, but the specific functions of neurally enriched miRNAs remain poorly understood. We report here the expression profile of miRNAs during neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Six miRNAs were significantly upregulated during differentiation induced by all-trans-retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of either miR-124a or miR-125b increases the percentage of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with neurite outgrowth. Subsequently, we focused our functional analysis on miR-125b and demonstrated the important role of this miRNA in both the spontaneous and induced differentiations of SH-SH5Y cells. miR-125b is also upregulated during the differentiation of human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and miR-125b ectopic expression significantly promotes the neurite outgrowth of these cells. To identify the targets of miR-125b regulation, we profiled the global changes in gene expression following miR-125b ectopic expression in SH-SY5Y cells. miR-125b represses 164 genes that contain the seed match sequence of the miRNA and/or that are predicted to be direct targets of miR-125b by conventional methods. Pathway analysis suggests that a subset of miR-125b-repressed targets antagonizes neuronal genes in several neurogenic pathways, thereby mediating the positive effect of miR-125b on neuronal differentiation. We have further validated the binding of miR-125b to the miRNA response elements of 10 selected mRNA targets. Together, we report here for the first time the important role of miR-125b in human neuronal differentiation.

  12. Lipin1-Mediated Repression of Adipogenesis by Rutin.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Dae-Seung; Shin, Soyoung; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jung, Yunu; Lee, Young-Mi; Park, Jin-Han; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Rutin, also called rutoside or quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is a glycoside between the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. Although many effects of rutin have been reported in vitro and in vivo, the anti-adipogenic effects of rutin have not been fully reported. The aim of this study was to confirm how rutin regulates adipocyte related factors. In this study, rutin decreased the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferators, activated receptor [Formula: see text] (PPAR[Formula: see text], CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein [Formula: see text] (C/EBP[Formula: see text], fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 cells. Rutin also repressed the expression of lipin1, which is an upstream regulator that controls PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. In addition, when 3T3-L1 was transfected with lipin1 siRNA to block lipin1 function, rutin did not affect the expressions of PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. These results suggest that rutin has an anti-adipogenic effect that acts through the suppression of lipin1, as well as PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text].

  13. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Supporting Repressed Scientists: Continuing Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birman, Joseph L.

    2010-02-01

    Some years ago, Max Perutz asked ``By What Right Do We Scientists Invoke Human Rights?" My presentation will start with mentioning actions of the international community which relate to this question. Such action as the creation in 1919 of the International Research Council, and continuing on to the present with the UN sanctioned International Council of Scientific Unions [ICSU], and other Committees such as those formed by APS, CCS, NYAS, AAAS which give support to repressed scientists around the world now. My own work has attempted to combine my individual initiatives with work as a member and officer of these groups. Together with like minded colleagues who are deeply affected when colleagues are discharged from their positions, exiled, imprisoned and subject to brutal treatment, often after mock ``trials", we react. On visits in 1968 to conferences in Budapest, and then in 1969 to Moscow, Tallin and Leningrad I became personally and deeply touched by the lives of colleagues who were seriously constrained by living under dictatorships. I could move freely into and out of their countries,speak openly about my work or any other matter. They could not, under penalty of possibly serious punishment. Yet, I felt these people were like my extended family. If my grandparents had not left Eastern Europe for the USA in the late 189Os our situations could have been reversed. A little later in the 197O's, ``refusenik" and ``dissident" scientists in the USSR needed support. Colleagues like Andrei Sakharov, Naum Meiman, Mark Azbel, Yakov Alpert, Yuri Orlov and others were being punished for exercising their rights under the UN sanctioned international protocals on ``Universality of Science and Free Circulation of Scientists". Their own governments [which signed these agreements] ignored the very protections they had supported. On frequent trips to the USSR during the 7Os,and 8Os I also seized the opportunity for ``individual initiative" to help these colleagues. I asked for

  14. NF90 coordinately represses the senescence-associated secretory phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Taub, Dennis D.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark trait of cellular senescence is the acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP factors include cytokines and their receptors (IL-6, IL-8, osteoprotegerin, GM-CSF), chemokines and their ligands (MCP-1, HCC4), and oncogenes (Gro1 and Gro2), many of them encoded by mRNAs whose stability and translation are tightly regulated. Using two models of human fibroblast senescence (WI-38 and IDH4 cells), we report the identification of RNA-binding protein NF90 as a post-transcriptional repressor of several SASP factors. In ‘young’, proliferating fibroblasts, NF90 was highly abundant, associated with numerous SASP mRNAs, and inhibited their expression. By contrast, senescent cells expressed low levels of NF90, thus allowing SASP factor expression to increase. NF90 elicited these effects mainly by repressing the translation of target SASP mRNAs, since silencing NF90 did not increase the steady-state levels of SASP mRNAs but elevated key SASP factors including MCP-1, GROa, IL-6, and IL-8. Our findings indicate that NF90 contributes to maintaining low levels of SASP factors in non-senescent cells, while NF90 reduction in senescent cells allows SASP factor expression to rise. PMID:23117626

  15. NF90 coordinately represses the senescence-associated secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tominaga-Yamanaka, Kumiko; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Martindale, Jennifer L; Yang, Xiaoling; Taub, Dennis D; Gorospe, Myriam

    2012-10-01

    A hallmark trait of cellular senescence is the acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP factors include cytokines and their receptors (IL-6, IL-8, osteoprotegerin, GM-CSF), chemokines and their ligands (MCP-1, HCC4), and oncogenes (Gro1 and Gro2), many of them encoded by mRNAs whose stability and translation are tightly regulated. Using two models of human fibroblast senescence (WI-38 and IDH4 cells), we report the identification of RNA-binding protein NF90 as a post-transcriptional repressor of several SASP factors. In 'young', proliferating fibroblasts, NF90 was highly abundant, associated with numerous SASP mRNAs, and inhibited their expression. By contrast, senescent cells expressed low levels of NF90, thus allowing SASP factor expression to increase. NF90 elicited these effects mainly by repressing the translation of target SASP mRNAs, since silencing NF90 did not increase the steady-state levels of SASP mRNAs but elevated key SASP factors including MCP-1, GROa, IL-6, and IL-8. Our findings indicate that NF90 contributes to maintaining low levels of SASP factors in non-senescent cells, while NF90 reduction in senescent cells allows SASP factor expression to rise.

  16. Production and catabolite repression of Penicillium italicum beta-glucanases.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, T; Villanueva, J R; Nombela, C

    1977-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium italicum, grown in a defined liquid medium, produced beta-1,3-glucanase, which remained essentially bound to the cells, and beta-1,6-glucanase, an essentially extracellular enzyme. When glucose was depleted from the medium, when a limited concentration of glucose (0.2%) was maintained, or when the carbon source was galactose (3%) or lactose (3%), a significant increase in the specific activity of beta-1,3-glucanase, in cell extracts, took place. This was paralleled by a very slow rate of growth, and under glucose limitation, the appearance of beta-1,3-glucanase in the medium was also observed. On the other hand, when an excess of glucose, fructose, or sucrose was present, the specific activity remained constant and active growth was promoted. Laminarin, cellobiose, gentiobiose, and isolated Penicillium italicum walls were not capable of significantly inducing beta-1,3-glucanase synthesis to a level beyond that attained by glucose limitation. A similar behavior was observed for beta-1,6-glucanase. beta-1,3-Glucanase and beta-1,6-glucanase are therefore constitutive enzymes subjected to catabolite repression. The results are discussed in the context of the possible functions that have been suggested for glucanases and related enzymes. PMID:830646

  17. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 Represses Pathogen Defense Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhong; Hu, Qin; Wu, Zhenjiang; Wang, Hui; Han, Shiming; Jin, Ye; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Jiang, Jiafu; Shen, Yun; Shi, Huazhong; Yang, Wannian; Shi, Huazhong

    2017-08-02

    Plant defense mechanisms are suppressed in the absence of pathogen attack to prevent wasted energy and growth inhibition. However, how defense responses are repressed is not well understood. Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDA6) is a negative regulator of gene expression, and its role in pathogen defense response in plants is not known. In this study, a novel allele of hda6 (designated as shi5) with spontaneous defense response was isolated from a forward genetics screening in Arabidopsis. The shi5 mutant exhibited increased resistance to hemi-biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000, constitutively activated expression of pathogen responsive genes including PR1, PR2, etc, and increased histone acetylation levels at the promoters of most tested genes that were up-regulated in shi5. In both wild type and shi5 plants, the expression and histone acetylation of these genes were upregulated by pathogen infection. HDA6 was found to bind to the promoters of these genes under both normal growth conditions and pathogen infection. Our research suggests that HDA6 is a general repressor of pathogen defense response and plays important roles in inhibiting and modulating the expression of pathogen responsive genes in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Thamarai; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-04-14

    The Escherichia coli transcriptional regulator MarA affects functions that include antibiotic resistance, persistence, and survival. MarA functions as an activator or repressor of transcription utilizing similar degenerate DNA sequences (marboxes) with three different binding site configurations with respect to the RNA polymerase-binding sites. We demonstrate that MarA down-regulates rob transcripts both in vivo and in vitro via a MarA-binding site within the rob promoter that is positioned between the -10 and -35 hexamers. As for the hdeA and purA promoters, which are repressed by MarA, the rob marbox is also in the "backward" orientation. Protein-DNA interactions show that SoxS and Rob, like MarA, bind the same marbox in the rob promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses with a MarA-specific antibody demonstrate that MarA and RNA polymerase form a ternary complex with the rob promoter DNA. Transcription experiments in vitro and potassium permanganate footprinting analysis show that MarA affects the RNA polymerase-mediated closed to open complex formation at the rob promoter.

  20. LATS2 Positively Regulates Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Torigata, Kosuke; Daisuke, Okuzaki; Mukai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Akira; Ohka, Fumiharu; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Kondo, Yutaka; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    LATS2, a pivotal Ser/Thr kinase of the Hippo pathway, plays important roles in many biological processes. LATS2 also function in Hippo-independent pathway, including mitosis, DNA damage response and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, the physiological relevance and molecular basis of these LATS2 functions remain obscure. To understand novel functions of LATS2, we constructed a LATS2 knockout HeLa-S3 cell line using TAL-effector nuclease (TALEN). Integrated omics profiling of this cell line revealed that LATS2 knockout caused genome-wide downregulation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that downregulation of PRC2 was not due to cell cycle aberrations caused by LATS2 knockout. Not LATS1, a homolog of LATS2, but LATS2 bound PRC2 on chromatin and phosphorylated it. LATS2 positively regulates histone methyltransferase activity of PRC2 and their expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings reveal a novel signal upstream of PRC2, and provide insight into the crucial role of LATS2 in coordinating the epigenome through regulation of PRC2. PMID:27434182

  1. Repression of the Antioxidant NRF2 Pathway in Premature Aging.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Nard; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Lixia; Voss, Ty C; Yang, Jiping; Qu, Jing; Liu, Guang-Hui; Misteli, Tom

    2016-06-02

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, invariably fatal premature aging disorder. The disease is caused by constitutive production of progerin, a mutant form of the nuclear architectural protein lamin A, leading, through unknown mechanisms, to diverse morphological, epigenetic, and genomic damage and to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attrition in vivo. Using a high-throughput siRNA screen, we identify the NRF2 antioxidant pathway as a driver mechanism in HGPS. Progerin sequesters NRF2 and thereby causes its subnuclear mislocalization, resulting in impaired NRF2 transcriptional activity and consequently increased chronic oxidative stress. Suppressed NRF2 activity or increased oxidative stress is sufficient to recapitulate HGPS aging defects, whereas reactivation of NRF2 activity in HGPS patient cells reverses progerin-associated nuclear aging defects and restores in vivo viability of MSCs in an animal model. These findings identify repression of the NRF2-mediated antioxidative response as a key contributor to the premature aging phenotype.

  2. Tristetraprolin Represses Estrogen Receptor α Transactivation in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  3. Possible roles for polycomb repressive complex 2 in cereal endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Tonosaki, Kaoru; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex in both plants and animals. In contrast to animals, plants have evolved a range of different components of PRC2 and form diverse complexes that act in the control of key regulatory genes at many stages of development during the life cycle. A number of studies, particularly in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, have highlighted the role of PRC2 and of epigenetic controls via parent-of-origin specific gene expression for endosperm development. However, recent research in cereal plants has revealed that although some components of PRC2 show evolutionary conservation with respect to parent-of-origin specific gene expression patterns, the identity of the imprinted genes encoding PRC2 components is not conserved. This disparity may reflect the facts that cereal plant genomes have undergone different patterns of duplication during evolution compared to A. thaliana and that the endosperm development program is not identical in monocots and eudicots. In this context, we focus this review on the expression of imprinted PRC2 genes and their roles in endosperm development in cereals. PMID:25814998

  4. Selective repression of SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J; Cairns, Bradley R; White, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A million copies of the Alu short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) are scattered throughout the human genome, providing ∼11% of our total DNA. SINEs spread by retrotransposition, using a transcript generated by RNA polymerase (pol) III from an internal promoter. Levels of these pol III-dependent Alu transcripts are far lower than might be expected from the abundance of the template. This was believed to reflect transcriptional suppression through DNA methylation, denying pol III access to most SINEs through chromatin-mediated effects. Contrary to expectations, our recent study found no evidence that methylation of SINE DNA reduces its occupancy or expression by pol III. However, histone H3 associated with SINEs is prominently methylated on lysine 9, a mark that correlates with transcriptional silencing. The SUV39 methyltransferases that deposit this mark can be found at many SINEs. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of SUV39 stimulates pol III recruitment to these loci, as well as SINE expression. These data suggest that methylation of histone H3 rather than DNA may mediate repression of SINE transcription by pol III, at least under the conditions we studied.

  5. Cytomegalovirus downregulates IRE1 to repress the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Sebastian; Burkhart, Julia M; Hinte, Florian; Tirosh, Boaz; Mohr, Hermine; Zahedi, René P; Sickmann, Albert; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Budt, Matthias; Brune, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    During viral infection, a massive demand for viral glycoproteins can overwhelm the capacity of the protein folding and quality control machinery, leading to an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To restore ER homeostasis, cells initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) by activating three ER-to-nucleus signaling pathways, of which the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent pathway is the most conserved. To reduce ER stress, the UPR decreases protein synthesis, increases degradation of unfolded proteins, and upregulates chaperone expression to enhance protein folding. Cytomegaloviruses, as other viral pathogens, modulate the UPR to their own advantage. However, the molecular mechanisms and the viral proteins responsible for UPR modulation remained to be identified. In this study, we investigated the modulation of IRE1 signaling by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and found that IRE1-mediated mRNA splicing and expression of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is repressed in infected cells. By affinity purification, we identified the viral M50 protein as an IRE1-interacting protein. M50 expression in transfected or MCMV-infected cells induced a substantial downregulation of IRE1 protein levels. The N-terminal conserved region of M50 was found to be required for interaction with and downregulation of IRE1. Moreover, UL50, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) homolog of M50, affected IRE1 in the same way. Thus we concluded that IRE1 downregulation represents a previously undescribed viral strategy to curb the UPR.

  6. Cytomegalovirus Downregulates IRE1 to Repress the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Sebastian; Burkhart, Julia M.; Hinte, Florian; Tirosh, Boaz; Mohr, Hermine; Zahedi, René P.; Sickmann, Albert; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Budt, Matthias; Brune, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    During viral infection, a massive demand for viral glycoproteins can overwhelm the capacity of the protein folding and quality control machinery, leading to an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To restore ER homeostasis, cells initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) by activating three ER-to-nucleus signaling pathways, of which the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent pathway is the most conserved. To reduce ER stress, the UPR decreases protein synthesis, increases degradation of unfolded proteins, and upregulates chaperone expression to enhance protein folding. Cytomegaloviruses, as other viral pathogens, modulate the UPR to their own advantage. However, the molecular mechanisms and the viral proteins responsible for UPR modulation remained to be identified. In this study, we investigated the modulation of IRE1 signaling by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and found that IRE1-mediated mRNA splicing and expression of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is repressed in infected cells. By affinity purification, we identified the viral M50 protein as an IRE1-interacting protein. M50 expression in transfected or MCMV-infected cells induced a substantial downregulation of IRE1 protein levels. The N-terminal conserved region of M50 was found to be required for interaction with and downregulation of IRE1. Moreover, UL50, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) homolog of M50, affected IRE1 in the same way. Thus we concluded that IRE1 downregulation represents a previously undescribed viral strategy to curb the UPR. PMID:23950715

  7. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R G; Sadler, Anthony J

    2017-03-10

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity.

  8. Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Belén; Valín, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern. PMID:19555762

  9. ZBTB7A suppresses melanoma metastasis by transcriptionally repressing MCAM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Song; Genet, Matthew D; Haines, Jenna E; Mehanna, Elie K; Wu, Shaowei; Chen, Hung-I Harry; Chen, Yidong; Qureshi, Abrar A; Han, Jiali; Chen, Xiang; Fisher, David E; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Yuan, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    The excessive metastatic propensity of melanoma makes it the most deadly form of skin cancer, yet the underlying mechanism of metastasis remains elusive. Here, mining of cancer genome datasets discovered a frequent loss of chromosome 19p13.3 and associated down-regulation of the zinc finger transcription factor ZBTB7A in metastatic melanoma. Functional assessment of ZBTB7A-regulated genes identified MCAM, which encodes an adhesion protein key to melanoma metastasis. Using an integrated approach, it is demonstrated that ZBTB7A directly binds to the promoter and transcriptionally represses the expression of MCAM, establishing ZBTB7A as a bona fide transcriptional repressor of MCAM. Consistently, down-regulation of ZBTB7A results in marked upregulation of MCAM and enhanced melanoma cell invasion and metastasis. An inverse correlation of ZBTB7A and MCAM expression in association with melanoma metastasis is further validated with data from analysis of human melanoma specimens. Implications Together these results uncover a previously unrecognized role of ZBTB7A in negative regulation of melanoma metastasis and have important clinical implications. PMID:25995384

  10. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  11. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A.; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Sadler, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity. PMID:28281686

  12. Role of sugar uptake and metabolic intermediates on catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, J M; Thoms, B

    1977-01-01

    Many phosphorylated intermediates exert catabolite repression on the enzyme acetoin dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis. This was shown with strains that are blocked at different positions in central metabolism when they receive sugars that cannot be metabolized past enzymatic block(s). In the case of sorbitol, transport events were not involved in catabolite repression, for this sugar cannot repress acetoin dehydrogenase in a strain lacking sorbitol dehydrogenase but otherwise able to take up sorbitol. The presence of glucose did not markedly influence the uptake of acetoin. PMID:401492

  13. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    König, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Büscher, M; Schönthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  14. A cis-acting element in the promoter of human ether à go-go 1 potassium channel gene mediates repression by calcitriol in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cázares-Ordoñez, V; González-Duarte, R J; Díaz, L; Ishizawa, M; Uno, S; Ortíz, V; Ordoñez-Sánchez, M L; Makishima, M; Larrea, F; Avila, E

    2015-02-01

    The human ether à go-go 1 potassium channel (hEAG1) is required for cell cycle progression and proliferation of cancer cells. Inhibitors of hEAG1 activity and expression represent potential therapeutic drugs in cancer. Previously, we have shown that hEAG1 expression is downregulated by calcitriol in a variety of cancer cells. Herein, we provided evidence on the regulatory mechanism involved in such repressive effect in cells derived from human cervical cancer. Our results indicate that repression by calcitriol occurs at the transcriptional level and involves a functional negative vitamin D response element (nVDRE) E-box type in the hEAG1 promoter. The described mechanism in this work implies that a protein complex formed by the vitamin D receptor-interacting repressor, the vitamin D receptor, the retinoid X receptor, and the Williams syndrome transcription factor interact with the nVDRE in the hEAG1 promoter in the absence of ligand. Interestingly, all of these transcription factors except the vitamin D receptor-interacting repressor are displaced from hEAG1 promoter in the presence of calcitriol. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights into calcitriol mode of action in repressing hEAG1 gene expression.

  15. Sevoflurane represses the self-renewal ability by regulating miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qimin; Li, Guifeng; Li, Baolin; Chen, Qiu; Lv, Dongdong; Liu, Jiaying; Ma, Jieyu; Sun, Nai; Yang, Longqiu; Fei, Xuejie; Song, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a frequently-used clinical inhalational anaesthetic and can cause toxicity to embryos during foetal development. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of blastospheres and can be used as a useful model of early development. Here, we found that sevoflurane significantly influenced self-renewal ability of mESCs on stemness maintenance and cell proliferation. The cell cycle was arrested via G1 phase delay. We further found that sevoflurane upregulated expression of miR-7a,7b to repress self-renewal. Next we performed rescue experiments and found that after adding miR-7a,7b inhibitor into mESCs treated with sevoflurane, its influence on self-renewal could be blocked. Further we identified stemness factor Klf4 as the direct target of miR-7a,7b. Overexpression of Klf4 restored self-renewal ability repressed by miR-7a,7b or sevoflurane. In this work, we determined that sevoflurane repressed self-renewal ability by regulating the miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mESCs. Our study demonstrated molecular mechanism underlying the side effects of sevoflurane during early development, laying the foundation for studies on safe usage of inhalational anaesthetic during non-obstetric surgery.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a catabolite repression-insensitive mutant of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5, producing alcohol oxidase in glucose-containing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Sawai, T.; Tani, Y.

    1987-08-01

    Mutants exhibiting alcohol oxidase activity when grown on glucose in the presence of methanol were found among 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants derived from a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5. One of these mutants, strain ADU-15, showed the highest alcohol oxidase activity in glucose-containing medium. The growth characteristics and also the induction and degradation of alcohol oxidase were compared with the parent strain and mutant strain ADU-15. In the parent strain, initiation of alcohol oxidase synthesis was delayed by the addition of 0.5% glucose to the methanol medium, whereas it was not delayed in mutant strain ADU-15. This showed that alcohol oxidase underwent repression by glucose. On the other hand, degradation of alcohol oxidase after transfer of the cells from methanol to glucose medium (catabolite inactivation) was observed to proceed at similar rates in parent and mutant strains. The results of immunochemical titration experiments suggests that catabolite inactivation of alcohol oxidase is coupled with a quantitative change in the enzyme. Mutant strain ADU-15 was proved to be a catabolite repression-insensitive mutant and to produce alcohol oxidase in the presence of glucose. However, it was not an overproducer of alcohol oxidase and, in both the parent and mutant strains, alcohol oxidase was completely repressed by ethanol.

  17. The retinoblastoma family of proteins directly represses transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arnerić, Milica; Traven, Ana; Staresincić, Lidija; Sopta, Mary

    2002-03-15

    The retinoblastoma family of proteins are key cell cycle regulatory molecules important for the differentiation of various mammalian cell types. The retinoblastoma protein regulates transcription of a variety of genes either by blocking the activation domain of various activators or by active repression via recruitment to appropriate promoters. We show here that the retinoblastoma family of proteins functions as direct transcriptional repressors in a heterologous yeast system when fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4. Mapping experiments indicate that either the A or the B domain of the pocket region is sufficient for repression in vivo. As is the case in mammalian cells, a phosphorylation site mutant of the retinoblastoma protein is a stronger transcriptional repressor than the wild type protein. We show that transcriptional repression by pRb is dependent on CLN3 in vivo. Furthermore, the yeast histone deacetylase components, RPD3 and SIN3, are required for transcriptional repression.

  18. Pachytene asynapsis drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Ellis, Peter J I; Mitchell, Michael J; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2006-04-01

    Transcriptional silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (MSCI) is conserved among organisms with limited sex chromosome synapsis, including mammals. Since the 1990s the prevailing view has been that MSCI in mammals is transient, with sex chromosome reactivation occurring as cells exit meiosis. Recently, we found that any chromosome region unsynapsed during pachytene of male and female mouse meiosis is subject to transcriptional silencing (MSUC), and we hypothesized that MSCI is an inevitable consequence of this more general meiotic silencing mechanism. Here, we provide direct evidence that asynapsis does indeed drive MSCI. We also show that a substantial degree of transcriptional repression of the sex chromosomes is retained postmeiotically, and we provide evidence that this postmeiotic repression is a downstream consequence of MSCI/MSUC. While this postmeiotic repression occurs after the loss of MSUC-related proteins at the end of prophase, other histone modifications associated with transcriptional repression have by then become established.

  19. Something Silent This Way Forms: The Functional Organization of the Repressive Nuclear Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ritland Politz, Joan C.; Scalzo, David; Groudine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The repressive compartment of the nucleus is comprised primarily of telomeric and centromeric regions, the silent portion of ribosomal RNA genes, the majority of transposable element repeats, and facultatively repressed genes specific to different cell types. This compartment localizes into three main regions: the peripheral heterochromatin, perinucleolar heterochromatin, and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Both chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription of noncoding RNAs are involved in maintenance of repression in these compartments. Global reorganization of the repressive compartment occurs at each cell division, during early development, and during terminal differentiation. Differential action of chromatin remodeling complexes and boundary element looping activities are involved in mediating these organizational changes. We discuss the evidence that heterochromatin formation and compartmentalization may drive nuclear organization. PMID:23834025

  20. Feedback repression of ornithine decarboxylase synthesis mediated by antizyme.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J L; Choe, C Y; Judd, G G

    1996-01-01

    The induction of antizyme by spermidine and the resulting enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) degradation have been well studied; however, little is known about the mechanism whereby elevated spermidine levels decrease synthesis of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme. To evaluate the relative contribution of inhibited synthesis, as distinct from enhanced degradation of ODC, spermidine levels were manipulated in a variant cell line that overproduces a stable form of ODC. Spermidine did not selectively inhibit ODC synthesis in these variant cells, supporting the concept that spermidine diminishes ODC synthesis in normal cells owing to enhanced degradation of the protein in the presence of elevated antizyme levels. This model was further investigated in vitro by use of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, which catalyses simultaneous ODC mRNA translation and antizyme-stimulated degradation of ODC protein. Antizyme strongly repressed the incorporation of labelled amino acids into normal rat ODC. Unexpectedly it also diminished the apparent translation of ODC mRNA species coding for enzyme forms that are not destabilized by the post-translational addition of antizyme. The effect of antizyme on ODC translation was not observed in wheatgerm extract, in which there is no antizyme-induced degradation. Further, deletion of a short segment of antizyme necessary for the destabilization of ODC (amino acid residues 113-118) resulted in a form that bound ODC but did not diminish its apparent translation. These results suggest that the co-translational addition of antizyme to ODC results in a complex that is different from, and innately less stable than, that formed when antizyme is added post-translationally. PMID:9003359

  1. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Middeldorp, Jinte; Kamphuis, Willem; Sluijs, Jacqueline A.; Achoui, Dalila; Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; van Tijn, Paula; Fischer, David F.; Berkers, Celia; Ovaa, Huib; Quinlan, Roy A.; Hol, Elly M.

    2009-01-01

    Increased expression of the astrocytic intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a characteristic of astrogliosis. This process occurs in the brain during aging and neurodegeneration and coincides with impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs protein degradation; therefore, we hypothesized that the increase in GFAP may be the result of impaired proteasomal activity in astrocytes. We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on GFAP expression and other intermediate filament proteins in human astrocytoma cells and in a rat brain model for astrogliosis. Extensive quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis resulted unexpectedly in a strong decrease of GFAP mRNA to <4% of control levels [Control (DMSO) 100±19.2%; proteasome inhibitor (epoxomicin) 3.5±1.3%, n=8; P≤0.001] and a loss of GFAP protein in astrocytes in vitro. We show that the proteasome alters GFAP promoter activity, possibly mediated by transcription factors as demonstrated by a GFAP promoter-luciferase assay and RT2 Profiler PCR array for human transcription factors. Most important, we demonstrate that proteasome inhibitors also reduce GFAP and vimentin expression in a rat model for induced astrogliosis in vivo. Therefore, proteasome inhibitors could serve as a potential therapy to modulate astrogliosis associated with CNS injuries and disease.—Middeldorp, J., Kamphuis, W., Sluijs, J. A., Achoui, D., Leenaars, C. H. C., Feenstra, M. G. P., van Tijn, P., Fischer, D. F., Berkers, C., Ovaa, H., Quinlan, R. A., Hol, E. M. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition. PMID:19332645

  2. Comment on "Multiple repressive mechanisms in the hippocampus during memory formation".

    PubMed

    Mathew, Rebecca S; Mullan, Hillary; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Lehtinen, Maria K

    2016-07-29

    Cho et al. (Reports, 2 October 2015, p. 82) report that gene repression after contextual fear conditioning regulates hippocampal memory formation. We observe low levels of expression for many of the top candidate genes in the hippocampus and robust expression in the choroid plexus, as well as repression at 4 hours after contextual fear conditioning, suggesting the inclusion of choroid plexus messenger RNAs in Cho et al. hippocampal samples.

  3. Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marques Howarth, Michelle; Simpson, David; Ngok, Siu P.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Chen, Ron; Siprashvili, Zurab; Vaka, Dedeepya; Breese, Marcus R.; Crompton, Brian D.; Alexe, Gabriela; Hawkins, Doug S.; Jacobson, Damon; Brunner, Alayne L.; West, Robert; Mora, Jaume; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Khavari, Paul; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma–associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes. PMID:25401475

  4. Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marques Howarth, Michelle; Simpson, David; Ngok, Siu P; Nieves, Bethsaida; Chen, Ron; Siprashvili, Zurab; Vaka, Dedeepya; Breese, Marcus R; Crompton, Brian D; Alexe, Gabriela; Hawkins, Doug S; Jacobson, Damon; Brunner, Alayne L; West, Robert; Mora, Jaume; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Khavari, Paul; Sweet-Cordero, E Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma-associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes.

  5. Coordinate post-transcriptional repression of Dpp-dependent transcription factors attenuates signal range during development.

    PubMed

    Newton, Fay G; Harris, Robin E; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Ashe, Hilary L

    2015-10-01

    Precise control of the range of signalling molecule action is crucial for correct cell fate patterning during development. For example, Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) are maintained by exquisitely short-range BMP signalling from the niche. In the absence of BMP signalling, one GSC daughter differentiates into a cystoblast (CB) and this fate is stabilised by Brain tumour (Brat) and Pumilio (Pum)-mediated post-transcriptional repression of mRNAs, including that encoding the Dpp transducer, Mad. However, the identity of other repressed mRNAs and the mechanism of post-transcriptional repression are currently unknown. Here, we identify the Medea and schnurri mRNAs, which encode transcriptional regulators required for activation and/or repression of Dpp target genes, as additional Pum-Brat targets, suggesting that tripartite repression of the transducers is deployed to desensitise the CB to Dpp. In addition, we show that repression by Pum-Brat requires recruitment of the CCR4 and Pop2 deadenylases, with knockdown of deadenylases in vivo giving rise to ectopic GSCs. Consistent with this, Pum-Brat repression leads to poly(A) tail shortening and mRNA degradation in tissue culture cells, and we detect a reduced number of Mad and shn transcripts in the CB relative to the GSC based on single molecule mRNA quantitation. Finally, we show generality of the mechanism by demonstrating that Brat also attenuates pMad and Dpp signalling range in the early embryo. Together our data serve as a platform for understanding how post-transcriptional repression restricts interpretation of BMPs and other cell signals in order to allow robust cell fate patterning during development.

  6. Influence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion on the bistable behavior of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2004-03-01

    A mathematical model of the lac operon which includes all of the known regulatory mechanisms, including external-glucose-dependent catabolite repression and inducer exclusion, as well as the time delays inherent to transcription and translation, is presented. With this model we investigate the influence of external glucose, by means of catabolite repression and the regulation of lactose uptake, on the bistable behavior of this system.

  7. Mechanisms and consequences of ATMIN repression in hypoxic conditions: roles for p53 and HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Göttgens, Eva-Leonne; Biasoli, Deborah; Olcina, Monica M.; Ient, Jonathan; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Bernhardt, Stephan; Giaccia, Amato J.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced replication stress is one of the most physiologically relevant signals known to activate ATM in tumors. Recently, the ATM interactor (ATMIN) was identified as critical for replication stress-induced activation of ATM in response to aphidicolin and hydroxyurea. This suggests an essential role for ATMIN in ATM regulation during hypoxia, which induces replication stress. However, ATMIN also has a role in base excision repair, a process that has been demonstrated to be repressed and less efficient in hypoxic conditions. Here, we demonstrate that ATMIN is dispensable for ATM activation in hypoxia and in contrast to ATM, does not affect cell survival and radiosensitivity in hypoxia. Instead, we show that in hypoxic conditions ATMIN expression is repressed. Repression of ATMIN in hypoxia is mediated by both p53 and HIF-1α in an oxygen dependent manner. The biological consequence of ATMIN repression in hypoxia is decreased expression of the target gene, DYNLL1. An expression signature associated with p53 activity was negatively correlated with DYNLL1 expression in patient samples further supporting the p53 dependent repression of DYNLL1. Together, these data demonstrate multiple mechanisms of ATMIN repression in hypoxia with consequences including impaired BER and down regulation of the ATMIN transcriptional target, DYNLL1. PMID:26875667

  8. Repression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in glioblastoma cells using engineered zinc finger transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Andrew W; Zhang, Lei; Urnov, Fyodor; Dent, Carolyn; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhong, Xiaohong; Rebar, Edward J; Jamieson, Andrew C; Zhang, H Steven; Tan, Siyuan; Case, Casey C; Pabo, Carl O; Wolffe, Alan P; Gregory, Philip D

    2003-12-15

    Angiogenic factors are necessary for tumor proliferation and thus are attractive therapeutic targets. In this study, we have used engineered zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factors (TFs) to repress expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in human cancer cell lines. We create potent transcriptional repressors by fusing a designed ZFP targeted to the VEGF-A promoter with either the ligand-binding domain of thyroid hormone receptor alpha or its viral relative, vErbA. Moreover, this ZFP-vErbA repressor binds its intended target site in vivo and mediates the specific deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the targeted promoter, a result that emulates the natural repression mechanism of these domains. The potential therapeutic relevance of ZFP-mediated VEGF-A repression was addressed using the highly tumorigenic glioblastoma cell line U87MG. Despite the aberrant overexpression of VEGF-A in this cell line, engineered ZFP TFs were able to repress the expression of VEGF-A by >20-fold. The VEGF-A levels observed after ZFP TF-mediated repression were comparable to those of a nonangiogenic cancer line (U251MG), suggesting that the degree of repression obtained with the ZFP TF would be sufficient to suppress tumor angiogenesis. Thus, engineered ZFP TFs are shown to be potent regulators of gene expression with therapeutic promise in the treatment of disease.

  9. Gene transcription repression in Clostridium beijerinckii using CRISPR-dCas9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhong-Tian; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lynn, Patrick; Lu, Ting; Jin, Yong-Su; Blaschek, Hans P

    2016-12-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 has been explored as a powerful tool for genome engineering for many organisms. Meanwhile, dCas9 which lacks endonuclease activity but can still bind to target loci has been engineered for efficient gene transcription repression. Clostridium beijerinckii, an industrially significant species capable of biosolvent production, is generally difficult to metabolically engineer. Recently, we reported our work in developing customized CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering in C. beijerinckii. However, in many cases, gene expression repression (rather than actual DNA mutation) is more desirable for various biotechnological applications. Here, we further demonstrated gene transcription repression in C. beijerinckii using CRISPR-dCas9. A small RNA promoter was employed to drive the expression of the single chimeric guide RNA targeting on the promoter region of amylase gene, while a constitutive thiolase promoter was used to drive Streptococcus pyogenes dCas9 expression. The growth assay on starch agar plates showed qualitatively significant repression of amylase activity in C. beijerinckii transformant with CRISPR-dCas9 compared to the control strain. Further amylase activity quantification demonstrated consistent repression (65-97% through the fermentation process) on the activity in the transformant with CRISPR-dCas9 versus in the control. Our results provided essential references for engineering CRISPR-dCas9 as an effective tool for tunable gene transcription repression in diverse microorganisms. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2739-2743. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of sgRNA target sites for CRISPR-mediated repression of TP53.

    PubMed

    Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Ferreira, Joshua P; Wang, Clifford L

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) platform has been developed as a general method to direct proteins of interest to gene targets. While the native CRISPR system delivers a nuclease that cleaves and potentially mutates target genes, researchers have recently employed catalytically inactive CRISPR-associated 9 nuclease (dCas9) in order to target and repress genes without DNA cleavage or mutagenesis. With the intent of improving repression efficiency in mammalian cells, researchers have also fused dCas9 with a KRAB repressor domain. Here, we evaluated different genomic sgRNA targeting sites for repression of TP53. The sites spanned a 200-kb distance, which included the promoter, transcript sequence, and regions flanking the endogenous human TP53 gene. We showed that repression up to 86% can be achieved with dCas9 alone (i.e., without use of the KRAB domain) by targeting the complex to sites near the TP53 transcriptional start site. This work demonstrates that efficient transcriptional repression of endogenous human genes can be achieved by the targeted delivery of dCas9. Yet, the efficiency of repression strongly depends on the choice of the sgRNA target site.

  11. Repression of IP-10 by Interactions between Histone Deacetylation and Hypermethylation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Coward, William R.; Watts, Keira; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.; Jenkins, Gisli; Pang, Linhua

    2010-01-01

    Targeted repression of a subset of key genes involved in tissue remodeling is a cardinal feature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The mechanism is unclear but is potentially important in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targeting. We have previously reported that defective histone acetylation is responsible for the repression of the antifibrotic cyclooxygenase-2 gene. Here we extended our study to the repression of another antifibrotic gene, the potent angiostatic chemokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), in lung fibroblasts from patients with IPF. We revealed that this involved not only histone deacetylation, as with cyclooxygenase-2 repression, but also histone H3 hypermethylation, as a result of decreased recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and increased presence of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing repressor complexes, histone methyltransferases G9a and SUV39H1, and heterochromatin protein 1 at the IP-10 promoter, leading to reduced transcription factor binding. More importantly, treatment of diseased cells with HDAC or G9a inhibitors similarly reversed the repressive histone deacetylation and hypermethylation and restored IP-10 expression. These findings strongly suggest that epigenetic dysregulation involving interactions between histone deacetylation and hypermethylation is responsible for targeted repression of IP-10 and potentially other antifibrotic genes in fibrotic lung disease and that this is amenable to therapeutic targeting. PMID:20404089

  12. Independence of Repressive Histone Marks and Chromatin Compaction during Senescent Heterochromatic Layer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Tamir; Kirschner, Kristina; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Pope, Benjamin D.; Ryba, Tyrone; Newman, Scott; Ahmed, Kashif; Samarajiwa, Shamith A.; Salama, Rafik; Carroll, Thomas; Stark, Rory; Janky, Rekin’s; Narita, Masako; Xue, Lixiang; Chicas, Agustin; Nũnez, Sabrina; Janknecht, Ralf; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Wilson, Michael D.; Marshall, Aileen; Odom, Duncan T.; Babu, M. Madan; Bazett-Jones, David P.; Tavaré, Simon; Edwards, Paul A.W.; Lowe, Scott W.; Kimura, Hiroshi; Gilbert, David M.; Narita, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The expansion of repressive epigenetic marks has been implicated in heterochromatin formation during embryonic development, but the general applicability of this mechanism is unclear. Here we show that nuclear rearrangement of repressive histone marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 into nonoverlapping structural layers characterizes senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) formation in human fibroblasts. However, the global landscape of these repressive marks remains unchanged upon SAHF formation, suggesting that in somatic cells, heterochromatin can be formed through the spatial repositioning of pre-existing repressively marked histones. This model is reinforced by the correlation of presenescent replication timing with both the subsequent layered structure of SAHFs and the global landscape of the repressive marks, allowing us to integrate microscopic and genomic information. Furthermore, modulation of SAHF structure does not affect the occupancy of these repressive marks, nor vice versa. These experiments reveal that high-order heterochromatin formation and epigenetic remodeling of the genome can be discrete events. PMID:22795131

  13. Independence of repressive histone marks and chromatin compaction during senescent heterochromatic layer formation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Tamir; Kirschner, Kristina; Thuret, Jean-Yves; Pope, Benjamin D; Ryba, Tyrone; Newman, Scott; Ahmed, Kashif; Samarajiwa, Shamith A; Salama, Rafik; Carroll, Thomas; Stark, Rory; Janky, Rekin's; Narita, Masako; Xue, Lixiang; Chicas, Agustin; Nũnez, Sabrina; Janknecht, Ralf; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Wilson, Michael D; Marshall, Aileen; Odom, Duncan T; Babu, M Madan; Bazett-Jones, David P; Tavaré, Simon; Edwards, Paul A W; Lowe, Scott W; Kimura, Hiroshi; Gilbert, David M; Narita, Masashi

    2012-07-27

    The expansion of repressive epigenetic marks has been implicated in heterochromatin formation during embryonic development, but the general applicability of this mechanism is unclear. Here we show that nuclear rearrangement of repressive histone marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 into nonoverlapping structural layers characterizes senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) formation in human fibroblasts. However, the global landscape of these repressive marks remains unchanged upon SAHF formation, suggesting that in somatic cells, heterochromatin can be formed through the spatial repositioning of pre-existing repressively marked histones. This model is reinforced by the correlation of presenescent replication timing with both the subsequent layered structure of SAHFs and the global landscape of the repressive marks, allowing us to integrate microscopic and genomic information. Furthermore, modulation of SAHF structure does not affect the occupancy of these repressive marks, nor vice versa. These experiments reveal that high-order heterochromatin formation and epigenetic remodeling of the genome can be discrete events.

  14. Histone H3.3K27M Represses p16 to Accelerate Gliomagenesis in a Murine Model of DIPG.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Francisco J; Huang, Zhiqing; Grenier, Carole; He, Xingyao; Hu, Guo; McLendon, Roger E; Murphy, Susan K; Hashizume, Rintaro; Becher, Oren J

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor genetically distinguished from adult GBM by the high prevalence of the K27M mutation in the histone H3 variant H3.3 (H3F3A). This mutation reprograms the H3K27me3 epigenetic landscape of DIPG by inhibiting the H3K27-specific histone methyltransferase EZH2. This globally reduces H3K27me2/3, critical repressive marks responsible for cell fate decisions, and also causes focal gain of H3K27me3 throughout the epigenome. To date, the tumor-driving effects of H3.3K27M remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that H3.3K27M cooperates with PDGF-B in vivo, enhancing gliomagenesis and reducing survival of p53 wild-type (WT) and knockout murine models of DIPG. H3.3K27M expression drives increased proliferation of tumor-derived murine neurospheres, suggesting that cell-cycle deregulation contributes to increased malignancy in mutant tumors. RNA sequencing on tumor tissue from H3.3K27M-expressing mice indicated global upregulation of PRC2 target genes, and a subset of newly repressed genes enriched in regulators of development and cell proliferation. Strikingly, H3.3K27M induced targeted repression of the p16/ink4a (CDKN2A) locus, a critical regulator of the G0-G1 to S-phase transition. Increased levels of H3K27me3 were observed at the p16 promoter; however, pharmacologic reduction of methylation at this promoter did not rescue p16 expression. Although DNA methylation is also present at this promoter, it is not K27M dependent. Intriguingly, inhibition of DNA methylation restores p16 levels and is cytotoxic against murine tumor cells. Importantly, these data reveal that H3.3K27M-mediated p16 repression is an important mechanism underlying the proliferation of H3.3K27M tumor cells, as in vivo cdkn2a knockout eliminates the survival difference between H3.3K27M and H3.3WT tumor-bearing mice.Implications: This study shows that H3.3K27M mutation and PDGF signaling act in concert to

  15. Basic Pentacysteine Proteins Repress Abscisic Acid Insensitive4 Expression via Direct Recruitment of the Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 in Arabidopsis Root Development.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Zou, Meijuan; Sun, Xuwu; He, Baoye; Xu, Xiumei; Liu, Yini; Zhang, Lixin; Chi, Wei

    2017-01-30

    Plant transcription factors generally act in complex regulatory networks that function at multiple levels to govern plant developmental programs. Dissection of the interconnections among different classes of transcription factors can elucidate these regulatory networks and thus improve our understanding of plant development. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional relationships of the transcription factors ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and members of the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) family in lateral root (LR) development of Arabidopsis thaliana Genetic analysis showed that BPCs promote LR development by repressing ABI4 expression. Molecular analysis showed that BPCs bind to the ABI4 promoter and repress ABI4 transcription in roots. BPCs directly recruit the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to the ABI4 locus and epigenetically repress ABI4 expression by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. In addition, BPCs and ABI4 coordinate their activities to fine-tune the levels of PIN-FORMED1, a component of the auxin signaling pathway, and thus modulate LR formation. These results establish a functional relationship between two universal and multiple-role transcription factors and provide insight into the mechanisms of the transcriptional regulatory networks that affect Arabidopsis organogenesis.

  16. Activator control of nucleosome occupancy in activation and repression of transcription.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Gene O; Prabhu, Vidya; Floer, Monique; Wang, Xin; Spagna, Dan; Schreiber, David; Ptashne, Mark

    2008-12-23

    The relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression is a subject of intense study. The universal transcriptional activator Gal4 removes promoter nucleosomes as it triggers transcription, but how it does so has remained obscure. The reverse process, repression of transcription, has often been correlated with the presence of nucleosomes. But it is not known whether nucleosomes are required for that effect. A new quantitative assay describes, for any given location, the fraction of DNA molecules in the population that bears a nucleosome at any given instant. This allows us to follow the time courses of nucleosome removal and reformation, in wild-type and mutant cells, upon activation (by galactose) and repression (by glucose) of the GAL genes of yeast. We show that upon being freed of its inhibitor Gal80 by the action of galactose, Gal4 quickly recruits SWI/SNF to the genes, and that nucleosome "remodeler" rapidly removes promoter nucleosomes. In the absence of SWI/SNF, Gal4's action also results in nucleosome removal and the activation of transcription, but both processes are significantly delayed. Addition of glucose to cells growing in galactose represses transcription. But if galactose remains present, Gal4 continues to work, recruiting SWI/SNF and maintaining the promoter nucleosome-free despite it being repressed. This requirement for galactose is obviated in a mutant in which Gal4 works constitutively. These results show how an activator's recruiting function can control chromatin structure both during gene activation and repression. Thus, both under activating and repressing conditions, the activator can recruit an enzymatic machine that removes promoter nucleosomes. Our results show that whereas promoter nucleosome removal invariably accompanies activation, reformation of nucleosomes is not required for repression. The finding that there are two routes to nucleosome removal and activation of transcription-one that requires the action of SWI

  17. PTH and Vitamin D Repress DMP1 in Cementoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Tran, A.B.; Nociti, F.H.; Thumbigere-Math, V.; Foster, B.L.; Krieger, C.C.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Novince, C.M.; Koh, A.J.; McCauley, L.K.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A complex feedback mechanism between parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) maintains mineral homeostasis, in part by regulating calcium and phosphate absorption/reabsorption. Previously, we showed that 1,25D regulates mineral homeostasis by repressing dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) via the vitamin D receptor pathway. Similar to 1,25D, PTH may modulate DMP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM.30), similar to osteoblasts and known to express DMP1, were treated with PTH (1–34). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot revealed that PTH decreased DMP1 gene transcription (85%) and protein expression (30%), respectively. PTH mediated the downregulation of DMP1 via the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the decreased localization of DMP1 in vivo in cellular cementum and alveolar bone of mice treated with a single dose (50 µg/kg) of PTH (1–34). RNA-seq was employed to further identify patterns of gene expression shared by PTH and 1,25D in regulating DMP1, as well as other factors involved in mineral homeostasis. PTH and 1,25D mutually upregulated 36 genes and mutually downregulated 27 genes by ≥2-fold expression (P ≤ 0.05). Many identified genes were linked with the regulation of bone/tooth homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, calcium signaling, and DMP1 transcription. Validation of RNA-seq results via PCR array confirmed a similar gene expression pattern in response to PTH and 1,25D treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that PTH and 1,25D share complementary effects in maintaining mineral homeostasis by mutual regulation of genes/proteins associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism while also exerting distinct roles on factors modulating mineral metabolism. Furthermore, PTH may modulate phosphate homeostasis by downregulating DMP1 expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Targeting

  18. KIBRA attains oncogenic activity by repressing RASSF1A.

    PubMed

    Anuj; Arivazhagan, Lakshmi; Surabhi, Rohan Prasad; Kanakarajan, Archana; Sundaram, Sandhya; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Mudduwa, Lakmini; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Rayala, Suresh K

    2017-06-29

    KIBRA-initially identified as a neuronal associated protein is now shown to be functionally associated with other tissue types as well. KIBRA interacts with dyenin light chain 1 and this interaction is essential for oestrogen receptor transactivation in breast cancer cells. KIBRA as a substrate of Cdk1, Aurora kinase and ERK plays an important role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation and migration. Despite these evidences, the exact role of KIBRA in cancer progression is not known. We studied the expression of KIBRA in breast tissues and breast cancer cell lines by western blotting, immunohistochemisry (IHC) and RT-PCR. Stable over expression and knockdown clones were generated to study the transforming properties of KIBRA by conventional assays. Xenograft studies were performed in nude mice to study the in vivo tumourigenic efficacy of KIBRA. qPCR array was performed to understand the molecular mechanism behind oncogenic activity of KIBRA. Our results showed that KIBRA is upregulated in breast cancer cells and in malignant human breast tumours by both western blotting and IHC. Interestingly, we found that KIBRA expression level goes up with increase in breast cancer progression in well-established MCF10A model system. Further, results from stable overexpression clones of KIBRA in fibroblasts (Rat-1) and epithelial breast cancer cells (ZR75) and lentiviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of KIBRA in ZR75 showed increase in transforming properties with KIBRA overexpression and vice-versa. Results also showed that fibroblasts stably overexpressing KIBRA showed increased tumourigenic potential in nude mice. By adopting a quantitative PCR array-based approach, we identified RASSF1A, a tumour suppressor, as a transcriptional target of KIBRA. This is the first study to demonstrate the in vivo tumourigenic property of KIBRA in a nude mouse model and also unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of KIBRA-mediated transformation via repression of

  19. colgate/hdac1 Repression of foxd3 expression is required to permit mitfa-dependent melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ignatius, Myron S; Moose, Holly E; El-Hodiri, Heithem M; Henion, Paul D

    2008-01-15

    Neural crest-derived pigment cell development has been used extensively to study cell fate specification, migration, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Many of the genes and regulatory mechanisms required for pigment cell development are conserved across vertebrates. The zebrafish mutant colgate (col)/histone deacetylase1 (hdac1) has reduced numbers, delayed differentiation and decreased migration of neural crest-derived melanophores and their precursors. In hdac1(col) mutants normal numbers of premigratory neural crest cells are induced. Later, while there is only a slight reduction in the number of neural crest cells in hdac1(col) mutants, there is a severe reduction in the number of mitfa-positive melanoblasts suggesting that hdac1 is required for melanoblast specification. Concomitantly, there is a significant increase in and prolonged expression of foxd3 in neural crest cells in hdac1(col) mutants. We found that partially reducing Foxd3 expression in hdac1(col) mutants rescues mitfa expression and the melanophore defects in hdac1(col) mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of Foxd3 to physically interact at the mitfa promoter. Because mitfa is required for melanoblast specification and development, our results suggest that hdac1 is normally required to suppress neural crest foxd3 expression thus de-repressing mitfa resulting in melanogenesis by a subset of neural crest-derived cells.

  20. Furoxan Nitric Oxide Donors Disperse Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms, Accelerate Growth, and Repress Pyoverdine Production.

    PubMed

    Poh, Wee Han; Barraud, Nicolas; Guglielmo, Stefano; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Fruttero, Roberta; Rice, Scott A

    2017-08-18

    The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development, and dispersal were also characterized. Compound LL4254, which showed a fast rate of NO release, induced biofilm dispersal at approximately 200 μM. While LL4212 and LL4216 have a slower rate of NO release, both compounds could induce biofilm dispersal, under the same treatment conditions, when used at higher concentrations. In addition, LL4212 and LL4216 were found to promote P. aeruginosa growth in iron-limited minimal medium, leading to a faster rate of biofilm formation and glucose utilization, and ultimately resulted in early dispersal of biofilm cells through carbon starvation. High concentrations of LL4216 also repressed production of the siderophore pyoverdine by more than 50-fold, via both NOx-dependent and NOx-independent mechanisms. The effects on growth and pyoverdine levels exerted by the furoxans appeared to be mediated by NO-independent mechanisms, suggesting functional activities of furoxans in addition to their release of NO and nitrite. Overall, this study reveals that secondary effects of furoxans are important considerations for their use as NO-releasing dispersal agents and that these compounds could be potentially redesigned as pyoverdine inhibitors.

  1. MicroRNA-155 promotes the pathogenesis of experimental colitis by repressing SHIP-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhan-Jun; Wu, Jian-Jiong; Jiang, Wei-Liang; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Tao, Kai-Zhong; Ma, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xing-Peng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore the mechanism by which microRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. METHODS A luciferase assay was performed to confirm the binding of miR-155 to the SHIP-1 3’-UTR. MiR-155 mimics, negative controls and SHIP-1 expression/knockdown vectors were established and then utilized in gain- and loss-of-function studies performed in raw264.7 cells and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Thereafter, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model with or without antagomiR-155 treatment was established, and the levels of miR-155 and SHIP-1, as well as the pro-inflammatory capabilities, were measured by western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS MiR-155 directly bound to the 3’-UTR of SHIP-1 mRNA and induced a significant decrease in SHIP-1 expression in both raw264.7 cells and primary BMDMs. MiR-155 markedly promoted cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory secretions including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, whereas these effects could be reversed by the restoration of SHIP-1 expression. In vivo studies showed that antagomiR-155 administration could alleviate DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Balb/c mice. Moreover, significantly increased SHIP-1 expression, as well as decreased Akt activation and inflammatory response, were observed in the antagomiR-155-treated mice. CONCLUSION MiR-155 promotes experimental colitis by repressing SHIP-1 expression. Thus, the inhibition of miR-155 might be a promising strategy for therapy. PMID:28246471

  2. Extra Telomeres, but Not Internal Tracts of Telomeric Dna, Reduce Transcriptional Repression at Saccharomyces Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, E. A.; Zakian, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    Yeast telomeric DNA is assembled into a nonnucleosomal chromatin structure known as the telosome, which is thought to influence the transcriptional repression of genes placed in its vicinity, a phenomenon called telomere position effect (TPE). The product of the RAP1 gene, Rap1p, is a component of the telosome. We show that the fraction of cells exhibiting TPE can be substantially reduced by expressing large amounts of a deletion derivative of Rap1p that is unable to bind DNA, called Rap1δBBp, or by introducing extra telomeres on a linear plasmid, presumably because both compete in trans with telomeric chromatin for factor(s) important for TPE. This reduction in TPE, observed in three different strains, was demonstrated for two different genes, each assayed at a different telomere. In contrast, the addition of internal tracts of telomeric DNA on a circular plasmid had very little effect on TPE. The product of the SIR3 gene, Sir3p, appears to be limiting for TPE. Overexpression of Sir3p completely suppressed the reduction in TPE observed with expression of Rap1δBBp, but did not restore high levels of TPE to cells with extra telomeres. These results suggest that extra telomeres must titrate a factor other than Sir3p that is important for TPE. These results also provide evidence for a terminus-specific binding factor that is a factor with a higher affinity for DNA termini than for nonterminal tracts of telomeric DNA and indicate that this factor is important for TPE. PMID:7705652

  3. Extra telomeres, but not internal tracts of telomeric DNA, reduce transcriptional repression at Saccharomyces telomeres

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, E.A.; Zakian, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yeast telomeric DNA is assembled into a nonnucleosomal chromatin structure known as the telosome, which is thought to influence the transcriptional repression of genes placed in its vicinity, a phenomenon called telomere position effect (TPE). The product of the RAP1 gene, Rap1p, is a component of the telosome. We show that the fraction of cells exhibiting TPE can be substantially reduced by expressing large amounts of a deletion derivative of Rap1p that is unable to bind DNA, called Rap1{Delta}BBp, or by introducing extra telomeres on a linear plasmid, presumably because both compete in trans with telomeric chromatin for factor(s) important for TPE. This reduction in TPE, observed in three different strains, was demonstrated for two different genes, each assayed at a different telomere. In contrast, the addition of internal tracts of telomeric DNA on a circular plasmid had very little effect on TPE. The product of the SIR3 gene, Sir3p, appears to be limiting for TPE. Overexpression of Sir3p completely suppressed the reduction in TPE observed with expression of Rap1{Delta}BBp, but did not restore high levels of TPE to cells with extra telomeres. These results suggest that extra telomeres must titrate a factor other than Sir3p that is important for TPE. These results also provide evidence for a terminus-specific binding factor that is a factor with a higher affinity for DNA termini than for nonterminal tracts of telomeric DNA and indicate that this factor is important for TPE. 51 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct activation and anti-repression functions of GAL4-VP16 use distinct molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, J G; Chambon, P

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine whether the molecular mechanisms used for direct activation by GAL4-VP16 are the same as those used for anti-repression, we have employed monoclonal antibodies specific for the VP16 activation domain. In the absence of added repressors, GAL4-VP16 was able to stimulate transcription from a template containing GAL4-binding sites, and the antibodies raised against the VP16 activation domain failed to inhibit this direct activation. GAL4-VP16 also was able to prevent histone H1-mediated repression by a mechanism that was strongly dependent on the presence of specific GAL4-binding elements in the promoter. However, in contrast to the assays conducted in the absence of repressors, the antibodies were strong inhibitors of GAL4-VP16-activated transcription in the presence of histone H1. Thus the binding of the antibodies distinguished between the direct activation and anti-repression functions of GAL4-VP16, indicating that these functions operate through distinct molecular mechanisms. The anti-repression-specific mechanism that is inhibitable by the antibodies acted at an early stage of preinitiation complex formation. Deletions of individual subdomains of the VP16 activation domain demonstrated that there was not a discrete subdomain responsible for the anti-repression function of GAL4-VP16. Thus, the inhibitory effect of the antibodies appeared to be due to the location of the epitope within the activator protein rather than to some inherent biochemical property of that region of the protein that is required specifically for anti-repression. The inhibitory effect of the antibodies also ruled out the possibility that steric exclusion of repressor proteins from the promoter was the sole means of anti-repression by the transcriptional activator. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8554536

  5. p53 Dimers associate with a head-to-tail response element to repress cyclin B transcription.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Robert; Lippincott, Daniel J; Durden, Brittany C; Kaplan, Anne R; Keiser, Hilary E; Park, Jung-Ho; Levesque, Aime A

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN38 activates cell cycle checkpoints which promote cell cycle arrest. This arrest can be abrogated in p53-defective cells by the Chk1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01). Previously, we compared p53 wild-type MCF10A cells with derivatives whose p53 function was inhibited by over-expression of the tetramerization domain (MCF10A/OD) or expression of shRNA against p53 (MCF10A/Δp53). Treatment of SN38-arrested MCF10A/OD cells with UCN-01 abrogated S, but not G2 arrest, while the MCF10A/Δp53 cells abrogated both S and G2 arrest. The MCF10A/OD cells had reduced levels of cyclin B, suggesting that tetramerization of p53 is not required for repression of cyclin B gene expression. In the present study, we analyzed p53 oligomerization status using glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Following SN38 treatment, MCF10A cells contained oligomeric forms of p53 with molecular weights approximating monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers. However, MCF10A/OD cells possessed only monomers and dimers suggesting that these complexes may be involved in repression of cyclin B. While genes transcriptionally activated by p53 contain a consensus sequence with elements repeated in a head-to-head orientation, the cyclin B promoter contains similar elements oriented head-to-tail. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that p53 associates with this head-to-tail element in both MCF10A and MCF10A/OD. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using a biotin-labeled probe containing the head-to-tail element showed a shift in mobility consistent with the molecular weight of tetramers and dimers in MCF10A nuclear extract, but only the dimer in MCF10A/OD nuclear extract. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby p53 dimers associate with the head-to-tail element to repress cyclin B transcription.

  6. A Novel Gemini Vitamin D Analog Represses the Expression of a Stem Cell Marker CD44 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    So, Jae Young; Lee, Hong Jin; Smolarek, Amanda K.; Paul, Shiby; Wang, Chung-Xiou; Maehr, Hubert; Uskokovic, Milan; Zheng, Xi; Conney, Allan H.; Cai, Li; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    CD44 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. CD44 is identified as a cancer stem cell marker, and the CD44-positive breast cancer cells are enriched in residual breast cancer cell populations after conventional therapies, suggesting that CD44 may be an important target for cancer prevention and therapy. Therefore, we investigated for the inhibitory effect of a novel Gemini vitamin D analog, 1α,25-dihydroxy-20R-21(3-hydroxy-3-deuteromethyl-4,4,4-trideuterobutyl)-23-yne-26,27-hexafluoro-cholecalciferol (BXL0124), on mammary tumor growth and CD44 expression in MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. MCF10DCIS.com cells were injected into mammary fat pads in immunodeficient mice, and BXL0124 was then administered intraperitoneally (0.1 μg/kg body weight) or orally (0.03 or 0.1 μg/kg body weight) 6 days a week for 5 weeks. At necropsy, mammary tumors and blood were collected for evaluating tumor growth, CD44 expression, and serum calcium level. BXL0124 suppressed mammary tumor growth and markedly decreased the expression of CD44 protein in MCF10DCIS xenograft tumors without causing hypercalcemic toxicity. BXL0124 also inhibited the expression of CD44 protein and mRNA as well as the transcriptional activity of the CD44 promoter in cultured MCF10DCIS.com cells. The repression of CD44 expression induced by BXL0124 was blocked by siRNA vitamin D receptor (VDR), indicating that the regulation of CD44 expression by BXL0124 is a VDR-dependent event. The novel Gemini vitamin D analog, BXL0124, represses CD44 expression in MCF10DCIS.com cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors, suggesting an inhibitory role of a Gemini vitamin D derivative on breast cancer stem cells. PMID:21115634

  7. Eliminating a global regulator of carbon catabolite repression enhances the conversion of aromatic lignin monomers to muconate in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Abraham, Paul E.; Linger, Jeffrey G.; ...

    2017-05-31

    Carbon catabolite repression refers to the preference of microbes to metabolize certain growth substrates over others in response to a variety of regulatory mechanisms. Such preferences are important for the fitness of organisms in their natural environments, but may hinder their performance as domesticated microbial cell factories. In a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 strain engineered to convert lignin-derived aromatic monomers such as p-coumarate and ferulate to muconate, a precursor to bio-based nylon and other chemicals, metabolic intermediates including 4-hydroxybenzoate and vanillate accumulate and subsequently reduce productivity. We hypothesized that these metabolic bottlenecks may be, at least in part, the effect ofmore » carbon catabolite repression caused by glucose or acetate, more preferred substrates that must be provided to the strain for supplementary energy and cell growth. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we have identified the 4-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, PobA, and the vanillate demethylase, VanAB, as targets of the Catabolite Repression Control (Crc) protein, a global regulator of carbon catabolite repression. By deleting the gene encoding Crc from this strain, the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoate and vanillate are reduced and, as a result, muconate production is enhanced. In cultures grown on glucose, the yield of muconate produced from p-coumarate after 36 h was increased nearly 70% with deletion of the gene encoding Crc (94.6 ± 0.6% vs. 56.0 ± 3.0% (mol/mol)) while the yield from ferulate after 72 h was more than doubled (28.3 ± 3.3% vs. 12.0 ± 2.3% (mol/mol)). The effect of eliminating Crc was similar in cultures grown on acetate, with the yield from p-coumarate just slightly higher in the Crc deletion strain after 24 h (47.7 ± 0.6% vs. 40.7 ± 3.6% (mol/mol)) and the yield from ferulate increased more than 60% after 72 h (16.9 ± 1.4% vs. 10.3 ± 0.1% (mol/mol)). In conclusion, these results are an example of the benefit that

  8. Physical Interaction between MYCN Oncogene and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Corvetta, Daisy; Chayka, Olesya; Gherardi, Samuele; D'Acunto, Cosimo W.; Cantilena, Sandra; Valli, Emanuele; Piotrowska, Izabela; Perini, Giovanni; Sala, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    CLU (clusterin) is a tumor suppressor gene that we have previously shown to be negatively modulated by the MYCN proto-oncogene, but the mechanism of repression was unclear. Here, we show that MYCN inhibits the expression of CLU by direct interaction with the non-canonical E box sequence CACGCG in the 5′-flanking region. Binding of MYCN to the CLU gene induces bivalent epigenetic marks and recruitment of repressive proteins such as histone deacetylases and Polycomb members. MYCN physically binds in vitro and in vivo to EZH2, a component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, required to repress CLU. Notably, EZH2 interacts with the Myc box domain 3, a segment of MYC known to be essential for its transforming effects. The expression of CLU can be restored in MYCN-amplified cells by epigenetic drugs with therapeutic results. Importantly, the anticancer effects of the drugs are ablated if CLU expression is blunted by RNA interference. Our study implies that MYC tumorigenesis can be effectively antagonized by epigenetic drugs that interfere with the recruitment of chromatin modifiers at repressive E boxes of tumor suppressor genes such as CLU. PMID:23362253

  9. XIST repression in the absence of DNMT1 and DNMT3B.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Luciana R; Stabellini, Raquel; Xue, Fei; Tian, X Cindy; Soukoyan, Marina; Pereira, Lygia V

    2005-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in human and mice involves XIST/Xist gene expression from the inactive X (Xi) and repression from the active X (Xa). Repression of the XIST/Xist gene on the Xa has been associated with methylation of its 5' region. In mice, Dnmt1 has been shown to be involved in the methylation and transcriptional repression of Xist on Xa. We examined maintenance of XIST gene repression on Xa in HCT116 cell lines knockout for either DNMT1 or DNMT3B and for DNMT1 and DNMT3B simultaneously. Methylation of the XIST promoter and XIST transcriptional repression is sustained in DNMT1-, DNMT3B- and DNMT1/DNMT3B knockout cells. Despite global DNA demethylation, the double knockout cells present only partial demethylation of the XIST promoter, which is not sufficient for gene reactivation. In contrast, global DNA demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine leads to XIST expression. Therefore, in these human cells maintenance of XIST methylation is controlled differently than global genomic methylation and in the absence of both DNMT1 and DNMT3B.

  10. The MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha is ultrasensitive to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Dusny, Christian; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Redesigning biology towards specific purposes requires a functional understanding of genetic circuits. We present a quantitative in-depth study on the regulation of the methanol-specific MOX promoter system (PMOX) at the single-cell level. We investigated PMOX regulation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula (Ogataea) polymorpha with respect to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression. This promoter system is particularly delicate as the glucose as carbon and energy source in turn represses MOX promoter activity. Decoupling single cells from population activity revealed a hitherto underrated ultrasensitivity of the MOX promoter to glucose repression. Environmental control with single-cell technologies enabled quantitative insights into the balance between activation and repression of PMOX with respect to extracellular glucose concentrations. While population-based studies suggested full MOX promoter derepression at extracellular glucose concentrations of ∼1 g L(-1), we showed that glucose-mediated catabolite repression already occurs at concentrations as low as 5 × 10(-4) g L(-1) These findings demonstrate the importance of uncoupling single cells from populations for understanding the mechanisms of promoter regulation in a quantitative manner.

  11. Induction Specificity and Catabolite Repression of the Early Enzymes in Camphor Degradation by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Hartline, Richard A.; Gunsalus, I. C.

    1971-01-01

    The ability of bornane and substituted bornanes to induce the early enzymes for d(+)-camphor degradation and control of these enzymes by catabolite repression were studied in a strain of a Pseudomonas putida. Bornane and 20 substituted bornane compounds showed induction. Of these 21 compounds, bornane and 8 of the substituted bornanes provided induction without supporting growth. Oxygen, but not nitrogen, enhanced the inductive potency of the unsubstituted bornane ring. All bornanedione isomers caused induction, and those with substituents on each of the three consecutive carbon atoms, including the methyl group at the bridgehead carbon, showed induction without supporting growth. Although it was not possible to obtain experimental data for a case of absolute gratuitous induction by compounds not supporting growth, indirect evidence in support of gratuitous induction is presented. It is proposed that the ability of P. putida to tolerate the unusually high degree of possible gratuitous induction observed for camphor catabolism may be related to the infrequent occurrence of bicyclic ring structures in nature. Survival of an organism with a broad specificity for gratuitous induction is discussed. Glucose and succinate, but not glutamate, produced catabolite repression of the early camphor-degrading enzymes. Pathway enzymes differ in their degree of sensitivity to succinate-provoked catabolite repression. The ability of a compound to produce catabolite repression is not, however, directly related to the duration of the lag period (diauxic lag) between growth on camphor and growth on the repressing compound. PMID:5573731

  12. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning. PMID:27229316

  13. Wnt-Mediated Repression via Bipartite DNA Recognition by TCF in the Drosophila Hematopoietic System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen U.; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Burby, Peter E.; Cadigan, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  14. Wnt-mediated repression via bipartite DNA recognition by TCF in the Drosophila hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen U; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Burby, Peter E; Cadigan, Ken M

    2014-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA.

  15. Obacunone Represses Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.

    2012-01-01

    Obacunone belongs to a class of unique triterpenoids called limonoids, present in Citrus species. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that obacunone possesses antivirulence activity and demonstrates inhibition of cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The present work sought to determine the effect of obacunone on the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 by using a cDNA microarray. Transcriptomic studies indicated that obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), the maltose transporter, and the hydrogenase operon. Furthermore, phenotypic data for the Caco-2 infection assay and maltose utilization were in agreement with microarray data suggesting repression of SPI1 and maltose transport. Further studies demonstrated that repression of SPI1 was plausibly mediated through hilA. Additionally, obacunone seems to repress SPI2 under SPI2-inducing conditions as well as in Caco-2 infection models. Furthermore, obacunone seems to repress hilA in an EnvZ-dependent fashion. Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium. PMID:22843534

  16. Brinker requires two corepressors for maximal and versatile repression in Dpp signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Peleg; Müller, Bruno; Basler, Konrad; Paroush, Ze’ev

    2001-01-01

    decapentaplegic (dpp) encodes a Drosophila transforming growth factor-β homologue that functions as a morphogen in the developing embryo and in adult appendage formation. In the wing imaginal disc, a Dpp gradient governs patterning along the anteroposterior axis by inducing regional expression of diverse genes in a concentration-dependent manner. Recent studies show that responses to graded Dpp activity also require an input from a complementary and opposing gradient of Brinker (Brk), a transcriptional repressor protein encoded by a Dpp target gene. Here we show that Brk harbours a functional and transferable repression domain, through which it recruits the corepressors Groucho and CtBP. By analysing transcriptional outcomes arising from the genetic removal of these corepressors, and by ectopically expressing Brk variants in the embryo, we demonstrate that these corepressors are alternatively used by Brk for repressing some Dpp-responsive genes, whereas for repressing other distinct target genes they are not required. Our results show that Brk utilizes multiple means to repress its endogenous target genes, allowing repression of a multitude of complex Dpp target promoters. PMID:11598015

  17. Plant stem cell maintenance involves direct transcriptional repression of differentiation program.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram Kishor; Perales, Mariano; Gruel, Jérémy; Ohno, Carolyn; Heisler, Marcus; Girke, Thomas; Jönsson, Henrik; Reddy, G Venugopala

    2013-01-01

    In animal systems, master regulatory transcription factors (TFs) mediate stem cell maintenance through a direct transcriptional repression of differentiation promoting TFs. Whether similar mechanisms operate in plants is not known. In plants, shoot apical meristems serve as reservoirs of stem cells that provide cells for all above ground organs. WUSCHEL, a homeodomain TF produced in cells of the niche, migrates into adjacent cells where it specifies stem cells. Through high-resolution genomic analysis, we show that WUSCHEL represses a large number of genes that are expressed in differentiating cells including a group of differentiation promoting TFs involved in leaf development. We show that WUS directly binds to the regulatory regions of differentiation promoting TFs; KANADI1, KANADI2, ASYMMETRICLEAVES2 and YABBY3 to repress their expression. Predictions from a computational model, supported by live imaging, reveal that WUS-mediated repression prevents premature differentiation of stem cell progenitors, being part of a minimal regulatory network for meristem maintenance. Our work shows that direct transcriptional repression of differentiation promoting TFs is an evolutionarily conserved logic for stem cell regulation.

  18. Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Haejeong; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2017-09-13

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Despite early recognition of the severity of miRNA-like off-target repression, this effect has often been overlooked because of difficulties in recognizing and avoiding off-targets. However, recent advances in genome-wide methods and knowledge of Ago-miRNA target interactions have set the stage for properly evaluating and controlling miRNA-like off-target repression. Here, we describe the intrinsic problems of miRNA-like off-target effects caused by canonical and noncanonical interactions. We particularly focus on various genome-wide approaches and chemical modifications for the evaluation and prevention of off-target repression to facilitate the use of RNAi with secured specificity.

  19. Role of the polycomb protein EED in the propagation of repressive histone marks.

    PubMed

    Margueron, Raphael; Justin, Neil; Ohno, Katsuhito; Sharpe, Miriam L; Son, Jinsook; Drury, William J; Voigt, Philipp; Martin, Stephen R; Taylor, William R; De Marco, Valeria; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Reinberg, Danny; Gamblin, Steven J

    2009-10-08

    Polycomb group proteins have an essential role in the epigenetic maintenance of repressive chromatin states. The gene-silencing activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) depends on its ability to trimethylate lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) by the catalytic SET domain of the EZH2 subunit, and at least two other subunits of the complex: SUZ12 and EED. Here we show that the carboxy-terminal domain of EED specifically binds to histone tails carrying trimethyl-lysine residues associated with repressive chromatin marks, and that this leads to the allosteric activation of the methyltransferase activity of PRC2. Mutations in EED that prevent it from recognizing repressive trimethyl-lysine marks abolish the activation of PRC2 in vitro and, in Drosophila, reduce global methylation and disrupt development. These findings suggest a model for the propagation of the H3K27me3 mark that accounts for the maintenance of repressive chromatin domains and for the transmission of a histone modification from mother to daughter cells.

  20. Mitotic Transcription Repression in Vivo in the Absence of Nucleosomal Chromatin Condensation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Charlotte A.; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Jenkins, Heather L.; Sun, Xuejun; Bazett-Jones, David P.

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear RNA synthesis is repressed during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. In addition, RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), nascent RNA and many transcription factors disengage from DNA during mitosis. It has been proposed that mitotic transcription repression and disengagement of factors are due to either mitotic chromatin condensation or biochemical modifications to the transcription machinery. In this study, we investigate the requirement for chromatin condensation in establishing mitotic transcription repression and factor loss, by analyzing transcription and RNAP II localization in mitotic cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. We find that virus-infected cells enter mitosis and that mitotic viral DNA is maintained in a nucleosome-free and noncondensed state. Our data show that RNAP II transcription is repressed on cellular genes that are condensed into mitotic chromosomes and on viral genes that remain nucleosome free and noncondensed. Although RNAP II may interact indirectly with viral DNA during mitosis, it remains transcriptionally unengaged. This study demonstrates that mitotic repression of transcription and loss of transcription factors from mitotic DNA can occur independently of nucleosomal chromatin condensation. PMID:10893252

  1. Estrogen-mediated epigenetic repression of large chromosomal regions through DNA looping

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yin; Hsu, Hang-Kai; Singer, Gregory A.C.; Yan, Pearlly S.; Rodriguez, Benjamin A.T.; Liu, Joseph C.; Weng, Yu-I; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Chen, Zhong; Pereira, Julia S.; Lopez, Ricardo; Russo, Jose; Wang, Qianben; Lamartiniere, Coral A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The current concept of epigenetic repression is based on one repressor unit corresponding to one silent gene. This notion, however, cannot adequately explain concurrent silencing of multiple loci observed in large chromosome regions. The long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) can be a frequent occurrence throughout the human genome. To comprehensively characterize the influence of estrogen signaling on LRES, we analyzed transcriptome, methylome, and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1)-binding datasets from normal breast epithelia and breast cancer cells. This “omics” approach uncovered 11 large repressive zones (range, 0.35∼5.98 megabases), including a 14-gene cluster located on 16p11.2. In normal cells, estrogen signaling induced transient formation of multiple DNA loops in the 16p11.2 region by bringing 14 distant loci to focal ESR1-docking sites for coordinate repression. However, the plasticity of this free DNA movement was reduced in breast cancer cells. Together with the acquisition of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin modifications at the 16p11.2 loci, an inflexible DNA scaffold may be a novel determinant used by breast cancer cells to reinforce estrogen-mediated repression. PMID:20442245

  2. Evidence for ORC-dependent repression of budding yeast genes induced by starvation and other stresses.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Lakshmi; Burhans, Debra T; Laun, Peter; Wang, Jianxin; Liang, Ping; Weinberger, Martin; Wissing, Silke; Jarolim, Stefanie; Suter, Bernhard; Madeo, Frank; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C

    2006-08-01

    The highly conserved origin recognition complex (ORC) is required for repressing genes in the silent mating type loci of budding yeast. Here we report that at a non-permissive temperature, the temperature-sensitive orc2-1 mutation induces the expression of more than 500 genes, the majority of which are also induced during starvation of wild-type cells. Many genes induced by starvation or by the orc2-1 mutation are also induced by inactivation of proteins required for chromatin-mediated repression of transcription. Genes induced by the orc2-1 mutation, starvation, or inactivation of repressor proteins, map near ORC-binding loci significantly more frequently compared to all genes. Genes repressed by starvation map near ORC-binding sites less frequently compared to all genes, which suggests they have been evolutionarily excluded from regions of repressive chromatin near ORC-binding sites. Deletion of sequences containing ORC-binding sites near the DAL2 and DAL4 genes in the DAL gene cluster, which are induced by either the orc2-1 mutation or by starvation, constitutively activates these genes and abolishes their activation by the orc2-1 mutation. Our findings suggest a role for ORC in the repression of a large number of budding yeast genes induced by starvation or other aspects of a deleterious environment.

  3. Molecular functions of the TLE tetramerization domain in Wnt target gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Pate, Kira T; Hepler, Margretta R D; Tsai, Becky P; Muthurajan, Uma M; Luger, Karolin; Waterman, Marian L; Weis, William I

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling activates target genes by promoting association of the co-activator β-catenin with TCF/LEF transcription factors. In the absence of β-catenin, target genes are silenced by TCF-mediated recruitment of TLE/Groucho proteins, but the molecular basis for TLE/TCF-dependent repression is unclear. We describe the unusual three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal Q domain of TLE1 that mediates tetramerization and binds to TCFs. We find that differences in repression potential of TCF/LEFs correlates with their affinities for TLE-Q, rather than direct competition between β-catenin and TLE for TCFs as part of an activation–repression switch. Structure-based mutation of the TLE tetramer interface shows that dimers cannot mediate repression, even though they bind to TCFs with the same affinity as tetramers. Furthermore, the TLE Q tetramer, not the dimer, binds to chromatin, specifically to K20 methylated histone H4 tails, suggesting that the TCF/TLE tetramer complex promotes structural transitions of chromatin to mediate repression. PMID:24596249

  4. Are the "memory wars" over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Ho, Lavina Y; Tingen, Ian W; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    The "memory wars" of the 1990s refers to the controversy between some clinicians and memory scientists about the reliability of repressed memories. To investigate whether such disagreement persists, we compared various groups' beliefs about memory and compared their current beliefs with beliefs expressed in past studies. In Study 1, we found high rates of belief in repressed memory among undergraduates. We also found that greater critical-thinking ability was associated with more skepticism about repressed memories. In Study 2, we found less belief in repressed memory among mainstream clinicians today compared with the 1990s. Groups that contained research-oriented psychologists and memory experts expressed more skepticism about the validity of repressed memories relative to other groups. Thus, a substantial gap between the memory beliefs of clinical-psychology researchers and those of practitioners persists today. These results hold implications for the potential resolution of the science-practice gap and for the dissemination of memory research in the training of mental-health professionals.

  5. Four chromo-domain proteins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe differentially repress transcription at various chromosomal locations.

    PubMed

    Thon, G; Verhein-Hansen, J

    2000-06-01

    Transcription is repressed in regions of the fission yeast genome close to centromeres, telomeres, or the silent mating-type cassettes mat2-P and mat3-M. The repression involves the chromo-domain proteins Swi6 and Clr4. We report that two other chromo-domain proteins, Chp1 and Chp2, are also important for these position effects. Chp1 showed a specificity for centromeric regions. Its essentiality for the transcriptional repression of centromeric markers correlates with its importance for chromosome stability. Chp2 appeared more pleiotropic. Its effects on centromeric silencing were less pronounced than those of Chp1, and it participated in telomeric position effects and transcriptional silencing in the mating-type region. We also found that PolII-transcribed genes were repressed when placed in one of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rDNA clusters, a situation analogous to that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chp2, Swi6, Clr4, and, to a lesser extent, Chp1 participated in that repression.

  6. Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, Maria; Martín, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L. lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares et al., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L. lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L. lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains.

  7. Splicing repression allows the gradual emergence of new Alu-exons in primate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Jan; Ruiz de los Mozos, Igor; Haberman, Nejc; Wang, Zhen; Emmett, Warren; Zarnack, Kathi; König, Julian; Ule, Jernej

    2016-01-01

    Alu elements are retrotransposons that frequently form new exons during primate evolution. Here, we assess the interplay of splicing repression by hnRNPC and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in the quality control and evolution of new Alu-exons. We identify 3100 new Alu-exons and show that NMD more efficiently recognises transcripts with Alu-exons compared to other exons with premature termination codons. However, some Alu-exons escape NMD, especially when an adjacent intron is retained, highlighting the importance of concerted repression by splicing and NMD. We show that evolutionary progression of 3' splice sites is coupled with longer repressive uridine tracts. Once the 3' splice site at ancient Alu-exons reaches a stable phase, splicing repression by hnRNPC decreases, but the exons generally remain sensitive to NMD. We conclude that repressive motifs are strongest next to cryptic exons and that gradual weakening of these motifs contributes to the evolutionary emergence of new alternative exons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19545.001 PMID:27861119

  8. AMPK Represses TOP mRNA Translation But Not Global Protein Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Ali K.; Bolster, Douglas R.; Crozier, Stephen J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2008-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In muscle, repression of mTORC1 leads to a reduction in global protein synthesis. In contrast, repression of mTORC1 in the liver has no immediate effect on global protein synthesis. In the present study, signaling through mTORC1 and translation of specific mRNAs such as those bearing a 5’-terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract and were examined in rat liver following activation of AMPK after treadmill running. Activation of AMPK repressed translation of the TOP mRNAs encoding rpS6, rpS8, and eEF1α. In contrast, neither global protein synthesis nor translation of mRNAs encoding GAPDH or β-actin was changed. Basal phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target 4E-BP1, but not S6K1 or rpS6, was reduced following activation of AMPK. Thus, in liver, AMPK activation repressed translation of TOP mRNAs through a mechanism distinct from downregulated phosphorylation of S6K1 or rpS6. PMID:18638456

  9. Active Repression of Methylated Genes by the Chromosomal Protein MBD1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Huck-Hui; Jeppesen, Peter; Bird, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    MBD1 belongs to a family of mammalian proteins that share a methyl-CpG binding domain. Previous work has shown that MBD1 binds to methylated sites in vivo and in vitro and can repress transcription from methylated templates in transcription extracts and in cultured cells. In the present study we established by several experimental criteria that, contrary to a previous report, MBD1 is not a component of the MeCP1 repressor complex. We identified a powerful transcriptional repression domain (TRD) at the C terminus of MBD1 that can actively repress transcription at a distance. Methylation-dependent repression in vivo depends on the presence of both the TRD and the methyl-CpG binding domain. The mechanism is likely to involve deacetylation, since the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A can overcome MBD1-mediated repression. Accordingly, we found that endogenous MBD1 is particularly concentrated at sites of centromeric heterochromatin, where acetylated histone H4 is deficient. Unlike MBD2 and MeCP2, MBD1 is not depleted by antibodies to the histone deacetylase HDAC1. Thus, the deacetylase-dependent pathway by which MBD1 actively silences methylated genes is likely to be different from that utilized by the methylation-dependent repressors MeCP1 and MeCP2. PMID:10648624

  10. TOPLESS mediates brassinosteroid-induced transcriptional repression through interaction with BZR1.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Ryu, Hojin; Hwang, Ildoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2014-06-18

    Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates plant development by activating the transcription factor brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1), which activates and represses different target genes to switch cellular programmes. The mechanisms that determine BZR1's transcriptional activities remain largely unknown. Here we show that BZR1 represses target genes by recruiting the Groucho/TUP1-like transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS (TPL). Specific deletion or mutation of an evolutionarily conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif at the carboxy terminus abolishes BZR1's abilities to regulate gene expression and cell elongation, but these defects are rescued by TPL fusion to the EAR motif-mutated BZR1. The EAR motif in BZR1 mediates recruitment of TPL to BZR1-repressed promoters. A triple tpl mutant (tpl;tpr1;tpr4) shows reduced BR sensitivity and suppresses the gain-of-function bzr1-1D mutant phenotype. BR repression of gene expression also requires histone deacetylases that interact with TPL. Our study demonstrates key roles of the EAR motif and TPL in BR regulation of gene expression and plant growth.

  11. Steady-state analysis of glucose repression reveals hierarchical expression of proteins under Mig1p control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Malkhey; Bhat, Paike J.; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    Glucose repression is a global transcriptional regulatory mechanism commonly observed in micro-organisms for the repression of enzymes that are not essential for glucose metabolism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mig1p, a homologue of Wilms' tumour protein, is a global repressor protein dedicated to glucose repression. Mig1p represses genes either by binding directly to the upstream repression sequence of structural genes or by indirectly repressing a transcriptional activator, such as Gal4p. In addition, some genes are repressed by both of the above mechanisms. This raises a fundamental question regarding the physiological relevance of the varied mechanisms of repression that exist involving Mig1p. We address this issue by comparing two well-known glucose-repression systems, that is, SUC2 and GAL gene expression systems, which encompass all the above three mechanisms. We demonstrate using steady-state analysis that these mechanisms lead to a hierarchical glucose repression profile of different family of genes. This switch over from one carbon source to another is well-calibrated as a function of glucose concentration through this hierarchical transcriptional response. The mechanisms prevailing in this repression system can achieve amplification and sensitivity, as observed in the well-characterized MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade system, albeit through a different structure. A critical feature of repression predicted by our steady-state model for the mutant strain of S. cerevisiae lacking Gal80p agrees well with the data reported here as well as that available in the literature. PMID:15698380

  12. Repression of RNA polymerase by the archaeo-viral regulator ORF145/RIP

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Carol; Blombach, Fabian; Belsom, Adam; Schulz, Sarah; Daviter, Tina; Smollett, Katherine; Mahieu, Emilie; Erdmann, Susanne; Tinnefeld, Philip; Garrett, Roger; Grohmann, Dina; Rappsilber, Juri; Werner, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how archaeal viruses perturb the transcription machinery of their hosts. Here we provide the first example of an archaeo-viral transcription factor that directly targets the host RNA polymerase (RNAP) and efficiently represses its activity. ORF145 from the temperate Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) forms a high-affinity complex with RNAP by binding inside the DNA-binding channel where it locks the flexible RNAP clamp in one position. This counteracts the formation of transcription pre-initiation complexes in vitro and represses abortive and productive transcription initiation, as well as elongation. Both host and viral promoters are subjected to ORF145 repression. Thus, ORF145 has the properties of a global transcription repressor and its overexpression is toxic for Sulfolobus. On the basis of its properties, we have re-named ORF145 RNAP Inhibitory Protein (RIP). PMID:27882920

  13. Transcriptional repression of the tumor suppressor DRO1 by AIB1.

    PubMed

    Ferragud, Juan; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Pla, Antoni; De Las Rivas, Javier; Font de Mora, Jaime

    2011-10-03

    Using transcriptomic gene expression profiling we found tumor suppressor DRO1 being repressed in AIB1 transgenic mice. In agreement, AIB1 represses DRO1 promoter and its expression levels inversely correlate with DRO1 in several cancer cell lines and in ectopic and silencing assays. Estrogen modulators treatment showed a regulation in an estrogen receptor-dependent fashion. Importantly, DRO1 overexpression resulted in BCLAF1 upregulation, a compelling concept given that BCLAF1 is a death-promoting transcriptional repressor. Additionally, DRO1 shuttles from Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum upon apoptotic stimuli, where it is predicted to facilitate the apoptosis cascade. Finally, DRO1 repression is an important factor for AIB1-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Collectively, our results reveal DRO1 as an AIB1-targeted tumor suppressor, providing a novel mechanism for AIB1-dependent inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered translational repression of an RNA-binding protein, Elav by AOA2-causative Senataxin mutation.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Saumitra Dey; Vs, Ancy; Mushtaq, Zeeshan; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2017-05-01

    Mutations in Senataxin (SETX) gene causes two types of neurological disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS4) and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2). Recent studies in cultured cells suggest that SETX plays a crucial role at the interface of transcription and the DNA damage response. Whether SETX can alter translational of specific RNA is not known. In this study, we report that expressing AOA2-causative truncated form of human SETX in Drosophila neurons alters the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. Interestingly, we found that expressing this truncated form of SETX in Drosophila muscles resulted in an alteration of translational repression of an RNA-binding protein, Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (Elav). Elav is transcribed in all tissues but remains translationally repressed except in neurons. Thus, our data suggest that an altered repression profile of RNA by SETX mutants could be one of the mechanisms underlying ALS4 or AOA2 pathogenesis.

  15. Hormonal regulation of TSE1-repressed genes: evidence for multiple genetic controls in extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, M J; Fournier, R E

    1989-01-01

    Somatic cell hybrids formed by fusing hepatoma cells with fibroblasts generally fail to express liver functions, a phenomenon termed extinction. Previous studies demonstrated that extinction of the genes encoding tyrosine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and argininosuccinate synthetase is mediated by a specific genetic locus (TSE1) that maps to mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 17. In this report, we show that full repression of these genes requires a genetic factor in addition to TSE1. This conclusion is based on the observation that residual gene activity was apparent in monochromosomal hybrids retaining human TSE1 but not in complex hybrids retaining many fibroblast chromosomes. Furthermore, TSE1-repressed genes were hormone inducible, whereas fully extinguished genes were not. Analysis of hybrid segregants indicated that genetic loci required for the complete repression phenotype were distinct from TSE1. Images PMID:2571076

  16. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  17. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756

  18. Repression of a lithium pump as a consequence of lithium ingestion by manic-depressive subjects.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H L; Kassir, S; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1977-10-20

    The lithium pump in human erythrocyte membranes, which is responsible for extrusion of lithium against a concentration gradient, has been found to be reversibly repressed during periods of lithium carbonate administration. The pump activity of patients prior to lithium therapy is not different from controls. The onset of repression may require several days to several weeks and occurs at specific individual threshold levels of lithium carbonate dosage. Reactivation of the lithium pump occurs sometime after the dosage is discontinued. We postulate that repression of the lithium pump results from systemically available factors which alter membrane structure, and suggest that is such changes also occur in the central nervous system, they may provide insight into one means by which lithium produces its psychotropic affects.

  19. Prostate tumorigenesis induced by PTEN deletion involves estrogen receptor β repression.

    PubMed

    Mak, Paul; Li, Jiarong; Samanta, Sanjoy; Chang, Cheng; Jerry, D Joseph; Davis, Roger J; Leav, Irwin; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2015-03-31

    The role of ERβ in prostate cancer is unclear, although loss of ERβ is associated with aggressive disease. Given that mice deficient in ERβ do not develop prostate cancer, we hypothesized that ERβ loss occurs as a consequence of tumorigenesis caused by other oncogenic mechanisms and that its loss is necessary for tumorigenesis. In support of this hypothesis, we found that ERβ is targeted for repression in prostate cancer caused by PTEN deletion and that loss of ERβ is important for tumor formation. ERβ transcription is repressed by BMI-1, which is induced by PTEN deletion and important for prostate tumorigenesis. This finding provides a mechanism for how ERβ expression is regulated in prostate cancer. Repression of ERβ contributes to tumorigenesis because it enables HIF-1/VEGF signaling that sustains BMI-1 expression. These data reveal a positive feedback loop that is activated in response to PTEN loss and sustains BMI-1.

  20. TDP-43 repression of nonconserved cryptic exons is compromised in ALS-FTD.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan P; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Wong, Philip C

    2015-08-07

    Cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43, accompanied by its nuclear clearance, is a key common pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). However, a limited understanding of this RNA-binding protein (RBP) impedes the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms underlying TDP-43 proteinopathy. In contrast to RBPs that regulate splicing of conserved exons, we found that TDP-43 repressed the splicing of nonconserved cryptic exons, maintaining intron integrity. When TDP-43 was depleted from mouse embryonic stem cells, these cryptic exons were spliced into messenger RNAs, often disrupting their translation and promoting nonsense-mediated decay. Moreover, enforced repression of cryptic exons prevented cell death in TDP-43-deficient cells. Furthermore, repression of cryptic exons was impaired in ALS-FTD cases, suggesting that this splicing defect could potentially underlie TDP-43 proteinopathy.

  1. In Vitro Repression of Transcription of the Trytophan Operon by trp Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Hayashi, Masaki

    1973-01-01

    The in vitro repression of transcription of the tryptophan operon by the trp repressor from Escherichia coli was studied. By measuring the inhibitory effect for trp-specific RNA synthesis in an in vitro transcription system directed by DNA of trp-transducing phage, we have detected and concentrated a trp repressor in an eluate of a Φ80 ptED native DNA-cellulose column. The repression of transcription of trp operon required the addition of L-tryptophan in the system, and when several tryptophan analogues were added, the repression or derepression was similar to that observed in vivo. The repressor fraction was separated from the majority of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase activity by Bio-gel P60 column chromatography. PMID:4579009

  2. The DREAM complex promotes gene body H2A.Z for target repression

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Isabel; Chesney, Michael A.; Garrigues, Jacob M.; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Appert, Alex; Francesconi, Mirko; Strome, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The DREAM (DP, Retinoblastoma [Rb]-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex controls cellular quiescence by repressing cell cycle genes, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans DREAM targets have an unusual pattern of high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z. In mutants of lin-35, the sole p130/Rb-like gene in C. elegans, DREAM targets have reduced gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z and increased expression. Consistent with a repressive role for gene body H2A.Z, many DREAM targets are up-regulated in htz-1/H2A.Z mutants. Our results indicate that the DREAM complex facilitates high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z, which plays a role in target gene repression. PMID:25737279

  3. The DREAM complex promotes gene body H2A.Z for target repression.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Isabel; Chesney, Michael A; Garrigues, Jacob M; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Appert, Alex; Francesconi, Mirko; Strome, Susan; Ahringer, Julie

    2015-03-01

    The DREAM (DP, Retinoblastoma [Rb]-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex controls cellular quiescence by repressing cell cycle genes, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans DREAM targets have an unusual pattern of high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z. In mutants of lin-35, the sole p130/Rb-like gene in C. elegans, DREAM targets have reduced gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z and increased expression. Consistent with a repressive role for gene body H2A.Z, many DREAM targets are up-regulated in htz-1/H2A.Z mutants. Our results indicate that the DREAM complex facilitates high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z, which plays a role in target gene repression. © 2015 Latorre et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S; Pierre-Louis, Jessy; Zizi, Ferdinand; Casimir, Georges J; Belzie, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years) participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p < 0.0001]. Black women scored higher on the repressive coping scale than did White women [Black = 37.52 ± 6.99, White = 29.78 ± 7.38, F1,1272 = 304.75, p < 0.0001]. We observed stronger correlations between repressive coping and insomnia symptoms for Black [rs = -0.43, p < 0.0001] than for White women [rs = -0.18, p < 0.0001]. Controlling for variation in repressive coping, the magnitude of the correlation between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms was substantially reduced. Multivariate adjustment for differences in sociodemographics, health risk factors, physical health, and health beliefs and attitudes had little effect on the relationships. Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes. PMID:17261187

  5. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tusar T.; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box–like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  6. Molecular mechanism underlying juvenile hormone-mediated repression of precocious larval–adult metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Jouraku, Akiya; Ito, Yuka; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval–pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that JH suppressed ecdysone-inducible E93 expression in the epidermis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and in a B. mori cell line. Reporter assays in the cell line revealed that the JH-dependent suppression was mediated by Kr-h1. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis identified a consensus Kr-h1 binding site (KBS, 14 bp) located in the E93 promoter region, and EMSA confirmed that Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS. Moreover, we identified a C-terminal conserved domain in Kr-h1 essential for the transcriptional repression of E93. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism in which JH-inducible Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS site upstream of the E93 locus to repress its transcription in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby preventing larva from bypassing the pupal stage and progressing to precocious adult development. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the metamorphic genetic network, including the functional significance of Kr-h1, BR-C, and E93 in holometabolous insect metamorphosis. PMID:28096379

  7. Repressive BMP2 gene regulatory elements near the BMP2 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shan; Chandler, Ronald L.; Fritz, David T.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.

    2010-02-05

    The level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) profoundly influences essential cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. The spatial and temporal pattern of BMP2 synthesis, particular in diverse embryonic cells, is highly varied and dynamic. We have identified GC-rich sequences within the BMP2 promoter region that strongly repress gene expression. These elements block the activity of a highly conserved, osteoblast enhancer in response to FGF2 treatment. Both positive and negative gene regulatory elements control BMP2 synthesis. Detecting and mapping the repressive motifs is essential because they impede the identification of developmentally regulated enhancers necessary for normal BMP2 patterns and concentration.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Resistant to Catabolite Repression: Use in Cheese Whey Hydrolysate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard B.; Benitez, Tahia; Woodward, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Mutants of an industrial-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which rapidly and completely fermented equimolar mixtures of glucose and galactose to ethanol were isolated. These mutants fell into two general phenotypic classes based upon their fermentation kinetics and enzyme induction patterns. One class apparently specifically effects the utilization of galactose and allows sequential utilization of first glucose and then galactose in an anaerobic fermentation. The second class of mutants was resistant to general catabolite repression and produced maltase, invertase, and galactokinase in the presence of repressive levels of glucose. These mutants were completely dominant and appear to represent an as yet undescribed class of mutant. PMID:16346092

  9. Small RNAs Repress Expression of Polysaccharide Utilization Loci of Gut Bacteroides Species.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-09-15

    Bacteroides species can metabolize numerous plant polysaccharides and host glycans present in the mammalian gut. The regulatory systems governing the induction of particular polysaccharide utilization loci when the cognate glycan is present are known, but how expression is repressed when a higher-priority glycan is present is largely unknown. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Cao et al. (J. Bacteriol. 198:2410-2418, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00381-16) reveal a conserved mechanism in Bacteroides whereby antisense small RNAs (sRNA) repress expression of genes involved in utilization of host glycans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Repressive coping, emotional adjustment, and cognition in people who have lost loved ones to suicide.

    PubMed

    Parker, Holly A; McNally, Richard J

    2008-12-01

    Research indicates that a repressive coping style is psychologically protective against the stress of trauma, yet it is unclear whether this finding generalizes to suicide bereavement. Thus, we assessed cognitive ability and mental health among individuals who lost a loved one to suicide. The results indicate that repressive coping may be associated with greater emotional health during suicide bereavement. Interestingly, "repressors" also had lower scores on both cognitive tasks compared to "nonrepressors," but it is unclear whether their more recent loss accounts for this difference. These results are based on cross-sectional data, and should be interpreted with caution.

  11. Contribution of glucose kinase to glucose repression of xylose utilization in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed Central

    Späth, C; Kraus, A; Hillen, W

    1997-01-01

    The glk gene from Bacillus megaterium, which encodes glucose kinase, was isolated and analyzed. Disruption by a transcriptional glk-luxAB fusion indicated that glk is the only glucose kinase gene in that strain but did not affect growth of that mutant on glucose. Determination of luciferase activity under various growth conditions revealed constitutive transcription of glk. Expression of a xylA-lacZ fusion was repressed by glucose in the strain with the glk disruption about twofold less efficiently than in the wild type. The potential contribution of glk expression to glucose repression is discussed. PMID:9393732

  12. Effects of Glucose Repression on the Transmission and Recombination of Mitochondrial Genes in Yeast (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE)

    PubMed Central

    Birky, C. William

    1975-01-01

    Matings of a number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stocks give different output ratios of mitochondrial genotypes depending on whether the cells are glucose-repressed or derepressed. The effects of glucose repression are independent of cellular mating type and mitochondrial genotype, and take place at least in part after zygotes are formed. An explanation is proposed in terms of changes in the relative numbers of mitochondrial DNA molecules contributed by the a and α parents, modified by selective replication or destruction of molecules inside the zygote. PMID:1104405

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants resistant to catabolite repression: use in cheese whey hydrolysate fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.B.; Benitez, T.; Woodward, A.

    1982-09-01

    Mutants of an industrial-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which rapidly and completely fermented equimolar mixtures of glucose and galactose to ethanol were isolated. These mutants fell into two general phenotypic classes based upon their fermentation kinetics and enzyme induction patterns. One class apparently specifically effects the utilization of galactose and allows sequential utilization of first glucose and then galactose in an anaerobic fermentation. The second class of mutants was resistant to general catabolite repression and produced maltase, invertase, and galactokinase in the presence of repressive levels of glucose. These mutants were completely dominant and appear to represent an as yet undescribed class of mutant. (Refs. 23).

  14. Is repression adaptive? Relationships to socioemotional adjustment, academic performance, and self-image.

    PubMed

    Bybee, J; Kramer, A; Zigler, E

    1997-01-01

    Of 74 high school students rated on a repression-sensitization continuum, the 17 identified as "repressors" were found to have greater frustration tolerance, better social skills, higher educational performance, and less shy and withdrawn behavior when compared to the 40 identified as intermediates; they also had a greater sense of global self-worth and higher self-image in the scholastic and social content domains. The 17 students identified as "sensitizers" did not differ from intermediates on measures of classroom performance or self-image. Results are discussed in relation to earlier reports of repression as maladaptive.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed genes from Penicillium chrysogenum grown with a repressing or a non-repressing carbon source.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nancy Isabel; Fierro, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Martín, Juan Francisco

    2006-02-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is an economically important ascomycete used as industrial producer of penicillin. However, with the exception of penicillin biosynthesis genes, little attention has been paid to the genetics of other aspects of the metabolism of this fungus. In this article we describe the first attempt of systematic analysis of expressed genes in P. chrysogenum, using a suppression subtractive hybridization approach to clone and identify sequences of genes differentially expressed in media with glucose or lactose as carbon source (penicillin-repressing or non-repressing conditions). A total of 167 clones were analysed, 95 from the glucose condition and 72 from the lactose condition. Genes differentially expressed in the glucose condition encode mainly proteins involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and primary metabolism. Genes expressed differentially in lactose-containing medium include genes for secondary metabolism (pcbC, isopenicillin N synthase), different hydrolases and a gene encoding a putative hexose transporter or sensor. The results provided information on how the metabolism of this fungus adapts to different carbon sources. The expression patterns of some of the genes support the hypothesis that glucose induces higher rates of respiration in P. chrysogenum while repressing secondary metabolism.

  16. Roles of transcription factor Mot3 and chromatin in repression of the hypoxic gene ANB1 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kastaniotis, A J; Mennella, T A; Konrad, C; Torres, A M; Zitomer, R S

    2000-10-01

    The hypoxic genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repressed by a complex consisting of the aerobically expressed, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein Rox1 and the Tup1-Ssn6 general repressors. The regulatory region of one well-studied hypoxic gene, ANB1, is comprised of two operators, OpA and OpB, each of which has two strong Rox1 binding sites, yet OpA represses transcription almost 10 times more effectively than OpB. We show here that this difference is due to the presence of a Mot3 binding site in OpA. Mutations in this site reduced OpA repression to OpB levels, and the addition of a Mot3 binding site to OpB enhanced repression. Deletion of the mot3 gene also resulted in reduced repression of ANB1. Repression of two other hypoxic genes in which Mot3 sites were associated with Rox1 sites was reduced in the deletion strain, but other hypoxic genes were unaffected. In addition, the mot3Delta mutation caused a partial derepression of the Mig1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed SUC2 gene, but not the alpha2-Mcm1-Tup1-Ssn6-repressed STE2 gene. The Mot3 protein was demonstrated to bind to the ANB1 OpA in vitro. Competition experiments indicated that there was no interaction between Rox1 and Mot3, indicating that Mot3 functions either in Tup1-Ssn6 recruitment or directly in repression. A great deal of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the Tup1-Ssn6 complex represses transcription through both nucleosome positioning and a direct interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery. We demonstrate here that under repressed conditions a nucleosome is positioned over the TATA box in the wild-type ANB1 promoter. This nucleosome was absent in cells carrying a rox1, tup1, or mot3 deletion, all of which cause some degree of derepression. Interestingly, however, this positioned nucleosome was also lost in a cell carrying a deletion of the N-terminal coding region of histone H4, yet ANB1 expression remained fully repressed. A similar deletion in the gene for histone H3, which had no

  17. Hemoglobin derivatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  18. Meaning of the Repression-Sensitization Scale: Defensive Style or Self-Report of Symptoms of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Edward C.; Clopton, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that the Repression-Sensitization (R-S) scale assesses self-reported symptoms of psychopathology in two studies (N=142). Results indicated that the R-S scale is influenced so powerfully by self-report of symptoms of psychopathology that its usefulness in assessing repression-sensitization is questionable. (BH)

  19. Life in the cold: a proteomic study of cold-repressed proteins in the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Piette, Florence; D'Amico, Salvino; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Danchin, Antoine; Leprince, Pierre; Feller, Georges

    2011-06-01

    The proteomes expressed at 4°C and 18°C by the psychrophilic Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis were compared using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis with special reference to proteins repressed by low temperatures. Remarkably, the major cold-repressed proteins, almost undetectable at 4°C, were heat shock proteins involved in folding assistance.

  20. Hormone-induced repression of a peroxidase isozyme in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Ockerse, R; Siegel, B Z; Galston, A W

    1966-01-28

    Young stem sections of dwarf peas (Progress No. 9) grown in light contain at least seven peroxidase isozymes separable by electrophoresis on starch gel. An eighth isozyme appears as the tissue elongates and ages, on or off the plant. The appearance of this isozyme in excised sections is repressed by application of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid.

  1. Polycomb complex 2 is required for E-cadherin repression by the Snail1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Nicolás; Pasini, Diego; Díaz, Víctor M; Francí, Clara; Gutierrez, Arantxa; Dave, Natàlia; Escrivà, Maria; Hernandez-Muñoz, Inma; Di Croce, Luciano; Helin, Kristian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Peiró, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    The transcriptional factor Snail1 is a repressor of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene expression essential for triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail1 represses CDH1, directly binding its promoter and inducing the synthesis of the Zeb1 repressor. In this article, we show that repression of CDH1 by Snail1, but not by Zeb1, is dependent on the activity of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Embryonic stem (ES) cells null for Suz12, one of the components of PRC2, show higher levels of Cdh1 mRNA than control ES cells. In tumor cells, interference of PRC2 activity prevents the ability of Snail1 to downregulate CDH1 and partially derepresses CDH1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Snail1 increases the binding of Suz12 to the CDH1 promoter and the trimethylation of lysine 27 in histone H3. Moreover, Snail1 interacts with Suz12 and Ezh2, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that Snail1 recruits PRC2 to the CDH1 promoter and requires the activity of this complex to repress E-cadherin expression.

  2. Dual mechanism of Rag gene repression by c-Myb during pre-B cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Timblin, Greg A; Xie, Liangqi; Tjian, Robert; Schlissel, Mark S

    2017-04-03

    Developing B lymphocytes undergo clonal expansion following successful immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. During this proliferative burst, expression of the Rag genes is transiently repressed to prevent the generation of dsDNA breaks in cycling large pre-B cells. The Rag genes are then re-expressed in small resting pre-B cells for immunoglobulin light chain gene rearrangement. We previously identified c-Myb as a repressor of Rag transcription during clonal expansion using Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed B cells. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which c-Myb achieved precise spatiotemporal repression of Rag expression remained obscure. Here we identify two mechanisms by which c-Myb represses Rag transcription. First, c-Myb negatively regulates the expression of the Rag activator Foxo1, an activity dependent on M303 in c-Myb's transactivation domain and likely the recruitment of corepressors to the Foxo1 locus by c-Myb. Second, c-Myb represses Rag transcription directly by occupying the Erag enhancer and antagonizing Foxo1 binding to a consensus forkhead site in this cis regulatory element that we show is crucial for Rag expression in Abelson pre-B cell lines. This work provides important mechanistic insight into how spatiotemporal expression of the Rag genes is tightly controlled during B lymphocyte development to prevent mistimed dsDNA breaks and their deleterious consequences.

  3. Pluripotency Factors and Polycomb Group Proteins Repress Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Expression in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Chia-I; Wang, Qin; Fan, Yunxia; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development. PMID:24316986

  4. Repression of mesodermal fate by foxa, a key endoderm regulator of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Paola; Walton, Katherine D; Davidson, Eric H; McClay, David R

    2006-11-01

    The foxa gene is an integral component of the endoderm specification subcircuit of the endomesoderm gene regulatory network in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Its transcripts become confined to veg2, then veg1 endodermal territories, and, following gastrulation, throughout the gut. It is also expressed in the stomodeal ectoderm. gatae and otx genes provide input into the pregastrular regulatory system of foxa, and Foxa represses its own transcription, resulting in an oscillatory temporal expression profile. Here, we report three separate essential functions of the foxa gene: it represses mesodermal fate in the veg2 endomesoderm; it is required in postgastrular development for the expression of gut-specific genes; and it is necessary for stomodaeum formation. If its expression is reduced by a morpholino, more endomesoderm cells become pigment and other mesenchymal cell types, less gut is specified, and the larva has no mouth. Experiments in which blastomere transplantation is combined with foxa MASO treatment demonstrate that, in the normal endoderm, a crucial role of Foxa is to repress gcm expression in response to a Notch signal, and hence to repress mesodermal fate. Chimeric recombination experiments in which veg2, veg1 or ectoderm cells contained foxa MASO show which region of foxa expression controls each of the three functions. These experiments show that the foxa gene is a component of three distinct embryonic gene regulatory networks.

  5. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Shuichi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho; Ikeda, Masanori

    2015-12-15

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  6. Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  8. A Test of the Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Categories of the Repression-Sensitization Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, C. Raymond; Cohen, Howard J.

    1973-01-01

    A study was designed to examine further the psychometric relationships between the Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS) and a Repression-Sensitization (R-S) scale in order to affirm or deny the meaningfulness of pairing these two personality measures. The relationships between these measures was considered to be of sufficiently high…

  9. Examining the Influence of Trait Anxiety/Repression-Sensitization on Individuals' Reactions to Fear Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Kim; Morrison, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of persuasive fear appeals promoting condom usage to prevent AIDS. Indicates that inherent level of anxiety influences how both the threat and the efficacy of recommended responses are perceived, but that trait anxiety/repression-sensitization has no influence on attitudes, intentions, behaviors, perceived manipulation, or…

  10. Chromatin Remodeling around Nucleosome-Free Regions Leads to Repression of Noncoding RNA Transcription ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yadon, Adam N.; Van de Mark, Daniel; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffrey; Whitehouse, Iestyn; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosome-free regions (NFRs) at the 5′ and 3′ ends of genes are general sites of transcription initiation for mRNA and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). The presence of NFRs within transcriptional regulatory regions and the conserved location of transcription start sites at NFRs strongly suggest that the regulation of NFRs profoundly affects transcription initiation. To date, multiple factors are known to facilitate transcription initiation by positively regulating the formation and/or size of NFRs in vivo. However, mechanisms to repress transcription by negatively regulating the size of NFRs have not been identified. We identified four distinct classes of NFRs located at the 5′ and 3′ ends of genes, within open reading frames (ORFs), and far from ORFs. The ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme Isw2 was found enriched at all classes of NFRs. Analysis of RNA levels also demonstrated Isw2 is required to repress ncRNA transcription from many of these NFRs. Thus, by the systematic annotation of NFRs across the yeast genome and analysis of ncRNA transcription, we established, for the first time, a mechanism by which NFR size is negatively regulated to repress ncRNA transcription from NFRs. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that one biological consequence of repression of ncRNA, by Isw2 or by the exosome, is prevention of transcriptional interference of mRNA. PMID:20805356

  11. OprD Repression upon Metal Treatment Requires the RNA Chaperone Hfq in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Verena; Gonzalez, Manuel R.; Scrignari, Tiziana; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The metal-specific CzcRS two-component system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in the repression of the OprD porin, causing in turn carbapenem antibiotic resistance in the presence of high zinc concentration. It has also been shown that CzcR is able to directly regulate the expression of multiple genes including virulence factors. CzcR is therefore an important regulator connecting (i) metal response, (ii) pathogenicity and (iii) antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. Recent data have suggested that other regulators could negatively control oprD expression in the presence of zinc. Here we show that the RNA chaperone Hfq is a key factor acting independently of CzcR for the repression of oprD upon Zn treatment. Additionally, we found that an Hfq-dependent mechanism is necessary for the localization of CzcR to the oprD promoter, mediating oprD transcriptional repression. Furthermore, in the presence of Cu, CopR, the transcriptional regulator of the CopRS two-component system also requires Hfq for oprD repression. Altogether, these results suggest important roles for this RNA chaperone in the context of environment-sensing and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27706108

  12. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  13. Somatic sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by SUP-26 repression of tra-2 translation

    PubMed Central

    Mapes, James; Chen, Jeng-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Xue, Ding

    2010-01-01

    Translational repression mediated by RNA-binding proteins or micro RNAs has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning important biological processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, translational repression of the key sex-determination gene tra-2 (tra, transformer) is controlled by a 28-nucleotide repeat element, the TRA-2/GLI element (TGE), located in its 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Mutations that disrupt TGE or the germline-specific TGE-binding factor GLD-1 increase TRA-2 protein expression and inhibit sperm production in hermaphrodites. Here we report the characterization of the sup-26 gene, which regulates sex determination in the soma and encodes an RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein. We show that SUP-26 regulates the level of the TRA-2 protein through TGE in vivo and binds directly to TGE in vitro through its RRM domain. Interestingly, SUP-26 associates with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PAB-1) in vivo and may repress tra-2 expression by inhibiting the translation-stimulating activity of PAB-1. Taken together, our results provide further insight into how mRNA-binding factors repress translation and modulate sexual development in different tissues of C. elegans. PMID:20921392

  14. Somatic sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by SUP-26 repression of tra-2 translation.

    PubMed

    Mapes, James; Chen, Jeng-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Xue, Ding

    2010-10-19

    Translational repression mediated by RNA-binding proteins or micro RNAs has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning important biological processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, translational repression of the key sex-determination gene tra-2 (tra, transformer) is controlled by a 28-nucleotide repeat element, the TRA-2/GLI element (TGE), located in its 3' untranslated region (UTR). Mutations that disrupt TGE or the germline-specific TGE-binding factor GLD-1 increase TRA-2 protein expression and inhibit sperm production in hermaphrodites. Here we report the characterization of the sup-26 gene, which regulates sex determination in the soma and encodes an RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein. We show that SUP-26 regulates the level of the TRA-2 protein through TGE in vivo and binds directly to TGE in vitro through its RRM domain. Interestingly, SUP-26 associates with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PAB-1) in vivo and may repress tra-2 expression by inhibiting the translation-stimulating activity of PAB-1. Taken together, our results provide further insight into how mRNA-binding factors repress translation and modulate sexual development in different tissues of C. elegans.

  15. A vertex specific dorsal selector Dve represses the ventral appendage identity in Drosophila head.

    PubMed

    Kiritooshi, Naruto; Yorimitsu, Takeshi; Shirai, Tetsuya; Puli, Oorvashi Roy; Singh, Amit; Nakagoshi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Developmental fields are subdivided into lineage-restricted cell populations, known as compartments. In the eye imaginal disc of Drosophila, dorso-ventral (DV) lineage restriction is the primary event, whereas antero-posterior compartment boundary is the first lineage restriction in other imaginal discs. The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes function as dorsal selectors and repress the default, ventral, identity in the eye-head primordium. In Iro-C mutant clones, change of the dorsal identity to default ventral fate leads to generation of ectopic DV boundary, which results in dorsal eye enlargement, and duplication of ventral appendages like antenna and maxillary palp. Similar phenotypes were observed in heads with defective proventriculus (dve) mutant clones. Here, we show that the homeobox gene dve is a downstream effector of Iro-C in the dorsal head capsule (vertex) specification and represses the ventral (antennal) identity. Two homeodomain proteins Distal-less (Dll) and Homothorax (Hth) are known to be determinants of the antennal identity. Ectopic antenna formation in heads with dve mutant clones was associated with ectopic Dll expression and endogenous Hth expression in the vertex region. Interestingly, dve Dll double mutant clones could also induce ectopic antennae lacking the distal structures, suggesting that the Dve activity is crucial for repressing inappropriate antenna-forming potential in the vertex region. Our results clearly indicate that not only the activation of effector genes to execute developmental program but also the repression of inappropriate program is crucial for establishment of the organ identity.

  16. Repression activity of Tailless on h 1 and eve 1 pair-rule stripes.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Luiz Paulo; Dos Santos, Wesley Silva; Aguiar, Francisco Dos Santos; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that several transcriptional repressors are necessary to set the boundaries of anterior pair-rule stripes in Drosophila. Specifically, we tested whether Tailless (Tll) is part of a repression mechanism that correctly sets the anterior boundaries of hairy 1 (h 1) and even-skipped 1 (eve 1) stripes. Single mutant tll embryos displayed subtle deviations from the normal positions of h 1 and eve 1 stripes. Moreover, we observed stronger stripe deviations in embryos lacking both Tll and Sloppy-paired 1 (Slp 1), a common repressor for anterior pair-rule stripes. Using h 1 and eve 1 reporter constructs in the genetic assays, we provided further evidence that interference with normal mechanisms of stripe expression is mediated by Tll repression. Indeed, Tll represses both h 1 and eve 1 reporter stripes when misexpressed. Investigating the expression of other anterior gap genes in different genetic backgrounds and in the misexpression assays strengthened Tll direct repression in the regulation of h 1 and eve 1. Our results are consistent with tll being a newly-identified component of a combinatorial network of repressor genes that control pair-rule stripe formation in the anterior blastoderm of Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Qing; Tou, Fangfang; Su, Hong; Wu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xinyi; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-06-19

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary, our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. - Highlights: • Peiminine induces autophagy and upregulates autophagic flux. • Peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. • Peiminine induces autophagic cell death. • Peiminine represses mTOR phosphorylation by influencing PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathway.

  18. Universities in the Business of Repression: The Academic-Military-Industrial Complex and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jonathan

    This book presents the thesis that U.S. universities have become part of an academic-military-industrial complex that support repression and murder in Central America. Part 1 explains how U.S. policies have been based on murder in Central America and examines the responsibility of transnational corporations and U.S. war planners in this…

  19. NF-kappaB mediated transcriptional repression of acid modifying hormone gastrin.

    PubMed

    Datta De, Dipanjana; Datta, Arindam; Bhattacharjya, Sumana; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen associated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases. It has been reported that H. pylori induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B is one of the various modulators of acid secretion in the gut. Earlier we reported that IL1B-activated NFkB down-regulates gastrin, the major hormonal regulator of acid secretion. In this study, the probable pathway by which IL1B induces NFkB and affects gastrin expression has been elucidated. IL1B-treated AGS cells showed nine-fold activation of MyD88 followed by phosphorylation of TAK1 within 15 min of IL1B treatment. Furthermore, it was observed that activated TAK1 significantly up-regulates the NFkB subunits p50 and p65. Ectopic expression of NFkB p65 in AGS cells resulted in about nine-fold transcriptional repression of gastrin both in the presence and absence of IL1B. The S536A mutant of NFkB p65 is significantly less effective in repressing gastrin. These observations show that a functional NFkB p65 is important for IL1B-mediated repression of gastrin. ChIP assays revealed the presence of HDAC1 and NFkB p65 along with NCoR on the gastrin promoter. Thus, the study provides mechanistic insight into the IL1B-mediated gastrin repression via NFkB.

  20. Catabolite repression in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 is mediated by CcpA.

    PubMed Central

    Monedero, V; Gosalbes, M J; Pérez-Martínez, G

    1997-01-01

    The chromosomal ccpA gene from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes the CcpA protein, a central catabolite regulator belonging to the LacI-GalR family of bacterial repressors, and shows 54% identity with CcpA proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. The L. casei ccpA gene was able to complement a B. subtilis ccpA mutant. An L. casei ccpA mutant showed increased doubling times and a relief of the catabolite repression of some enzymatic activities, such as N-acetylglucosaminidase and phospho-beta-galactosidase. Detailed analysis of CcpA activity was performed by using the promoter region of the L. casei chromosomal lacTEGF operon which is subject to catabolite repression and contains a catabolite responsive element (cre) consensus sequence. Deletion of this cre site or the presence of the ccpA mutation abolished the catabolite repression of a lacp::gusA fusion. These data support the role of CcpA as a common regulatory element mediating catabolite repression in low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9352913

  1. NF-kappaB Mediated Transcriptional Repression of Acid Modifying Hormone Gastrin

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjya, Sumana; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen associated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases. It has been reported that H. pylori induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B is one of the various modulators of acid secretion in the gut. Earlier we reported that IL1B-activated NFkB down-regulates gastrin, the major hormonal regulator of acid secretion. In this study, the probable pathway by which IL1B induces NFkB and affects gastrin expression has been elucidated. IL1B-treated AGS cells showed nine-fold activation of MyD88 followed by phosphorylation of TAK1 within 15 min of IL1B treatment. Furthermore, it was observed that activated TAK1 significantly up-regulates the NFkB subunits p50 and p65. Ectopic expression of NFkB p65 in AGS cells resulted in about nine-fold transcriptional repression of gastrin both in the presence and absence of IL1B. The S536A mutant of NFkB p65 is significantly less effective in repressing gastrin. These observations show that a functional NFkB p65 is important for IL1B-mediated repression of gastrin. ChIP assays revealed the presence of HDAC1 and NFkB p65 along with NCoR on the gastrin promoter. Thus, the study provides mechanistic insight into the IL1B-mediated gastrin repression via NFkB. PMID:24009751

  2. Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis typically occurs as individuals awaken from rapid eye movement sleep before motor paralysis wanes. Many episodes are accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations, often of threatening intruders in the bedroom. Pendergrast [Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, HarperCollins, London, 1996] proposed that individuals who report repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may misinterpret episodes of sleep paralysis as reemerging fragments of dissociated ("repressed") memories of CSA. To investigate this issue, we administered a sleep paralysis questionnaire to people reporting either repressed (n = 18), recovered (n = 14), or continuous (n = 36) memories of CSA, or to a control group reporting no history of CSA (n = 16). The prevalence of sleep paralysis was: repressed memory group (44%), recovered memory group (43%), continuous memory group (47%), and control group (13%). Among the six individuals in the recovered memory group who had experienced sleep paralysis, one interpreted it as related to sexual abuse (i.e., a rate of 17%). All other participants who had reported sleep paralysis embraced other interpretations (e.g., saw a ghost). Dissociation and depressive symptoms were more common among those who had experienced sleep paralysis than among those who denied having experienced it.

  3. Case report: an asthmatic adolescent and his "repressed cry" for his mother.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Z

    1975-06-01

    A case of asthma in an adolescent male is presented. Involvement of the patient in individual, group and family psychotherapy is discussed in detail and particular emphasis placed on the use of family sessions as a therapeutic tool. Alexander's concept of the "repressed cry for the lost mother" is suggested as of aetiological importance.

  4. Trauma and Delayed Memory: A Review of the "Repressed Memories" Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flathman, Marcus

    1999-01-01

    Article aims to draw a balanced conclusion about trauma and memory from current information on repressed memories. Research suggests that (1) emotion impacts memory, (2) psychogenic amnesia can result from unusual levels of trauma, and (3) delayed memories are prone to errors. Inaccuracies in traumatic memories occur more often in peripheral…

  5. A Symptom-Focused Hypnotic Approach to Accessing and Processing Previously Repressed/Dissociated Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratican, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    The kinesthetic track back technique accesses the origins of current symptoms and may uncover previously repressed/dissociated material, if such material exists in the client's unconscious mind, is relevant to the symptoms, and is ready to be processed consciously. Case examples are given to illustrate proper use of this technique. (LSR)

  6. RUNX1 represses the erythroid gene expression program during megakaryocytic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuvardina, Olga N.; Herglotz, Julia; Kolodziej, Stephan; Kohrs, Nicole; Herkt, Stefanie; Wojcik, Bartosch; Oellerich, Thomas; Corso, Jasmin; Behrens, Kira; Kumar, Ashok; Hussong, Helge; Urlaub, Henning; Koch, Joachim; Serve, Hubert; Bonig, Halvard; Stocking, Carol; Rieger, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of antagonizing transcription factors represents a mechanistic paradigm of bidirectional lineage–fate control during hematopoiesis. At the megakaryocytic/erythroid bifurcation, the crossantagonism of krueppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) and friend leukemia integration 1 (FLI1) has such a decisive role. However, how this antagonism is resolved during lineage specification is poorly understood. We found that runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) inhibits erythroid differentiation of murine megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitors and primary human CD34+ progenitor cells. We show that RUNX1 represses the erythroid gene expression program during megakaryocytic differentiation by epigenetic repression of the erythroid master regulator KLF1. RUNX1 binding to the KLF1 locus is increased during megakaryocytic differentiation and counterbalances the activating role of T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1 (TAL1). We found that corepressor recruitment by RUNX1 contributes to a block of the KLF1-dependent erythroid gene expression program. Our data indicate that the repressive function of RUNX1 influences the balance between erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation by shifting the balance between KLF1 and FLI1 in the direction of FLI1. Taken together, we show that RUNX1 is a key player within a network of transcription factors that represses the erythroid gene expression program. PMID:25911237

  7. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  8. Translational control of ferritin synthesis: a study of repression using natural and synthetic mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, L.F.; Wang, Y.H.; Wortman, I.; Shull, G.E.; Theil, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Ferritin synthesis is a dramatic example of mRNA repression: excess iron causes recruitment of ferritin mRNA, increasing synthesis less than or equal to 40 x. Using the iron-storing tadpole red cell as a simple and accessible model, isolated poly(A+) RNA directed the synthesis of ferritin and globin in cell-free extracts from wheat germ (WG); in contrast, ferritin mRNA was specifically repressed (72%) in extracts from rabbit reticulocytes (RR) as it is in vivo. Translatable and hybridizable ferritin mRNA did not enter polysomes of RR in contrast to globin mRNA and to both ferritin and globin mRNA in WG. Single-sequence mRNA, uncapped, was prepared in vitro for both a ferritin M chain and a globin beta chain; both were translated with similar efficiency in RR (164 +/- 66) x 10/sup -3/ and (205 +/- 144) x 10/sup -3/ cpm (/sup 3/H)leucine/h/..mu..g RNA for ferritin and globin, respectively). Ferritin with the expected immunoreactivity and mobility in SDS gel electrophoresis was obtained. The results suggest that ferritin mRNA repression may require a cap or factors present in poly(A+) RNA and that repression can be released in WG but not in RR.

  9. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TAF-4.

    PubMed

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-10-03

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1-P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II after fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wild-type OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators.

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  11. Structural limits of specificity of methylcholanthrene-repressible nitrosamine N-dealkylases. Inhibition by analog substrates.

    PubMed

    Arcos, J C; Bryant, G M; Pastor, K M; Argus, M F

    1976-06-15

    The dealkylation of dimethyl-, diethyl- and dipropylnitrosamine by hepatic microsomes of Sprague-Dawley rats is repressed by pretreatment of the animals with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), and this repression progressively decreases with the increase of alkyl chain length. In contrast to its effect on the demethylation of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), in vivo phenobarbital induces rather than represses the deethylation of diethylnitrosamine. The rates of demethylation of the DMN analog substrates (dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, dimethylpropionamide, and dimethylbutyramide), although low as compared to DMN, increase with the acyl chain length. These analogs are potent in vitro inhibitors of Dmn demethylation when used in combination with DMN as substrates, and the inhibition decreases with the length of the acyl chain. Dimethylaminoacetone, which corresponds to the insertion of a CH2 group between the N atom and the carbonyl group in dimethylacetamide, is not an in vitro inhibitor of DMN demethylation; the demethylation rates are additive when theis compound is used as substrate in combination with DMN. The rate of demethylation of dimethylaminoacetone is substantially higher than the rates of the dimethylacylamides, and is significantly repressed by MC-pretreatment. The rate of demethylation of methylphenylnitrosamine is not influenced by MC-pretreatment; the compound is, however, a potent inhibitor of demethylation when used as substrate in combination with DMN. The demethylation rates of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (the reduction product of DMN) and dimethylaniline are not influenced by MC-pretreatment; neither do they affect the overall rate of demethylation when used as substrate in combination with DMN.

  12. Trichostatin A enhances estrogen receptor-alpha repression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells under hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Hyunggyun; Park, Joonwoo; Shim, Myeongguk; Lee, YoungJoo

    2016-02-12

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is a crucial determinant of resistance to endocrine therapy, which may change during the progression of breast cancer. We previously showed that hypoxia induces ESR1 gene repression and ERα protein degradation via proteasome-mediated pathway in breast cancer cells. HDAC plays important roles in the regulation of histone and non-histone protein post-translational modification. HDAC inhibitors can induce epigenetic changes and have therapeutic potential for targeting various cancers. Trichostatin A exerts potent antitumor activities against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we show that TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level and downregulates ERα protein expression under hypoxic conditions through a proteasome-mediated pathway. TSA-induced estrogen response element-driven reporter activity in the absence of estrogen was synergistically enhanced under hypoxia; however, TSA inhibited cell proliferation under both normoxia and hypoxia. Our data show that the hypoxia-induced repression of ESR1 and degradation of ERα are enhanced by concomitant treatment with TSA. These findings expand our understanding of hormone responsiveness in the tumor microenvironment; however, additional in-depth studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia. - Highlights: • TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level under hypoxia. • TSA downregulates ERα protein expression under hypoxia. • TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia is essential for understanding the behavior and progression of breast cancer.

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 homologue 1 (HFH-1) represses transcription of smooth muscle-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, A M; Kriegel, A M; Smith, A F; Herring, B P

    2000-10-06

    Results show that smooth muscle-specific promoters represent novel downstream targets of the winged helix factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 homologue 1 (HFH-1). HFH-1 strongly represses telokin promoter activity when overexpressed in A10 vascular smooth muscle cells. HFH-1 was also found to repress transcription of several other smooth muscle-specific promoters, including the SM22alpha promoter. HFH-1 inhibits telokin promoter activity, by binding to a forkhead consensus site located within an AT-rich region of the telokin promoter. The DNA-binding domain alone was sufficient to mediate inhibition, suggesting that binding of HFH-1 blocks the binding of other positive-acting factors. HFH-1 does not disrupt serum response factor binding to an adjacent CArG box within the telokin promoter, implying that HFH-1 must compete with other unidentified trans-activators to mediate repression. The localization of HFH-1 mRNA to the epithelial cell layer of mouse bladder and stomach implicates HFH-1 in repressing telokin expression in epithelial cells. This suggests that cell-specific expression of telokin is likely mediated by both positive-acting factors in smooth muscle cells and negative-acting factors in nonmuscle cell types. We propose a model in which the smooth muscle specificity of the telokin promoter is regulated by interactions between positive- and negative-acting members of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-3/forkhead family of transcription factors.

  14. Effect of anthranilic acid on the catabolite repression of a Drosophila amylase gene in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.M.; Moehring, J.M.; Chernin, M.I.

    1987-05-01

    A Drosophila pseudoobscura amylase pseudogene cloned in Escherichia coli is expressed at high levels. The expression of this pseudogene is repressed when glucose (0.5% final conc) is added to a starch minimal medium culture of E. coli cells that contain the amylase plasmid pAMY17F. Addition of anthranilic acid (7 mM final conc.) to catabolite repressed cells acts like adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by derepressing the amylase pseudogene at the promoter. This is consistent with the Metabolite Gene Regulation (MGR) model proposed by Kline et al. which suggests that small molecules can circumvent the necessity for cAMP. Catabolite repression of the amylase structural gene of D. pseudoobscura has been previously shown. This would suggest that the amylase pseudogene expression in E. coli is either from a Drosophila structural gene promoter co-cloned with the pseudogene or a catabolite repressible E. coli promoter placed in the proper orientation and reading frame during the rearrangement of pAMY17F.

  15. FH535, a β-catenin pathway inhibitor, represses pancreatic cancer xenograft growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fei-Ran; Zhou, Binhua P.; Lian, Lian; Shen, Bairong; Chen, Kai; Duan, Weiming; Wu, Meng-Yao; Tao, Min; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The WNT/β-catenin pathway plays an important role in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. We evaluated the correlation between aberrant β-catenin pathway activation and the prognosis pancreatic cancer, and the potential of applying the β-catenin pathway inhibitor FH535 to pancreatic cancer treatment. Meta-analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that abnormal β-catenin pathway activation was associated with unfavorable outcome. FH535 repressed pancreatic cancer xenograft growth in vivo. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of microarray data indicated that target genes responding to FH535 participated in stemness maintenance. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry confirmed that FH535 downregulated CD24 and CD44, pancreatic cancer stem cell (CSC) markers, suggesting FH535 impairs pancreatic CSC stemness. GO analysis of β-catenin chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data identified angiogenesis-related gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry showed that higher microvessel density correlated with elevated nuclear β-catenin expression and unfavorable outcome. FH535 repressed the secretion of the proangiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Protein and mRNA microarrays revealed that FH535 downregulated the proangiogenic genes ANGPT2, VEGFR3, IFN-γ, PLAUR, THPO, TIMP1, and VEGF. FH535 not only represses pancreatic CSC stemness in vitro, but also remodels the tumor microenvironment by repressing angiogenesis, warranting further clinical investigation. PMID:27323403

  16. A Symptom-Focused Hypnotic Approach to Accessing and Processing Previously Repressed/Dissociated Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratican, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    The kinesthetic track back technique accesses the origins of current symptoms and may uncover previously repressed/dissociated material, if such material exists in the client's unconscious mind, is relevant to the symptoms, and is ready to be processed consciously. Case examples are given to illustrate proper use of this technique. (LSR)

  17. The tumor suppressor, parafibromin, mediates histone H3 K9 methylation for cyclin D1 repression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jin; Han, Jeung-Whan; Youn, Hong-Duk; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II-associated PAF1 complex, is a tumor suppressor linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Parafibromin induces cell cycle arrest by repressing cyclin D1 via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that parafibromin interacts with the histone methyltransferase, SUV39H1, and functions as a transcriptional repressor. The central region (128-227 amino acids) of parafibromin is important for both the interaction with SUV39H1 and transcriptional repression. Parafibromin associated with the promoter and coding regions of cyclin D1 and was required for the recruitment of SUV39H1 and the induction of H3 K9 methylation but not H3 K4 methylation. RNA interference analysis showed that SUV39H1 was critical for cyclin D1 repression. These data suggest that parafibromin plays an unexpected role as a repressor in addition to its widely known activity associated with transcriptional activation. Parafibromin as a part of the PAF1 complex might downregulate cyclin D1 expression by integrating repressive H3 K9 methylation during transcription.

  18. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  19. YrxA is the transcriptional regulator that represses de novo NAD biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Rossolillo, Paola; Marinoni, Ilaria; Galli, Elisa; Colosimo, Anna; Albertini, Alessandra M

    2005-10-01

    The first genetic, in vivo, and in vitro evidences that YrxA is the regulator of NAD de novo biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis are hereby reported. The protein is essential to the transcription repression of the divergent operons nadBCA and nifS-yrxA in the presence of nicotinic acid and binds to their shared operator-promoter region.

  20. Temporal uncoupling of the DNA methylome and transcriptional repression during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Long, Steven W.; van Heeringen, Simon J.; Brinkman, Arie B.; Gómez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Jones, Peter L.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a tightly regulated epigenetic mark associated with transcriptional repression. Next-generation sequencing of purified methylated DNA obtained from early Xenopus tropicalis embryos demonstrates that this genome is heavily methylated during blastula and gastrula stages. Although DNA methylation is largely absent from transcriptional start sites marked with histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), we find both promoters and gene bodies of active genes robustly methylated. In contrast, DNA methylation is absent in large H3K27me3 domains, indicating that these two repression pathways have different roles. Comparison with chromatin state maps of human ES cells reveals strong conservation of epigenetic makeup and gene regulation between the two systems. Strikingly, genes that are highly expressed in pluripotent cells and in Xenopus embryos but not in differentiated cells exhibit relatively high DNA methylation. Therefore, we tested the repressive potential of DNA methylation using transient and transgenic approaches and show that methylated promoters are robustly transcribed in blastula- and gastrula-stage embryos, but not in oocytes or late embryos. These findings have implications for reprogramming and the epigenetic regulation of pluripotency and differentiation and suggest a relatively open, pliable chromatin state in early embryos followed by reestablished methylation-dependent transcriptional repression during organogenesis and differentiation. PMID:21636662

  1. Universities in the Business of Repression: The Academic-Military-Industrial Complex and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jonathan

    This book presents the thesis that U.S. universities have become part of an academic-military-industrial complex that support repression and murder in Central America. Part 1 explains how U.S. policies have been based on murder in Central America and examines the responsibility of transnational corporations and U.S. war planners in this…

  2. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation of uORF repressiveness and sequence features in mouse, human and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Guo-Liang; Pauli, Andrea; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are ubiquitous repressive genetic elements in vertebrate mRNAs. While much is known about the regulation of individual genes by their uORFs, the range of uORF-mediated translational repression in vertebrate genomes is largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear whether the repressive effects of uORFs are conserved across species. To address these questions, we analyse transcript sequences and ribosome profiling data from human, mouse and zebrafish. We find that uORFs are depleted near coding sequences (CDSes) and have initiation contexts that diminish their translation. Linear modelling reveals that sequence features at both uORFs and CDSes modulate the translation of CDSes. Moreover, the ratio of translation over 5′ leaders and CDSes is conserved between human and mouse, and correlates with the number of uORFs. These observations suggest that the prevalence of vertebrate uORFs may be explained by their conserved role in repressing CDS translation. PMID:27216465

  4. Neuron type-specific miRNA represses two broadly expressed genes to modulate an avoidance behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Tanja; Mahofsky, Katharina; Latham, Richard; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Two broad gene classes are distinguished within multicellular organisms: cell type-specific genes, which confer particular cellular properties, and ubiquitous genes that support general cellular functions. However, certain so-called ubiquitous genes show functionally relevant cell type-specific repression. How such repression is achieved is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are repressors, many of which are expressed with high cell type specificity. Here we show that mir-791, expressed exclusively in the CO2-sensing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, represses two otherwise broadly expressed genes. This repression is necessary for normal neuronal function and behavior of the animals toward CO2. miRNA-mediated repression of broadly transcribed genes is a previously unappreciated strategy for cellular specialization. PMID:27688400

  5. The Xenopus ELAV protein ElrB represses Vg1 mRNA translation during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Colegrove-Otero, Lucy J; Devaux, Agathe; Standart, Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Xenopus laevis Vg1 mRNA undergoes both localization and translational control during oogenesis. We previously characterized a 250-nucleotide AU-rich element, the Vg1 translation element (VTE), in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of this mRNA that is responsible for the translational repression. UV-cross-linking and immunoprecipitation experiments, described here, revealed that the known AU-rich element binding proteins, ElrA and ElrB, and TIA-1 and TIAR interact with the VTE. The levels of these proteins during oogenesis are most consistent with a possible role for ElrB in the translational control of Vg1 mRNA, and ElrB, in contrast to TIA-1 and TIAR, is present in large RNP complexes. Immunodepletion of TIA-1 and TIAR from Xenopus translation extract confirmed that these proteins are not involved in the translational repression. Mutagenesis of a potential ElrB binding site destroyed the ability of the VTE to bind ElrB and also abolished translational repression. Moreover, multiple copies of the consensus motif both bind ElrB and support translational control. Therefore, there is a direct correlation between ElrB binding and translational repression by the Vg1 3'-UTR. In agreement with the reporter data, injection of a monoclonal antibody against ElrB into Xenopus oocytes resulted in the production of Vg1 protein, arguing for a role for the ELAV proteins in the translational repression of Vg1 mRNA during early oogenesis.

  6. Nitrogen Metabolite Repression of Metabolism and Virulence in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Chow, Eve W. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Fraser, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Proper regulation of metabolism is essential to maximizing fitness of organisms in their chosen environmental niche. Nitrogen metabolite repression is an example of a regulatory mechanism in fungi that enables preferential utilization of easily assimilated nitrogen sources, such as ammonium, to conserve resources. Here we provide genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic evidence of nitrogen metabolite repression in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition to loss of transcriptional activation of catabolic enzyme-encoding genes of the uric acid and proline assimilation pathways in the presence of ammonium, nitrogen metabolite repression also regulates the production of the virulence determinants capsule and melanin. Since GATA transcription factors are known to play a key role in nitrogen metabolite repression, bioinformatic analyses of the C. neoformans genome were undertaken and seven predicted GATA-type genes were identified. A screen of these deletion mutants revealed GAT1, encoding the only global transcription factor essential for utilization of a wide range of nitrogen sources, including uric acid, urea, and creatinine—three predominant nitrogen constituents found in the C. neoformans ecological niche. In addition to its evolutionarily conserved role in mediating nitrogen metabolite repression and controlling the expression of catabolic enzyme and permease-encoding genes, Gat1 also negatively regulates virulence traits, including infectious basidiospore production, melanin formation, and growth at high body temperature (39°–40°). Conversely, Gat1 positively regulates capsule production. A murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis revealed that the gat1Δ mutant is slightly more virulent than wild type, indicating that Gat1 plays a complex regulatory role during infection. PMID:21441208

  7. SUMO Modification Enhances p66-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of the Mi-2/NuRD Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zihua; Brackertz, Marc; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Human p66α and p66β are two potent transcriptional repressors that interact with the methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins MBD2 and MBD3. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms mediating repression resulted in the identification of two major repression domains in p66α and one in p66β. Both p66α and p66β are SUMO-modified in vivo: p66α at two sites (Lys-30 and Lys-487) and p66β at one site (Lys-33). Expression of SUMO1 enhanced the transcriptional repression activity of Gal-p66α and Gal-p66β. Mutation of the SUMO modification sites or using a SUMO1 mutant or a dominant negative Ubc9 ligase resulted in a significant decrease of the transcriptional repression of p66α and p66β. The Mi-2/NuRD components MBD3, RbAp46, RbAp48, and HDAC1 were found to bind to both p66α and p66β in vivo. Most of the interactions were not affected by the SUMO site mutations in p66α or p66β, with two exceptions. HDAC1 binding to p66α was lost in the case of a p66αK30R mutant, and RbAp46 binding was reduced in the case of a p66βK33R mutant. These results suggest that interactions within the Mi-2/NuRD complex as well as optimal repression are mediated by SUMOylation. PMID:16738318

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated cis-repression of osteogenic genes requires BRM-SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Pico, Michael J; Hashemi, Sharareh; Xu, Fuhua; Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Donnelly, Robert; Moran, Elizabeth; Flowers, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are an effective therapy for a variety of severe inflammatory and autoimmune disorders; however, the therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is severely limited by their negative side effects, particularly on osteogenesis. Glucocorticoids regulate transcription by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then binds the promoters of target genes to induce either activation or repression. The gene activation effects of nuclear hormone receptors broadly require the cooperation of the chromatin remodeling complex known as SWI/SNF, which is powered by an ATPase core. The well-studied SWI/SNF ATPase, BRG1, is required for gene activation by a spectrum of nuclear hormone receptors including GR. However, glucocorticoid-induced side effects specifically related to impaired osteogenesis are mostly linked with GR-mediated repression. We have considered whether cis-repression of osteogenic genes by GR may be mediated by a distinct subclass of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, BRM. BRM does not have an essential role in mammalian development, but plays a repressor role in osteoblast differentiation and favors adipogenic lineage selection over osteoblast commitment, effects that mirror the repressor effects of GR. The studies reported here examine three key GR cis-repression gene targets, and show that GR association with these promoters is sharply reduced in BRM deficient cells. Each of these GR-targeted genes act in a different way. Bglap encodes osteocalcin, which contributes to normal maturation of osteoblasts from committed pre-osteoblasts. The Per3 gene product acts in uncommitted mesenchymal stem cells to influence the osteoblast/adipocyte lineage selection point. Fas ligand, encoded by FasL, is a means by which osteoblasts can modulate bone degradation by osteoclasts. Repression of each of these genes by glucocorticoid favors bone loss. The essential role of BRM in cooperation with GR at each of these control points offers a novel

  9. ArgR-dependent repression of arginine and histidine transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Marina; Minh, Phu Nguyen Le; Bostoen, Sophie; Massant, Jan; Charlier, Daniel

    2007-10-19

    In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by two genetic loci: the artPIQM-artJ and argT-hisJQMP gene clusters. The transcription of the artJ, artPIQM and hisJQMP genes and operons is repressed by liganded ArgR, whereas argT, encoding the LAO (lysine, arginine, ornithine) periplasmic binding protein, is insensitive to the repressor. Here we characterize the repressible Esigma70 P artJ, P artP and P hisJ promoters and demonstrate that the cognate operators consist of two 18 bp ARG boxes separated by 3 bp. Determination of the energy landscape of the ArgR-operator contacts by missing contact probing and mutant studies indicated that each box of a pair contributes to complex formation in vitro and to the repressibility in vivo, but to a different extent. The organization of the ARG boxes and promoter elements in the control regions of the uptake genes is distinct from that of the arginine biosynthetic genes. The hisJQMP operon is the first member of the E. coli ArgR regulon, directly repressed by liganded ArgR, where none of the core promoter elements overlaps the ARG boxes. Single round in vitro transcription assays and DNase I footprinting experiments indicate that liganded ArgR inhibits P artJ and P artP promoter activity by steric exclusion of the RNA polymerase. In contrast, ArgR-mediated repression of P hisJ by inhibition of RNA polymerase binding appears to occur through topological changes of the promoter region.

  10. Nucleosomal location of the STE6 TATA box and Mat alpha 2p-mediated repression.

    PubMed

    Patterton, H G; Simpson, R T

    1994-06-01

    It has been proposed that yeast MATa cell-specific genes are repressed in MAT alpha cells by the Mat alpha 2p repressor-directed placement of a nucleosome in a position that incorporates the TATA box of the MATa-specific gene close to the nucleosomal pseudodyad. In this study, we address this proposal directly with a series of plasmids designed to place the MATa-specific STE6 TATA box at different locations in a nucleosome and in the internucleosomal linker. These plasmids contain different lengths of synthetic random DNA between the Mat alpha 2p operator and the TATA box of the STE6 promoter, which is located upstream of a lacZ reporter gene in a multicopy plasmid. We show that in MAT alpha cells, a nucleosome is retained in an identical translational frame relative to the Mat alpha 2p operator in all the constructs investigated, irrespective of the sequence of the DNA wrapped onto the histone octamer. This result shows that the nucleosomal organization of the STE6 promoter in MAT alpha cells is not conferred by the sequence of the promoter itself. No expression of the lacZ reporter gene was detectable in MAT alpha cells in any of the constructs, even with the TATA box located in a short internucleosomal linker. These data indicate that repression of MATa-specific genes in MAT alpha cells does not require the precise translational placement of the TATA box close to the nucleosomal pseudodyad; the gene remains repressed when the TATA box is located within the investigated 250-bp region in the organized chromatin domain abutting the Mat alpha 2p operator in MAT alpha cells and may remain repressed with the TATA box located anywhere within this organized repression domain.

  11. Targeted repression of AXIN2 and MYC gene expression using designer TALEs

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Scott, Samantha A.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We designed TALE–SID fusion proteins to target AXIN2 and MYC. • TALE–SIDs bound the chromosomal AXIN2 and MYC genes and repressed their expression. • TALE–SIDs repress β-catenin{sup S45F}-dependent AXIN2 and MYC transcription. - Abstract: Designer TALEs (dTALEs) are chimeric transcription factors that can be engineered to regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Whether dTALEs can block gene transcription downstream of signal transduction cascades, however, has yet to be fully explored. Here we tested whether dTALEs can be used to target genes whose expression is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TALE DNA binding domains were engineered to recognize sequences adjacent to Wnt responsive enhancer elements (WREs) that control expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) and c-MYC (MYC). These custom DNA binding domains were linked to the mSin3A interaction domain (SID) to generate TALE–SID chimeric repressors. The TALE–SIDs repressed luciferase reporter activity, bound their genomic target sites, and repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in HEK293 cells. We generated a novel HEK293 cell line to determine whether the TALE–SIDs could function downstream of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treating these cells with doxycycline and tamoxifen stimulates nuclear accumulation of a stabilized form of β-catenin found in a subset of colorectal cancers. The TALE–SIDs repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in these cells, which suggests that dTALEs could offer an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  12. SOX6 binds CtBP2 to repress transcription from the Fgf-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ishida, S; Thurlow, J; Revest, J M; Dickson, C

    2001-08-15

    Fgf-3 is expressed in a complex pattern during mouse development. Previously, an essential regulatory element PS4A was identified in the promoter region, and shown to bind at least three factors. To identify the transcription factor(s), we used a yeast one-hybrid screen and obtained a novel Sox6 cDNA (SOX6D). When introduced into cells it strongly repressed activity from both an Fgf-3 reporter gene as well as an artificial promoter containing three PS4A elements. In situ hybridisation analysis showed that Sox6 and Fgf-3 are co-expressed in the otic vesicle of E9.5 mouse embryos in a mutually exclusive pattern, consistent with a repression of Fgf-3 transcription by SOX6. To characterise additional factor(s) involved in Fgf-3 gene repression, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used with the N-terminal portion of SOX6D. Mouse CtBP2 cDNA clones were isolated and shown to bind SOX6 in yeast and mammalian cells. Furthermore, mutational analysis of SOX6 showed that binding to CtBP2, and its responsiveness to this co-repressor, were dependent on a short amino acid sequence motif PLNLSS. Co-expression studies in NIH3T3 cells showed that SOX6 and CtBP2 co-operate to repress activity from the Fgf-3 promoter through the enhancer element PS4A. These results show that SOX6 can recruit CtBP2 to repress transcription from the Fgf-3 promoter.

  13. Adrenaline inhibits osteogenesis via repressing miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danying; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic signaling is involved in bone homeostasis; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the psychological stress mediator adrenaline inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hMSC) by reducing microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression. Briefly, adrenaline significantly inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as observed with both Alizarin red staining and maker gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, OCN, and OPN). During this process, miR-21 was suppressed by adrenaline via inhibition of histone acetylation, as verified by H3K9Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiR-21 was confirmed to promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation, and overexpression of miR-21 reversed the impeditive effect of adrenaline on hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-21 is responsible for the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of hMSC osteogenic differentiation. These findings indicate a regulation of bone metabolism by psychological stress and also provide a molecular basis for psychological stress-associated bone diseases.

  14. Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Orasanu, Gabriela; Sharlach, Molly; Akiyama, Taro E; Berger, Joel P; Viereck, Jason; Hamilton, James A; Tang, Guangwen; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Vogel, Silke; Duester, Gregg; Plutzky, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    The metabolism of vitamin A and the diverse effects of its metabolites are tightly controlled by distinct retinoid-generating enzymes, retinoid-binding proteins and retinoid-activated nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid regulates differentiation and metabolism by activating the retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor (RXR), indirectly influencing RXR heterodimeric partners. Retinoic acid is formed solely from retinaldehyde (Rald), which in turn is derived from vitamin A. Rald currently has no defined biologic role outside the eye. Here we show that Rald is present in rodent fat, binds retinol-binding proteins (CRBP1, RBP4), inhibits adipogenesis and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c and RXR responses. In vivo, mice lacking the Rald-catabolizing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1) resisted diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and showed increased energy dissipation. In ob/ob mice, administrating Rald or a Raldh inhibitor reduced fat and increased insulin sensitivity. These results identify Rald as a distinct transcriptional regulator of the metabolic responses to a high-fat diet. PMID:17529981

  15. Ligand-induced repression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is mediated by an NCoR1 repression complex formed by long-range chromatin interactions with intragenic glucocorticoid response elements.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Cidlowski, John A

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are among the most potent and effective agents for treating inflammatory diseases and hematological cancers. However, subpopulations of patients are often resistant to steroid therapy, and determining the molecular mechanisms that contribute to glucocorticoid resistance is thus critical to addressing this clinical problem affecting patients with chronic inflammatory disorders. Since the cellular level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a critical determinant of glucocorticoid sensitivity and resistance, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating repression of glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. We show here that glucocorticoid-induced repression of GR gene expression is mediated by inhibition of transcription initiation. This process is orchestrated by the recruitment of agonist-bound GR to exon 6, followed by the assembly of a GR-NCoR1-histone deacetylase 3-containing repression complex at the transcriptional start site of the GR gene. A functional negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in exon 6 of the GR gene and a long-range interaction occurring between this intragenic response element and the transcription start site appear to be instrumental in this repression. This autoregulatory mechanism of repression implies that the GR concentration can coordinate repression with excess ligand, regardless of the combinatorial associations of tissue-specific transcription factors. Consequently, the chronic nature of inflammatory conditions involving long-term glucocorticoid administration may lead to constitutive repression of GR gene transcription and thus to glucocorticoid resistance.

  16. The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations affecting specificity of gene activation alter a loop residue of a putative zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, B; Caddick, M X; Langdon, T; Martinez-Rossi, N M; Bennett, C F; Sibley, S; Davies, R W; Arst, H N

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans has been sequenced and its transcript mapped and orientated. A single ORF can encode a protein of 719 amino acids. A 52 amino acid region including a putative 'zinc finger' strongly resembles putative DNA binding regions of the major regulatory protein of erythroid cells. The derived protein sequence also contains a highly acidic region possibly involved in gene activation and 22 copies of the motif S(T)PXX, abundant in DNA binding proteins. Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements and transformation with deletion clones identified 342 N-terminal and 124 C-terminal residues as inessential and localized a C-terminal region required for nitrogen metabolite repressibility. A -1 frameshift eliminating the inessential 122 C-terminal amino acids is a surprising loss-of-function mutation. Extraordinary basicity of the replacement C terminus might explain its phenotype. Mutant sequencing also identified a polypeptide chain termination and several missense mutations, but most interesting are sequence changes associated with specificity mutations. A mutation elevating expression of some structural genes under areA control whilst reducing or not affecting expression of others is a leucine to valine change in the zinc finger loop. It reverts to a partly reciprocal phenotype by replacing the mutant valine by methionine. Images Fig.2 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:1970293

  17. From classical psychodynamics to evidence synthesis: the motif of repression and a contemporary understanding of a key mediatory mechanism in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mick P; Martin, Colin R

    2012-06-01

    The stress vulnerability model has proven to be a politically important model for two reasons. It has provided the framework that defines a temporal and dynamic process whereby a person's uniquely determined biopsychosocial vulnerability to schizophrenia symptoms interacts with his or her capacity to manage stress and the amount and type of stress experienced in such a way that the person experiences schizophrenia symptoms. Second, the development of this framework promoted the notion of inherited and acquired vulnerability. Implicit was that vulnerability was individually determined and that there was a role for psychosocial factors in the development/maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. This proved to be a catalyst for the development of studies implicating psychosocial factors in the etiology of schizophrenia symptoms. Studies derived from cognitive-behavioral theories have proven the most successful in identifying thinking patterns, emotional disturbances, and neurocognitive and defensive vulnerability factors inherent in the development of schizophrenia symptoms. Historically, within the psychoanalytic school there has been debate regarding the role of repressive coping mechanisms in schizophrenia development. Psychoanalytic theories have always appeared incapable of providing etiologic explanations of schizophrenia symptoms, with the possible exception of Melanie Klein, than other more salient psychosocial schools. Mechanisms within the process of repressive coping are consistent with evidence and mechanisms supporting the stress vulnerability models and existing cognitive-behavioral theories regarding development of paranoid delusions. These mechanisms are less consistent with social cognitive explanations of schizophrenia symptoms.

  18. KRAS oncogene repression in colon cancer cell lines by G-quadruplex binding indolo[3,2-c]quinolines

    PubMed Central

    Lavrado, João; Brito, Hugo; Borralho, Pedro M.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Leitão, Clara; Pisco, Sílvia; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancer, yet remaining undruggable. To explore a new therapeutic strategy, a library of 5-methyl-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives (IQc) with a range of alkyldiamine side chains was designed to target DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes (G4) in the promoter and 5′-UTR mRNA of the KRAS gene. Biophysical experiments showed that di-substituted IQc compounds are potent and selective KRAS G4 stabilizers. They preferentially inhibit the proliferation of KRAS mutant cancer cell lines (0.22 < IC50 < 4.80 μM), down-regulate KRAS promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay, and reduce both KRAS mRNA and p21KRAS steady-state levels in mutant KRAS colon cancer cell lines. Additionally, IQcs induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, explained in part by their capacity to repress KRAS expression. Overall, the results suggest that targeting mutant KRAS at the gene level with G4 binding small molecules is a promising anticancer strategy. PMID:25853628

  19. The Polyphenol Fisetin Protects Bone by Repressing NF-κB and MKP-1-Dependent Signaling Pathways in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Guicheux, Jérôme; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increase fractures risk and challenging quality of life. Since current treatments could exhibit deleterious side effects, the use of food compounds derived from plants represents a promising innovative alternative due to their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against human diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polyphenol fisetin to counter osteoporosis and analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. In vivo, fisetin consumption significantly prevented bone loss in estrogen deficiency and inflammation mice osteoporosis models. Indeed, bone mineral density, micro-architecture parameters and bone markers were positively modulated by fisetin. Consistent with in vivo results, we showed that fisetin represses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity as demonstrated by an inhibition of multinucleated cells formation, TRAP activity and differentiation genes expression. The signaling pathways NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and the key transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions induced by RANKL, were negatively regulated by fisetin. We further showed that fisetin inhibits the constitutive proteasomal degradation of MKP-1, the phosphatase that deactivates p38 and JNK. Consistently, using shRNA stable cell lines, we demonstrated that impairment of MKP-1 decreases fisetin potency. Taken together, these results strongly support that fisetin should be further considered as a bone protective agent. PMID:23861901

  20. Fed-batch fermentation for enhanced lactic acid production from glucose/xylose mixture without carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Xiao, Yaotian; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Ying; Zendo, Takeshi; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    There has been tremendous growth in the production of optically pure l-lactic acid from lignocellulose-derived sugars. In this study, Enterococcus mundtii QU 25 was used to ferment a glucose/xylose mixture to l-lactic acid. Maintenance of the xylose concentration at greater than 10 g/L achieved homo-lactic acid fermentation and reduced the formation of byproducts. Furthermore, carbon catabolite repression (CCR) was avoided by maintaining the glucose concentration below 25 g/L; therefore, initial concentrations of 25 g/L glucose and 50 g/L xylose were selected. Supplementation with 5 g/L yeast extract enhanced the maximum xylose consumption rate and consequently increased lactic acid production and productivity. Finally, a 129 g/L lactic acid without byproducts was obtained with a maximum lactic acid productivity of 5.60 g/(L·h) in fed-batch fermentation with feeding a glucose/xylose mixture using ammonium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent. These results indicate a potential for lactic acid production from glucose and xylose as the main components of lignocellulosic biomasses.

  1. The polyphenol fisetin protects bone by repressing NF-κB and MKP-1-dependent signaling pathways in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Guicheux, Jérôme; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increase fractures risk and challenging quality of life. Since current treatments could exhibit deleterious side effects, the use of food compounds derived from plants represents a promising innovative alternative due to their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against human diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polyphenol fisetin to counter osteoporosis and analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. In vivo, fisetin consumption significantly prevented bone loss in estrogen deficiency and inflammation mice osteoporosis models. Indeed, bone mineral density, micro-architecture parameters and bone markers were positively modulated by fisetin. Consistent with in vivo results, we showed that fisetin represses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity as demonstrated by an inhibition of multinucleated cells formation, TRAP activity and differentiation genes expression. The signaling pathways NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and the key transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions induced by RANKL, were negatively regulated by fisetin. We further showed that fisetin inhibits the constitutive proteasomal degradation of MKP-1, the phosphatase that deactivates p38 and JNK. Consistently, using shRNA stable cell lines, we demonstrated that impairment of MKP-1 decreases fisetin potency. Taken together, these results strongly support that fisetin should be further considered as a bone protective agent.

  2. Generation and functional characterization of a BCL10-inhibitory peptide that represses NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Daniela; Stilo, Romania; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Monti, Simona Maria; Tizzano, Barbara; de Capua, Antonia; Varricchio, Ettore; Liguoro, Domenico; Zotti, Tiziana; Formisano, Silvestro; Ruvo, Menotti; Vito, Pasquale

    2009-08-27

    The molecular complex containing BCL10 and CARMA [CARD (caspase recruitment domain)-containing MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase)] proteins has recently been identified as a key component in the signal transduction pathways that regulate activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. Assembly of complexes containing BCL10 and CARMA proteins relies on homophilic interactions established between the CARDs of these proteins. In order to identify BCL10-inhibitory peptides, we have established a method of assaying peptides derived from the CARD of BCL10 in binding competition assays of CARD-CARD self-association. By this procedure, a short peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 91-98 of BCL10 has been selected as an effective inhibitor of protein self-association. When tested in cell assays for its capacity to block NF-kappaB activation, this peptide represses activation of NF-kappaB mediated by BCL10, CARMA3 and PMA/ionomycin stimulation. Collectively, these results indicate that residues 91-98 of BCL10 are involved in BCL10 self-association and also participate in the interaction with external partners. We also show that blocking of the CARD of BCL10 may potentially be used for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with inappropriate NF-kappaB activation.

  3. The binding capability of plasma phospholipid transfer protein, but not HDL pool size, is critical to repress LPS induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Shuai; Song, Guohua; Jiao, Peng; Li, Bin; Luo, Tian; Guo, Shoudong; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Qin, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) participates in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Increased plasma PLTP activity was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered acute inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the exact role of PLTP in LPS induced inflammation. HDL pool size was shrunk both in PLTP deficient mice (PLTP−/−) and PLTP transgenic mice (PLTP-Tg). PLTP displayed a strong protective effect on lethal endotoxemia in mice survival study. Furthermore, after LPS stimulation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) from PLTP−/−, while decreased in BMDM from PLTP-Tg compared with BMDM from wild-type mice (WT). Moreover, LPS induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation was enhanced in PLTP−/− BMDM or PLTP knockdown RAW264.7. Conversely, PLTP overexpression countered the NFκB activation in LPS challenged BMDM. Additionally, the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) induced by LPS showed no alteration in PLTP−/− BMDM. Finally, PLTP could bind to LPS, attenuate the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS, and improve the cell viability in vitro. To sum up, these findings elucidated that PLTP repressed LPS induced inflammation due to extracellular LPS binding capability, and the protective effects were not related to HDL pool size in mice. PMID:26857615

  4. Smaug assembles an ATP-dependent stable complex repressing nanos mRNA translation at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Mandy; Moritz, Bodo; Anders, Alexander; Wahle, Elmar

    2011-01-01

    The nanos (nos) mRNA encodes the posterior determinant of the Drosophila embryo. Translation of the RNA is repressed throughout most of the embryo by the protein Smaug binding to Smaug recognition elements (SREs) in the 3′ UTR. Translation is locally activated at the posterior pole by Oskar. This paper reports that the SREs govern the time- and ATP-dependent assembly of an exceedingly stable repressed ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) in embryo extract. Repression can be virtually complete. Smaug and its co-repressor Cup as well as Trailer hitch and the DEAD box protein Me31B are part of the repressed RNP. The initiation factor eIF4G is specifically displaced, and 48S pre-initiation complex formation is inhibited. However, later steps in translation initiation are also sensitive to SRE-dependent inhibition. These data confirm several previously untested predictions of a current model for Cup-dependent repression but also suggest that the Cup model by itself is insufficient to explain translational repression of the nos RNA. In the embryo extract, recombinant Oskar relieves translational repression and deadenylation by preventing Smaug's binding to the SREs. PMID:21081899

  5. The FBXL10/KDM2B Scaffolding Protein Associates with Novel Polycomb Repressive Complex-1 to Regulate Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Abe, Yohei; Yamasaki, Ayumu; Tsurutani, Yuya; Yoshida, Ayano; Chikaoka, Yoko; Nakamura, Kanako; Magoori, Kenta; Nakaki, Ryo; Osborne, Timothy F.; Fukami, Kiyoko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) plays an essential role in the epigenetic repression of gene expression during development and cellular differentiation via multiple effector mechanisms, including ubiquitination of H2A and chromatin compaction. However, whether it regulates the stepwise progression of adipogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that FBXL10/KDM2B is an anti-adipogenic factor that is up-regulated during the early phase of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and in adipose tissue in a diet-induced model of obesity. Interestingly, inhibition of adipogenesis does not require the JmjC demethylase domain of FBXL10, but it does require the F-box and leucine-rich repeat domains, which we show recruit a noncanonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) containing RING1B, SKP1, PCGF1, and BCOR. Knockdown of either RING1B or SKP1 prevented FBXL10-mediated repression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation indicating that PRC1 formation mediates the inhibitory effect of FBXL10 on adipogenesis. Using ChIP-seq, we show that FBXL10 recruits RING1B to key specific genomic loci surrounding the key cell cycle and the adipogenic genes Cdk1, Uhrf1, Pparg1, and Pparg2 to repress adipogenesis. These results suggest that FBXL10 represses adipogenesis by targeting a noncanonical PRC1 complex to repress key genes (e.g. Pparg) that control conversion of pluripotent cells into the adipogenic lineage. PMID:25533466

  6. Transcription factor TFIID is a direct functional target of the adenovirus E1A transcription-repression domain.

    PubMed Central

    Song, C Z; Loewenstein, P M; Toth, K; Green, M

    1995-01-01

    The 243-amino acid adenovirus E1A oncoprotein both positively and negatively modulates the expression of cellular genes involved in the regulation of cell growth. The E1A transcription repression function appears to be linked with its ability to induce cellular DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell transformation, as well as to inhibit cell differentiation. The mechanism by which E1A represses the transcription of various promoters has proven enigmatic. Here we provide several lines of evidence that the "TATA-box" binding protein (TBP) component of transcription factor TFIID is a cellular target of the E1A repression function encoded within the E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids. (i) The E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids [E1A-(1-80)protein] efficiently represses basal transcription from TATA-containing core promoters in vitro. (ii) TBP reverses completely E1A repression in vitro. (iii) TBP restores transcriptional activity to E1A-(1-80) protein affinity-depleted nuclear extracts. (iv) The N-terminal repression domain of E1A interacts directly and specifically with TBP in vitro. These results may help explain how E1A represses a set of genes that lack common upstream promoter elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479778

  7. Repression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 polypeptide biosynthesis requires chronic agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J D; Barnes, E M

    1997-06-27

    Although it is well established that the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors declines in cortical neurons exposed to GABAA receptor agonists, the mechanisms responsible for this use-dependent down-regulation remain unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: (i) agonist-evoked sequestration and degradation of surface GABAA receptors and (ii) repression of receptor subunit biosynthesis. We have addressed this problem using [35S]Met/Cys pulse-chase labeling of chick cortical neurons in culture and immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with an antibody (RP4) directed against a GABAA receptor alpha1-(331-381) fusion protein. Exposure of the cells to GABA or isoguvacine for 2 h to 4 days had no effect on the initial rate of 35S incorporation into the GABAA receptor 51-kDa alpha1 polypeptide, but this rate declined by 33% after a 7-day treatment. This is consistent with a previous report (Baumgartner, B. J., Harvey, R. J., Darlison, M. G., and Barnes, E. M. (1994) Mol. Brain Res. 26, 9-17) that a 7-day GABA treatment of this preparation produced a 45% reduction in the alpha1 subunit mRNA level, while a 4-day exposure had no detectable effect. On the other hand, after a 4-day exposure to these agonists, a 30% reduction in the level of the alpha1 polypeptide was observed on immunoblots, similar to that found previously for down-regulation of GABAA receptor ligand-binding sites. Thus, the de novo synthesis of GABAA receptor alpha1 subunits is subject to a delayed use-dependent repression that was observed after, rather than before, the decline in neuronal levels of the polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments showed a monophasic degradation of the GABAA receptor 35S-alpha1 subunit with a t1/2 = 7.7 h, a process that was unaffected by the addition of GABA to neurons during the chase period. These nascent 35S-labeled polypeptides are presumably diluted into the neuronal pool of unlabeled unassembled alpha1 subunits, which was found to exceed by a 4:1 molar

  8. Functional repression of PtSND2 represses growth and development by disturbing auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling in transgenic poplar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihai; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Cuiting; Qi, Qi; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Using chimeric repressor silencing technology, we previously reported that functional repression of PtSND2 severely arrested wood formation in transgenic poplar (Populus). Here, we provide further evidence that auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling were disturbed in these transgenic plants, leading to pleiotropic defects in their growth patterns, including inhibited leaf enlargement and vascular tissue development in the leaf central vein, suppressed cambial growth and fiber elongation in the stem, and arrested growth in the root system. Two transgenic lines, which displayed the most remarkable phenotypic deviation from the wild-type, were selected for detailed studies. In both transgenic lines, expression of genes for auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling was down-regulated, and indole-3-acetic acid distribution was severely disturbed in the apical buds, leaves, stems and roots of field-grown transgenic plants. Transient transcription dual-luciferase assays of ProPtTYDC2::LUC, ProPttLAX2::LUC and ProPoptrIAA20.2::LUC in poplar protoplasts revealed that expression of auxin-related genes might be regulated by PtSND2 at the transcriptional level. All these results indicate that functional repression of PtSND2 altered auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling, and thereby disturbed the normal growth and development of transgenic plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. STUDIES ON REPRESSION OF THE HISTIDINE OPERON, II. THE ROLE OF THE FIRST ENZYME IN CONTROL OF THE HISTIDINE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, John S.; Phang, James M.; Ference, Michael; Goldberger, Robert F.

    1969-01-01

    Recent studies on repression of the enzymes for histidine bio-synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium demonstrated that the kinetic pattern in which the enzymes become repressed is influenced by the state of the feedback-sensitive site of the first enzyme of the pathway (Kovach et al., J. Bacteriol., 97, 1283 (1969)). In the present study we demonstrate that under certain conditions alteration of the feedback-sensitive site of the first enzyme prevents repression of the histidine operon. We conclude that the first enzyme plays a previously unrecognized role in regulation of the histidine system. PMID:4895539

  10. Two Distinct Repressive Mechanisms for Histone 3 Lysine 4 Methylation through Promoting 3′-End Antisense Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Margaritis, Thanasis; Oreal, Vincent; Brabers, Nathalie; Maestroni, Laetitia; Vitaliano-Prunier, Adeline; Benschop, Joris J.; van Hooff, Sander; van Leenen, Dik

    2012-01-01

    Histone H3 di- and trimethylation on lysine 4 are major chromatin marks that correlate with active transcription. The influence of these modifications on transcription itself is, however, poorly understood. We have investigated the roles of H3K4 methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining genome-wide expression-profiles of mutants in the Set1 complex, COMPASS, that lays down these marks. Loss of H3K4 trimethylation has virtually no effect on steady-state or dynamically-changing mRNA levels. Combined loss of H3K4 tri- and dimethylation results in steady-state mRNA upregulation and delays in the repression kinetics of specific groups of genes. COMPASS-repressed genes have distinct H3K4 methylation patterns, with enrichment of H3K4me3 at the 3′-end, indicating that repression is coupled to 3′-end antisense transcription. Further analyses reveal that repression is mediated by H3K4me3-dependent 3′-end antisense transcription in two ways. For a small group of genes including PHO84, repression is mediated by a previously reported trans-effect that requires the antisense transcript itself. For the majority of COMPASS-repressed genes, however, it is the process of 3′-end antisense transcription itself that is the important factor for repression. Strand-specific qPCR analyses of various mutants indicate that this more prevalent mechanism of COMPASS-mediated repression requires H3K4me3-dependent 3′-end antisense transcription to lay down H3K4me2, which seems to serve as the actual repressive mark. Removal of the 3′-end antisense promoter also results in derepression of sense transcription and renders sense transcription insensitive to the additional loss of SET1. The derepression observed in COMPASS mutants is mimicked by reduction of global histone H3 and H4 levels, suggesting that the H3K4me2 repressive effect is linked to establishment of a repressive chromatin structure. These results indicate that in S. cerevisiae, the non-redundant role of H3K4

  11. Repression of Flt3 by Pax5 is crucial for B-cell lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa L.; Carotta, Sebastian; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Nutt, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Early B-lymphopoiesis requires the growth-factor receptors, IL-7R and Flt3, and the activity of a number of transcription factors. One factor, Pax5, is required for commitment to the B-cell lineage, although the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We demonstrate here that an important function of Pax5 is to repress Flt3 transcription in B-cell progenitors, as Pax5-deficient pro-B cells express abundant Flt3 that is rapidly silenced upon the reintroduction of Pax5, whereas enforced expression of Flt3 in wild-type progenitors significantly impairs B-cell development. These findings demonstrate that the repression of Flt3 by Pax5 is essential for normal B-lymphopoiesis. PMID:16618805

  12. Targeting of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 to RNA by Short Repeats of Consecutive Guanines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyin; Goodrich, Karen J; Gooding, Anne R; Naeem, Haroon; Archer, Stuart; Paucek, Richard D; Youmans, Daniel T; Cech, Thomas R; Davidovich, Chen

    2017-03-16

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase that trimethylates H3K27, a mark of repressed chromatin. Mammalian PRC2 binds RNA promiscuously, with thousands of target transcripts in vivo. But what does PRC2 recognize in these RNAs? Here we show that purified human PRC2 recognizes G > C,U ≫ A in single-stranded RNA and has a high affinity for folded guanine quadruplex (G4) structures but little binding to duplex RNAs. Importantly, G-tract motifs are significantly enriched among PRC2-binding transcripts in vivo. DNA sequences coding for PRC2-binding RNA motifs are enriched at PRC2-binding sites on chromatin and H3K27me3-modified nucleosomes. Collectively, the abundance of PRC2-binding RNA motifs rationalizes the promiscuous RNA binding of PRC2, and their enrichment at Polycomb target genes provides a means for RNA-mediated regulation.

  13. Gfi1 and Gfi1b Repress Rag Transcription in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kwan T.; Schulz, Danae; McWhirter, Sarah M.; Schlissel, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor independence genes (Gfi1 and Gfi1b) repress recombination activating genes (Rag) transcription in developing B lymphocytes. Because all blood lineages originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and different lineage progenitors have been shown to share transcription factor networks prior to cell fate commitment, we hypothesized that GFI family proteins may also play a role in repressing Rag transcription or a global lymphoid transcriptional program in other blood lineages. We tested the level of Rag transcription in various blood cells when Gfi1 and Gfi1b were deleted, and observed an upregulation of Rag expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Using microarray analysis, we observed that Gfi1 and Gfi1b do not regulate a lymphoid or pDC-specific transcriptional program. This study establishes a role for Gfi1 and Gfi1b in Rag regulation in a non-B lineage cell type. PMID:24086657

  14. Bcl-6 directly represses the gene program of the glycolysis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oestreich, Kenneth J.; Read, Kaitlin A.; Gilbertson, Sarah E.; Hough, Kenneth P.; McDonald, Paul W.; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Weinmann, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the molecular events that induce the glycolysis pathway in effector T cells, very little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms that dampen the glycolysis program in quiescent cell populations such as memory T cells. Here, we show that the transcription factor Bcl-6 directly repressed genes involved in the glycolysis pathway, including Slc2a1, Slc2a3, Pkm2 and Hk2, in TH1 cells exposed to low amounts of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Thus, Bcl-6 plays an opposing role to the IL-2-sensitive glycolytic transcriptional program that c-Myc and HIF-1α promote in effector T cells. Additionally, the Th1-lineage-specifying factor T-bet functionally antagonized the Bcl-6-dependent repression of genes in the glycolysis pathway, implicating the molecular balance between these two factors in metabolic gene program regulation. PMID:25194422

  15. Reversible and rapid transfer-RNA deactivation as a mechanism of translational repression in stress.

    PubMed

    Czech, Andreas; Wende, Sandra; Mörl, Mario; Pan, Tao; Ignatova, Zoya

    2013-08-01

    Stress-induced changes of gene expression are crucial for survival of eukaryotic cells. Regulation at the level of translation provides the necessary plasticity for immediate changes of cellular activities and protein levels. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to oxidative stress results in a quick repression of translation by deactivation of the aminoacyl-ends of all transfer-RNA (tRNA). An oxidative-stress activated nuclease, angiogenin, cleaves first within the conserved single-stranded 3'-CCA termini of all tRNAs, thereby blocking their use in translation. This CCA deactivation is reversible and quickly repairable by the CCA-adding enzyme [ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyltransferase]. Through this mechanism the eukaryotic cell dynamically represses and reactivates translation at low metabolic costs.

  16. Selenite transiently represses transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Valeria; Del Vescovo, Valerio; Di Sanza, Claudio; Negri, Rodolfo; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    A striking response of potato leaves to aspersion with selenite was observed at the transcriptional level by means of cDNA microarrays analysis. This response is characterized by a general transient repression of genes coding for components of photosynthetic systems and of other light-regulated genes. In particular, maximal repression was observed 8 h after selenite aspersion, while 24 h after the treatment a complete recovery of normal transcriptional levels was detected. Another general feature of the transcriptional response to selenite is represented by the transcriptional induction of genes related to amino acid metabolism, and to stress defense; interestingly, two genes coding for glutathione S-transferases were found early-induced upon selenite treatment.

  17. Repression and solidary cultures of resistance: Irish political prisoners on protest.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Denis

    2009-09-01

    Social activists and especially insurgents have created solidary cultures of resistance in conditions of high risk and repression. One such instance is an episode of contention by Irish political prisoners in the late 1970s. The "blanketmen" appropriated and then built a solidary culture within spaces that had been under official control. Their ability to maintain such a collective response was enhanced by an intensifying cycle of protest and violent reprisal, including extreme stripping of their material environment, in which the prisoners gained considerable initiative. This study uses interviews and contemporary writings by prisoners, prison authorities, visitors, and movement activists to examine how the dynamic of protest and repression transformed insurgent prison culture--through material, emotional, and perceptive changes--and the importance of leadership in the transformation. Special attention is given to prisoner activities in appropriated spaces that reinforced the culture of resistance: promoting the Irish language, cultural production, and the production of propaganda.

  18. Phosphoribulokinase mediates nitrogenase-induced carbon dioxide fixation gene repression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    In many organisms there is a balance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These observations extend to the nitrogen-fixing, nonsulfur purple bacteria, which have the classic family of P(II) regulators that coordinate signals of carbon and nitrogen status to regulate nitrogen metabolism. Curiously, these organisms also possess a reverse mechanism to regulate carbon metabolism based on cellular nitrogen status. In this work, studies in Rhodobacter sphaeroides firmly established that the activity of the enzyme that catalyses nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, induces a signal that leads to repression of genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) CO2 fixation pathway. Additionally, genetic and metabolomic experiments revealed that NADH-activated phosphoribulokinase is an intermediate in the signalling pathway. Thus, nitrogenase activity appears to be linked to cbb gene repression through phosphoribulokinase. PMID:26306848

  19. senseless Repression of rough Is Required for R8 Photoreceptor Differentiation in the Developing Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Benjamin J.; Nolo, Riitta; Zhang, Zhihuan; Bellen, Hugo; Mardon, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Summary An outstanding model to study how neurons differentiate from among a field of equipotent undifferentiated cells is the process of R8 photoreceptor differentiation during Drosophila eye development. We show that in senseless mutant tissue, R8 differentiation fails and the presumptive R8 cell adopts the R2/R5 fate. We identify senseless repression of rough in R8 as an essential mechanism of R8 cell fate determination and demonstrate that misexpression of senseless in non-R8 photoreceptors results in repression of rough and induction of the R8 fate. Surprisingly, there is no loss of ommatidial clusters in senseless mutant tissue and all outer photoreceptor subtypes can be recruited, suggesting that other photoreceptors can substitute for R8 to initiate recruitment and that R8-specific signaling is not required for outer photoreceptor subtype assignment. A genetic model of R8 differentiation is presented. PMID:11709152

  20. Reversible and Rapid Transfer-RNA Deactivation as a Mechanism of Translational Repression in Stress

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Andreas; Wende, Sandra; Mörl, Mario; Pan, Tao; Ignatova, Zoya

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced changes of gene expression are crucial for survival of eukaryotic cells. Regulation at the level of translation provides the necessary plasticity for immediate changes of cellular activities and protein levels. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure to oxidative stress results in a quick repression of translation by deactivation of the aminoacyl-ends of all transfer-RNA (tRNA). An oxidative-stress activated nuclease, angiogenin, cleaves first within the conserved single-stranded 3′-CCA termini of all tRNAs, thereby blocking their use in translation. This CCA deactivation is reversible and quickly repairable by the CCA-adding enzyme [ATP(CTP):tRNA nucleotidyltransferase]. Through this mechanism the eukaryotic cell dynamically represses and reactivates translation at low metabolic costs. PMID:24009533

  1. The personality construct of hardiness, III: Relationships with repression, innovativeness, authoritarianism, and performance.

    PubMed

    Maddi, Salvatore R; Harvey, Richard H; Khoshaba, Deborah M; Lu, John L; Persico, Michele; Brow, Marnie

    2006-04-01

    Previous research has established hardiness as a dispositional factor in preserving and enhancing performance and health despite stressful circumstances. The present four studies continue this construct-validational process by (a) introducing a shortened version of the hardiness measure and (b) testing hypotheses concerning the relationship between hardiness and repressive coping, right-wing authoritarianism, innovative behavior, and billable hours (a measure of consulting effectiveness). Results of these studies suggest the adequate reliability and validity of the Personal Views Survey III-R, which is the shortened, 18-item measure of hardiness. Further, results support the hypothesis that the relationship of hardiness is negative with repressive coping and right-wing authoritarianism and positive with innovative behavior and billable hours. Hardiness also appears unrelated to socially desirable responding.

  2. Severe paroxysmal hypertension. An automatic syndrome and its relationship to repressed emotions.

    PubMed

    Mann, S J

    1996-01-01

    In most patients with severe and symptomatic paroxysmal hypertension, a pheochromocytoma or other medical cause is rarely identified. This article presents the psychosocial assessment of 10 such patients, in whom the absence of any emotional distress preceding paroxysms had discouraged consideration of any psychological basis. However, a causative role of repressed unreported emotions was strongly suggested by 1) a history of unusually severe emotional trauma in 8 of 10 patients, 2) the absence of feelings related to the trauma, and 3) the prompt and sustained response of 3 patients to psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacologic intervention. These observations suggest that some cases of unexplained paroxysmal hypertension have a psychosomatic etiology and result from repressed rather than perceived and reported emotions. Treatment options are explored.

  3. Directed forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, R J; Clancy, S A; Schacter, D L

    2001-02-01

    An item-cuing directed forgetting task was used to investigate whether women reporting repressed (n = 13) or recovered (n = 13) memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibit an avoidant encoding style (and resultant impaired memory) for trauma cues relative to women reporting no CSA experience (n = 15). All participants viewed intermixed trauma (e.g., molested), positive (e.g., confident), and categorized neutral (e.g., mailbox) words on a computer screen and were instructed either to remember or to forget each word. The results provided no support for the hypothesis that people reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA are especially adept at forgetting words related to trauma. These groups recalled words they were instructed to remember more often than words they were instructed to forget regardless of whether they were trauma related.

  4. c-Fos Repression by Piwi Regulates Drosophila Ovarian Germline Formation and Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Qu, Chunxu; Yang, Xiaoyang; Fan, Yiping; Tang, Chunlao; Peng, Jamy C.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Piwi functions within the germline stem cells (GSCs) and the somatic niche to regulate GSC self-renewal and differentiation. How Piwi influences GSCs is largely unknown. We uncovered a genetic interaction between Piwi and c-Fos in the somatic niche that influences GSCs. c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that influences many cell and developmental processes. In wild-type ovarian cells, c-Fos is post-transcriptionally repressed by Piwi, which destabilized the c-Fos mRNA by promoting the processing of its 3′ untranslated region (UTR) into Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The c-Fos 3′ UTR was sufficient to trigger Piwi-dependent destabilization of a GFP reporter. Piwi represses c-Fos in the somatic niche to regulate GSC maintenance and differentiation and in the somatic follicle cells to affect somatic cell disorganization, tissue dysmorphogenesis, oocyte maturation arrest, and infertility. PMID:27622269

  5. Neural Progenitors Adopt Specific Identities by Directly Repressing All Alternative Progenitor Transcriptional Programs.

    PubMed

    Kutejova, Eva; Sasai, Noriaki; Shah, Ankita; Gouti, Mina; Briscoe, James

    2016-03-21

    In the vertebrate neural tube, a morphogen-induced transcriptional network produces multiple molecularly distinct progenitor domains, each generating different neuronal subtypes. Using an in vitro differentiation system, we defined gene expression signatures of distinct progenitor populations and identified direct gene-regulatory inputs corresponding to locations of specific transcription factor binding. Combined with targeted perturbations of the network, this revealed a mechanism in which a progenitor identity is installed by active repression of the entire transcriptional programs of other neural progenitor fates. In the ventral neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, together with broadly expressed transcriptional activators, concurrently activates the gene expression programs of several domains. The specific outcome is selected by repressive input provided by Shh-induced transcription factors that act as the key nodes in the network, enabling progenitors to adopt a single definitive identity from several initially permitted options. Together, the data suggest design principles relevant to many developing tissues.

  6. Reality monitoring in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A; Barrett, Heidi M; Parker, Holly A

    2005-02-01

    People who report either repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have deficits in reality monitoring--the process whereby one discriminates memories of percepts from memories of images. Using signal detection methods, the authors found that adults reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA were less able to discriminate between words they had seen from words they had imagined seeing than were adults reporting either never having forgotten their CSA or adults reporting no history of CSA. Relative deficits in the ability to discriminate percepts from images (i.e., low d') were apparent on only some tests. The groups did not differ in their criterion--response bias--for affirming having seen versus imagined stimuli. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Transcription Factors That Convert Adult Cell Identity Are Differentially Polycomb Repressed

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Eddy, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors that can convert adult cells of one type to another are usually discovered empirically by testing factors with a known developmental role in the target cell. Here we show that standard genomic methods (RNA-seq and ChIP-seq) can help identify these factors, as most are more strongly Polycomb repressed in the source cell and more highly expressed in the target cell. This criterion is an effective genome-wide screen that significantly enriches for factors that can transdifferentiate several mammalian cell types including neural stem cells, neurons, pancreatic islets, and hepatocytes. These results suggest that barriers between adult cell types, as depicted in Waddington's “epigenetic landscape”, consist in part of differentially Polycomb-repressed transcription factors. This genomic model of cell identity helps rationalize a growing number of transdifferentiation protocols and may help facilitate the engineering of cell identity for regenerative medicine. PMID:23650565

  8. Molecular basis for AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein interaction and the control of auxin response repression

    PubMed Central

    Korasick, David A.; Westfall, Corey S.; Lee, Soon Goo; Nanao, Max H.; Dumas, Renaud; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factor family regulates gene expression in response to auxin. In the absence of auxin, ARF transcription factors are repressed by interaction with AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins. Although the C termini of ARF and Aux/IAA proteins facilitate their homo- and heterooligomerization, the molecular basis for this interaction remained undefined. The crystal structure of the C-terminal interaction domain of Arabidopsis ARF7 reveals a Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain that provides both positive and negative electrostatic interfaces for directional protein interaction. Mutation of interface residues in the ARF7 PB1 domain yields monomeric protein and abolishes interaction with both itself and IAA17. Expression of a stabilized Aux/IAA protein (i.e., IAA16) bearing PB1 mutations in Arabidopsis suggests a multimerization requirement for ARF protein repression, leading to a refined auxin-signaling model. PMID:24706860

  9. Occupy the government: Analyzing presidential and congressional discursive response to movement repression.

    PubMed

    Mausolf, Joshua Gary

    2017-09-01

    I examine the role of Occupy Wall Street in shifting presidential and congressional discourse on economic fairness and inequality. Using data from 4646 presidential speeches and 1256 congressional records from 2009 to 2015, I test different mechanisms, including repression, media coverage, public opinion, and presidential agenda-setting by applying a novel combination of web scraping, natural language processing, and time series models. I suggest that movement success can be measured in its ability to shape discursive opportunity structures, and I argue that the role of the president should be at the forefront of social movements research. Ultimately, I demonstrate (1) that the repression of Occupy protesters not only predicts media coverage but also increases discursive opportunities through President Obama and Congress, (2) that media coverage of Occupy predicts presidential discourse, (3) that the president's rhetorical shift increases congressional response, and (4) that this change persists after the movement faltered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcription factors LRF and BCL11A independently repress expression of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takeshi; Wang, Xin; Maeda, Manami; Canver, Matthew C; Sher, Falak; Funnell, Alister P W; Fisher, Chris; Suciu, Maria; Martyn, Gabriella E; Norton, Laura J; Zhu, Catherine; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Xu, Jian; Higgs, Douglas R; Crossley, Merlin; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H; Kharchenko, Peter V; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-15

    Genes encoding human β-type globin undergo a developmental switch from embryonic to fetal to adult-type expression. Mutations in the adult form cause inherited hemoglobinopathies or globin disorders, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Some experimental results have suggested that these diseases could be treated by induction of fetal-type hemoglobin (HbF). However, the mechanisms that repress HbF in adults remain unclear. We found that the LRF/ZBTB7A transcription factor occupies fetal γ-globin genes and maintains the nucleosome density necessary for γ-globin gene silencing in adults, and that LRF confers its repressive activity through a NuRD repressor complex independent of the fetal globin repressor BCL11A. Our study may provide additional opportunities for therapeutic targeting in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies.

  11. Transcription factors LRF and BCL11A independently repress expression of fetal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takeshi; Wang, Xin; Maeda, Manami; Canver, Matthew C.; Sher, Falak; Funnell, Alister P. W.; Fisher, Chris; Suciu, Maria; Martyn, Gabriella E.; Norton, Laura J.; Zhu, Catherine; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Xu, Jian; Higgs, Douglas R.; Crossley, Merlin; Bauer, Daniel E.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding human β-type globin undergo a developmental switch from embryonic to fetal to adult-type expression. Mutations in the adult form cause inherited hemoglobinopathies or globin disorders, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Some experimental results have suggested that these diseases could be treated by induction of fetal-type hemoglobin (HbF). However, the mechanisms that repress HbF in adults remain unclear. We found that the LRF/ZBTB7A transcription factor occupies fetal γ-globin genes and maintains the nucleosome density necessary for γ-globin gene silencing in adults, and that LRF confers its repressive activity through a NuRD repressor complex independent of the fetal globin repressor BCL11A. Our study may provide additional opportunities for therapeutic targeting in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:26816381

  12. A long noncoding RNA induced by TLRs mediates both activation and repression of immune response genes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Susan; Atianand, Maninjay; Aiello, Daniel; Ricci, Emiliano; Gandhi, Pallavi; Hall, Lisa L.; Byron, Meg; Monks, Brian; Henry-Bezy, Meabh; O’Neill, Luke A.J; Lawrence, Jeanne B.; Moore, Melissa J.; Caffrey, Daniel R.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to anti-microbial defenses. Signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and chromatin modifying factors collaborate to control this response. Here we identify a long noncoding RNA that acts as a key regulator of this inflammatory response. Germline-encoded receptors such as the Toll-like receptors induce the expression of numerous lncRNAs. One of these, lincRNA-Cox2 mediates both the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes. Transcriptional repression of target genes is dependent on interactions of lincRNA-Cox2 with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B and A2/B1. Collectively, these studies unveil a central role of lincRNA-Cox2 as a broad acting regulatory component of the circuit that controls the inflammatory response. PMID:23907535

  13. [Deodorant effects of champignon extract and repressive effects on production of indole and tryptamine in vivo].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, I; Suzuki, Y; Shimura, S

    1997-01-01

    Champignon extract has potent deodorant effects, and its repressive effects on bad smells generated by the decomposition of fishery products are especially marked. Utilizing the amount of ammonical nitrogen, indoleacetic acid and tryptamine generated as the standard criteria, the deodorant effects of champingnon were evaluated. In an in vitro test, chicken liver homogenate was decomposed by incubating at 37 degrees C and with the progress of its decomposition, ammonical nitrogen was generated. Champignon extract was shown to have the ability to repress the generation of ammonical nitrogen. For an in vivo test, an excessive amount of tryptophan was orally administered to domestic rabbits resalting in an increase in blood levels of indoleacetic acid and tryptamine. Champignon extract given concomitantly rapidly reduced blood levels of the two compounds to negligible levels.

  14. The role of the concentration camps in the Nazi repression of prostitutes, 1933-9.

    PubMed

    Harris, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    This article uses prostitutes as a case study in order to investigate the role of the early concentration camps as centres of detention for social deviants. In contrasting the intensification of repressive policies towards prostitutes against narratives which demonstrate the unexpectedly lax treatment of these women, it explores what the reasons behind these contradictions might have been, and what this demonstrates about the development of these institutions. It asks the following questions. How and why were prostitutes interned? Which bureaucrats were responsible for incarcerating these women and what did they view the role of the camp to be? Were such policies centrally directed or the product of local decision-making? Through asking these questions, the article explores to what extent these camps were unique as mechanisms for the repression and marginalization of prostitutes.

  15. 3D chromatin interactions organize Yan chromatin occupancy and repression at the even-skipped locus

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jemma L.; Zhang, Jie; Mitchell-Dick, Aaron; Rebay, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Long-range integration of transcriptional inputs is critical for gene expression, yet the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the molecular determinants that confer fidelity to expression of the heart identity gene even-skipped (eve). Targeted deletion of regions bound by the repressor Yan defined two novel enhancers that contribute repressive inputs to stabilize tissue-specific output from a third enhancer. Deletion of any individual enhancer reduced Yan occupancy at the other elements, impacting eve expression, cell fate specification, and cardiac function. These long-range interactions may be stabilized by three-dimensional chromatin contacts that we detected between the elements. Our work provides a new paradigm for chromatin-level integration of general repressive inputs with specific patterning information to achieve robust gene expression. PMID:24186975

  16. NFIB-Mediated Repression of the Epigenetic Factor Ezh2 Regulates Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Guy; Harvey, Tracey J.; McLeay, Robert; Smith, Aaron G.; Harris, Lachlan; Mason, Sharon; Stringer, Brett W.; Day, Bryan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Boyd, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating neural progenitor cell self-renewal, with the chromatin-modifying protein Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) emerging as a central player in promoting progenitor cell self-renewal during cortical development. Despite this, how Ezh2 is itself regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor nuclear factor IB (NFIB) plays a key role in this process. Nfib−/− mice exhibit an increased number of proliferative ventricular zone cells that express progenitor cell markers and upregulation of EZH2 expression within the neocortex and hippocampus. NFIB binds to the Ezh2 promoter and overexpression of NFIB represses Ezh2 transcription. Finally, key downstream targets of EZH2-mediated epigenetic repression are misregulated in Nfib−/− mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the downregulation of Ezh2 transcription by NFIB is an important component of the process of neural progenitor cell differentiation during cortical development. PMID:24553933

  17. The transcription factor DREAM represses the deubiquitinase A20 and mediates inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P; Mishra, Rakesh K; Debroy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, You-Yang; Christman, John W; Vogel, Stephen M; Ma, Averil; Malik, Asrar B

    2014-03-01

    Here we found that the transcription repressor DREAM bound to the promoter of the gene encoding A20 to repress expression of this deubiquitinase that suppresses inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, binding of the transcription factor USF1 to the DRE-associated E-box domain in the gene encoding A20 activated its expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. Our studies define the critical opposing functions of DREAM and USF1 in inhibiting and inducing A20 expression, respectively, and thereby the strength of NF-κB signaling. Targeting of DREAM to induce USF1-mediated A20 expression is therefore a potential anti-inflammatory strategy for the treatment of diseases associated with unconstrained NF-κB activity, such as acute lung injury.

  18. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; ...

    2015-08-10

    The plant hormone jasmonate plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Key mediators of jasmonate signalling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors in the resting state. In the presence of active jasmonate, JAZ proteins function as jasmonate co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins frommore » transcriptional repression. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. In this paper, we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partly unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the amino (N)-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Finally, our structural and functional studies elucidate a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway.« less

  19. Canaries in a coal-mine? What the killings of journalists tell us about future repression

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Sabine C

    2017-01-01

    An independent press that is free from government censorship is regarded as instrumental to ensuring human rights protection. Yet governments across the globe often target journalists when their reports seem to offend them or contradict their policies. Can the government’s infringements of the rights of journalists tell us anything about its wider human rights agenda? The killing of a journalist is a sign of deteriorating respect for human rights. If a government orders the killing of a journalist, it is willing to use extreme measures to eliminate the threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of information. If non-state actors murder journalists, it reflects insecurity, which can lead to a backlash by the government, again triggering state-sponsored repression. To test the argument whether the killing of journalists is a precursor to increasing repression, we introduce a new global dataset on killings of journalists between 2002 and 2013 that uses three different sources that track such events across the world. The new data show that mostly local journalists are targeted and that in most cases the perpetrators remain unconfirmed. Particularly in countries with limited repression, human rights conditions are likely to deteriorate in the two years following the killing of a journalist. When journalists are killed, human rights conditions are unlikely to improve where standard models of human rights would expect an improvement. Our research underlines the importance of taking the treatment of journalists seriously, not only because failure to do so endangers their lives and limits our understanding of events on the ground, but also because their physical safety is an important precursor of more repression in the future. PMID:28546646

  20. Androgen Deprivation Enhances PLZF-Repressed Cistrome that Promotes the Castration-Resistant Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    the management of prostate cancer is its heterogeneous response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a standard treatment to disrupt the androgen...resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients who previously were treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and developed resistance. In addition, PLZF... therapy compensatorily activates PLZF-repressed oncogenic circuitry that reprograms the residual prostate cancer “ for the AACR/PCF Conference

  1. Multivalent Repression of Aspartic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Emmanuelle; Patte, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli in which the lysine-sensitive aspartokinase is feedback-resistant are described. In these strains, as well as in the wild type, aspartic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is subject to multivalent repression by lysine, threonine, and methionine. When these amino acids were added to a culture in minimal medium, the differential rate of synthesis of the enzyme dropped to zero and remained there for about one generation. PMID:4404058

  2. Small RNA as global regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Abdou, Laetitia; Haas, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In the metabolically versatile bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the RNA-binding protein Crc is involved in catabolite repression of a range of degradative genes, such as amiE (encoding aliphatic amidase). We found that a CA-rich sequence (termed CA motif) in the amiE translation initiation region was important for Crc binding. The small RNA CrcZ (407 nt) containing 5 CA motifs was able to bind the Crc protein with high affinity and to remove it from amiE mRNA in vitro. Overexpression of crcZ relieved catabolite repression in vivo, whereas a crcZ mutation pleiotropically prevented the utilization of several carbon sources. The sigma factor RpoN and the CbrA/CbrB two-component system, which is known to maintain a healthy carbon–nitrogen balance, were necessary for crcZ expression. During growth on succinate, a preferred carbon source, CrcZ expression was low, resulting in catabolite repression of amiE and other genes under Crc control. By contrast, during growth on mannitol, a poor carbon source, elevated CrcZ levels correlated with relief of catabolite repression. During growth on glucose, an intermediate carbon source, CrcZ levels and amiE expression were intermediate between those observed in succinate and mannitol media. Thus, the CbrA–CbrB–CrcZ–Crc system allows the bacterium to adapt differentially to various carbon sources. This cascade also regulated the expression of the xylS (benR) gene, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in benzoate degradation, in an analogous way, confirming this cascade's global role. PMID:20080802

  3. Cytokinin Response Factor 6 Represses Cytokinin-Associated Genes during Oxidative Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Howton, Timothy C.; Hallmark, H. Tucker; Keshishian, Erika A.; Parish, Alyssa M.; Benkova, Eva; Mukhtar, M. Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinin is a phytohormone that is well known for its roles in numerous plant growth and developmental processes, yet it has also been linked to abiotic stress response in a less defined manner. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Cytokinin Response Factor 6 (CRF6) is a cytokinin-responsive AP2/ERF-family transcription factor that, through the cytokinin signaling pathway, plays a key role in the inhibition of dark-induced senescence. CRF6 expression is also induced by oxidative stress, and here we show a novel function for CRF6 in relation to oxidative stress and identify downstream transcriptional targets of CRF6 that are repressed in response to oxidative stress. Analysis of transcriptomic changes in wild-type and crf6 mutant plants treated with H2O2 identified CRF6-dependent differentially expressed transcripts, many of which were repressed rather than induced. Moreover, many repressed genes also show decreased expression in 35S:CRF6 overexpressing plants. Together, these findings suggest that CRF6 functions largely as a transcriptional repressor. Interestingly, among the H2O2 repressed CRF6-dependent transcripts was a set of five genes associated with cytokinin processes: (signaling) ARR6, ARR9, ARR11, (biosynthesis) LOG7, and (transport) ABCG14. We have examined mutants of these cytokinin-associated target genes to reveal novel connections to oxidative stress. Further examination of CRF6-DNA interactions indicated that CRF6 may regulate its targets both directly and indirectly. Together, this shows that CRF6 functions during oxidative stress as a negative regulator to control this cytokinin-associated module of CRF6-dependent genes and establishes a novel connection between cytokinin and oxidative stress response. PMID:27550996

  4. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Chun; Ha, Moon-Kyung; Song, Kye-Yong; Youn, Hong-Duk; Park, Sang Chul

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALDH2 is an MDA-modified protein in old rat kidney tissues. {yields} AMPK associates with ALDH2 and triggers the nuclear localization of ALDH2. {yields} ALDH2 serves as a general transcriptional repressor by associating with HDACs. {yields} MDA inhibits the AMPK-mediated translocation of ALDH2 and its repression activity. -- Abstract: Aging process results from deleterious damages by reactive oxygen species, in particular, various metabolic aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying various aldehydes under oxidative conditions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in controlling metabolic process. However, little was known about the relationship of ALDH2 with AMPK under oxidative conditions. Here, we, by using MDA-specific monoclonal antibody, screened the tissues of young and old rats for MDA-modified proteins and identified an ALDH2 as a prominent MDA-modified protein band in the old rat kidney tissue. ALDH2 associates with AMPK and is phosphorylated by AMPK. In addition, AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, induces the nuclear translocation of ALDH2. ALDH2 in nucleus is involved in general transcription repression by association with histone deacetylases. Furthermore, MDA modification inhibited the translocation of ALDH2 and the association with AMPK, and ultimately led to de-repression of transcription in the reporter system analysis. In this study, we have demonstrated that ALDH2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in response to AMPK activation, and MDA modifies ALDH2 and inhibits repressive activity of ALDH2 in general transcription. We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK.

  5. The B-type lamin is required for somatic repression of testis-specific gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Shevelyov, Y. Y.; Lavrov, S. A.; Mikhaylova, L. M.; Nurminsky, I. D.; Kulathinal, R. J.; Egorova, K. S.; Rozovsky, Y. M.; Nurminsky, D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Large clusters of coexpressed tissue-specific genes are abundant on chromosomes of diverse species. The genes coordinately misexpressed in diverse diseases are also found in similar clusters, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms regulate expression of large multigenic regions both in normal development and in its pathological disruptions. Studies on individual loci suggest that silent clusters of coregulated genes are embedded in repressed chromatin domains, often localized to the nuclear periphery. To test this model at the genome-wide scale, we studied transcriptional regulation of large testis-specific gene clusters in somatic tissues of Drosophila. These gene clusters showed a drastic paucity of known expressed transgene insertions, indicating that they indeed are embedded in repressed chromatin. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the major role for the B-type lamin, LamDmo, in repression of large testis-specific gene clusters, showing that in somatic cells as many as three-quarters of these clusters interact with LamDmo. Ablation of LamDmo by using mutants and RNAi led to detachment of testis-specific clusters from nuclear envelope and to their selective transcriptional up-regulation in somatic cells, thus providing the first direct evidence for involvement of the B-type lamin in tissue-specific gene repression. Finally, we found that transcriptional activation of the lamina-bound testis-specific gene cluster in male germ line is coupled with its translocation away from the nuclear envelope. Our studies, which directly link nuclear architecture with coordinated regulation of tissue-specific genes, advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying both normal cell differentiation and developmental disorders caused by lesions in the B-type lamins and interacting proteins. PMID:19218438

  6. BMP signaling turns up in fragile X syndrome: FMRP represses BMPR2.

    PubMed

    Broihier, Heather T

    2016-06-07

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and results from a loss of function of the translational repressor FMRP. In this issue of Science Signaling, Kashima et al find that FMRP binds to and represses a specific isoform of BMPR2, a type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. Reducing signaling through this BMP pathway reverses neuroanatomical defects observed in fragile X models.

  7. The human and mouse sex-determining SRY genes repress the Rspol/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yun-Fai Chris; Li, Yunmin

    2009-04-01

    The sex-determining region Y (SRY) is the gene on the Y chromosome responsible for switching on male sex determination during mammalian embryogenesis. In its absence, ovaries develop in the embryo. Hence, ovarian determination and differentiation is considered to be a default, or passive, developmental pathway. Recently this classical paradigm of sex determination has been challenged with the discovery of the R-spondin 1 (RSPO1) as an active ovarian determinant. Mutations of RSPO1 cause a female-to-male sex reversal. RSPO1 synergizes with WNT4 in activating an ovarian development in the bipotential gonad via the canonical Wnt signaling. Early studies showed that SRY represses such Wnt signaling, but also generated discrepancies on whether only mouse Sry is capable of inhibiting such Wnt signaling and whether both human and mouse SRY proteins are able to interact with beta-catenin, the intracellular messenger responsible for executing the Wnt signals. Our studies show that both human SRY and mouse Sry are capable of repressing the Rspo1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. However, the repression activities vary among different SRY/Sry proteins and paradoxically related to the presence and/or size of an acidic/glutamine-rich domain. The HMG box of human SRY could bind directly to beta-catenin while the mouse Sry binds to beta-catenin via its HMG box and glutamine-rich domain. The results clarify some of the initial discrepancies, and raise the possibility that SRY interacts with beta-catenin in the nucleus and represses the transcriptional activation of the Rspo1/Wnt target genes involved in ovarian determination, thereby switching on testis determination.

  8. Inducing Alignment: The Dynamic Impact of Repression and Mobilizing Structures on Population Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Sociological Theory, 21(1), 44–68. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from JSTOR database , http://www.jstor.org/sTable/3108608 Eisenstadt, M., & White, J. (2005...Retrieved January 24, 2009, from JSTOR database , http://www.jstor.org/sTable/174207 Hess, D., & Martin, B. (2006). Repression, backfire, and the...once-deadliest region. The Christian Science Monitor, 1. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from ProQuest National Newspapers Core database . (Document ID

  9. Heat shock factor-4 (HSF-4a) represses basal transcription through interaction with TFIIF.

    PubMed

    Frejtag, W; Zhang, Y; Dai, R; Anderson, M G; Mivechi, N F

    2001-05-04

    The heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) regulate the expression of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are critical for normal cellular proliferation and differentiation. One of the HSFs, HSF-4, contains two alternative splice variants, one of which possesses transcriptional repressor properties in vivo. This repressor isoform inhibits basal transcription of hsps 27 and 90 in tissue culture cells. The molecular mechanisms of HSF-4a isoform-mediated transcriptional repression is unknown. Here, we present evidence that HSF-4a inhibits basal transcription in vivo when it is artificially targeted to basal promoters via the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor, GAL4. By using a highly purified, reconstituted in vitro transcription system, we show that HSF-4a represses basal transcription at an early step during preinitiation complex assembly, as pre-assembled preinitiation complexes are refractory to the inhibitory effect on transcription. This repression occurs by the HSF-4a isoform, but not by the HSF-4b isoform, which we show is capable of activating transcription from a heat shock element-driven promoter in vitro. The repression of basal transcription by HSF-4a occurs through interaction with the basal transcription factor TFIIF. TFIIF interacts with a segment of HSF-4a that is required for the trimerization of HSF-4a, and deletion of this segment no longer inhibits basal transcription. These studies suggest that HSF-4a inhibits basal transcription both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, this is the first report identifying an interaction between a transcriptional repressor with the basal transcription factor TFIIF.

  10. Molybdenum effector of fumarate reductase repression and nitrate reductase induction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1987-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the presence of nitrate prevents the utilization of fumarate as an anaerobic electron acceptor. The induction of the narC operon encoding the nitrate reductase is coupled to the repression of the frd operon encoding the fumarate reductase. This coupling is mediated by nitrate as an effector and the narL product as the regulatory protein (S. Iuchi and E. C. C. Lin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3901-3905, 1987). The protein-ligand complex appears to control narC positively but frd negatively. In the present study we found that a molybdenum coeffector acted synergistically with nitrate in the regulation of frd and narC. In chlD mutants believed to be impaired in molybdate transport (or processing), full repression of phi(frd-lac) and full induction of phi(narC-lac) by nitrate did not occur unless the growth medium was directly supplemented with molybdate (1 microM). This requirement was not clearly manifested in wild-type cells, apparently because it was met by the trace quantities of molybdate present as a contaminant in the mineral medium. In chlB mutants, which are known to accumulate the Mo cofactor because of its failure to be inserted as a prosthetic group into proteins such as nitrate reductase, nitrate repression of frd and induction of narC were also intensified by molybdate supplementation. In this case a deficiency of the molybdenum coeffector might have resulted from enhanced feedback inhibition of molybdate transport (or processing) by the elevated level of the unutilized Mo cofactor. In addition, mutations in chlE, which are known to block the synthesis of the organic moiety of the Mo cofactor, lowered the threshold concentration of nitrate (< 1 micromole) necessary for frd repression and narC induction. These changes could be explained simply by the higher intracellular nitrate attainable in cells lacking the ability to destroy the effector. PMID:3301812

  11. Multi-Faceted Characterization of a Novel LuxR-Repressible Promoter Library for Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zucca, Susanna; Pasotti, Lorenzo; Politi, Nicolò; Casanova, Michela; Mazzini, Giuliano; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Magni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The genetic elements regulating the natural quorum sensing (QS) networks of several microorganisms are widely used in synthetic biology to control the behaviour of single cells and engineered bacterial populations via ad-hoc constructed synthetic circuits. A number of novel engineering-inspired biological functions have been implemented and model systems have also been constructed to improve the knowledge on natural QS systems. Synthetic QS-based parts, such as promoters, have been reported in literature, to provide biological components with functions that are not present in nature, like modified induction logic or activation/repression by additional molecules. In this work, a library of promoters that can be repressed by the LuxR protein in presence of the QS autoinducer N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) was reported for Escherichia coli, to expand the toolkit of genetic parts that can be used to engineer novel synthetic QS-based systems. The library was constructed via polymerase chain reaction with highly constrained degenerate oligonucleotides, designed according to the consensus -35 and -10 sequences of a previously reported constitutive promoter library of graded strength, to maximize the probability of obtaining functional clones. All the promoters have a lux box between the -35 and -10 regions, to implement a LuxR-repressible behaviour. Twelve unique library members of graded strength (about 100-fold activity range) were selected to form the final library and they were characterized in several genetic contexts, such as in different plasmids, via different reporter genes, in presence of a LuxR expression cassette in different positions and in response to different AHL concentrations. The new obtained regulatory parts and corresponding data can be exploited by synthetic biologists to implement an artificial AHL-dependent repression of transcription in genetic circuits. The target transcriptional activity can be selected among the available library

  12. From Sensorimotor Inhibition to Freudian Repression: Insights from Psychosis Applied to Neurosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    First, three case studies are presented of psychotic patients having in common an inability to hold something down or out. In line with other theories on psychosis, we propose that a key change is at the efference copy system. Going back to Freud’s mental apparatus, we propose that the messages of discharge of the motor neurons, mobilized to direct perception, also called “indications of reality,” are equivalent to the modern efference copies. With this key, the reading of the cases is coherent with the psychodynamic understanding of psychosis, being a downplay of secondary processes, and consequently, a dominance of primary processes. Moreover, putting together the sensorimotor idea of a failure of efference copy-mediated inhibition with the psychoanalytic idea of a failing repression in psychosis, the hypothesis emerges that the attenuation enabled by the efference copy dynamics is, in some instances, the physiological instantiation of repression. Second, we applied this idea to the mental organization in neurosis. Indeed, the efference copy-mediated attenuation is thought to be the mechanism through which sustained activation of an intention, without reaching it – i.e., inhibition of an action – gives rise to mental imagery. Therefore, as inhibition is needed for any targeted action or for normal language understanding, acting in the world, or processing language, structurally induces mental imagery, constituting a subjective unconscious mental reality. Repression is a special instance of inhibition for emotionally threatening stimuli. These stimuli require stronger inhibition, leaving (the attenuation of) the motor intentions totally unanswered, in order to radically prevent execution which would lead to development of excess affect. This inhibition, then, yields a specific type of motor imagery, called “phantoms,” which induce mental preoccupation, as well as symptoms which, especially through their form, refer to the repressed motor fragments

  13. Telomeric Trans-Silencing: An Epigenetic Repression Combining RNA Silencing and Heterochromatin Formation

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Thibaut; Teysset, Laure; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Sidor, Clara M; Anxolabéhère, Dominique; Ronsseray, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    The study of P-element repression in Drosophila melanogaster led to the discovery of the telomeric Trans-Silencing Effect (TSE), a repression mechanism by which a transposon or a transgene inserted in subtelomeric heterochromatin (Telomeric Associated Sequence or TAS) has the capacity to repress in trans in the female germline, a homologous transposon, or transgene located in euchromatin. TSE shows variegation among egg chambers in ovaries when silencing is incomplete. Here, we report that TSE displays an epigenetic transmission through meiosis, which involves an extrachromosomal maternally transmitted factor. We show that this silencing is highly sensitive to mutations affecting both heterochromatin formation (Su(var)205 encoding Heterochromatin Protein 1 and Su(var)3–7) and the repeat-associated small interfering RNA (or rasiRNA) silencing pathway (aubergine, homeless, armitage, and piwi). In contrast, TSE is not sensitive to mutations affecting r2d2, which is involved in the small interfering RNA (or siRNA) silencing pathway, nor is it sensitive to a mutation in loquacious, which is involved in the micro RNA (or miRNA) silencing pathway. These results, taken together with the recent discovery of TAS homologous small RNAs associated to PIWI proteins, support the proposition that TSE involves a repeat-associated small interfering RNA pathway linked to heterochromatin formation, which was co-opted by the P element to establish repression of its own transposition after its recent invasion of the D. melanogaster genome. Therefore, the study of TSE provides insight into the genetic properties of a germline-specific small RNA silencing pathway. PMID:17941712

  14. LEF1-mediated MMP13 gene expression is repressed by SIRT1 in human chondrocytes.